Confederate States Army

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Confederate States Army_table_infobox_0

Confederate States ArmyConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_0_0
ActiveConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_1_0 1861–1865Confederate States Army_cell_0_1_1
DisbandedConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_2_0 May 26, 1865 (1865-05-26)Confederate States Army_cell_0_2_1
CountryConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_3_0 Confederate StatesConfederate States Army_cell_0_3_1
TypeConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_4_0 ArmyConfederate States Army_cell_0_4_1
SizeConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_5_0 1,082,119 total who servedConfederate States Army_cell_0_5_1
Part ofConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_6_0 C.S. War DepartmentConfederate States Army_cell_0_6_1
ColorsConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_7_0 Cadet grayConfederate States Army_cell_0_7_1
MarchConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_8_0 "Dixie"Confederate States Army_cell_0_8_1
EngagementsConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_9_0 American Indian Wars

Cortina Troubles American Civil WarConfederate States Army_cell_0_9_1

CommandersConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_10_0
Commander-in-ChiefConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_11_0 Jefferson Davis  (POW)Confederate States Army_cell_0_11_1
General in ChiefConfederate States Army_header_cell_0_12_0 Robert E. Lee  Surrender_(military)Confederate States Army_cell_0_12_1

The Confederate States Army, also called the Confederate Army or simply the Southern Army, was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (commonly referred to as the Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states. Confederate States Army_sentence_0

On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Confederate States Army_sentence_1

Davis was a graduate of the U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_2 Military Academy, and colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War. Confederate States Army_sentence_3

He had also been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_4 Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. Confederate States Army_sentence_5

On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_6 Army garrison. Confederate States Army_sentence_7

By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army. Confederate States Army_sentence_8

An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records; estimates of the number of individual Confederate soldiers are between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. Confederate States Army_sentence_9

This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Confederate States Army_sentence_10

Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date. Confederate States Army_sentence_11

These numbers do not include men who served in Confederate States Navy. Confederate States Army_sentence_12

Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription, primarily as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. Confederate States Army_sentence_13

In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate States Army_sentence_14

Confederate casualty figures also are incomplete and unreliable. Confederate States Army_sentence_15

The best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps. Confederate States Army_sentence_16

One estimate of the Confederate wounded, which is considered incomplete, is 194,026. Confederate States Army_sentence_17

These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll. Confederate States Army_sentence_18

The main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U.S. on April 9, 1865 (officially April 12), and April 18, 1865 (officially April 26). Confederate States Army_sentence_19

Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865, and June 28, 1865. Confederate States Army_sentence_20

By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, and some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers. Confederate States Army_sentence_21

The Confederacy's government effectively dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control over the remaining armies. Confederate States Army_sentence_22

Prelude Confederate States Army_section_0

By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States. Confederate States Army_sentence_23

They seized federal property, including nearly all U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_24 Army forts, within their borders. Confederate States Army_sentence_25

Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U.S. control when he took office, especially Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Confederate States Army_sentence_26

On February 28, shortly before Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS). Confederate States Army_sentence_27

Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C.S. troops under the command of General P. Confederate States Army_sentence_28 G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14. Confederate States Army_sentence_29

The United States was outraged by the Confederacy's attack and demanded war. Confederate States Army_sentence_30

It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15 for all the loyal states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to save the Union. Confederate States Army_sentence_31

Four more slave states then joined the Confederacy. Confederate States Army_sentence_32

Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large, mostly volunteer, armies, with the opposing objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States on the other. Confederate States Army_sentence_33

Establishment Confederate States Army_section_1

The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. Confederate States Army_sentence_34

It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army. Confederate States Army_sentence_35

The provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Confederate States Army_sentence_36

Although the two forces were to exist concurrently, little was done to organize the Confederate regular army. Confederate States Army_sentence_37

Confederate States Army_unordered_list_0

  • The Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS) began organizing on April 27. Virtually all regular, volunteer, and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended successfully for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA.Confederate States Army_item_0_0
  • The Army of the Confederate States of America (ACSA) was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved. The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all militia officers. ACSA ultimately existed only on paper. The organization of the ACSA did not proceed beyond the appointment and confirmation of some officers. Three state regiments were later denominated "Confederate" regiments but this appears to have had no practical effect on the organization of a regular Confederate Army and no real effect on the regiments themselves.Confederate States Army_item_0_1

Members of all the military forces of the Confederate States (the army, the navy, and the marine corps) are often referred to as "Confederates", and members of the Confederate army were referred to as "Confederate soldiers". Confederate States Army_sentence_38

Supplementing the Confederate army were the various state militias of the Confederacy: Confederate States Army_sentence_39

Confederate States Army_unordered_list_1

  • Confederate States State Militias were organized and commanded by the state governments, similar to those authorized by the United States' Militia Act of 1792.Confederate States Army_item_1_2

Control and conscription Confederate States Army_section_2

Main article: Confederate Conscription Acts 1862–1864 Confederate States Army_sentence_40

Control and operation of the Confederate army were administered by the Confederate States War Department, which was established by the Confederate Provisional Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. Confederate States Army_sentence_41

The Confederate Congress gave control over military operations, and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the President of the Confederate States of America on February 28, 1861, and March 6, 1861. Confederate States Army_sentence_42

On March 8 the Confederate Congress passed a law that authorized Davis to issue proclamations to call up no more than 100,000 men. Confederate States Army_sentence_43

The War Department asked for 8,000 volunteers on March 9, 20,000 on April 8, and 49,000 on and after April 16. Confederate States Army_sentence_44

Davis proposed an army of 100,000 men in his message to Congress on April 29. Confederate States Army_sentence_45

On August 8, 1861, the Confederacy called for 400,000 volunteers to serve for one or three years. Confederate States Army_sentence_46

In April 1862, the Confederacy passed the first conscription law in either Confederate or Union history, the Conscription Act, which made all able bodied white men between the ages of 18 and 35 liable for a three-year term of service in the Provisional Army. Confederate States Army_sentence_47

It also extended the terms of enlistment for all one-year soldiers to three years. Confederate States Army_sentence_48

Men employed in certain occupations considered to be most valuable for the home front (such as railroad and river workers, civil officials, telegraph operators, miners, druggists and teachers) were exempt from the draft. Confederate States Army_sentence_49

The act was amended twice in 1862. Confederate States Army_sentence_50

On September 27, the maximum age of conscription was extended to 45. Confederate States Army_sentence_51

On October 11, the Confederate Congress passed the so-called "Twenty Negro Law", which exempted anyone who owned 20 or more slaves, a move that caused deep resentment among conscripts who did not own slaves. Confederate States Army_sentence_52

The Confederate Congress enacted several more amendments throughout the war to address losses suffered in battle as well as the United States' greater supply of manpower. Confederate States Army_sentence_53

In December 1863, it abolished the practice of allowing a rich drafted man to hire a substitute to take his place in the ranks. Confederate States Army_sentence_54

Substitution had also been practiced in the United States, leading to similar resentment from the lower classes. Confederate States Army_sentence_55

In February 1864, the age limits were extended to between 17 and 50. Confederate States Army_sentence_56

Challenges to the subsequent acts came before five state supreme courts; all five upheld them. Confederate States Army_sentence_57

Morale and motivations Confederate States Army_section_3

In his 2010 book Major Problems in the Civil War, historian Michael Perman says that historians are of two minds on why millions of men seemed so eager to fight, suffer and die over four years: Confederate States Army_sentence_58

Educated soldiers drew upon their knowledge of American history to justify their costs. Confederate States Army_sentence_59

McPherson says: Confederate States Army_sentence_60

Before and during the Civil War, the popular press of Richmond, including its five major newspapers, sought to inspire a sense of patriotism, Confederate identity, and the moral high ground in the southern population. Confederate States Army_sentence_61

Religion Confederate States Army_section_4

The southern churches met the shortage of Army chaplains by sending missionaries. Confederate States Army_sentence_62

The Southern Baptists sent a total of 78 missionaries, starting in 1862. Confederate States Army_sentence_63

Presbyterians were even more active, with 112 missionaries sent in early 1865. Confederate States Army_sentence_64

Other missionaries were funded and supported by the Episcopalians, Methodists, and Lutherans. Confederate States Army_sentence_65

One result was wave after wave of religious revivals in the Army, religion playing a major part in the lives of Confederate soldiers. Confederate States Army_sentence_66

Some men with a weak religious affiliation became committed Christians, and saw their military service in terms of satisfying God's wishes. Confederate States Army_sentence_67

Religion strengthened the soldiers' loyalty to their comrades and the Confederacy. Confederate States Army_sentence_68

Military historian Samuel J. Watson argues that Christian faith was a major factor in combat motivation. Confederate States Army_sentence_69

According to his analysis, the soldiers' faith was consoling for the loss of comrades; it was a shield against fear; it helped reduce drinking and fighting in the ranks; it enlarged the soldiers' community of close friends and helped compensate for their long-term separation from home. Confederate States Army_sentence_70

Slavery and white supremacism Confederate States Army_section_5

In his 1997 book For Cause and Comrades, which examines the motivations of the American Civil War's soldiers, historian James M. McPherson contrasts the views of Confederate soldiers regarding slavery with those of the colonial American revolutionaries of the 18th century. Confederate States Army_sentence_71

He stated that while the American rebel colonists of the 1770s saw an incongruity between owning slaves on the one hand, and proclaiming to be fighting for liberty on the other, the Confederacy's soldiers did not, as the Confederate ideology of white supremacy negated any contradiction between the two: Confederate States Army_sentence_72

McPherson states that Confederate soldiers did not discuss the issue of slavery as often as United States soldiers did, because most Confederate soldiers readily accepted as an obvious fact that they were fighting to perpetuate slavery and thus did not feel the need to debate over it: Confederate States Army_sentence_73

Continuing, McPherson also stated that of the hundreds of Confederate soldiers' letters he had examined, none of them contained any anti-slavery sentiment whatsoever: Confederate States Army_sentence_74

McPherson admits some flaws in his sampling of letters. Confederate States Army_sentence_75

Soldiers from slaveholding families were overrepresented by 100%: Confederate States Army_sentence_76

In some cases, Confederate men were motivated to join the army in response to the United States' actions regarding its opposition to slavery. Confederate States Army_sentence_77

After U.S. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, some Confederate soldiers welcomed the move, as they believed it would strengthen pro-slavery sentiment in the Confederacy and thus lead to greater enlistment of white men in the Confederate army. Confederate States Army_sentence_78

One Confederate soldier from Texas gave his reasons for fighting for the Confederacy, stating that "we are fighting for our property", contrasting this with the motivations of Union soldiers, who, he claimed, were fighting for the "flimsy and abstract idea that a negro is equal to an Anglo American". Confederate States Army_sentence_79

One Louisianan artilleryman stated, "I never want to see the day when a negro is put on an equality with a white person. Confederate States Army_sentence_80

There is too many free niggers ... now to suit me, let alone having four millions." Confederate States Army_sentence_81

A North Carolinian soldier stated, "[A] white man is better than a nigger." Confederate States Army_sentence_82

In 1894, Virginian and former Confederate soldier John S. Mosby, reflecting on his role in the war, stated in a letter to a friend that "I've always understood that we went to war on account of the thing we quarreled with the North about. Confederate States Army_sentence_83

I've never heard of any other cause than slavery." Confederate States Army_sentence_84

Desertion Confederate States Army_section_6

Further information: Desertion § American Civil War Confederate States Army_sentence_85

At many points during the war, and especially near the end, the Confederate armies were very poorly fed. Confederate States Army_sentence_86

At home their families were in worsening condition and faced starvation and the depredations of roving bands of marauders. Confederate States Army_sentence_87

Many soldiers went home temporarily ("Absent Without Official Leave") and quietly returned when their family problems had been resolved. Confederate States Army_sentence_88

By September 1864, however, President Davis publicly admitted that two-thirds of the soldiers were absent, "most of them without leave". Confederate States Army_sentence_89

The problem escalated rapidly after that, and fewer and fewer men returned. Confederate States Army_sentence_90

Soldiers who were fighting in defense of their homes realized that they had to desert to fulfill that duty. Confederate States Army_sentence_91

Historian Mark Weitz argues that the official count of 103,400 deserters is too low. Confederate States Army_sentence_92

He concludes that most of the desertions came because the soldier felt he owed a higher duty to his own family than to the Confederacy. Confederate States Army_sentence_93

Confederate policies regarding desertion generally were severe. Confederate States Army_sentence_94

For example, on August 19, 1862, General Stonewall Jackson approved the court-martial sentence of execution for three soldiers for desertion, rejecting pleas for clemency from the soldiers' regimental commander. Confederate States Army_sentence_95

Jackson's goal was to maintain discipline in a volunteer army whose homes were under threat of enemy occupation. Confederate States Army_sentence_96

Historians of the Civil War have emphasized how soldiers from poor families deserted because they were urgently needed at home. Confederate States Army_sentence_97

Local pressures mounted as Union forces occupied more and more of Confederate territory, putting more and more families at risk of hardship. Confederate States Army_sentence_98

One Confederate officer at the time noted, "The deserters belong almost entirely to the poorest class of non-slave-holders whose labor is indispensable to the daily support of their families" and that "When the father, husband or son is forced into the service, the suffering at home with them is inevitable. Confederate States Army_sentence_99

It is not in the nature of these men to remain quiet in the ranks under such circumstances." Confederate States Army_sentence_100

Some soldiers also deserted from ideological motivations. Confederate States Army_sentence_101

A growing threat to the solidarity of the Confederacy was dissatisfaction in the Appalachian mountain districts caused by lingering unionism and a distrust of the power wielded by the slave-holding class. Confederate States Army_sentence_102

Many of their soldiers deserted, returned home, and formed a military force that fought off regular army units trying to punish them. Confederate States Army_sentence_103

North Carolina lost nearly a quarter of its soldiers (24,122) to desertion. Confederate States Army_sentence_104

The state provided more soldiers per capita than any other Confederate state, and had more deserters as well. Confederate States Army_sentence_105

Young Mark Twain deserted the army long before he became a famous writer and lecturer, but he often commented upon the episode comically. Confederate States Army_sentence_106

Author Neil Schmitz has examined the deep unease Twain felt about losing his honor, his fear of facing death as a soldier, and his rejection of a Southern identity as a professional author. Confederate States Army_sentence_107

Organization Confederate States Army_section_7

Because of the destruction of any central repository of records in Richmond in 1865 and the comparatively poor record-keeping of the time, there can be no definitive number that represents the strength of the Confederate States Army. Confederate States Army_sentence_108

Estimates range from 500,000 to 2,000,000 men who were involved at any time during the war. Confederate States Army_sentence_109

Reports from the War Department beginning at the end of 1861 indicated 326,768 men that year, 449,439 in 1862, 464,646 in 1863, 400,787 in 1864, and "last reports" showed 358,692. Confederate States Army_sentence_110

Estimates of enlistments throughout the war range from 1,227,890 to 1,406,180. Confederate States Army_sentence_111

The following calls for men were issued: Confederate States Army_sentence_112

Confederate States Army_unordered_list_2

  • March 6, 1861: 100,000 volunteers and militiaConfederate States Army_item_2_3
  • January 23, 1862: 400,000 volunteers and militiaConfederate States Army_item_2_4
  • April 16, 1862, the First Conscription Act: conscripted white men ages 18 to 35 for the duration of hostilitiesConfederate States Army_item_2_5
  • September 27, 1862, the Second Conscription Act: expanded the age range to 18 to 45, with implementation beginning on July 15, 1863Confederate States Army_item_2_6
  • February 17, 1864, the Third Conscription Act: ages 17 to 50Confederate States Army_item_2_7
  • March 13, 1865, authorized up to 300,000 African American troops but was never fully implemented.Confederate States Army_item_2_8

The CSA was initially a (strategically) defensive army, and many soldiers were resentful when Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia in an invasion of the North in the Antietam Campaign. Confederate States Army_sentence_113

Command Confederate States Army_section_8

Further information: General officers in the Confederate States Army Confederate States Army_sentence_114

The army did not have a formal overall military commander, or general in chief, until late in the war. Confederate States Army_sentence_115

The Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, himself a former U.S. Army officer and U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_116 Secretary of War, served as commander-in-chief and provided the strategic direction for Confederate land and naval forces. Confederate States Army_sentence_117

The following men had varying degrees of control: Confederate States Army_sentence_118

Confederate States Army_unordered_list_3

  • Robert E. Lee was "charged with the conduct of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy" from March 13 to May 31, 1862. He was referred to as Davis' military adviser but exercised broad control over the strategic and logistical aspects of the Army, a role similar in nature to the current Chief of Staff of the United States Army. On June 1, he assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia, which was considered the most important of all the Confederate field armies.Confederate States Army_item_3_9
  • Braxton Bragg was similarly "charged with the conduct of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy" from February 24, 1864 (after he was relieved of field command following the Battle of Chattanooga) to January 31, 1865. This role was a military advisory position under Davis.Confederate States Army_item_3_10
  • Lee was formally designated general in chief by an act of Congress (January 23, 1865) and served in this capacity from January 31 to April 9, 1865.Confederate States Army_item_3_11

The lack of centralized control was a strategic weakness for the Confederacy, and there are only a few examples of its armies acting in concert across multiple theaters to achieve a common objective. Confederate States Army_sentence_119

One instance occurred in late 1862 with Lee's invasion of Maryland, coincident with two other actions: Bragg's invasion of Kentucky and Earl Van Dorn's advance against Corinth, Mississippi. Confederate States Army_sentence_120

All three initiatives were unsuccessful, however. Confederate States Army_sentence_121

Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown was an extreme case of a Southern States Rights advocate asserting control over Confederate soldiers: he defied the Confederate government's wartime policies and resisted the military draft. Confederate States Army_sentence_122

Believing that local troops should be used only for the defense of Georgia, Brown tried to stop Colonel Francis Bartow from taking Georgia troops out of the state to the First Battle of Bull Run. Confederate States Army_sentence_123

Many of the Confederacy's senior military leaders (including Robert E. Lee, Albert Sidney Johnston, James Longstreet) and even President Jefferson Davis, were former U.S. Army and, in smaller numbers, U.S. Navy officers who had been opposed to, disapproved of, or were at least unenthusiastic about secession, but resigned their U.S. commissions upon hearing that their states had left the Union. Confederate States Army_sentence_124

They felt that they had no choice but to help defend their homes. Confederate States Army_sentence_125

President Abraham Lincoln was exasperated to hear of such men who professed to love their country but were willing to fight against it. Confederate States Army_sentence_126

Personnel organization Confederate States Army_section_9

As in the U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_127 Army, the Confederate Army's soldiers were organized by military specialty. Confederate States Army_sentence_128

The combat arms included infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Confederate States Army_sentence_129

Although fewer soldiers might comprise a squad or platoon, the smallest infantry maneuver unit in the Army was a company of 100 soldiers. Confederate States Army_sentence_130

Ten companies were organized into an infantry regiment, which theoretically had 1,000 men. Confederate States Army_sentence_131

In reality, as disease, desertions and casualties took their toll, and the common practice of sending replacements to form new regiments took hold, most regiments were greatly reduced in strength. Confederate States Army_sentence_132

By the mid-war, most regiments averaged 300–400 men, with Confederate units slightly smaller on average than their U.S. counterparts. Confederate States Army_sentence_133

For example, at the pivotal Battle of Chancellorsville, the average U.S. Army infantry regiment's strength was 433 men, versus 409 for Confederate infantry regiments. Confederate States Army_sentence_134

Rough unit sizes for CSA combat units during the war: Confederate States Army_sentence_135

Confederate States Army_unordered_list_4

  • Corps - 24,000 to 28,000Confederate States Army_item_4_12
  • Division - 6,000 to 14,000Confederate States Army_item_4_13
  • Brigade - 800 to 1,700Confederate States Army_item_4_14
  • Regiment - 350 to 400Confederate States Army_item_4_15
  • Company – 35 to 40Confederate States Army_item_4_16

Regiments, which were the basic units of army organization through which soldiers were supplied and deployed, were raised by individual states. Confederate States Army_sentence_136

They were generally referred by number and state, for example 1st Texas, 12th Virginia. Confederate States Army_sentence_137

To the extent the word "battalion" was used to describe a military unit, it referred to a multi-company task force of a regiment or a near-regimental size unit. Confederate States Army_sentence_138

Throughout the war, the Confederacy raised the equivalent of 1,010 regiments in all branches, including militias, versus 2,050 regiments for the U.S. Army. Confederate States Army_sentence_139

Four regiments usually formed a brigade, although as the number of men in many regiments became greatly reduced, especially later in the war, more than four were often assigned to a brigade. Confederate States Army_sentence_140

Occasionally, regiments would be transferred between brigades. Confederate States Army_sentence_141

Two to four brigades usually formed a division. Confederate States Army_sentence_142

Two to four divisions usually formed a corps. Confederate States Army_sentence_143

Two to four corps usually formed an army. Confederate States Army_sentence_144

Occasionally, a single corps might operate independently as if it were a small army. Confederate States Army_sentence_145

The Confederate States Army consisted of several field armies, named after their primary area of operation. Confederate States Army_sentence_146

The largest Confederate field army was the Army of Northern Virginia, whose surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865 marked the end of major combat operations in the US Civil War. Confederate States Army_sentence_147

Companies were commanded by captains and had two or more lieutenants. Confederate States Army_sentence_148

Regiments were commanded by colonels. Confederate States Army_sentence_149

Lieutenant colonels were second in command. Confederate States Army_sentence_150

At least one major was next in command. Confederate States Army_sentence_151

Brigades were commanded by brigadier generals although casualties or other attrition sometimes meant that brigades would be commanded by senior colonels or even a lower grade officer. Confederate States Army_sentence_152

Barring the same type of circumstances which might leave a lower grade officer in temporary command, divisions were commanded by major generals and corps were commanded by lieutenant generals. Confederate States Army_sentence_153

A few corps commanders were never confirmed as lieutenant generals and exercised corps command for varying periods as major generals. Confederate States Army_sentence_154

Armies of more than one corps were commanded by (full) generals. Confederate States Army_sentence_155

Confederate States Army_unordered_list_5

  • Confederate States Army_item_5_17
  • Confederate States Army_item_5_18
  • Confederate States Army_item_5_19
  • Confederate States Army_item_5_20

Ranks and insignia Confederate States Army_section_10

Further information: Ranks and insignia of the Confederate States Confederate States Army_sentence_156

Confederate States Army_unordered_list_6

  • Confederate States Army_item_6_21
  • Confederate States Army_item_6_22
  • Confederate States Army_item_6_23
  • Confederate States Army_item_6_24
  • Confederate States Army_item_6_25
  • Confederate States Army_item_6_26
  • Confederate States Army_item_6_27

There were four grades of general officer (general, lieutenant general, major general, and brigadier general), but all wore the same insignia regardless of grade. Confederate States Army_sentence_157

This was a decision made early in the conflict. Confederate States Army_sentence_158

The Confederate Congress initially made the rank of brigadier general the highest rank. Confederate States Army_sentence_159

As the war progressed, the other general-officer ranks were quickly added, but no insignia for them was created. Confederate States Army_sentence_160

(Robert E. Lee was a notable exception to this. Confederate States Army_sentence_161

He chose to wear the rank insignia of a colonel.) Confederate States Army_sentence_162

Only seven men achieved the rank of (full) general; the highest-ranking (earliest date of rank) was Samuel Cooper, Adjutant General and Inspector General of the Confederate States Army. Confederate States Army_sentence_163

Officers' uniforms bore a braided design on the sleeves and kepi, the number of adjacent strips (and therefore the width of the lines of the design) denoting rank. Confederate States Army_sentence_164

The color of the piping and kepi denoted the military branch. Confederate States Army_sentence_165

The braid was sometimes left off by officers since it made them conspicuous targets. Confederate States Army_sentence_166

The kepi was rarely used, the common slouch hat being preferred for its practicality in the Southern climate. Confederate States Army_sentence_167

Branch colors were used for the color of chevrons—blue for infantry, yellow for cavalry, and red for artillery. Confederate States Army_sentence_168

This could differ with some units, however, depending on available resources or the unit commander's desire. Confederate States Army_sentence_169

Cavalry regiments from Texas, for example, often used red insignia and at least one Texas infantry regiment used black. Confederate States Army_sentence_170

The CSA differed from many contemporaneous armies in that all officers under the rank of brigadier general were elected by the soldiers under their command. Confederate States Army_sentence_171

The Confederate Congress authorized the awarding of medals for courage and good conduct on October 13, 1862, but wartime difficulties prevented the procurement of the needed medals. Confederate States Army_sentence_172

To avoid postponing recognition for their valor, those nominated for the awards had their names placed on a Roll of Honor, which would be read at the first dress parade after its receipt and be published in at least one newspaper in each state. Confederate States Army_sentence_173

Armies and prominent leaders Confederate States Army_section_11

The C.S. Army was composed of independent armies and military departments that were constituted, renamed, and disbanded as needs arose, particularly in reaction to offensives launched by the United States. Confederate States Army_sentence_174

These major units were generally named after states or geographic regions (in comparison to the U.S. Army's custom of naming armies after rivers). Confederate States Army_sentence_175

Armies were usually commanded by full generals (there were seven in the C.S. Army) or lieutenant generals. Confederate States Army_sentence_176

Some of the more important armies and their commanders were: Confederate States Army_sentence_177

Confederate States Army_unordered_list_7

Some other prominent Confederate generals who led significant units operating sometimes independently in the CSA included Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, James Longstreet, J. Confederate States Army_sentence_178 E. B. Stuart, Gideon Pillow, A. Confederate States Army_sentence_179 P. Hill, John B. Gordon. Confederate States Army_sentence_180

Supply and logistics Confederate States Army_section_12

Main article: Confederate States of America § Transportation systems Confederate States Army_sentence_181

The supply situation for most Confederate armies was dismal, even when they were victorious on the battlefield. Confederate States Army_sentence_182

The central government was short of money so each state government had to supply its regiments. Confederate States Army_sentence_183

The lack of central authority and the ineffective railroads, combined with the frequent unwillingness or inability of Southern state governments to provide adequate funding, were key factors in the Confederate army's demise. Confederate States Army_sentence_184

The Confederacy early on lost control of most of its major river and ocean ports to capture or blockade. Confederate States Army_sentence_185

The road system was poor, and it relied more and more on a heavily overburdened railroad system. Confederate States Army_sentence_186

U.S. forces destroyed track, engines, cars, bridges and telegraph lines as often as possible, knowing that new equipment was unavailable to the Confederacy. Confederate States Army_sentence_187

Occasional raids into the North were designed to bring back money and supplies. Confederate States Army_sentence_188

In 1864, the Confederates burned down Chambersburg, a Pennsylvania city they had raided twice in the years before, due to its failure to pay an extortion demand. Confederate States Army_sentence_189

As a result of severe supply problems, as well as the lack of textile factories in the Confederacy and the successful U.S. naval blockade of Southern ports, the typical Confederate soldier was rarely able to wear the standard regulation uniform, particularly as the war progressed. Confederate States Army_sentence_190

While on the march or in parade formation, Confederate armies often displayed a wide array of dress, ranging from faded, patched-together regulation uniforms; rough, homespun uniforms colored with homemade dyes such as butternut (a yellow-brown color), and even soldiers in a hodgepodge of civilian clothing. Confederate States Army_sentence_191

After a successful battle, it was not unusual for victorious Confederate troops to procure U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_192 Army uniform parts from captured supplies and dead U.S. soldiers; this would occasionally cause confusion in later battles and skirmishes. Confederate States Army_sentence_193

Individual states were expected to supply their soldiers, which led to a lack of uniformity. Confederate States Army_sentence_194

Some states (such as North Carolina) were able to better supply their soldiers, while other states (such as Texas) were unable for various reasons to adequately supply their troops as the war continued. Confederate States Army_sentence_195

Furthermore, each state often had its uniform regulations and insignia, which meant that the "standard" Confederate uniform often featured a variety of differences based on the state the soldier came from. Confederate States Army_sentence_196

For example, uniforms for North Carolina regiments often featured a colored strip of cloth on their shoulders to designate what part of the service the soldier was in. Confederate States Army_sentence_197

Confederate soldiers also frequently suffered from inadequate supplies of shoes, tents, and other gear, and would be forced to innovate and make do with whatever they could scrounge from the local countryside. Confederate States Army_sentence_198

While Confederate officers were generally better-supplied and were normally able to wear a regulation officer's uniform, they often chose to share other hardships – such as the lack of adequate food – with their troops. Confederate States Army_sentence_199

Confederate soldiers were also faced with inadequate food rations, especially as the war progressed. Confederate States Army_sentence_200

There was plenty of meat in the Confederacy. Confederate States Army_sentence_201

The unsolvable problem was shipping it to the armies, especially when Lee's army in Virginia was at the end of a long, tenuous supply line. Confederate States Army_sentence_202

The United States victory at Vicksburg in 1863 shut off supplies from Texas and the west. Confederate States Army_sentence_203

By 1863 Confederate generals such as Robert E. Lee often spent as much time and effort searching for food for their men as they did in planning strategy and tactics. Confederate States Army_sentence_204

Individual commanders often had to "beg, borrow or steal" food and ammunition from whatever sources were available, including captured U.S. depots and encampments, and private citizens regardless of their loyalties. Confederate States Army_sentence_205

Lee's campaign against Gettysburg and southern Pennsylvania (a rich agricultural region) was driven in part by his desperate need of supplies, especially food. Confederate States Army_sentence_206

General Sherman's total warfare reduced the ability of the South to produce food and ship it to the armies or its cities. Confederate States Army_sentence_207

Coupled with the U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_208 blockade of all ports the devastation of plantations, farms and railroads meant the Confederacy increasingly lost the capacity to feed its soldiers and civilians. Confederate States Army_sentence_209

Native Americans and the Confederate army Confederate States Army_section_13

Main article: Native Americans in the American Civil War Confederate States Army_sentence_210

Native Americans served in both the United States and Confederate military during the American Civil War. Confederate States Army_sentence_211

They fought knowing they might jeopardize their freedom, unique cultures, and ancestral lands if they ended up on the losing side of the Civil War. Confederate States Army_sentence_212

During the Civil War 28,693 Native Americans served in the U.S. and Confederate armies, participating in battles such as Pea Ridge, Second Manassas, Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and in Federal assaults on Petersburg. Confederate States Army_sentence_213

Many Native American tribes, such as the Creek, the Cherokee, and the Choctaw, were slaveholders themselves, and thus, found a political and economic commonality with the Confederacy. Confederate States Army_sentence_214

At the beginning of the war, Albert Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to Native Americans. Confederate States Army_sentence_215

In this capacity he negotiated several treaties, one such treaty was the Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws conducted in July 1861. Confederate States Army_sentence_216

The treaty covered sixty-four terms covering many subjects like Choctaw and Chickasaw nation sovereignty, Confederate States of America citizenship possibilities, and an entitled delegate in the House of Representatives of the Confederate States of America. Confederate States Army_sentence_217

The Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Catawba, and Creek tribes were the only tribes to fight on the Confederate side. Confederate States Army_sentence_218

The Confederacy wanted to recruit Indians east of the Mississippi River in 1862, so they opened up a recruiting camp in Mobile, Alabama "at the foot of Stone Street". Confederate States Army_sentence_219

The Mobile Advertiser and Register would advertise for a chance at military service. Confederate States Army_sentence_220

Cherokee Confederate States Army_section_14

Main article: Cherokee in the American Civil War Confederate States Army_sentence_221

Stand Watie, along with a few Cherokee, sided with the Confederate army, in which he was made colonel and commanded a battalion of Cherokee. Confederate States Army_sentence_222

Reluctantly, on October 7, 1861, Chief Ross signed a treaty transferring all obligations due to the Cherokee from the United States to the Confederate States. Confederate States Army_sentence_223

The Cherokee were guaranteed protection, rations of food, livestock, tools, and other goods, as well as a delegate to the Confederate Congress at Richmond. Confederate States Army_sentence_224

In exchange, the Cherokee would furnish ten companies of mounted men, and allow the construction of military posts and roads within the Cherokee Nation. Confederate States Army_sentence_225

However, no Indian regiment was to be called on to fight outside Indian Territory. Confederate States Army_sentence_226

As a result of the Treaty, the 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles, led by Col. John Drew, was formed. Confederate States Army_sentence_227

Following the Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, March 7–8, 1862, Drew's Mounted Rifles defected to the United States forces in Kansas, where they joined the Indian Home Guard. Confederate States Army_sentence_228

In the summer of 1862, U.S. troops captured Chief Ross, who was paroled and spent the remainder of the war in Washington and Philadelphia proclaiming Cherokee loyalty to the United States Army. Confederate States Army_sentence_229

William Holland Thomas, the only white chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, recruited hundreds of Cherokees for the Confederate army, particularly for Thomas' Legion. Confederate States Army_sentence_230

The Legion, raised in September 1862, fought until the end of the War. Confederate States Army_sentence_231

Choctaw Confederate States Army_section_15

Choctaw Confederate battalions were formed in Indian Territory and later in Mississippi in support of the southern cause. Confederate States Army_sentence_232

The Choctaws, who were expecting support from the Confederates, got little. Confederate States Army_sentence_233

Webb Garrison, a Civil War historian, describes their response: when Confederate Brigadier General Albert Pike authorized the raising of regiments during the fall of 1860, Seminoles, Creeks, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Cherokees responded with considerable enthusiasm. Confederate States Army_sentence_234

Their zeal for the Confederate cause, however, began to evaporate when they found that neither arms nor pay had been arranged for them. Confederate States Army_sentence_235

A disgusted officer later acknowledged that "with the exception of a partial supply for the Choctaw regiment, no tents, clothing, or camp, and garrison equipage was furnished to any of them." Confederate States Army_sentence_236

African Americans and the Confederate Army Confederate States Army_section_16

Main article: Military history of African Americans in the American Civil War § Confederacy Confederate States Army_sentence_237

With so many white males conscripted into the army and roughly 40% of its population unfree, the work required to maintain a functioning society in the Confederacy ended up largely on the backs of slaves. Confederate States Army_sentence_238

Even Georgian governor Joseph E. Brown noted that "the country and the army are mainly dependent upon slave labor for support." Confederate States Army_sentence_239

African American slave labor was used in a wide variety of logistical support roles for the Confederacy, from infrastructure and mining, to teamster and medical roles such as hospital attendants and nurses. Confederate States Army_sentence_240

Using slaves as soldiers Confederate States Army_section_17

The Confederacy did not allow African Americans to join the army, neither free Negroes nor slaves. Confederate States Army_sentence_241

The idea of arming the Confederacy's slaves for use as soldiers was speculated on from the onset of the war, but such proposals were not seriously considered by Jefferson Davis or others in the Confederate administration until late in the war when severe manpower shortages were faced. Confederate States Army_sentence_242

Gary Gallagher says, "When Lee publicly advocated arming slaves in early 1865, he did so as a desperate expedient that might prolong Southern military resistance." Confederate States Army_sentence_243

After acrimonious debate the Confederate Congress agreed in March 1865. Confederate States Army_sentence_244

The war was nearly over by then and very few slaves ended up being enlisted before the Confederate armies all surrendered. Confederate States Army_sentence_245

Opposition from Confederates Confederate States Army_section_18

As early as November 1864, some Confederates knew that the chance of securing victory against the U.S. was slim. Confederate States Army_sentence_246

Despite lacking foreign assistance and recognition and facing slim chances of victory against superior U.S. assets, Confederate newspapers such as the Georgian Atlanta Southern Confederacy continued to maintain their position and oppose the idea of armed black men in the Confederate army, even late in the war as January 1865. Confederate States Army_sentence_247

They stated that it was incongruous with the Confederacy's goals and views regarding African Americans and slavery. Confederate States Army_sentence_248

The Georgian newspaper opined that using black men as soldiers would be an embarrassment to Confederates and their children, saying that although African Americans should be used for slave labor, they should not be used as armed soldiers, opining that: Confederate States Army_sentence_249

Prominent Confederates such as R. Confederate States Army_sentence_250 M. T. Hunter and Georgian Democrat Howell Cobb opposed arming slaves, saying that it was "suicidal" and would run contrary to the Confederacy's ideology. Confederate States Army_sentence_251

Opposing such a move, Cobb stated that African Americans were untrustworthy and innately lacked the qualities to make good soldiers, and that using them would cause many Confederates to quit the army. Confederate States Army_sentence_252

The overwhelming support most Confederates had for maintaining black slavery was the primary cause of their strong opposition to using African Americans as armed soldiers. Confederate States Army_sentence_253

Maintaining the institution of slavery was the primary goal of the Confederacy's existence, and thus, using their slaves as soldiers was incongruous with that goal. Confederate States Army_sentence_254

According to historian Paul D. Escott: Confederate States Army_sentence_255

Though most Confederates were opposed to the idea of using black soldiers, a small number suggested the idea. Confederate States Army_sentence_256

An acrimonious and controversial debate was raised by a letter from Patrick Cleburne urging the Confederacy to raise black soldiers by offering emancipation; Jefferson Davis refused to consider the proposal and issued instructions forbidding the matter from being discussed. Confederate States Army_sentence_257

It would not be until Robert E. Lee wrote the Confederate Congress urging them that the idea would take serious traction. Confederate States Army_sentence_258

On March 13, 1865, the Confederate Congress passed General Order 14 by a single vote in the Confederate senate, and Jefferson Davis signed the order into law. Confederate States Army_sentence_259

The order was issued March 23, but as it was late in the war, only a few African American companies were raised in the Richmond area before the town was captured by the U.S. Confederate States Army_sentence_260 Army and placed back under U.S. control. Confederate States Army_sentence_261

According to historian James M. McPherson in 1994, "no black soldiers fought in the Confederate army, unless they were passing as white. Confederate States Army_sentence_262

He noted that some Confederates brought along "their body servants, who in many cases had grown up with them" and that "on occasion some of those body servants were known to have picked up a rifle and fought. Confederate States Army_sentence_263

But there was no official recruitment of black soldiers in the Confederate army until the very end of the war..." He continued, "But Appomattox came only a few weeks later, and none of these men were ever put in uniform to fight." Confederate States Army_sentence_264

Treatment of black civilians Confederate States Army_section_19

In some cases, the Confederates forced their African American slaves to fire upon U.S. soldiers at gunpoint, such as at the first Battle of Bull Run. Confederate States Army_sentence_265

According to John Parker, a slave who was forced by the Confederates to fight Union soldiers, "Our masters tried all they could to make us fight ... Confederate States Army_sentence_266

They promised to give us our freedom and money besides, but none of us believed them; we only fought because we had to." Confederate States Army_sentence_267

Parker stated that had he been given an opportunity, he would have turned against his Confederate captors, and "could do it with pleasure". Confederate States Army_sentence_268

According to abolitionist Henry Highland Garnet in 1862, he had met a slave who "had unwillingly fought on the side of Rebellion", but the slave had since defected to "the side of Union and universal liberty". Confederate States Army_sentence_269

During the Siege of Yorktown (1862), The United States Army's elite sniper unit, the 1st United States Sharpshooters, was devastatingly effective at shooting Confederate artillerymen defending the city. Confederate States Army_sentence_270

In response, some Confederate artillery crews started forcing slaves to load the cannons. Confederate States Army_sentence_271

"They forced their negroes to load their cannon," reported a U.S. officer. Confederate States Army_sentence_272

"They shot them if they would not load the cannon, and we shot them if they did." Confederate States Army_sentence_273

In other cases, under explicit orders from their commanders, Confederate armies would often forcibly kidnap free African American civilians during their incursions into Union territory, sending them south into Confederate territory and thus enslaving them, as was the case with the Army of Northern Virginia when it invaded Pennsylvania in 1863. Confederate States Army_sentence_274

Treatment of black prisoners of war Confederate States Army_section_20

The usage of black men as soldiers by the Union, combined with Abraham Lincoln's issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation, profoundly angered the Confederacy, with the Confederates calling it uncivilized. Confederate States Army_sentence_275

As a response, in May 1863 the Confederacy passed a law demanding "full and ample retaliation" against the United States, stating that any black person captured in "arms against the Confederate States" or giving aid and comfort to their enemies would be turned over to state authorities, where they could be tried as slave insurrectionists; a capital offense punishable with a sentence of death. Confederate States Army_sentence_276

However, Confederate authorities feared retaliation, and consequently no black prisoner was ever put on trial and executed. Confederate States Army_sentence_277

James McPherson states that "Confederate troops sometimes murdered black soldiers and their officers as they tried to surrender. Confederate States Army_sentence_278

In most cases, though, Confederate officers returned captured black soldiers to slavery or put them to hard labor on southern fortifications." Confederate States Army_sentence_279

African American soldiers who served in the United States Colored Troops were often singled out by the Confederates and suffered extra violence when captured by them. Confederate States Army_sentence_280

They were often the victims of battlefield massacres and atrocities at the hands of the Confederates, most notably at Fort Pillow in Tennessee and at the Battle of the Crater in Virginia. Confederate States Army_sentence_281

Prisoner exchanges with the United States Confederate States Army_section_21

The Confederate law declaring black U.S. soldiers to be insurrectionist slaves, combined with the Confederacy's discriminatory mistreatment of captured black U.S. soldiers, became a stumbling block for prisoner exchanges between the United States and the Confederacy, as the U.S. government in the Lieber Code officially objected to the Confederacy's discriminatory mistreatment of prisoners of war on basis of color. Confederate States Army_sentence_282

The Republican Party's platform of the 1864 presidential election reflected this view, as it too condemned the Confederacy's discriminatory mistreatment of captured black U.S. soldiers. Confederate States Army_sentence_283

According to the authors of Liberty, Equality, Power, "Expressing outrage at this treatment, in 1863 the Lincoln administration suspended the exchange of prisoners until the Confederacy agree to treat white and black prisoners alike. Confederate States Army_sentence_284

The Confederacy refused." Confederate States Army_sentence_285

Statistics and size Confederate States Army_section_22

Incomplete and destroyed records make an accurate count of the number of men who served in the Confederate army impossible. Confederate States Army_sentence_286

Historians provide estimates of the actual number of individual Confederate soldiers between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. Confederate States Army_sentence_287

The exact number is unknown. Confederate States Army_sentence_288

Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served in each army at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the armies at any given date. Confederate States Army_sentence_289

Confederate casualty figures are as incomplete and unreliable as the figures on the number of Confederate soldiers. Confederate States Army_sentence_290

The best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers appear to be about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in Union prison camps. Confederate States Army_sentence_291

In contrast, about 25,000 Union soldiers died as a result of accidents, drowning, murder, killed after capture, suicide, execution for various crimes, execution by the Confederates (64), sunstroke, other and not stated. Confederate States Army_sentence_292

Confederate casualties for all these reasons are unavailable. Confederate States Army_sentence_293

Since some Confederate soldiers would have died for these reasons, more total deaths and total casualties for the Confederacy must have occurred. Confederate States Army_sentence_294

One estimate of the Confederate wounded, which is considered incomplete, is 194,026; another is 226,000. Confederate States Army_sentence_295

At the end of the war 174,223 men of the Confederate forces surrendered to the Union Army. Confederate States Army_sentence_296

Compared to the Union Army at the time, the Confederate army was not very ethnically diverse. Confederate States Army_sentence_297

Ninety-one percent of Confederate soldiers were native-born white men and only 9% were foreign-born white men, Irishmen being the largest group with others including Germans, French, Mexicans, and British. Confederate States Army_sentence_298

A small number of Asian men were forcibly inducted into the Confederate army against their will when they arrived in Louisiana from overseas. Confederate States Army_sentence_299

See also Confederate States Army_section_23

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: States Army.