Confederate States of America

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This article is about the historical state. Confederate States of America_sentence_0

For the 2004 film, see C.S.A. Confederate States of America_sentence_1 : The Confederate States of America. Confederate States of America_sentence_2

"Confederate States" redirects here. Confederate States of America_sentence_3

For the system of government, see Confederation. Confederate States of America_sentence_4

For a list of confederate nation states, see List of confederations. Confederate States of America_sentence_5

Confederate States of America_table_infobox_0

Confederate States of AmericaConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_0_0
StatusConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_1_0 Unrecognized stateConfederate States of America_cell_0_1_1
CapitalConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_2_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_2_1
Largest cityConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_3_0 New Orleans (until May 1, 1862)Confederate States of America_cell_0_3_1
Common languagesConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_4_0 English (de facto)

minor languages : French (Louisiana), Spanish (Arizona), Indigenous languages (Indian territory)Confederate States of America_cell_0_4_1

Demonym(s)Confederate States of America_header_cell_0_5_0 ConfederateConfederate States of America_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_6_0 Confederated presidential non-partisan republicConfederate States of America_cell_0_6_1
PresidentConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_7_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_7_1
1861–1865Confederate States of America_header_cell_0_8_0 Jefferson DavisConfederate States of America_cell_0_8_1
Vice PresidentConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_9_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_9_1
1861–1865Confederate States of America_header_cell_0_10_0 Alexander H. StephensConfederate States of America_cell_0_10_1
LegislatureConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_11_0 CongressConfederate States of America_cell_0_11_1
Upper houseConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_12_0 SenateConfederate States of America_cell_0_12_1
Lower houseConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_13_0 House of RepresentativesConfederate States of America_cell_0_13_1
Historical eraConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_14_0 American Civil War / International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)Confederate States of America_cell_0_14_1
Provisional constitutionConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_15_0 February 8, 1861Confederate States of America_cell_0_15_1
American Civil WarConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_16_0 April 12, 1861Confederate States of America_cell_0_16_1
Permanent constitutionConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_17_0 February 22, 1862Confederate States of America_cell_0_17_1
Surrender of the Army of Northern VirginiaConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_18_0 April 9, 1865Confederate States of America_cell_0_18_1
Military CollapseConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_19_0 April 26, 1865Confederate States of America_cell_0_19_1
DebellationConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_20_0 May 9, 1865Confederate States of America_cell_0_20_1
AreaConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_21_0
1860Confederate States of America_header_cell_0_22_0 1,995,392 km (770,425 sq mi)Confederate States of America_cell_0_22_1
PopulationConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_23_0
1860Confederate States of America_header_cell_0_24_0 9,103,332Confederate States of America_cell_0_24_1
SlavesConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_25_0 3,521,110Confederate States of America_cell_0_25_1
CurrencyConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_26_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_26_1
Preceded by

Succeeded by

South Carolina









North Carolina


Arizona Territory

West Virginia






North Carolina

South Carolina





Arizona TerritoryConfederate States of America_cell_0_27_0

Preceded byConfederate States of America_cell_0_28_0 Succeeded byConfederate States of America_cell_0_28_1
South Carolina









North Carolina


Arizona TerritoryConfederate States of America_cell_0_29_0

West Virginia






North Carolina

South Carolina





Arizona TerritoryConfederate States of America_cell_0_29_1

Confederate States of America_cell_0_30_0 South CarolinaConfederate States of America_cell_0_30_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_31_0 MississippiConfederate States of America_cell_0_31_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_32_0 FloridaConfederate States of America_cell_0_32_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_33_0 AlabamaConfederate States of America_cell_0_33_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_34_0 GeorgiaConfederate States of America_cell_0_34_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_35_0 LouisianaConfederate States of America_cell_0_35_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_36_0 TexasConfederate States of America_cell_0_36_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_37_0 VirginiaConfederate States of America_cell_0_37_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_38_0 ArkansasConfederate States of America_cell_0_38_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_39_0 North CarolinaConfederate States of America_cell_0_39_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_40_0 TennesseeConfederate States of America_cell_0_40_1
Confederate States of America_cell_0_41_0 Arizona TerritoryConfederate States of America_cell_0_41_1
West VirginiaConfederate States of America_cell_0_42_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_42_1
TennesseeConfederate States of America_cell_0_43_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_43_1
ArkansasConfederate States of America_cell_0_44_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_44_1
FloridaConfederate States of America_cell_0_45_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_45_1
AlabamaConfederate States of America_cell_0_46_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_46_1
LouisianaConfederate States of America_cell_0_47_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_47_1
North CarolinaConfederate States of America_cell_0_48_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_48_1
South CarolinaConfederate States of America_cell_0_49_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_49_1
VirginiaConfederate States of America_cell_0_50_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_50_1
MississippiConfederate States of America_cell_0_51_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_51_1
TexasConfederate States of America_cell_0_52_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_52_1
GeorgiaConfederate States of America_cell_0_53_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_53_1
Arizona TerritoryConfederate States of America_cell_0_54_0 Confederate States of America_cell_0_54_1
Today part ofConfederate States of America_header_cell_0_55_0 United StatesConfederate States of America_cell_0_55_1

The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States or the Confederacy, was an unrecognized breakaway state in existence from February 8, 1861 to May 9, 1865, that fought against the United States of America during the American Civil War. Confederate States of America_sentence_6

The Confederacy was formed on February 8, 1861, by the seven secessionist slave states: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Confederate States of America_sentence_7

All seven of the states were located in the southeasternmost region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture—particularly cotton—and a plantation system that relied upon enslaved Africans for labor. Confederate States of America_sentence_8

Convinced that white supremacy and the institution of slavery were threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. Confederate States of America_sentence_9 presidency, on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession in rebellion against the United States, with the loyal states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War. Confederate States of America_sentence_10

In a speech known today as the Cornerstone Address, Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens described its ideology as being centrally based "upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition". Confederate States of America_sentence_11

Before Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, a provisional Confederate government was established on February 8, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_12

It was considered illegal by the United States federal government, and many Northerners thought of the Confederates as traitors. Confederate States of America_sentence_13

After war began in April, four slave states of the Upper SouthVirginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina—also seceded and joined the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_14

The Confederacy later accepted the slave states of Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither officially declared secession nor were they ever largely controlled by Confederate forces, despite the efforts of Confederate which were eventually expelled. Confederate States of America_sentence_15

The government of the United States (the Union) rejected the claims of secession as illegitimate. Confederate States of America_sentence_16

The Civil War began on April 12, 1861, when the Confederates attacked Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Confederate States of America_sentence_17

No foreign government ever recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. Confederate States of America_sentence_18

In 1865, after four years of heavy fighting and 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all Confederate land and naval forces either surrendered or otherwise ceased hostilities. Confederate States of America_sentence_19

The war lacked a formal end, with Confederate forces surrendering or disbanding sporadically throughout most of 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_20

The most significant capitulation was Confederate general Robert E. Lee's surrender to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox on April 9, after which any lingering doubt regarding the war's outcome and/or the Confederacy's prospect for survival was extinguished, although another sizable force under Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston did not formally surrender to William T. Sherman until April 26. Confederate States of America_sentence_21

The Confederacy's civilian government also disintegrated in a chaotic manner: the Confederate States Congress effectively ceased to exist as a legislative body following its final adjournment sine die on March 18 while Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration declared the Confederacy dissolved on May 5, and Davis himself acknowledged in later writings that the Confederacy "disappeared" in 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_22

Meanwhile, President Lincoln was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth on April 15, 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_23

After the war, Confederate states were readmitted to the Union during the Reconstruction era, after each ratified the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which outlawed slavery. Confederate States of America_sentence_24

"Lost Cause" ideology—an idealized view of the Confederacy as valiantly fighting for a just cause—emerged in the decades after the war among former Confederate generals and politicians, as well as organizations such as the United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Sons of Confederate Veterans. Confederate States of America_sentence_25

Particularly intense periods of Lost Cause activity came around the time of World War I, as the last Confederate veterans began to die and a push was made to preserve their memory, and then during the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, in reaction to growing public support for racial equality. Confederate States of America_sentence_26

Through activities such as building prominent Confederate monuments and writing school history textbooks to paint the Confederacy in a favorable light, Lost Cause advocates sought to ensure future generations of Southern whites would continue to support white supremacist policies such as the Jim Crow laws. Confederate States of America_sentence_27

The modern display of Confederate flags primarily started in the late 1940s with South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond's Dixiecrats in opposition to the Civil Rights Movement, and has continued to the present day. Confederate States of America_sentence_28

Span of control Confederate States of America_section_0

On February 22, 1862, the Confederate States Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Confederate States of America_sentence_29

Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Confederate States of America_sentence_30

Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case. Confederate States of America_sentence_31

The antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Confederate States of America_sentence_32

Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Confederate States of America_sentence_33

Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law; Delaware, though of divided loyalty, did not attempt it. Confederate States of America_sentence_34

A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia that had been occupied by Federal troops. Confederate States of America_sentence_35

The Restored Government of Virginia later recognized the new state of West Virginia, which was admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, and relocated to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_36

Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts steadily shrank from three-quarters to a third during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of inland waterways into the South, and its blockade of the southern coast. Confederate States of America_sentence_37

With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal (in addition to reunion). Confederate States of America_sentence_38

As Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Confederate States of America_sentence_39

Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers, teamsters and laborers. Confederate States of America_sentence_40

The most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864. Confederate States of America_sentence_41

Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, railroads and bridges. Confederate States of America_sentence_42

Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were severely damaged. Confederate States of America_sentence_43

Internal movement within the Confederacy became increasingly difficult, weakening its economy and limiting army mobility. Confederate States of America_sentence_44

These losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men, materiel, and finance. Confederate States of America_sentence_45

Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, and allegations of autocratic government. Confederate States of America_sentence_46

After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_47

A few days later General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, effectively signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_48

President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, and jailed for treason, but no trial was ever held. Confederate States of America_sentence_49

History Confederate States of America_section_1

The Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, adding Texas in March before Lincoln's inauguration), expanded in May–July 1861 (with Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina), and disintegrated in April–May 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_50

It was formed by delegations from seven slave states of the Lower South that had proclaimed their secession from the Union. Confederate States of America_sentence_51

After the fighting began in April, four additional slave states seceded and were admitted. Confederate States of America_sentence_52

Later, two slave states (Missouri and Kentucky) and two territories were given seats in the Confederate Congress. Confederate States of America_sentence_53

Southern nationalism was swelling and pride supported the new founding. Confederate States of America_sentence_54

Confederate nationalism prepared men to fight for "the Cause". Confederate States of America_sentence_55

For the duration of its existence, the Confederacy underwent trial by war. Confederate States of America_sentence_56

The "Southern Cause" transcended the ideology of states' rights, tariff policy, and internal improvements. Confederate States of America_sentence_57

This "Cause" supported, or derived from, cultural and financial dependence on the South's slavery-based economy. Confederate States of America_sentence_58

The convergence of race and slavery, politics, and economics raised almost all South-related policy questions to the status of moral questions over way of life, commingling love of things Southern and hatred of things Northern. Confederate States of America_sentence_59

Not only did national political parties split, but national churches and interstate families as well divided along sectional lines as the war approached. Confederate States of America_sentence_60

According to historian John M. Coski, Confederate States of America_sentence_61

Southern Democrats had chosen John Breckinridge as their candidate during the U.S. presidential election of 1860, but in no Southern state (other than South Carolina, where the legislature chose the electors) was support for him unanimous; all the other states recorded at least some popular votes for one or more of the other three candidates (Abraham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas and John Bell). Confederate States of America_sentence_62

Support for these candidates, collectively, ranged from significant to an outright majority, with extremes running from 25% in Texas to 81% in Missouri. Confederate States of America_sentence_63

There were minority views everywhere, especially in the upland and plateau areas of the South, being particularly concentrated in western Virginia and eastern Tennessee. Confederate States of America_sentence_64

Following South Carolina's unanimous 1860 secession vote, no other Southern states considered the question until 1861, and when they did none had a unanimous vote. Confederate States of America_sentence_65

All had residents who cast significant numbers of Unionist votes in either the legislature, conventions, popular referendums, or in all three. Confederate States of America_sentence_66

Voting to remain in the Union did not necessarily mean that individuals were sympathizers with the North. Confederate States of America_sentence_67

Once hostilities began, many of these who voted to remain in the Union, particularly in the Deep South, accepted the majority decision, and supported the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_68

Many writers have evaluated the Civil War as an American tragedy—a "Brothers' War", pitting "brother against brother, father against son, kin against kin of every degree". Confederate States of America_sentence_69

A revolution in disunion Confederate States of America_section_2

Main article: Origins of the American Civil War Confederate States of America_sentence_70

See also: Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War Confederate States of America_sentence_71

According to historian Avery O. Craven in 1950, the Confederate States of America nation, as a state power, was created by secessionists in Southern slave states, who believed that the federal government was making them second-class citizens and refused to honor their belief – that slavery was beneficial to the Negro. Confederate States of America_sentence_72

They judged the agents of change to be abolitionists and anti-slavery elements in the Republican Party, whom they believed used repeated insult and injury to subject them to intolerable "humiliation and degradation". Confederate States of America_sentence_73

The "Black Republicans" (as the Southerners called them) and their allies soon dominated the U.S. House, Senate, and Presidency. Confederate States of America_sentence_74

On the U.S. Supreme Court, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (a presumed supporter of slavery) was 83 years old and ailing. Confederate States of America_sentence_75

During the campaign for president in 1860, some secessionists threatened disunion should Lincoln (who opposed the expansion of slavery into the territories) be elected, including William L. Yancey. Confederate States of America_sentence_76

Yancey toured the North calling for secession as Stephen A. Douglas toured the South calling for union in the event of Lincoln's election. Confederate States of America_sentence_77

To the secessionists the Republican intent was clear: to contain slavery within its present bounds and, eventually, to eliminate it entirely. Confederate States of America_sentence_78

A Lincoln victory presented them with a momentous choice (as they saw it), even before his inauguration – "the Union without slavery, or slavery without the Union". Confederate States of America_sentence_79

Causes of secession Confederate States of America_section_3

The immediate catalyst for secession was the victory of the Republican Party and the election of Abraham Lincoln as president in the 1860 elections. Confederate States of America_sentence_80

American Civil War historian James M. McPherson suggested that, for Southerners, the most ominous feature of the Republican victories in the congressional and presidential elections of 1860 was the magnitude of those victories: Republicans captured over 60 percent of the Northern vote and three-fourths of its Congressional delegations. Confederate States of America_sentence_81

The Southern press said that such Republicans represented the anti-slavery portion of the North, "a party founded on the single sentiment ... of hatred of African slavery", and now the controlling power in national affairs. Confederate States of America_sentence_82

The "Black Republican party" could overwhelm conservative Yankees. Confederate States of America_sentence_83

The New Orleans Delta said of the Republicans, "It is in fact, essentially, a revolutionary party" to overthrow slavery. Confederate States of America_sentence_84

By 1860, sectional disagreements between North and South concerned primarily the maintenance or expansion of slavery in the United States. Confederate States of America_sentence_85

Historian Drew Gilpin Faust observed that "leaders of the secession movement across the South cited slavery as the most compelling reason for southern independence". Confederate States of America_sentence_86

Although most white Southerners did not own slaves, the majority supported the institution of slavery and benefited indirectly from the slave society. Confederate States of America_sentence_87

For struggling yeomen and subsistence farmers, the slave society provided a large class of people ranked lower in the social scale than themselves. Confederate States of America_sentence_88

Secondary differences related to issues of free speech, runaway slaves, expansion into Cuba, and states' rights. Confederate States of America_sentence_89

Historian Emory Thomas assessed the Confederacy's self-image by studying correspondence sent by the Confederate government in 1861–62 to foreign governments. Confederate States of America_sentence_90

He found that Confederate diplomacy projected multiple contradictory self-images: Confederate States of America_sentence_91

In what later became known as the Cornerstone Speech, Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens declared that the "cornerstone" of the new government "rest[ed] upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery – subordination to the superior race – is his natural and normal condition. Confederate States of America_sentence_92

This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth". Confederate States of America_sentence_93

After the war Stephens tried to qualify his remarks, claiming they were extemporaneous, metaphorical, and intended to refer to public sentiment rather than "the principles of the new Government on this subject". Confederate States of America_sentence_94

Four of the seceding states, the Deep South states of South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, and Texas, issued formal declarations of the causes of their decision, each of which identified the threat to slaveholders' rights as the cause of, or a major cause of, secession. Confederate States of America_sentence_95

Georgia also claimed a general Federal policy of favoring Northern over Southern economic interests. Confederate States of America_sentence_96

Texas mentioned slavery 21 times, but also listed the failure of the federal government to live up to its obligations, in the original annexation agreement, to protect settlers along the exposed western frontier. Confederate States of America_sentence_97

Texas resolutions further stated that governments of the states and the nation were established "exclusively by the white race, for themselves and their posterity". Confederate States of America_sentence_98

They also stated that although equal civil and political rights applied to all white men, they did not apply to those of the "African race", further opining that the end of racial enslavement would "bring inevitable calamities upon both [races] and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states". Confederate States of America_sentence_99

Alabama did not provide a separate declaration of causes. Confederate States of America_sentence_100

Instead, the Alabama ordinance stated "the election of Abraham Lincoln ... by a sectional party, avowedly hostile to the domestic institutions and to the peace and security of the people of the State of Alabama, preceded by many and dangerous infractions of the Constitution of the United States by many of the States and people of the northern section, is a political wrong of so insulting and menacing a character as to justify the people of the State of Alabama in the adoption of prompt and decided measures for their future peace and security". Confederate States of America_sentence_101

The ordinance invited "the slaveholding States of the South, who may approve such purpose, in order to frame a provisional as well as a permanent Government upon the principles of the Constitution of the United States" to participate in a February 4, 1861 convention in Montgomery, Alabama. Confederate States of America_sentence_102

The secession ordinances of the remaining two states, Florida and Louisiana, simply declared their severing ties with the federal Union, without stating any causes. Confederate States of America_sentence_103

Afterward, the Florida secession convention formed a committee to draft a declaration of causes, but the committee was discharged before completion of the task. Confederate States of America_sentence_104

Only an undated, untitled draft remains. Confederate States of America_sentence_105

Four of the Upper South states (Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina) rejected secession until after the clash at Ft. Sumter. Confederate States of America_sentence_106

Virginia's ordinance stated a kinship with the slave-holding states of the Lower South, but did not name the institution itself as a primary reason for its course. Confederate States of America_sentence_107

Arkansas's secession ordinance encompassed a strong objection to the use of military force to preserve the Union as its motivating reason. Confederate States of America_sentence_108

Prior to the outbreak of war, the Arkansas Convention had on March 20 given as their first resolution: "The people of the Northern States have organized a political party, purely sectional in its character, the central and controlling idea of which is hostility to the institution of African slavery, as it exists in the Southern States; and that party has elected a President ... pledged to administer the Government upon principles inconsistent with the rights and subversive of the interests of the Southern States." Confederate States of America_sentence_109

North Carolina and Tennessee limited their ordinances to simply withdrawing, although Tennessee went so far as to make clear they wished to make no comment at all on the "abstract doctrine of secession". Confederate States of America_sentence_110

In a message to the Confederate Congress on April 29, 1861 Jefferson Davis cited both the tariff and slavery for the South's secession. Confederate States of America_sentence_111

Secessionists and conventions Confederate States of America_section_4

The pro-slavery "Fire-Eaters" group of Southern Democrats, calling for immediate secession, were opposed by two factions. Confederate States of America_sentence_112

"Cooperationists" in the Deep South would delay secession until several states left the union, perhaps in a Southern Convention. Confederate States of America_sentence_113

Under the influence of men such as Texas Governor Sam Houston, delay would have the effect of sustaining the Union. Confederate States of America_sentence_114

"Unionists", especially in the Border South, often former Whigs, appealed to sentimental attachment to the United States. Confederate States of America_sentence_115

Southern Unionists' favorite presidential candidate was John Bell of Tennessee, sometimes running under an "Opposition Party" banner. Confederate States of America_sentence_116

Confederate States of America_unordered_list_0

  • Confederate States of America_item_0_0
  • Confederate States of America_item_0_1

Many secessionists were active politically. Confederate States of America_sentence_117

Governor William Henry Gist of South Carolina corresponded secretly with other Deep South governors, and most southern governors exchanged clandestine commissioners. Confederate States of America_sentence_118

Charleston's secessionist "1860 Association" published over 200,000 pamphlets to persuade the youth of the South. Confederate States of America_sentence_119

The most influential were: "The Doom of Slavery" and "The South Alone Should Govern the South", both by John Townsend of South Carolina; and James D. B. Confederate States of America_sentence_120

De Bow's "The Interest of Slavery of the Southern Non-slaveholder". Confederate States of America_sentence_121

Developments in South Carolina started a chain of events. Confederate States of America_sentence_122

The foreman of a jury refused the legitimacy of federal courts, so Federal Judge Andrew Magrath ruled that U.S. judicial authority in South Carolina was vacated. Confederate States of America_sentence_123

A mass meeting in Charleston celebrating the Charleston and Savannah railroad and state cooperation led to the South Carolina legislature to call for a Secession Convention. Confederate States of America_sentence_124

U.S. Confederate States of America_sentence_125 Senator James Chesnut, Jr. resigned, as did Senator James Henry Hammond. Confederate States of America_sentence_126

Elections for Secessionist conventions were heated to "an almost raving pitch, no one dared dissent", according to historian William W. Freehling. Confederate States of America_sentence_127

Even once–respected voices, including the Chief Justice of South Carolina, John Belton O'Neall, lost election to the Secession Convention on a Cooperationist ticket. Confederate States of America_sentence_128

Across the South mobs expelled Yankees and (in Texas) executed German-Americans suspected of loyalty to the United States. Confederate States of America_sentence_129

Generally, seceding conventions which followed did not call for a referendum to ratify, although Texas, Arkansas, and Tennessee did, as well as Virginia's second convention. Confederate States of America_sentence_130

Kentucky declared neutrality, while Missouri had its own civil war until the Unionists took power and drove the Confederate legislators out of the state. Confederate States of America_sentence_131

Attempts to thwart secession Confederate States of America_section_5

In the antebellum months, the Corwin Amendment was an unsuccessful attempt by the Congress to bring the seceding states back to the Union and to convince the border slave states to remain. Confederate States of America_sentence_132

It was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution by Ohio Congressman Thomas Corwin that would shield "domestic institutions" of the states (which in 1861 included slavery) from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress. Confederate States of America_sentence_133

It was passed by the 36th Congress on March 2, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_134

The House approved it by a vote of 133 to 65 and the United States Senate adopted it, with no changes, on a vote of 24 to 12. Confederate States of America_sentence_135

It was then submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. Confederate States of America_sentence_136

In his inaugural address Lincoln endorsed the proposed amendment. Confederate States of America_sentence_137

The text was as follows: Confederate States of America_sentence_138

Had it been ratified by the required number of states prior to 1865, it would have made institutionalized slavery immune to the constitutional amendment procedures and to interference by Congress. Confederate States of America_sentence_139

Inauguration and response Confederate States of America_section_6

The first secession state conventions from the Deep South sent representatives to meet at the Montgomery Convention in Montgomery, Alabama, on February 4, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_140

There the fundamental documents of government were promulgated, a provisional government was established, and a representative Congress met for the Confederate States of America. Confederate States of America_sentence_141

The new 'provisional' Confederate President Jefferson Davis issued a call for 100,000 men from the various states' militias to defend the newly formed Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_142

All Federal property was seized, along with gold bullion and coining dies at the U.S. mints in Charlotte, North Carolina; Dahlonega, Georgia; and New Orleans. Confederate States of America_sentence_143

The Confederate capital was moved from Montgomery to Richmond, Virginia, in May 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_144

On February 22, 1862, Davis was inaugurated as president with a term of six years. Confederate States of America_sentence_145

The newly inaugurated Confederate administration pursued a policy of national territorial integrity, continuing earlier state efforts in 1860 and early 1861 to remove U.S. government presence from within their boundaries. Confederate States of America_sentence_146

These efforts included taking possession of U.S. courts, custom houses, post offices, and most notably, arsenals and forts. Confederate States of America_sentence_147

But after the Confederate attack and capture of Fort Sumter in April 1861, Lincoln called up 75,000 of the states' militia to muster under his command. Confederate States of America_sentence_148

The stated purpose was to re-occupy U.S. properties throughout the South, as the U.S. Congress had not authorized their abandonment. Confederate States of America_sentence_149

The resistance at Fort Sumter signaled his change of policy from that of the Buchanan Administration. Confederate States of America_sentence_150

Lincoln's response ignited a firestorm of emotion. Confederate States of America_sentence_151

The people of both North and South demanded war, and young men rushed to their colors in the hundreds of thousands. Confederate States of America_sentence_152

Four more states (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas) refused Lincoln's call for troops and declared secession, while Kentucky maintained an uneasy "neutrality". Confederate States of America_sentence_153

Secession Confederate States of America_section_7

Secessionists argued that the United States Constitution was a contract among sovereign states that could be abandoned at any time without consultation and that each state had a right to secede. Confederate States of America_sentence_154

After intense debates and statewide votes, seven Deep South cotton states passed secession ordinances by February 1861 (before Abraham Lincoln took office as president), while secession efforts failed in the other eight slave states. Confederate States of America_sentence_155

Delegates from those seven formed the CSA in February 1861, selecting Jefferson Davis as the provisional president. Confederate States of America_sentence_156

Unionist talk of reunion failed and Davis began raising a 100,000 man army. Confederate States of America_sentence_157

States Confederate States of America_section_8

Initially, some secessionists may have hoped for a peaceful departure. Confederate States of America_sentence_158

Moderates in the Confederate Constitutional Convention included a provision against importation of slaves from Africa to appeal to the Upper South. Confederate States of America_sentence_159

Non-slave states might join, but the radicals secured a two-thirds requirement in both houses of Congress to accept them. Confederate States of America_sentence_160

Seven states declared their secession from the United States before Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_161

After the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter April 12, 1861, and Lincoln's subsequent call for troops on April 15, four more states declared their secession: Confederate States of America_sentence_162

Kentucky declared neutrality but after Confederate troops moved in, the state government asked for Union troops to drive them out. Confederate States of America_sentence_163

The splinter Confederate state government relocated to accompany western Confederate armies and never controlled the state population. Confederate States of America_sentence_164

By the end of the war, 90,000 Kentuckians had fought on the side of the Union, compared to 35,000 for the Confederate States. Confederate States of America_sentence_165

In Missouri, a constitutional convention was approved and delegates elected by voters. Confederate States of America_sentence_166

The convention rejected secession 89–1 on March 19, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_167

The governor maneuvered to take control of the St. Confederate States of America_sentence_168 Louis Arsenal and restrict Federal movements. Confederate States of America_sentence_169

This led to confrontation, and in June Federal forces drove him and the General Assembly from Jefferson City. Confederate States of America_sentence_170

The executive committee of the constitutional convention called the members together in July. Confederate States of America_sentence_171

The convention declared the state offices vacant, and appointed a Unionist interim state government. Confederate States of America_sentence_172

The exiled governor called a rump session of the former General Assembly together in Neosho and, on October 31, 1861, passed an ordinance of secession. Confederate States of America_sentence_173

It is still a matter of debate as to whether a quorum existed for this vote. Confederate States of America_sentence_174

The Confederate state government was unable to control very much the Missouri territory. Confederate States of America_sentence_175

It had its capital first at Neosho, then at Cassville, before being driven out of the state. Confederate States of America_sentence_176

For the remainder of the war, it operated as a government in exile at Marshall, Texas. Confederate States of America_sentence_177

Neither Kentucky nor Missouri was declared in rebellion in Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. Confederate States of America_sentence_178

The Confederacy recognized the pro-Confederate claimants in both Kentucky (December 10, 1861) and Missouri (November 28, 1861) and laid claim to those states, granting them Congressional representation and adding two stars to the Confederate flag. Confederate States of America_sentence_179

Voting for the representatives was mostly done by Confederate soldiers from Kentucky and Missouri. Confederate States of America_sentence_180

The order of secession resolutions and dates are: Confederate States of America_sentence_181

Confederate States of America_description_list_1

Confederate States of America_description_list_2

  • 8. Virginia (April 17; referendum May 23, 1861)Confederate States of America_item_2_11
  • 9. Arkansas (May 6)Confederate States of America_item_2_12
  • 10. Tennessee (May 7; referendum June 8)Confederate States of America_item_2_13
  • 11. North Carolina (May 20)Confederate States of America_item_2_14

In Virginia, the populous counties along the Ohio and Pennsylvania borders rejected the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_182

Unionists held a Convention in Wheeling in June 1861, establishing a "restored government" with a rump legislature, but sentiment in the region remained deeply divided. Confederate States of America_sentence_183

In the 50 counties that would make up the state of West Virginia, voters from 24 counties had voted for disunion in Virginia's May 23 referendum on the ordinance of secession. Confederate States of America_sentence_184

In the 1860 Presidential election "Constitutional Democrat" Breckenridge had outpolled "Constitutional Unionist" Bell in the 50 counties by 1,900 votes, 44% to 42%. Confederate States of America_sentence_185

Regardless of scholarly disputes over election procedures and results county by county, altogether they simultaneously supplied over 20,000 soldiers to each side of the conflict. Confederate States of America_sentence_186

Representatives for most of the counties were seated in both state legislatures at Wheeling and at Richmond for the duration of the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_187

Attempts to secede from the Confederacy by some counties in East Tennessee were checked by martial law. Confederate States of America_sentence_188

Although slave-holding Delaware and Maryland did not secede, citizens from those states exhibited divided loyalties. Confederate States of America_sentence_189

Regiments of Marylanders fought in Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Confederate States of America_sentence_190

But overall, 24,000 men from Maryland joined the Confederate armed forces, compared to 63,000 who joined Union forces. Confederate States of America_sentence_191

Delaware never produced a full regiment for the Confederacy, but neither did it emancipate slaves as did Missouri and West Virginia. Confederate States of America_sentence_192

District of Columbia citizens made no attempts to secede and through the war years, referendums sponsored by President Lincoln approved systems of compensated emancipation and slave confiscation from "disloyal citizens". Confederate States of America_sentence_193

Territories Confederate States of America_section_9

Main articles: Confederate Arizona, New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War, and Indian Territory in the American Civil War Confederate States of America_sentence_194

Citizens at Mesilla and Tucson in the southern part of New Mexico Territory formed a secession convention, which voted to join the Confederacy on March 16, 1861, and appointed Dr. Lewis S. Owings as the new territorial governor. Confederate States of America_sentence_195

They won the Battle of Mesilla and established a territorial government with Mesilla serving as its capital. Confederate States of America_sentence_196

The Confederacy proclaimed the Confederate Arizona Territory on February 14, 1862, north to the 34th parallel. Confederate States of America_sentence_197

Marcus H. MacWillie served in both Confederate Congresses as Arizona's delegate. Confederate States of America_sentence_198

In 1862 the Confederate New Mexico Campaign to take the northern half of the U.S. territory failed and the Confederate territorial government in exile relocated to San Antonio, Texas. Confederate States of America_sentence_199

Confederate supporters in the trans-Mississippi west also claimed portions of United States Indian Territory after the United States evacuated the federal forts and installations. Confederate States of America_sentence_200

Over half of the American Indian troops participating in the Civil War from the Indian Territory supported the Confederacy; troops and one general were enlisted from each tribe. Confederate States of America_sentence_201

On July 12, 1861, the Confederate government signed a treaty with both the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indian nations. Confederate States of America_sentence_202

After several battles Union armies took control of the territory. Confederate States of America_sentence_203

The Indian Territory never formally joined the Confederacy, but it did receive representation in the Confederate Congress. Confederate States of America_sentence_204

Many Indians from the Territory were integrated into regular Confederate Army units. Confederate States of America_sentence_205

After 1863 the tribal governments sent representatives to the Confederate Congress: Elias Cornelius Boudinot representing the Cherokee and Samuel Benton Callahan representing the Seminole and Creek people. Confederate States of America_sentence_206

The Cherokee Nation aligned with the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_207

They practiced and supported slavery, opposed abolition, and feared their lands would be seized by the Union. Confederate States of America_sentence_208

After the war, the Indian territory was disestablished, their black slaves were freed, and the tribes lost some of their lands. Confederate States of America_sentence_209

Capitals Confederate States of America_section_10

Montgomery, Alabama, served as the capital of the Confederate States of America from February 4 until May 29, 1861, in the Alabama State Capitol. Confederate States of America_sentence_210

Six states created the Confederate States of America there on February 8, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_211

The Texas delegation was seated at the time, so it is counted in the "original seven" states of the Confederacy; it had no roll call vote until after its referendum made secession "operative". Confederate States of America_sentence_212

Two sessions of the Provisional Congress were held in Montgomery, adjourning May 21. Confederate States of America_sentence_213

The Permanent Constitution was adopted there on March 12, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_214

The permanent capital provided for in the Confederate Constitution called for a state cession of a ten-miles square (100 square mile) district to the central government. Confederate States of America_sentence_215

Atlanta, which had not yet supplanted Milledgeville, Georgia, as its state capital, put in a bid noting its central location and rail connections, as did Opelika, Alabama, noting its strategically interior situation, rail connections and nearby deposits of coal and iron. Confederate States of America_sentence_216

Richmond, Virginia, was chosen for the interim capital at the Virginia State Capitol. Confederate States of America_sentence_217

The move was used by Vice President Stephens and others to encourage other border states to follow Virginia into the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_218

In the political moment it was a show of "defiance and strength". Confederate States of America_sentence_219

The war for Southern independence was surely to be fought in Virginia, but it also had the largest Southern military-aged white population, with infrastructure, resources, and supplies required to sustain a war. Confederate States of America_sentence_220

The Davis Administration's policy was that, "It must be held at all hazards." Confederate States of America_sentence_221

The naming of Richmond as the new capital took place on May 30, 1861, and the last two sessions of the Provisional Congress were held in the new capital. Confederate States of America_sentence_222

The Permanent Confederate Congress and President were elected in the states and army camps on November 6, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_223

The First Congress met in four sessions in Richmond from February 18, 1862, to February 17, 1864. Confederate States of America_sentence_224

The Second Congress met there in two sessions, from May 2, 1864, to March 18, 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_225

As war dragged on, Richmond became crowded with training and transfers, logistics and hospitals. Confederate States of America_sentence_226

Prices rose dramatically despite government efforts at price regulation. Confederate States of America_sentence_227

A movement in Congress led by Henry S. Foote of Tennessee argued for moving the capital from Richmond. Confederate States of America_sentence_228

At the approach of Federal armies in mid-1862, the government's archives were readied for removal. Confederate States of America_sentence_229

As the Wilderness Campaign progressed, Congress authorized Davis to remove the executive department and call Congress to session elsewhere in 1864 and again in 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_230

Shortly before the end of the war, the Confederate government evacuated Richmond, planning to relocate farther south. Confederate States of America_sentence_231

Little came of these plans before Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, Virginia on April 9, 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_232

Davis and most of his cabinet fled to Danville, Virginia, which served as their headquarters for about a week. Confederate States of America_sentence_233

Unionism Confederate States of America_section_11

Unionism—opposition to the Confederacy—was widespread, especially in the mountain regions of Appalachia and the Ozarks. Confederate States of America_sentence_234

Unionists, led by Parson Brownlow and Senator Andrew Johnson, took control of eastern Tennessee in 1863. Confederate States of America_sentence_235

Unionists also attempted control over western Virginia but never effectively held more than half the counties that formed the new state of West Virginia. Confederate States of America_sentence_236

Union forces captured parts of coastal North Carolina, and at first were welcomed by local unionists. Confederate States of America_sentence_237

That changed as the occupiers became perceived as oppressive, callous, radical and favorable to the Freedmen. Confederate States of America_sentence_238

Occupiers engaged in pillaging, freeing of slaves, and eviction of those refusing to take or reneging on the loyalty oaths, as ex-Unionists began to support the Confederate cause. Confederate States of America_sentence_239

Support for the Confederacy was perhaps weakest in Texas; Claude Elliott estimates that only a third of the population actively supported the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_240

Many Unionists supported the Confederacy after the war began, but many others clung to their Unionism throughout the war, especially in the northern counties, the German districts, and the Mexican areas. Confederate States of America_sentence_241

According to Ernest Wallace: "This account of a dissatisfied Unionist minority, although historically essential, must be kept in its proper perspective, for throughout the war the overwhelming majority of the people zealously supported the Confederacy ..." Randolph B. Campbell states, "In spite of terrible losses and hardships, most Texans continued throughout the war to support the Confederacy as they had supported secession". Confederate States of America_sentence_242

Dale Baum in his analysis of Texas politics in the era counters: "This idea of a Confederate Texas united politically against northern adversaries was shaped more by nostalgic fantasies than by wartime realities." Confederate States of America_sentence_243

He characterizes Texas Civil War history as "a morose story of intragovernmental rivalries coupled with wide-ranging disaffection that prevented effective implementation of state wartime policies". Confederate States of America_sentence_244

In Texas, local officials harassed Unionists and engaged in large-scale massacres against Unionists and Germans. Confederate States of America_sentence_245

In Cooke County 150 suspected Unionists were arrested; 25 were lynched without trial and 40 more were hanged after a summary trial. Confederate States of America_sentence_246

Draft resistance was widespread especially among Texans of German or Mexican descent; many of the latter went to Mexico. Confederate States of America_sentence_247

Potential draftees went into hiding, Confederate officials hunted them down, and many were shot. Confederate States of America_sentence_248

Civil liberties were of small concern in both the North and South. Confederate States of America_sentence_249

Lincoln and Davis both took a hard line against dissent. Confederate States of America_sentence_250

Neely explores how the Confederacy became a virtual police state with guards and patrols all about, and a domestic passport system whereby everyone needed official permission each time they wanted to travel. Confederate States of America_sentence_251

Over 4,000 suspected Unionists were imprisoned without trial. Confederate States of America_sentence_252

Diplomacy Confederate States of America_section_12

United States, a foreign power Confederate States of America_section_13

During the four years of its existence under trial by war, the Confederate States of America asserted its independence and appointed dozens of diplomatic agents abroad. Confederate States of America_sentence_253

None were ever officially recognized by a foreign government. Confederate States of America_sentence_254

The United States government regarded the Southern states as being in rebellion or insurrection and so refused any formal recognition of their status. Confederate States of America_sentence_255

Even before Fort Sumter, U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward issued formal instructions to the American minister to Britain, Charles Francis Adams: Confederate States of America_sentence_256

Seward instructed Adams that if the British government seemed inclined to recognize the Confederacy, or even waver in that regard, it was to receive a sharp warning, with a strong hint of war: Confederate States of America_sentence_257

The United States government never declared war on those "kindred and countrymen" in the Confederacy, but conducted its military efforts beginning with a presidential proclamation issued April 15, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_258

It called for troops to recapture forts and suppress what Lincoln later called an "insurrection and rebellion". Confederate States of America_sentence_259

Mid-war parleys between the two sides occurred without formal political recognition, though the laws of war predominantly governed military relationships on both sides of uniformed conflict. Confederate States of America_sentence_260

On the part of the Confederacy, immediately following Fort Sumter the Confederate Congress proclaimed that "war exists between the Confederate States and the Government of the United States, and the States and Territories thereof". Confederate States of America_sentence_261

A state of war was not to formally exist between the Confederacy and those states and territories in the United States allowing slavery, although Confederate Rangers were compensated for destruction they could effect there throughout the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_262

Concerning the international status and nationhood of the Confederate States of America, in 1869 the United States Supreme Court in Texas v. White, 74 U.S. Confederate States of America_sentence_263

(7 Wall.) Confederate States of America_sentence_264

700 (1869) ruled Texas' declaration of secession was legally null and void. Confederate States of America_sentence_265

Jefferson Davis, former President of the Confederacy, and Alexander H. Stephens, its former vice-president, both wrote postwar arguments in favor of secession's legality and the international legitimacy of the Government of the Confederate States of America, most notably Davis' The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. Confederate States of America_sentence_266

International diplomacy Confederate States of America_section_14

The Confederacy's biggest foreign policy successes were with Spain's Caribbean colonies and Brazil, the "peoples most identical to us in Institutions", in which slavery remained legal until the 1880s. Confederate States of America_sentence_267

The Captain–General of Cuba declared in writing that Confederate ships were welcome, and would be protected in Cuban ports. Confederate States of America_sentence_268

They were also welcome in Brazilian ports; slavery was legal throughout Brazil, and the abolitionist movement was small. Confederate States of America_sentence_269

After the end of the war, Brazil was the primary destination of those Southerners who wanted to continue living in a slave society, where, as one immigrant remarked, slaves were cheap (see Confederados). Confederate States of America_sentence_270

However, militarily this meant little. Confederate States of America_sentence_271

Once war with the United States began, the Confederacy pinned its hopes for survival on military intervention by Great Britain and France. Confederate States of America_sentence_272

The Confederate government sent James M. Mason to London and John Slidell to Paris. Confederate States of America_sentence_273

On their way to Europe in 1861, the U.S. Navy intercepted their ship, the Trent, and forcibly detained them in Boston, an international episode known as the Trent Affair. Confederate States of America_sentence_274

The diplomats were eventually released and continued their voyage to Europe. Confederate States of America_sentence_275

However, their diplomacy was unsuccessful; historians give them low marks for their poor diplomacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_276

Neither secured diplomatic recognition for the Confederacy, much less military assistance. Confederate States of America_sentence_277

The Confederates who had believed that "cotton is king", that is, that Britain had to support the Confederacy to obtain cotton, proved mistaken. Confederate States of America_sentence_278

The British had stocks to last over a year and had been developing alternative sources of cotton, most notably India and Egypt. Confederate States of America_sentence_279

Britain had so much cotton that it was exporting some to France. Confederate States of America_sentence_280

England was not about to go to war with the U.S. to acquire more cotton at the risk of losing the large quantities of food imported from the North. Confederate States of America_sentence_281

Aside from the purely economic questions, there was also the clamorous ethical debate. Confederate States of America_sentence_282

In Great Britain, which had abolished slavery in 1833, Confederate diplomats found little support for American slavery, cotton trade or no. Confederate States of America_sentence_283

A series of slave narratives about American slavery was being published in London. Confederate States of America_sentence_284

It was in London that the first World Anti-Slavery Convention had been held in 1840; it was followed by regular smaller conferences. Confederate States of America_sentence_285

A string of eloquent and sometimes well-educated Negro abolitionist speakers criss-crossed not just England but Scotland and Ireland as well. Confederate States of America_sentence_286

In addition to exposing the reality of America's shameful and sinful chattel slavery—some were fugitive slaves—they put the lie to the Confederate position that negroes were "unintellectual, timid, and dependant", and "not equal to the white man...the superior race," as it was put by Confederate Vice-President Alexander H. Stephens in his famous Cornerstone Speech. Confederate States of America_sentence_287

Frederick Douglass, Henry Highland Garnet, Sarah Parker Remond, her brother Charles Lenox Remond, James W. C. Pennington, Martin Delany, Samuel Ringgold Ward, and William G. Allen all spent years in Britain, where fugitive slaves were safe and, as Allen said, there was an "absence of prejudice against color. Confederate States of America_sentence_288

Here the colored man feels himself among friends, and not among enemies". Confederate States of America_sentence_289

One speaker alone, William Wells Brown, gave more than 1,000 lectures on the shame of American chattel slavery. Confederate States of America_sentence_290

Throughout the early years of the war, British foreign secretary Lord John Russell, Emperor Napoleon III of France, and, to a lesser extent, British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, showed interest in recognition of the Confederacy or at least mediation of the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_291

William Ewart Gladstone, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer (finance minister, in office 1859–1866), whose family wealth was based on slavery, was the key Minister calling for intervention to help the Confederacy achieve independence. Confederate States of America_sentence_292

He failed to convince prime minister Palmerston. Confederate States of America_sentence_293

By September 1862 the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln's preliminary Emancipation Proclamation and abolitionist opposition in Britain put an end to these possibilities. Confederate States of America_sentence_294

The cost to Britain of a war with the U.S. would have been high: the immediate loss of American grain-shipments, the end of British exports to the U.S., and the seizure of billions of pounds invested in American securities. Confederate States of America_sentence_295

War would have meant higher taxes in Britain, another invasion of Canada, and full-scale worldwide attacks on the British merchant fleet. Confederate States of America_sentence_296

Outright recognition would have meant certain war with the United States; in mid-1862 fears of race war (as had transpired in the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804) led to the British considering intervention for humanitarian reasons. Confederate States of America_sentence_297

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation did not lead to interracial violence, let alone a bloodbath, but it did give the friends of the Union strong talking points in the arguments that raged across Britain. Confederate States of America_sentence_298

John Slidell, the Confederate States emissary to France, did succeed in negotiating a loan of $15,000,000 from Erlanger and other French capitalists. Confederate States of America_sentence_299

The money went to buy ironclad warships, as well as military supplies that came in with blockade runners. Confederate States of America_sentence_300

The British government did allow the construction of blockade runners in Britain; they were owned and operated by British financiers and ship owners; a few were owned and operated by the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_301

The British investors' goal was to get highly profitable cotton. Confederate States of America_sentence_302

Several European nations maintained diplomats in place who had been appointed to the U.S., but no country appointed any diplomat to the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_303

Those nations recognized the Union and Confederate sides as belligerents. Confederate States of America_sentence_304

In 1863 the Confederacy expelled European diplomatic missions for advising their resident subjects to refuse to serve in the Confederate army. Confederate States of America_sentence_305

Both Confederate and Union agents were allowed to work openly in British territories. Confederate States of America_sentence_306

Some state governments in northern Mexico negotiated local agreements to cover trade on the Texas border. Confederate States of America_sentence_307

Pope Pius IX wrote a letter to Jefferson Davis in which he addressed Davis as the "Honorable President of the Confederate States of America". Confederate States of America_sentence_308

The Confederacy appointed Ambrose Dudley Mann as special agent to the Holy See on September 24, 1863. Confederate States of America_sentence_309

But the Holy See never released a formal statement supporting or recognizing the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_310

In November 1863, Mann met Pope Pius IX in person and received a letter supposedly addressed "to the Illustrious and Honorable Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America"; Mann had mistranslated the address. Confederate States of America_sentence_311

In his report to Richmond, Mann claimed a great diplomatic achievement for himself, asserting the letter was "a positive recognition of our Government". Confederate States of America_sentence_312

The letter was indeed used in propaganda, but Confederate Secretary of State Judah P. Benjamin told Mann it was "a mere inferential recognition, unconnected with political action or the regular establishment of diplomatic relations" and thus did not assign it the weight of formal recognition. Confederate States of America_sentence_313

Nevertheless, the Confederacy was seen internationally as a serious attempt at nationhood, and European governments sent military observers, both official and unofficial, to assess whether there had been a de facto establishment of independence. Confederate States of America_sentence_314

These observers included Arthur Lyon Fremantle of the British Coldstream Guards, who entered the Confederacy via Mexico, Fitzgerald Ross of the Austrian Hussars, and Justus Scheibert of the Prussian Army. Confederate States of America_sentence_315

European travelers visited and wrote accounts for publication. Confederate States of America_sentence_316

Importantly in 1862, the Frenchman Charles Girard's Seven months in the rebel states during the North American War testified "this government ... is no longer a trial government ... but really a normal government, the expression of popular will". Confederate States of America_sentence_317

Fremantle went on to write in his book Three Months in the Southern States that he had Confederate States of America_sentence_318

French Emperor Napoleon III assured Confederate diplomat John Slidell that he would make "direct proposition" to Britain for joint recognition. Confederate States of America_sentence_319

The Emperor made the same assurance to British Members of Parliament John A. Roebuck and John A. Lindsay. Confederate States of America_sentence_320

Roebuck in turn publicly prepared a bill to submit to Parliament June 30 supporting joint Anglo-French recognition of the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_321

"Southerners had a right to be optimistic, or at least hopeful, that their revolution would prevail, or at least endure." Confederate States of America_sentence_322

Following the double disasters at Vicksburg and Gettysburg in July 1863, the Confederates "suffered a severe loss of confidence in themselves", and withdrew into an interior defensive position. Confederate States of America_sentence_323

There would be no help from the Europeans. Confederate States of America_sentence_324

By December 1864, Davis considered sacrificing slavery in order to enlist recognition and aid from Paris and London; he secretly sent Duncan F. Kenner to Europe with a message that the war was fought solely for "the vindication of our rights to self-government and independence" and that "no sacrifice is too great, save that of honor". Confederate States of America_sentence_325

The message stated that if the French or British governments made their recognition conditional on anything at all, the Confederacy would consent to such terms. Confederate States of America_sentence_326

Davis's message could not explicitly acknowledge that slavery was on the bargaining table due to still-strong domestic support for slavery among the wealthy and politically influential. Confederate States of America_sentence_327

European leaders all saw that the Confederacy was on the verge of total defeat. Confederate States of America_sentence_328

Confederacy at war Confederate States of America_section_15

Motivations of soldiers Confederate States of America_section_16

Main article: Confederate States Army § Morale and motivations Confederate States of America_sentence_329

The great majority of young white men voluntarily joined Confederate national or state military units. Confederate States of America_sentence_330

Perman (2010) says historians are of two minds on why millions of men seemed so eager to fight, suffer and die over four years: Confederate States of America_sentence_331

Military strategy Confederate States of America_section_17

Civil War historian E. Confederate States of America_sentence_332 Merton Coulter wrote that for those who would secure its independence, "The Confederacy was unfortunate in its failure to work out a general strategy for the whole war". Confederate States of America_sentence_333

Aggressive strategy called for offensive force concentration. Confederate States of America_sentence_334

Defensive strategy sought dispersal to meet demands of locally minded governors. Confederate States of America_sentence_335

The controlling philosophy evolved into a combination "dispersal with a defensive concentration around Richmond". Confederate States of America_sentence_336

The Davis administration considered the war purely defensive, a "simple demand that the people of the United States would cease to war upon us". Confederate States of America_sentence_337

Historian James M. McPherson is a critic of Lee's offensive strategy: "Lee pursued a faulty military strategy that ensured Confederate defeat". Confederate States of America_sentence_338

As the Confederate government lost control of territory in campaign after campaign, it was said that "the vast size of the Confederacy would make its conquest impossible". Confederate States of America_sentence_339

The enemy would be struck down by the same elements which so often debilitated or destroyed visitors and transplants in the South. Confederate States of America_sentence_340

Heat exhaustion, sunstroke, endemic diseases such as malaria and typhoid would match the destructive effectiveness of the Moscow winter on the invading armies of Napoleon. Confederate States of America_sentence_341

Early in the war both sides believed that one great battle would decide the conflict; the Confederates won a surprise victory at the First Battle of Bull Run, also known as First Manassas (the name used by Confederate forces). Confederate States of America_sentence_342

It drove the Confederate people "insane with joy"; the public demanded a forward movement to capture Washington, relocate the Confederate capital there, and admit Maryland to the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_343

A council of war by the victorious Confederate generals decided not to advance against larger numbers of fresh Federal troops in defensive positions. Confederate States of America_sentence_344

Davis did not countermand it. Confederate States of America_sentence_345

Following the Confederate incursion into Maryland halted at the Battle of Antietam in October 1862, generals proposed concentrating forces from state commands to re-invade the north. Confederate States of America_sentence_346

Nothing came of it. Confederate States of America_sentence_347

Again in mid-1863 at his incursion into Pennsylvania, Lee requested of Davis that Beauregard simultaneously attack Washington with troops taken from the Carolinas. Confederate States of America_sentence_348

But the troops there remained in place during the Gettysburg Campaign. Confederate States of America_sentence_349

The eleven states of the Confederacy were outnumbered by the North about four to one in white men of military age. Confederate States of America_sentence_350

It was overmatched far more in military equipment, industrial facilities, railroads for transport, and wagons supplying the front. Confederate States of America_sentence_351

Confederates slowed the Yankee invaders, at heavy cost to the Southern infrastructure. Confederate States of America_sentence_352

The Confederates burned bridges, laid land mines in the roads, and made harbors inlets and inland waterways unusable with sunken mines (called "torpedoes" at the time). Confederate States of America_sentence_353

Coulter reports: Confederate States of America_sentence_354

The Confederacy relied on external sources for war materials. Confederate States of America_sentence_355

The first came from trade with the enemy. Confederate States of America_sentence_356

"Vast amounts of war supplies" came through Kentucky, and thereafter, western armies were "to a very considerable extent" provisioned with illicit trade via Federal agents and northern private traders. Confederate States of America_sentence_357

But that trade was interrupted in the first year of war by Admiral Porter's river gunboats as they gained dominance along navigable rivers north–south and east–west. Confederate States of America_sentence_358

Overseas blockade running then came to be of "outstanding importance". Confederate States of America_sentence_359

On April 17, President Davis called on privateer raiders, the "militia of the sea", to make war on U.S. seaborne commerce. Confederate States of America_sentence_360

Despite noteworthy effort, over the course of the war the Confederacy was found unable to match the Union in ships and seamanship, materials and marine construction. Confederate States of America_sentence_361

An inescapable obstacle to success in the warfare of mass armies was the Confederacy's lack of manpower, and sufficient numbers of disciplined, equipped troops in the field at the point of contact with the enemy. Confederate States of America_sentence_362

During the winter of 1862–63, Lee observed that none of his famous victories had resulted in the destruction of the opposing army. Confederate States of America_sentence_363

He lacked reserve troops to exploit an advantage on the battlefield as Napoleon had done. Confederate States of America_sentence_364

Lee explained, "More than once have most promising opportunities been lost for want of men to take advantage of them, and victory itself had been made to put on the appearance of defeat, because our diminished and exhausted troops have been unable to renew a successful struggle against fresh numbers of the enemy." Confederate States of America_sentence_365

Armed forces Confederate States of America_section_18

Main article: Military of the Confederate States of America Confederate States of America_sentence_366

The military armed forces of the Confederacy comprised three branches: Army, Navy and Marine Corps. Confederate States of America_sentence_367

The Confederate military leadership included many veterans from the United States Army and United States Navy who had resigned their Federal commissions and were appointed to senior positions. Confederate States of America_sentence_368

Many had served in the Mexican–American War (including Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis), but some such as Leonidas Polk (who graduated from West Point but did not serve in the Army) had little or no experience. Confederate States of America_sentence_369

Confederate States of America_unordered_list_3

  • Confederate States of America_item_3_15
  • Confederate States of America_item_3_16

The Confederate officer corps consisted of men from both slave-owning and non-slave-owning families. Confederate States of America_sentence_370

The Confederacy appointed junior and field grade officers by election from the enlisted ranks. Confederate States of America_sentence_371

Although no Army service academy was established for the Confederacy, some colleges (such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute) maintained cadet corps that trained Confederate military leadership. Confederate States of America_sentence_372

A naval academy was established at Drewry's Bluff, Virginia in 1863, but no midshipmen graduated before the Confederacy's end. Confederate States of America_sentence_373

Most soldiers were white males aged between 16 and 28. Confederate States of America_sentence_374

The median year of birth was 1838, so half the soldiers were 23 or older by 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_375

In early 1862, the Confederate Army was allowed to disintegrate for two months following expiration of short-term enlistments. Confederate States of America_sentence_376

A majority of those in uniform would not re-enlist following their one-year commitment, so on April 16, 1862, the Confederate Congress enacted the first mass conscription on the North American continent. Confederate States of America_sentence_377

(The U.S. Congress followed a year later on March 3, 1863, with the Enrollment Act.) Confederate States of America_sentence_378

Rather than a universal draft, the initial program was a selective service with physical, religious, professional and industrial exemptions. Confederate States of America_sentence_379

These were narrowed as the war progressed. Confederate States of America_sentence_380

Initially substitutes were permitted, but by December 1863 these were disallowed. Confederate States of America_sentence_381

In September 1862 the age limit was increased from 35 to 45 and by February 1864, all men under 18 and over 45 were conscripted to form a reserve for state defense inside state borders. Confederate States of America_sentence_382

By March 1864, the Superintendent of Conscription reported that all across the Confederacy, every officer in constituted authority, man and woman, "engaged in opposing the enrolling officer in the execution of his duties". Confederate States of America_sentence_383

Although challenged in the state courts, the Confederate State Supreme Courts routinely rejected legal challenges to conscription. Confederate States of America_sentence_384

Many thousands of slaves served as personal servants to their owner, or were hired as laborers, cooks, and pioneers. Confederate States of America_sentence_385

Some freed blacks and men of color served in local state militia units of the Confederacy, primarily in Louisiana and South Carolina, but their officers deployed them for "local defense, not combat". Confederate States of America_sentence_386

Depleted by casualties and desertions, the military suffered chronic manpower shortages. Confederate States of America_sentence_387

In early 1865, the Confederate Congress, influenced by the public support by General Lee, approved the recruitment of black infantry units. Confederate States of America_sentence_388

Contrary to Lee's and Davis's recommendations, the Congress refused "to guarantee the freedom of black volunteers". Confederate States of America_sentence_389

No more than two hundred black combat troops were ever raised. Confederate States of America_sentence_390

Raising troops Confederate States of America_section_19

The immediate onset of war meant that it was fought by the "Provisional" or "Volunteer Army". Confederate States of America_sentence_391

State governors resisted concentrating a national effort. Confederate States of America_sentence_392

Several wanted a strong state army for self-defense. Confederate States of America_sentence_393

Others feared large "Provisional" armies answering only to Davis. Confederate States of America_sentence_394

When filling the Confederate government's call for 100,000 men, another 200,000 were turned away by accepting only those enlisted "for the duration" or twelve-month volunteers who brought their own arms or horses. Confederate States of America_sentence_395

It was important to raise troops; it was just as important to provide capable officers to command them. Confederate States of America_sentence_396

With few exceptions the Confederacy secured excellent general officers. Confederate States of America_sentence_397

Efficiency in the lower officers was "greater than could have been reasonably expected". Confederate States of America_sentence_398

As with the Federals, political appointees could be indifferent. Confederate States of America_sentence_399

Otherwise, the officer corps was governor-appointed or elected by unit enlisted. Confederate States of America_sentence_400

Promotion to fill vacancies was made internally regardless of merit, even if better officers were immediately available. Confederate States of America_sentence_401

Anticipating the need for more "duration" men, in January 1862 Congress provided for company level recruiters to return home for two months, but their efforts met little success on the heels of Confederate battlefield defeats in February. Confederate States of America_sentence_402

Congress allowed for Davis to require numbers of recruits from each governor to supply the volunteer shortfall. Confederate States of America_sentence_403

States responded by passing their own draft laws. Confederate States of America_sentence_404

The veteran Confederate army of early 1862 was mostly twelve-month volunteers with terms about to expire. Confederate States of America_sentence_405

Enlisted reorganization elections disintegrated the army for two months. Confederate States of America_sentence_406

Officers pleaded with the ranks to re-enlist, but a majority did not. Confederate States of America_sentence_407

Those remaining elected majors and colonels whose performance led to officer review boards in October. Confederate States of America_sentence_408

The boards caused a "rapid and widespread" thinning out of 1,700 incompetent officers. Confederate States of America_sentence_409

Troops thereafter would elect only second lieutenants. Confederate States of America_sentence_410

In early 1862, the popular press suggested the Confederacy required a million men under arms. Confederate States of America_sentence_411

But veteran soldiers were not re-enlisting, and earlier secessionist volunteers did not reappear to serve in war. Confederate States of America_sentence_412

One Macon, Georgia, newspaper asked how two million brave fighting men of the South were about to be overcome by four million northerners who were said to be cowards. Confederate States of America_sentence_413

Conscription Confederate States of America_section_20

The Confederacy passed the first American law of national conscription on April 16, 1862. Confederate States of America_sentence_414

The white males of the Confederate States from 18 to 35 were declared members of the Confederate army for three years, and all men then enlisted were extended to a three-year term. Confederate States of America_sentence_415

They would serve only in units and under officers of their state. Confederate States of America_sentence_416

Those under 18 and over 35 could substitute for conscripts, in September those from 35 to 45 became conscripts. Confederate States of America_sentence_417

The cry of "rich man's war and a poor man's fight" led Congress to abolish the substitute system altogether in December 1863. Confederate States of America_sentence_418

All principals benefiting earlier were made eligible for service. Confederate States of America_sentence_419

By February 1864, the age bracket was made 17 to 50, those under eighteen and over forty-five to be limited to in-state duty. Confederate States of America_sentence_420

Confederate conscription was not universal; it was a selective service. Confederate States of America_sentence_421

The First Conscription Act of April 1862 exempted occupations related to transportation, communication, industry, ministers, teaching and physical fitness. Confederate States of America_sentence_422

The Second Conscription Act of October 1862 expanded exemptions in industry, agriculture and conscientious objection. Confederate States of America_sentence_423

Exemption fraud proliferated in medical examinations, army furloughs, churches, schools, apothecaries and newspapers. Confederate States of America_sentence_424

Rich men's sons were appointed to the socially outcast "overseer" occupation, but the measure was received in the country with "universal odium". Confederate States of America_sentence_425

The legislative vehicle was the controversial Twenty Negro Law that specifically exempted one white overseer or owner for every plantation with at least 20 slaves. Confederate States of America_sentence_426

Backpedalling six months later, Congress provided overseers under 45 could be exempted only if they held the occupation before the first Conscription Act. Confederate States of America_sentence_427

The number of officials under state exemptions appointed by state Governor patronage expanded significantly. Confederate States of America_sentence_428

By law, substitutes could not be subject to conscription, but instead of adding to Confederate manpower, unit officers in the field reported that over-50 and under-17-year-old substitutes made up to 90% of the desertions. Confederate States of America_sentence_429

Confederate States of America_unordered_list_4

  • Confederate States of America_item_4_17
  • Confederate States of America_item_4_18

The Conscription Act of February 1864 "radically changed the whole system" of selection. Confederate States of America_sentence_430

It abolished industrial exemptions, placing detail authority in President Davis. Confederate States of America_sentence_431

As the shame of conscription was greater than a felony conviction, the system brought in "about as many volunteers as it did conscripts." Confederate States of America_sentence_432

Many men in otherwise "bombproof" positions were enlisted in one way or another, nearly 160,000 additional volunteers and conscripts in uniform. Confederate States of America_sentence_433

Still there was shirking. Confederate States of America_sentence_434

To administer the draft, a Bureau of Conscription was set up to use state officers, as state Governors would allow. Confederate States of America_sentence_435

It had a checkered career of "contention, opposition and futility". Confederate States of America_sentence_436

Armies appointed alternative military "recruiters" to bring in the out-of-uniform 17–50-year-old conscripts and deserters. Confederate States of America_sentence_437

Nearly 3,000 officers were tasked with the job. Confederate States of America_sentence_438

By late 1864, Lee was calling for more troops. Confederate States of America_sentence_439

"Our ranks are constantly diminishing by battle and disease, and few recruits are received; the consequences are inevitable." Confederate States of America_sentence_440

By March 1865 conscription was to be administered by generals of the state reserves calling out men over 45 and under 18 years old. Confederate States of America_sentence_441

All exemptions were abolished. Confederate States of America_sentence_442

These regiments were assigned to recruit conscripts ages 17–50, recover deserters, and repel enemy cavalry raids. Confederate States of America_sentence_443

The service retained men who had lost but one arm or a leg in home guards. Confederate States of America_sentence_444

Ultimately, conscription was a failure, and its main value was in goading men to volunteer. Confederate States of America_sentence_445

The survival of the Confederacy depended on a strong base of civilians and soldiers devoted to victory. Confederate States of America_sentence_446

The soldiers performed well, though increasing numbers deserted in the last year of fighting, and the Confederacy never succeeded in replacing casualties as the Union could. Confederate States of America_sentence_447

The civilians, although enthusiastic in 1861–62, seem to have lost faith in the future of the Confederacy by 1864, and instead looked to protect their homes and communities. Confederate States of America_sentence_448

As Rable explains, "This contraction of civic vision was more than a crabbed libertarianism; it represented an increasingly widespread disillusionment with the Confederate experiment." Confederate States of America_sentence_449

Victories: 1861 Confederate States of America_section_21

The American Civil War broke out in April 1861 with a Confederate victory at the Battle of Fort Sumter in Charleston. Confederate States of America_sentence_450

In January, President James Buchanan had attempted to resupply the garrison with the steamship, Star of the West, but Confederate artillery drove it away. Confederate States of America_sentence_451

In March, President Lincoln notified South Carolina Governor Pickens that without Confederate resistance to the resupply there would be no military reinforcement without further notice, but Lincoln prepared to force resupply if it were not allowed. Confederate States of America_sentence_452

Confederate President Davis, in cabinet, decided to seize Fort Sumter before the relief fleet arrived, and on April 12, 1861, General Beauregard forced its surrender. Confederate States of America_sentence_453

Following Sumter, Lincoln directed states to provide 75,000 troops for three months to recapture the Charleston Harbor forts and all other federal property. Confederate States of America_sentence_454

This emboldened secessionists in Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina to secede rather than provide troops to march into neighboring Southern states. Confederate States of America_sentence_455

In May, Federal troops crossed into Confederate territory along the entire border from the Chesapeake Bay to New Mexico. Confederate States of America_sentence_456

The first battles were Confederate victories at Big Bethel (Bethel Church, Virginia), First Bull Run (First Manassas) in Virginia July and in August, Wilson's Creek (Oak Hills) in Missouri. Confederate States of America_sentence_457

At all three, Confederate forces could not follow up their victory due to inadequate supply and shortages of fresh troops to exploit their successes. Confederate States of America_sentence_458

Following each battle, Federals maintained a military presence and occupied Washington, DC; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and Springfield, Missouri. Confederate States of America_sentence_459

Both North and South began training up armies for major fighting the next year. Confederate States of America_sentence_460

Union General George B. McClellan's forces gained possession of much of northwestern Virginia in mid-1861, concentrating on towns and roads; the interior was too large to control and became the center of guerrilla activity. Confederate States of America_sentence_461

General Robert E. Lee was defeated at Cheat Mountain in September and no serious Confederate advance in western Virginia occurred until the next year. Confederate States of America_sentence_462

Meanwhile, the Union Navy seized control of much of the Confederate coastline from Virginia to South Carolina. Confederate States of America_sentence_463

It took over plantations and the abandoned slaves. Confederate States of America_sentence_464

Federals there began a war-long policy of burning grain supplies up rivers into the interior wherever they could not occupy. Confederate States of America_sentence_465

The Union Navy began a blockade of the major southern ports and prepared an invasion of Louisiana to capture New Orleans in early 1862. Confederate States of America_sentence_466

Incursions: 1862 Confederate States of America_section_22

The victories of 1861 were followed by a series of defeats east and west in early 1862. Confederate States of America_sentence_467

To restore the Union by military force, the Federal strategy was to (1) secure the Mississippi River, (2) seize or close Confederate ports, and (3) march on Richmond. Confederate States of America_sentence_468

To secure independence, the Confederate intent was to (1) repel the invader on all fronts, costing him blood and treasure, and (2) carry the war into the North by two offensives in time to affect the mid-term elections. Confederate States of America_sentence_469

Much of northwestern Virginia was under Federal control. Confederate States of America_sentence_470

In February and March, most of Missouri and Kentucky were Union "occupied, consolidated, and used as staging areas for advances further South". Confederate States of America_sentence_471

Following the repulse of Confederate counter-attack at the Battle of Shiloh, Tennessee, permanent Federal occupation expanded west, south and east. Confederate States of America_sentence_472

Confederate forces repositioned south along the Mississippi River to Memphis, Tennessee, where at the naval Battle of Memphis, its River Defense Fleet was sunk. Confederate States of America_sentence_473

Confederates withdrew from northern Mississippi and northern Alabama. Confederate States of America_sentence_474

New Orleans was captured April 29 by a combined Army-Navy force under U.S. Admiral David Farragut, and the Confederacy lost control of the mouth of the Mississippi River. Confederate States of America_sentence_475

It had to concede extensive agricultural resources that had supported the Union's sea-supplied logistics base. Confederate States of America_sentence_476

Although Confederates had suffered major reverses everywhere, as of the end of April the Confederacy still controlled territory holding 72% of its population. Confederate States of America_sentence_477

Federal forces disrupted Missouri and Arkansas; they had broken through in western Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Louisiana. Confederate States of America_sentence_478

Along the Confederacy's shores, Union forces had closed ports and made garrisoned lodgments on every coastal Confederate state except Alabama and Texas. Confederate States of America_sentence_479

Although scholars sometimes assess the Union blockade as ineffectual under international law until the last few months of the war, from the first months it disrupted Confederate privateers, making it "almost impossible to bring their prizes into Confederate ports". Confederate States of America_sentence_480

British firms developed small fleets of blockade running companies, such as John Fraser and Company, and the Ordnance Department secured its own blockade runners for dedicated munitions cargoes. Confederate States of America_sentence_481

During the Civil War fleets of armored warships were deployed for the first time in sustained blockades at sea. Confederate States of America_sentence_482

After some success against the Union blockade, in March the ironclad CSS Virginia was forced into port and burned by Confederates at their retreat. Confederate States of America_sentence_483

Despite several attempts mounted from their port cities, CSA naval forces were unable to break the Union blockade. Confederate States of America_sentence_484

Attempts were made by Commodore Josiah Tattnall's ironclads from Savannah in 1862 with the CSS Atlanta. Confederate States of America_sentence_485

Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory placed his hopes in a European-built ironclad fleet, but they were never realized. Confederate States of America_sentence_486

On the other hand, four new English-built commerce raiders served the Confederacy, and several fast blockade runners were sold in Confederate ports. Confederate States of America_sentence_487

They were converted into commerce-raiding cruisers, and manned by their British crews. Confederate States of America_sentence_488

In the east, Union forces could not close on Richmond. Confederate States of America_sentence_489

General McClellan landed his army on the Lower Peninsula of Virginia. Confederate States of America_sentence_490

Lee subsequently ended that threat from the east, then Union General John Pope attacked overland from the north only to be repulsed at Second Bull Run (Second Manassas). Confederate States of America_sentence_491

Lee's strike north was turned back at Antietam MD, then Union Major General Ambrose Burnside's offensive was disastrously ended at Fredericksburg VA in December. Confederate States of America_sentence_492

Both armies then turned to winter quarters to recruit and train for the coming spring. Confederate States of America_sentence_493

In an attempt to seize the initiative, reprovision, protect farms in mid-growing season and influence U.S. Congressional elections, two major Confederate incursions into Union territory had been launched in August and September 1862. Confederate States of America_sentence_494

Both Braxton Bragg's invasion of Kentucky and Lee's invasion of Maryland were decisively repulsed, leaving Confederates in control of but 63% of its population. Confederate States of America_sentence_495

Civil War scholar Allan Nevins argues that 1862 was the strategic high-water mark of the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_496

The failures of the two invasions were attributed to the same irrecoverable shortcomings: lack of manpower at the front, lack of supplies including serviceable shoes, and exhaustion after long marches without adequate food. Confederate States of America_sentence_497

Also in September Confederate General William W. Loring pushed Federal forces from Charleston, Virginia, and the Kanawha Valley in western Virginia, but lacking re-inforcements Loring abandoned his position and by November the region was back in Federal control. Confederate States of America_sentence_498

Anaconda: 1863–64 Confederate States of America_section_23

The failed Middle Tennessee campaign was ended January 2, 1863, at the inconclusive Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro), both sides losing the largest percentage of casualties suffered during the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_499

It was followed by another strategic withdrawal by Confederate forces. Confederate States of America_sentence_500

The Confederacy won a significant victory April 1863, repulsing the Federal advance on Richmond at Chancellorsville, but the Union consolidated positions along the Virginia coast and the Chesapeake Bay. Confederate States of America_sentence_501

Without an effective answer to Federal gunboats, river transport and supply, the Confederacy lost the Mississippi River following the capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Port Hudson in July, ending Southern access to the trans-Mississippi West. Confederate States of America_sentence_502

July brought short-lived counters, Morgan's Raid into Ohio and the New York City draft riots. Confederate States of America_sentence_503

Robert E. Lee's strike into Pennsylvania was repulsed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania despite Pickett's famous charge and other acts of valor. Confederate States of America_sentence_504

Southern newspapers assessed the campaign as "The Confederates did not gain a victory, neither did the enemy." Confederate States of America_sentence_505

September and November left Confederates yielding Chattanooga, Tennessee, the gateway to the lower south. Confederate States of America_sentence_506

For the remainder of the war fighting was restricted inside the South, resulting in a slow but continuous loss of territory. Confederate States of America_sentence_507

In early 1864, the Confederacy still controlled 53% of its population, but it withdrew further to reestablish defensive positions. Confederate States of America_sentence_508

Union offensives continued with Sherman's March to the Sea to take Savannah and Grant's Wilderness Campaign to encircle Richmond and besiege Lee's army at Petersburg. Confederate States of America_sentence_509

In April 1863, the C.S. Congress authorized a uniformed Volunteer Navy, many of whom were British. Confederate States of America_sentence_510

Wilmington and Charleston had more shipping while "blockaded" than before the beginning of hostilities. Confederate States of America_sentence_511

The Confederacy had altogether eighteen commerce-destroying cruisers, which seriously disrupted Federal commerce at sea and increased shipping insurance rates 900%. Confederate States of America_sentence_512

Commodore Tattnall again unsuccessfully attempted to break the Union blockade on the Savannah River in Georgia with an ironclad in 1863. Confederate States of America_sentence_513

Beginning in April 1864 the ironclad CSS Albemarle engaged Union gunboats and sank or cleared them for six months on the Roanoke River North Carolina. Confederate States of America_sentence_514

The Federals closed Mobile Bay by sea-based amphibious assault in August, ending Gulf coast trade east of the Mississippi River. Confederate States of America_sentence_515

In December, the Battle of Nashville ended Confederate operations in the western theater. Confederate States of America_sentence_516

Large numbers of families relocated to safer places, usually remote rural areas, bringing along household slaves if they had any. Confederate States of America_sentence_517

Mary Massey argues these elite exiles introduced an element of defeatism into the southern outlook. Confederate States of America_sentence_518

Collapse: 1865 Confederate States of America_section_24

The first three months of 1865 saw the Federal Carolinas Campaign, devastating a wide swath of the remaining Confederate heartland. Confederate States of America_sentence_519

The "breadbasket of the Confederacy" in the Great Valley of Virginia was occupied by Philip Sheridan. Confederate States of America_sentence_520

The Union Blockade captured Fort Fisher in North Carolina, and Sherman finally took Charleston, South Carolina, by land attack. Confederate States of America_sentence_521

The Confederacy controlled no ports, harbors or navigable rivers. Confederate States of America_sentence_522

Railroads were captured or had ceased operating. Confederate States of America_sentence_523

Its major food producing regions had been war-ravaged or occupied. Confederate States of America_sentence_524

Its administration survived in only three pockets of territory holding only one-third of its population. Confederate States of America_sentence_525

Its armies were defeated or disbanding. Confederate States of America_sentence_526

At the February 1865 Hampton Roads Conference with Lincoln, senior Confederate officials rejected his invitation to restore the Union with compensation for emancipated slaves. Confederate States of America_sentence_527

The three pockets of unoccupied Confederacy were southern Virginia – North Carolina, central Alabama – Florida, and Texas, the latter two areas less from any notion of resistance than from the disinterest of Federal forces to occupy them. Confederate States of America_sentence_528

The Davis policy was independence or nothing, while Lee's army was wracked by disease and desertion, barely holding the trenches defending Jefferson Davis' capital. Confederate States of America_sentence_529

The Confederacy's last remaining blockade-running port, Wilmington, North Carolina, was lost. Confederate States of America_sentence_530

When the Union broke through Lee's lines at Petersburg, Richmond fell immediately. Confederate States of America_sentence_531

Lee surrendered a remnant of 50,000 from the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9, 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_532

"The Surrender" marked the end of the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_533

The CSS Stonewall sailed from Europe to break the Union blockade in March; on making Havana, Cuba, it surrendered. Confederate States of America_sentence_534

Some high officials escaped to Europe, but President Davis was captured May 10; all remaining Confederate land forces surrendered by June 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_535

The U.S. Army took control of the Confederate areas without post-surrender insurgency or guerrilla warfare against them, but peace was subsequently marred by a great deal of local violence, feuding and revenge killings. Confederate States of America_sentence_536

The last confederate military unit, the commerce raider CSS Shenandoah, surrendered on November 6, 1865 in Liverpool. Confederate States of America_sentence_537

Historian Gary Gallagher concluded that the Confederacy capitulated in early 1865 because northern armies crushed "organized southern military resistance". Confederate States of America_sentence_538

The Confederacy's population, soldier and civilian, had suffered material hardship and social disruption. Confederate States of America_sentence_539

They had expended and extracted a profusion of blood and treasure until collapse; "the end had come". Confederate States of America_sentence_540

Jefferson Davis' assessment in 1890 determined, "With the capture of the capital, the dispersion of the civil authorities, the surrender of the armies in the field, and the arrest of the President, the Confederate States of America disappeared ... their history henceforth became a part of the history of the United States." Confederate States of America_sentence_541

Postwar history Confederate States of America_section_25

Amnesty and treason issue Confederate States of America_section_26

Main article: Pardons for ex-Confederates Confederate States of America_sentence_542

When the war ended over 14,000 Confederates petitioned President Johnson for a pardon; he was generous in giving them out. Confederate States of America_sentence_543

He issued a general amnesty to all Confederate participants in the "late Civil War" in 1868. Confederate States of America_sentence_544

Congress passed additional Amnesty Acts in May 1866 with restrictions on office holding, and the Amnesty Act in May 1872 lifting those restrictions. Confederate States of America_sentence_545

There was a great deal of discussion in 1865 about bringing treason trials, especially against Jefferson Davis. Confederate States of America_sentence_546

There was no consensus in President Johnson's cabinet and there were no treason trials against anyone. Confederate States of America_sentence_547

In the case of Davis there was a strong possibility of acquittal which would have been humiliating for the government. Confederate States of America_sentence_548

Davis was indicted for treason but never tried; he was released from prison on bail in May 1867. Confederate States of America_sentence_549

The amnesty of December 25, 1868, by President Johnson eliminated any possibility of Jefferson Davis (or anyone else associated with the Confederacy) standing trial for treason. Confederate States of America_sentence_550

Henry Wirz, the commandant of a notorious prisoner-of-war camp near Andersonville, Georgia, was tried and convicted by a military court, and executed on November 10, 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_551

The charges against him involved conspiracy and cruelty, not treason. Confederate States of America_sentence_552

The U.S. government began a decade-long process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. Confederate States of America_sentence_553

The priorities were: to guarantee that Confederate nationalism and slavery were ended, to ratify and enforce the Thirteenth Amendment which outlawed slavery; the Fourteenth which guaranteed dual U.S. and state citizenship to all native-born residents, regardless of race; and the Fifteenth, which made it illegal to deny the right to vote because of race. Confederate States of America_sentence_554

By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states. Confederate States of America_sentence_555

Federal troops were withdrawn from the South, where conservative white Democrats had already regained political control of state governments, often through extreme violence and fraud to suppress black voting. Confederate States of America_sentence_556

The prewar South had many rich areas; the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure, and exhausted resources. Confederate States of America_sentence_557

Still dependent on an agricultural economy and resisting investment in infrastructure, it remained dominated by the planter elite into the next century. Confederate States of America_sentence_558

Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy, and Democrat-dominated legislatures passed new constitutions and amendments to now exclude most blacks and many poor whites. Confederate States of America_sentence_559

This exclusion and a weakened Republican Party remained the norm until the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Confederate States of America_sentence_560

The Solid South of the early 20th century did not achieve national levels of prosperity until long after World War II. Confederate States of America_sentence_561

Texas v. White Confederate States of America_section_27

In Texas v. White, 74 U.S. Confederate States of America_sentence_562

(1869) the United States Supreme Court ruled – by a 5–3 majority – that Texas had remained a state ever since it first joined the Union, despite claims that it joined the Confederate States of America. Confederate States of America_sentence_563

In this case, the court held that the Constitution did not permit a state to unilaterally secede from the United States. Confederate States of America_sentence_564

Further, that the ordinances of secession, and all the acts of the legislatures within seceding states intended to give effect to such ordinances, were "absolutely null", under the Constitution. Confederate States of America_sentence_565

This case settled the law that applied to all questions regarding state legislation during the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_566

Furthermore, it decided one of the "central constitutional questions" of the Civil War: The Union is perpetual and indestructible, as a matter of constitutional law. Confederate States of America_sentence_567

In declaring that no state could leave the Union, "except through revolution or through consent of the States", it was "explicitly repudiating the position of the Confederate states that the United States was a voluntary compact between sovereign states". Confederate States of America_sentence_568

Theories regarding the Confederacy's demise Confederate States of America_section_28

"Died of states' rights" Confederate States of America_section_29

Historian Frank Lawrence Owsley argued that the Confederacy "died of states' rights". Confederate States of America_sentence_569

The central government was denied requisitioned soldiers and money by governors and state legislatures because they feared that Richmond would encroach on the rights of the states. Confederate States of America_sentence_570

Georgia's governor Joseph Brown warned of a secret conspiracy by Jefferson Davis to destroy states' rights and individual liberty. Confederate States of America_sentence_571

The first conscription act in North America authorizing Davis to draft soldiers was said to be the "essence of military despotism". Confederate States of America_sentence_572

Confederate States of America_unordered_list_5

  • Confederate States of America_item_5_19
  • Confederate States of America_item_5_20

Vice President Alexander H. Stephens feared losing the very form of republican government. Confederate States of America_sentence_573

Allowing President Davis to threaten "arbitrary arrests" to draft hundreds of governor-appointed "bomb-proof" bureaucrats conferred "more power than the English Parliament had ever bestowed on the king. Confederate States of America_sentence_574

History proved the dangers of such unchecked authority." Confederate States of America_sentence_575

The abolishment of draft exemptions for newspaper editors was interpreted as an attempt by the Confederate government to muzzle presses, such as the Raleigh NC Standard, to control elections and to suppress the peace meetings there. Confederate States of America_sentence_576

As Rable concludes, "For Stephens, the essence of patriotism, the heart of the Confederate cause, rested on an unyielding commitment to traditional rights" without considerations of military necessity, pragmatism or compromise. Confederate States of America_sentence_577

In 1863 governor Pendleton Murrah of Texas determined that state troops were required for defense against Plains Indians and Union forces that might attack from Kansas. Confederate States of America_sentence_578

He refused to send his soldiers to the East. Confederate States of America_sentence_579

Governor Zebulon Vance of North Carolina showed intense opposition to conscription, limiting recruitment success. Confederate States of America_sentence_580

Vance's faith in states' rights drove him into repeated, stubborn opposition to the Davis administration. Confederate States of America_sentence_581

Despite political differences within the Confederacy, no national political parties were formed because they were seen as illegitimate. Confederate States of America_sentence_582

"Anti-partyism became an article of political faith." Confederate States of America_sentence_583

Without a two-party system building alternative sets of national leaders, electoral protests tended to be narrowly state-based, "negative, carping and petty". Confederate States of America_sentence_584

The 1863 mid-term elections became mere expressions of futile and frustrated dissatisfaction. Confederate States of America_sentence_585

According to historian David M. Potter, this lack of a functioning two-party system caused "real and direct damage" to the Confederate war effort since it prevented the formulation of any effective alternatives to the conduct of the war by the Davis administration. Confederate States of America_sentence_586

"Died of Davis" Confederate States of America_section_30

The enemies of President Davis proposed that the Confederacy "died of Davis". Confederate States of America_sentence_587

He was unfavorably compared to George Washington by critics such as Edward Alfred Pollard, editor of the most influential newspaper in the Confederacy, the Richmond (Virginia) Examiner. Confederate States of America_sentence_588

E. Merton Coulter summarizes, "The American Revolution had its Washington; the Southern Revolution had its Davis ... one succeeded and the other failed." Confederate States of America_sentence_589

Beyond the early honeymoon period, Davis was never popular. Confederate States of America_sentence_590

He unwittingly caused much internal dissension from early on. Confederate States of America_sentence_591

His ill health and temporary bouts of blindness disabled him for days at a time. Confederate States of America_sentence_592

Coulter says Davis was heroic and his will was indomitable. Confederate States of America_sentence_593

But his "tenacity, determination, and will power" stirred up lasting opposition of enemies Davis could not shake. Confederate States of America_sentence_594

He failed to overcome "petty leaders of the states" who made the term "Confederacy" into a label for tyranny and oppression, denying the "Stars and Bars" from becoming a symbol of larger patriotic service and sacrifice. Confederate States of America_sentence_595

Instead of campaigning to develop nationalism and gain support for his administration, he rarely courted public opinion, assuming an aloofness, "almost like an Adams". Confederate States of America_sentence_596

Escott argues that Davis was unable to mobilize Confederate nationalism in support of his government effectively, and especially failed to appeal to the small farmers who comprised the bulk of the population. Confederate States of America_sentence_597

In addition to the problems caused by states rights, Escott also emphasizes that the widespread opposition to any strong central government combined with the vast difference in wealth between the slave-owning class and the small farmers created insolvable dilemmas when the Confederate survival presupposed a strong central government backed by a united populace. Confederate States of America_sentence_598

The prewar claim that white solidarity was necessary to provide a unified Southern voice in Washington no longer held. Confederate States of America_sentence_599

Davis failed to build a network of supporters who would speak up when he came under criticism, and he repeatedly alienated governors and other state-based leaders by demanding centralized control of the war effort. Confederate States of America_sentence_600

According to Coulter, Davis was not an efficient administrator as he attended to too many details, protected his friends after their failures were obvious, and spent too much time on military affairs versus his civic responsibilities. Confederate States of America_sentence_601

Coulter concludes he was not the ideal leader for the Southern Revolution, but he showed "fewer weaknesses than any other" contemporary character available for the role. Confederate States of America_sentence_602

Robert E. Lee's assessment of Davis as president was, "I knew of none that could have done as well." Confederate States of America_sentence_603

Government and politics Confederate States of America_section_31

Political divisions Confederate States of America_section_32

Main article: List of C.S. states by date of admission to the Confederacy Confederate States of America_sentence_604

Constitution Confederate States of America_section_33

Main article: Constitution of the Confederate States Confederate States of America_sentence_605

The Southern leaders met in Montgomery, Alabama, to write their constitution. Confederate States of America_sentence_606

Much of the Confederate States Constitution replicated the United States Constitution verbatim, but it contained several explicit protections of the institution of slavery including provisions for the recognition and protection of slavery in any territory of the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_607

It maintained the ban on international slave-trading while protecting the existing internal trade of slaves among slaveholding states. Confederate States of America_sentence_608

In certain areas, the Confederate Constitution gave greater powers to the states (or curtailed the powers of the central government more) than the U.S. Constitution of the time did, but in other areas, the states lost rights they had under the U.S. Constitution. Confederate States of America_sentence_609

Although the Confederate Constitution, like the U.S. Constitution, contained a commerce clause, the Confederate version prohibited the central government from using revenues collected in one state for funding internal improvements in another state. Confederate States of America_sentence_610

The Confederate Constitution's equivalent to the U.S. Constitution's general welfare clause prohibited protective tariffs (but allowed tariffs for providing domestic revenue), and spoke of "carry[ing] on the Government of the Confederate States" rather than providing for the "general welfare". Confederate States of America_sentence_611

State legislatures had the power to impeach officials of the Confederate government in some cases. Confederate States of America_sentence_612

On the other hand, the Confederate Constitution contained a Necessary and Proper Clause and a Supremacy Clause that essentially duplicated the respective clauses of the U.S. Constitution. Confederate States of America_sentence_613

The Confederate Constitution also incorporated each of the 12 amendments to the U.S. Constitution that had been ratified up to that point. Confederate States of America_sentence_614

The Confederate Constitution did not specifically include a provision allowing states to secede; the Preamble spoke of each state "acting in its sovereign and independent character" but also of the formation of a "permanent federal government". Confederate States of America_sentence_615

During the debates on drafting the Confederate Constitution, one proposal would have allowed states to secede from the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_616

The proposal was tabled with only the South Carolina delegates voting in favor of considering the motion. Confederate States of America_sentence_617

The Confederate Constitution also explicitly denied States the power to bar slaveholders from other parts of the Confederacy from bringing their slaves into any state of the Confederacy or to interfere with the property rights of slave owners traveling between different parts of the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_618

In contrast with the language of the United States Constitution, the Confederate Constitution overtly asked God's blessing ("... invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God ..."). Confederate States of America_sentence_619

Executive Confederate States of America_section_34

Main article: President of the Confederate States of America Confederate States of America_sentence_620

The Montgomery Convention to establish the Confederacy and its executive met on February 4, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_621

Each state as a sovereignty had one vote, with the same delegation size as it held in the U.S. Congress, and generally 41 to 50 members attended. Confederate States of America_sentence_622

Offices were "provisional", limited to a term not to exceed one year. Confederate States of America_sentence_623

One name was placed in nomination for president, one for vice president. Confederate States of America_sentence_624

Both were elected unanimously, 6–0. Confederate States of America_sentence_625

Jefferson Davis was elected provisional president. Confederate States of America_sentence_626

His U.S. Senate resignation speech greatly impressed with its clear rationale for secession and his pleading for a peaceful departure from the Union to independence. Confederate States of America_sentence_627

Although he had made it known that he wanted to be commander-in-chief of the Confederate armies, when elected, he assumed the office of Provisional President. Confederate States of America_sentence_628

Three candidates for provisional Vice President were under consideration the night before the February 9 election. Confederate States of America_sentence_629

All were from Georgia, and the various delegations meeting in different places determined two would not do, so Alexander H. Stephens was elected unanimously provisional Vice President, though with some privately held reservations. Confederate States of America_sentence_630

Stephens was inaugurated February 11, Davis February 18. Confederate States of America_sentence_631

Davis and Stephens were elected president and vice president, unopposed on November 6, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_632

They were inaugurated on February 22, 1862. Confederate States of America_sentence_633

Historian E. M. Coulter observed, "No president of the U.S. ever had a more difficult task." Confederate States of America_sentence_634

Washington was inaugurated in peacetime. Confederate States of America_sentence_635

Lincoln inherited an established government of long standing. Confederate States of America_sentence_636

The creation of the Confederacy was accomplished by men who saw themselves as fundamentally conservative. Confederate States of America_sentence_637

Although they referred to their "Revolution", it was in their eyes more a counter-revolution against changes away from their understanding of U.S. founding documents. Confederate States of America_sentence_638

In Davis' inauguration speech, he explained the Confederacy was not a French-like revolution, but a transfer of rule. Confederate States of America_sentence_639

The Montgomery Convention had assumed all the laws of the United States until superseded by the Confederate Congress. Confederate States of America_sentence_640

The Permanent Constitution provided for a President of the Confederate States of America, elected to serve a six-year term but without the possibility of re-election. Confederate States of America_sentence_641

Unlike the United States Constitution, the Confederate Constitution gave the president the ability to subject a bill to a line item veto, a power also held by some state governors. Confederate States of America_sentence_642

The Confederate Congress could overturn either the general or the line item vetoes with the same two-thirds votes required in the U.S. Confederate States of America_sentence_643 Congress. Confederate States of America_sentence_644

In addition, appropriations not specifically requested by the executive branch required passage by a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress. Confederate States of America_sentence_645

The only person to serve as president was Jefferson Davis, as the Confederacy was defeated before the completion of his term. Confederate States of America_sentence_646

Administration and cabinet Confederate States of America_section_35

Legislative Confederate States of America_section_36

Main articles: Provisional Confederate States Congress and Congress of the Confederate States Confederate States of America_sentence_647

The only two "formal, national, functioning, civilian administrative bodies" in the Civil War South were the Jefferson Davis administration and the Confederate Congresses. Confederate States of America_sentence_648

The Confederacy was begun by the Provisional Congress in Convention at Montgomery, Alabama on February 28, 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_649

The Provisional Confederate Congress was a unicameral assembly, each state received one vote. Confederate States of America_sentence_650

The Permanent Confederate Congress was elected and began its first session February 18, 1862. Confederate States of America_sentence_651

The Permanent Congress for the Confederacy followed the United States forms with a bicameral legislature. Confederate States of America_sentence_652

The Senate had two per state, twenty-six Senators. Confederate States of America_sentence_653

The House numbered 106 representatives apportioned by free and slave populations within each state. Confederate States of America_sentence_654

Two Congresses sat in six sessions until March 18, 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_655

The political influences of the civilian, soldier vote and appointed representatives reflected divisions of political geography of a diverse South. Confederate States of America_sentence_656

These in turn changed over time relative to Union occupation and disruption, the war impact on local economy, and the course of the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_657

Without political parties, key candidate identification related to adopting secession before or after Lincoln's call for volunteers to retake Federal property. Confederate States of America_sentence_658

Previous party affiliation played a part in voter selection, predominantly secessionist Democrat or unionist Whig. Confederate States of America_sentence_659

The absence of political parties made individual roll call voting all the more important, as the Confederate "freedom of roll-call voting [was] unprecedented in American legislative history. Confederate States of America_sentence_660

Key issues throughout the life of the Confederacy related to (1) suspension of habeas corpus, (2) military concerns such as control of state militia, conscription and exemption, (3) economic and fiscal policy including impressment of slaves, goods and scorched earth, and (4) support of the Jefferson Davis administration in its foreign affairs and negotiating peace. Confederate States of America_sentence_661

Judicial Confederate States of America_section_37

Confederate States of America_unordered_list_6

  • Confederate States of America_item_6_21
  • Confederate States of America_item_6_22
  • Confederate States of America_item_6_23
  • Confederate States of America_item_6_24

The Confederate Constitution outlined a judicial branch of the government, but the ongoing war and resistance from states-rights advocates, particularly on the question of whether it would have appellate jurisdiction over the state courts, prevented the creation or seating of the "Supreme Court of the Confederate States;" the state courts generally continued to operate as they had done, simply recognizing the Confederate States as the national government. Confederate States of America_sentence_662

Confederate district courts were authorized by Article III, Section 1, of the Confederate Constitution, and President Davis appointed judges within the individual states of the Confederate States of America. Confederate States of America_sentence_663

In many cases, the same US Federal District Judges were appointed as Confederate States District Judges. Confederate States of America_sentence_664

Confederate district courts began reopening in early 1861, handling many of the same type cases as had been done before. Confederate States of America_sentence_665

Prize cases, in which Union ships were captured by the Confederate Navy or raiders and sold through court proceedings, were heard until the blockade of southern ports made this impossible. Confederate States of America_sentence_666

After a Sequestration Act was passed by the Confederate Congress, the Confederate district courts heard many cases in which enemy aliens (typically Northern absentee landlords owning property in the South) had their property sequestered (seized) by Confederate Receivers. Confederate States of America_sentence_667

When the matter came before the Confederate court, the property owner could not appear because he was unable to travel across the front lines between Union and Confederate forces. Confederate States of America_sentence_668

Thus, the District Attorney won the case by default, the property was typically sold, and the money used to further the Southern war effort. Confederate States of America_sentence_669

Eventually, because there was no Confederate Supreme Court, sharp attorneys like South Carolina's Edward McCrady began filing appeals. Confederate States of America_sentence_670

This prevented their clients' property from being sold until a supreme court could be constituted to hear the appeal, which never occurred. Confederate States of America_sentence_671

Where Federal troops gained control over parts of the Confederacy and re-established civilian government, US district courts sometimes resumed jurisdiction. Confederate States of America_sentence_672

Supreme Court – not established. Confederate States of America_sentence_673

District Courts – judges Confederate States of America_sentence_674

Post Office Confederate States of America_section_38

Further information: Postage stamps and postal history of the Confederate States Confederate States of America_sentence_675

Confederate States of America_unordered_list_7

  • Confederate States of America_item_7_25
  • Confederate States of America_item_7_26
  • Confederate States of America_item_7_27
  • Confederate States of America_item_7_28

When the Confederacy was formed and its seceding states broke from the Union, it was at once confronted with the arduous task of providing its citizens with a mail delivery system, and, in the midst of the American Civil War, the newly formed Confederacy created and established the Confederate Post Office. Confederate States of America_sentence_676

One of the first undertakings in establishing the Post Office was the appointment of John H. Reagan to the position of Postmaster General, by Jefferson Davis in 1861, making him the first Postmaster General of the Confederate Post Office as well as a member of Davis' presidential cabinet. Confederate States of America_sentence_677

Through Reagan's resourcefulness and remarkable industry, he had his department assembled, organized and in operation before the other Presidential cabinet members had their departments fully operational. Confederate States of America_sentence_678

When the war began, the US Post Office still delivered mail from the secessionist states for a brief period of time. Confederate States of America_sentence_679

Mail that was postmarked after the date of a state's admission into the Confederacy through May 31, 1861, and bearing US postage was still delivered. Confederate States of America_sentence_680

After this time, private express companies still managed to carry some of the mail across enemy lines. Confederate States of America_sentence_681

Later, mail that crossed lines had to be sent by 'Flag of Truce' and was allowed to pass at only two specific points. Confederate States of America_sentence_682

Mail sent from the South to the North states was received, opened and inspected at Fortress Monroe on the Virginia coast before being passed on into the U.S. mail stream. Confederate States of America_sentence_683

Mail sent from the North to the South passed at City Point, also in Virginia, where it was also inspected before being sent on. Confederate States of America_sentence_684

With the chaos of the war, a working postal system was more important than ever for the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_685

The Civil War had divided family members and friends and consequently letter writing increased dramatically across the entire divided nation, especially to and from the men who were away serving in an army. Confederate States of America_sentence_686

Mail delivery was also important for the Confederacy for a myriad of business and military reasons. Confederate States of America_sentence_687

Because of the Union blockade, basic supplies were always in demand and so getting mailed correspondence out of the country to suppliers was imperative to the successful operation of the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_688

Volumes of material have been written about the Blockade runners who evaded Union ships on blockade patrol, usually at night, and who moved cargo and mail in and out of the Confederate States throughout the course of the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_689

Of particular interest to students and historians of the American Civil War is Prisoner of War mail and Blockade mail as these items were often involved with a variety of military and other war time activities. Confederate States of America_sentence_690

The postal history of the Confederacy along with has helped historians document the various people, places and events that were involved in the American Civil War as it unfolded. Confederate States of America_sentence_691

Civil liberties Confederate States of America_section_39

The Confederacy actively used the army to arrest people suspected of loyalty to the United States. Confederate States of America_sentence_692

Historian Mark Neely found 4,108 names of men arrested and estimated a much larger total. Confederate States of America_sentence_693

The Confederacy arrested pro-Union civilians in the South at about the same rate as the Union arrested pro-Confederate civilians in the North. Confederate States of America_sentence_694

Neely argues: Confederate States of America_sentence_695

Economy Confederate States of America_section_40

Main article: Economy of the Confederate States of America Confederate States of America_sentence_696

Slaves Confederate States of America_section_41

Across the South, widespread rumors alarmed the whites by predicting the slaves were planning some sort of insurrection. Confederate States of America_sentence_697

Patrols were stepped up. Confederate States of America_sentence_698

The slaves did become increasingly independent, and resistant to punishment, but historians agree there were no insurrections. Confederate States of America_sentence_699

In the invaded areas, insubordination was more the norm than was loyalty to the old master; Bell Wiley says, "It was not disloyalty, but the lure of freedom." Confederate States of America_sentence_700

Many slaves became spies for the North, and large numbers ran away to federal lines. Confederate States of America_sentence_701

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, an executive order of the U.S. government on January 1, 1863, changed the legal status of three million slaves in designated areas of the Confederacy from "slave" to "free". Confederate States of America_sentence_702

The long-term effect was that the Confederacy could not preserve the institution of slavery, and lost the use of the core element of its plantation labor force. Confederate States of America_sentence_703

Slaves were legally freed by the Proclamation, and became free by escaping to federal lines, or by advances of federal troops. Confederate States of America_sentence_704

Over 200,000 freed slaves were hired by the federal army as teamsters, cooks, launderers and laborers, and eventually as soldiers. Confederate States of America_sentence_705

Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their slaves as far as possible out of reach of the Union army. Confederate States of America_sentence_706

By "Juneteenth" (June 19, 1865, in Texas), the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and had liberated all its slaves. Confederate States of America_sentence_707

The former slaves never received compensation and, unlike British policy, neither did the owners. Confederate States of America_sentence_708

Political economy Confederate States of America_section_42

Most whites were subsistence farmers who traded their surpluses locally. Confederate States of America_sentence_709

The plantations of the South, with white ownership and an enslaved labor force, produced substantial wealth from cash crops. Confederate States of America_sentence_710

It supplied two-thirds of the world's cotton, which was in high demand for textiles, along with tobacco, sugar, and naval stores (such as turpentine). Confederate States of America_sentence_711

These raw materials were exported to factories in Europe and the Northeast. Confederate States of America_sentence_712

Planters reinvested their profits in more slaves and fresh land, as cotton and tobacco depleted the soil. Confederate States of America_sentence_713

There was little manufacturing or mining; shipping was controlled by non-southerners. Confederate States of America_sentence_714

The plantations that enslaved over three million black people were the principal source of wealth. Confederate States of America_sentence_715

Most were concentrated in "black belt" plantation areas (because few white families in the poor regions owned slaves). Confederate States of America_sentence_716

For decades, there had been widespread fear of slave revolts. Confederate States of America_sentence_717

During the war, extra men were assigned to "home guard" patrol duty and governors sought to keep militia units at home for protection. Confederate States of America_sentence_718

Historian William Barney reports, "no major slave revolts erupted during the Civil War." Confederate States of America_sentence_719

Nevertheless, slaves took the opportunity to enlarge their sphere of independence, and when union forces were nearby, many ran off to join them. Confederate States of America_sentence_720

Slave labor was applied in industry in a limited way in the Upper South and in a few port cities. Confederate States of America_sentence_721

One reason for the regional lag in industrial development was top-heavy income distribution. Confederate States of America_sentence_722

Mass production requires mass markets, and slaves living in small cabins, using self-made tools and outfitted with one suit of work clothes each year of inferior fabric, did not generate consumer demand to sustain local manufactures of any description in the same way as did a mechanized family farm of free labor in the North. Confederate States of America_sentence_723

The Southern economy was "pre-capitalist" in that slaves were put to work in the largest revenue-producing enterprises, not free labor market. Confederate States of America_sentence_724

That labor system as practiced in the American South encompassed paternalism, whether abusive or indulgent, and that meant labor management considerations apart from productivity. Confederate States of America_sentence_725

Approximately 85% of both the North and South white populations lived on family farms, both regions were predominantly agricultural, and mid-century industry in both was mostly domestic. Confederate States of America_sentence_726

But the Southern economy was pre-capitalist in its overwhelming reliance on the agriculture of cash crops to produce wealth, while the great majority of farmers fed themselves and supplied a small local market. Confederate States of America_sentence_727

Southern cities and industries grew faster than ever before, but the thrust of the rest of the country's exponential growth elsewhere was toward urban industrial development along transportation systems of canals and railroads. Confederate States of America_sentence_728

The South was following the dominant currents of the American economic mainstream, but at a "great distance" as it lagged in the all-weather modes of transportation that brought cheaper, speedier freight shipment and forged new, expanding inter-regional markets. Confederate States of America_sentence_729

A third count of southern pre-capitalist economy relates to the cultural setting. Confederate States of America_sentence_730

The South and southerners did not adopt a work ethic, nor the habits of thrift that marked the rest of the country. Confederate States of America_sentence_731

It had access to the tools of capitalism, but it did not adopt its culture. Confederate States of America_sentence_732

The Southern Cause as a national economy in the Confederacy was grounded in "slavery and race, planters and patricians, plain folk and folk culture, cotton and plantations". Confederate States of America_sentence_733

National production Confederate States of America_section_43

The Confederacy started its existence as an agrarian economy with exports, to a world market, of cotton, and, to a lesser extent, tobacco and sugarcane. Confederate States of America_sentence_734

Local food production included grains, hogs, cattle, and gardens. Confederate States of America_sentence_735

The cash came from exports but the Southern people spontaneously stopped exports in early 1861 to hasten the impact of "King Cotton". Confederate States of America_sentence_736

When the blockade was announced, commercial shipping practically ended (the ships could not get insurance), and only a trickle of supplies came via blockade runners. Confederate States of America_sentence_737

The cutoff of exports was an economic disaster for the South, rendering useless its most valuable properties, its plantations and their enslaved workers. Confederate States of America_sentence_738

Many planters kept growing cotton, which piled up everywhere, but most turned to food production. Confederate States of America_sentence_739

All across the region, the lack of repair and maintenance wasted away the physical assets. Confederate States of America_sentence_740

The eleven states had produced $155 million in manufactured goods in 1860, chiefly from local grist-mills, and lumber, processed tobacco, cotton goods and naval stores such as turpentine. Confederate States of America_sentence_741

The main industrial areas were border cities such as Baltimore, Wheeling, Louisville and St. Louis, that were never under Confederate control. Confederate States of America_sentence_742

The government did set up munitions factories in the Deep South. Confederate States of America_sentence_743

Combined with captured munitions and those coming via blockade runners, the armies were kept minimally supplied with weapons. Confederate States of America_sentence_744

The soldiers suffered from reduced rations, lack of medicines, and the growing shortages of uniforms, shoes and boots. Confederate States of America_sentence_745

Shortages were much worse for civilians, and the prices of necessities steadily rose. Confederate States of America_sentence_746

The Confederacy adopted a tariff or tax on imports of 15%, and imposed it on all imports from other countries, including the United States. Confederate States of America_sentence_747

The tariff mattered little; the Union blockade minimized commercial traffic through the Confederacy's ports, and very few people paid taxes on goods smuggled from the North. Confederate States of America_sentence_748

The Confederate government in its entire history collected only $3.5 million in tariff revenue. Confederate States of America_sentence_749

The lack of adequate financial resources led the Confederacy to finance the war through printing money, which led to high inflation. Confederate States of America_sentence_750

The Confederacy underwent an economic revolution by centralization and standardization, but it was too little too late as its economy was systematically strangled by blockade and raids. Confederate States of America_sentence_751

Transportation systems Confederate States of America_section_44

Main article: Confederate railroads in the American Civil War Confederate States of America_sentence_752

In peacetime, the South's extensive and connected systems of navigable rivers and coastal access allowed for cheap and easy transportation of agricultural products. Confederate States of America_sentence_753

The railroad system in the South had developed as a supplement to the navigable rivers to enhance the all-weather shipment of cash crops to market. Confederate States of America_sentence_754

Railroads tied plantation areas to the nearest river or seaport and so made supply more dependable, lowered costs and increased profits. Confederate States of America_sentence_755

In the event of invasion, the vast geography of the Confederacy made logistics difficult for the Union. Confederate States of America_sentence_756

Wherever Union armies invaded, they assigned many of their soldiers to garrison captured areas and to protect rail lines. Confederate States of America_sentence_757

At the onset of the Civil War the South had a rail network disjointed and plagued by changes in track gauge as well as lack of interchange. Confederate States of America_sentence_758

Locomotives and freight cars had fixed axles and could not use tracks of different gauges (widths). Confederate States of America_sentence_759

Railroads of different gauges leading to the same city required all freight to be off-loaded onto wagons for transport to the connecting railroad station, where it had to await freight cars and a locomotive before proceeding. Confederate States of America_sentence_760

Centers requiring off-loading included Vicksburg, New Orleans, Montgomery, Wilmington and Richmond. Confederate States of America_sentence_761

In addition, most rail lines led from coastal or river ports to inland cities, with few lateral railroads. Confederate States of America_sentence_762

Because of this design limitation, the relatively primitive railroads of the Confederacy were unable to overcome the Union naval blockade of the South's crucial intra-coastal and river routes. Confederate States of America_sentence_763

The Confederacy had no plan to expand, protect or encourage its railroads. Confederate States of America_sentence_764

Southerners' refusal to export the cotton crop in 1861 left railroads bereft of their main source of income. Confederate States of America_sentence_765

Many lines had to lay off employees; many critical skilled technicians and engineers were permanently lost to military service. Confederate States of America_sentence_766

In the early years of the war the Confederate government had a hands-off approach to the railroads. Confederate States of America_sentence_767

Only in mid-1863 did the Confederate government initiate a national policy, and it was confined solely to aiding the war effort. Confederate States of America_sentence_768

Railroads came under the de facto control of the military. Confederate States of America_sentence_769

In contrast, the U.S. Congress had authorized military administration of Union-controlled railroad and telegraph systems in January 1862, imposed a standard gauge, and built railroads into the South using that gauge. Confederate States of America_sentence_770

Confederate armies successfully reoccupying territory could not be resupplied directly by rail as they advanced. Confederate States of America_sentence_771

The C.S. Congress formally authorized military administration of railroads in February 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_772

In the last year before the end of the war, the Confederate railroad system stood permanently on the verge of collapse. Confederate States of America_sentence_773

There was no new equipment and raids on both sides systematically destroyed key bridges, as well as locomotives and freight cars. Confederate States of America_sentence_774

Spare parts were cannibalized; feeder lines were torn up to get replacement rails for trunk lines, and rolling stock wore out through heavy use. Confederate States of America_sentence_775

Horses and mules Confederate States of America_section_45

The Confederate army experienced a persistent shortage of horses and mules, and requisitioned them with dubious promissory notes given to local farmers and breeders. Confederate States of America_sentence_776

Union forces paid in real money and found ready sellers in the South. Confederate States of America_sentence_777

Both armies needed horses for cavalry and for artillery. Confederate States of America_sentence_778

Mules pulled the wagons. Confederate States of America_sentence_779

The supply was undermined by an unprecedented epidemic of glanders, a fatal disease that baffled veterinarians. Confederate States of America_sentence_780

After 1863 the invading Union forces had a policy of shooting all the local horses and mules that they did not need, in order to keep them out of Confederate hands. Confederate States of America_sentence_781

The Confederate armies and farmers experienced a growing shortage of horses and mules, which hurt the Southern economy and the war effort. Confederate States of America_sentence_782

The South lost half of its 2.5 million horses and mules; many farmers ended the war with none left. Confederate States of America_sentence_783

Army horses were used up by hard work, malnourishment, disease and battle wounds; they had a life expectancy of about seven months. Confederate States of America_sentence_784

Financial instruments Confederate States of America_section_46

Both the individual Confederate states and later the Confederate government printed Confederate States of America dollars as paper currency in various denominations, with a total face value of $1.5 billion. Confederate States of America_sentence_785

Much of it was signed by Treasurer Edward C. Elmore. Confederate States of America_sentence_786

Inflation became rampant as the paper money depreciated and eventually became worthless. Confederate States of America_sentence_787

The state governments and some localities printed their own paper money, adding to the runaway inflation. Confederate States of America_sentence_788

Many bills still exist, although in recent years counterfeit copies have proliferated. Confederate States of America_sentence_789

The Confederate government initially wanted to finance its war mostly through tariffs on imports, export taxes, and voluntary donations of gold. Confederate States of America_sentence_790

After the spontaneous imposition of an embargo on cotton sales to Europe in 1861, these sources of revenue dried up and the Confederacy increasingly turned to issuing debt and printing money to pay for war expenses. Confederate States of America_sentence_791

The Confederate States politicians were worried about angering the general population with hard taxes. Confederate States of America_sentence_792

A tax increase might disillusion many Southerners, so the Confederacy resorted to printing more money. Confederate States of America_sentence_793

As a result, inflation increased and remained a problem for the southern states throughout the rest of the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_794

By April 1863, for example, the cost of flour in Richmond had risen to $100 a barrel and housewives were rioting. Confederate States of America_sentence_795

The Confederate government took over the three national mints in its territory: the Charlotte Mint in North Carolina, the Dahlonega Mint in Georgia, and the New Orleans Mint in Louisiana. Confederate States of America_sentence_796

During 1861 all of these facilities produced small amounts of gold coinage, and the latter half dollars as well. Confederate States of America_sentence_797

Since the mints used the current dies on hand, all appear to be U.S. issues. Confederate States of America_sentence_798

However, by comparing slight differences in the dies specialists can distinguish 1861-O half dollars that were minted either under the authority of the U.S. government, the State of Louisiana, or finally the Confederate States. Confederate States of America_sentence_799

Unlike the gold coins, this issue was produced in significant numbers (over 2.5 million) and is inexpensive in lower grades, although fakes have been made for sale to the public. Confederate States of America_sentence_800

However, before the New Orleans Mint ceased operation in May, 1861, the Confederate government used its own reverse design to strike four half dollars. Confederate States of America_sentence_801

This made one of the great rarities of American numismatics. Confederate States of America_sentence_802

A lack of silver and gold precluded further coinage. Confederate States of America_sentence_803

The Confederacy apparently also experimented with issuing one cent coins, although only 12 were produced by a jeweler in Philadelphia, who was afraid to send them to the South. Confederate States of America_sentence_804

Like the half dollars, copies were later made as souvenirs. Confederate States of America_sentence_805

US coinage was hoarded and did not have any general circulation. Confederate States of America_sentence_806

U.S. coinage was admitted as legal tender up to $10, as were British sovereigns, French Napoleons and Spanish and Mexican doubloons at a fixed rate of exchange. Confederate States of America_sentence_807

Confederate money was paper and postage stamps. Confederate States of America_sentence_808

Food shortages and riots Confederate States of America_section_47

Main article: Southern bread riots Confederate States of America_sentence_809

By mid-1861, the Union naval blockade virtually shut down the export of cotton and the import of manufactured goods. Confederate States of America_sentence_810

Food that formerly came overland was cut off. Confederate States of America_sentence_811

Women had charge of making do. Confederate States of America_sentence_812

They cut back on purchases, brought out old spinning wheels and enlarged their gardens with flax and peas to provide clothing and food. Confederate States of America_sentence_813

They used ersatz substitutes when possible, but there was no real coffee and it was hard to develop a taste for the okra or chicory substitutes used. Confederate States of America_sentence_814

The households were severely hurt by inflation in the cost of everyday items like flour and the shortages of food, fodder for the animals, and medical supplies for the wounded. Confederate States of America_sentence_815

State governments pleaded with planters to grow less cotton and more food. Confederate States of America_sentence_816

Most refused. Confederate States of America_sentence_817

When cotton prices soared in Europe, expectations were that Europe would soon intervene to break the blockade and make them rich. Confederate States of America_sentence_818

The myth of omnipotent "King Cotton" died hard. Confederate States of America_sentence_819

The Georgia legislature imposed cotton quotas, making it a crime to grow an excess. Confederate States of America_sentence_820

But food shortages only worsened, especially in the towns. Confederate States of America_sentence_821

The overall decline in food supplies, made worse by the inadequate transportation system, led to serious shortages and high prices in urban areas. Confederate States of America_sentence_822

When bacon reached a dollar a pound in 1863, the poor women of Richmond, Atlanta and many other cities began to riot; they broke into shops and warehouses to seize food. Confederate States of America_sentence_823

The women expressed their anger at ineffective state relief efforts, speculators, and merchants. Confederate States of America_sentence_824

As wives and widows of soldiers they were hurt by the inadequate welfare system. Confederate States of America_sentence_825

Devastation by 1865 Confederate States of America_section_48

By the end of the war deterioration of the Southern infrastructure was widespread. Confederate States of America_sentence_826

The number of civilian deaths is unknown. Confederate States of America_sentence_827

Every Confederate state was affected, but most of the war was fought in Virginia and Tennessee, while Texas and Florida saw the least military action. Confederate States of America_sentence_828

Much of the damage was caused by direct military action, but most was caused by lack of repairs and upkeep, and by deliberately using up resources. Confederate States of America_sentence_829

Historians have recently estimated how much of the devastation was caused by military action. Confederate States of America_sentence_830

Paul Paskoff calculates that Union military operations were conducted in 56% of 645 counties in nine Confederate states (excluding Texas and Florida). Confederate States of America_sentence_831

These counties contained 63% of the 1860 white population and 64% of the slaves. Confederate States of America_sentence_832

By the time the fighting took place, undoubtedly some people had fled to safer areas, so the exact population exposed to war is unknown. Confederate States of America_sentence_833

Confederate States of America_unordered_list_8

  • Confederate States of America_item_8_29
  • Confederate States of America_item_8_30
  • Confederate States of America_item_8_31
  • Confederate States of America_item_8_32

The eleven Confederate States in the 1860 United States Census had 297 towns and cities with 835,000 people; of these 162 with 681,000 people were at one point occupied by Union forces. Confederate States of America_sentence_834

Eleven were destroyed or severely damaged by war action, including Atlanta (with an 1860 population of 9,600), Charleston, Columbia, and Richmond (with prewar populations of 40,500, 8,100, and 37,900, respectively); the eleven contained 115,900 people in the 1860 census, or 14% of the urban South. Confederate States of America_sentence_835

Historians have not estimated what their actual population was when Union forces arrived. Confederate States of America_sentence_836

The number of people (as of 1860) who lived in the destroyed towns represented just over 1% of the Confederacy's 1860 population. Confederate States of America_sentence_837

In addition, 45 court houses were burned (out of 830). Confederate States of America_sentence_838

The South's agriculture was not highly mechanized. Confederate States of America_sentence_839

The value of farm implements and machinery in the 1860 Census was $81 million; by 1870, there was 40% less, worth just $48 million. Confederate States of America_sentence_840

Many old tools had broken through heavy use; new tools were rarely available; even repairs were difficult. Confederate States of America_sentence_841

The economic losses affected everyone. Confederate States of America_sentence_842

Banks and insurance companies were mostly bankrupt. Confederate States of America_sentence_843

Confederate currency and bonds were worthless. Confederate States of America_sentence_844

The billions of dollars invested in slaves vanished. Confederate States of America_sentence_845

Most debts were also left behind. Confederate States of America_sentence_846

Most farms were intact but most had lost their horses, mules and cattle; fences and barns were in disrepair. Confederate States of America_sentence_847

Paskoff shows the loss of farm infrastructure was about the same whether or not fighting took place nearby. Confederate States of America_sentence_848

The loss of infrastructure and productive capacity meant that rural widows throughout the region faced not only the absence of able-bodied men, but a depleted stock of material resources that they could manage and operate themselves. Confederate States of America_sentence_849

During four years of warfare, disruption, and blockades, the South used up about half its capital stock. Confederate States of America_sentence_850

The North, by contrast, absorbed its material losses so effortlessly that it appeared richer at the end of the war than at the beginning. Confederate States of America_sentence_851

The rebuilding took years and was hindered by the low price of cotton after the war. Confederate States of America_sentence_852

Outside investment was essential, especially in railroads. Confederate States of America_sentence_853

One historian has summarized the collapse of the transportation infrastructure needed for economic recovery: Confederate States of America_sentence_854

Effect on women and families Confederate States of America_section_49

About 250,000 men never came home, some 30 percent of all white men aged 18 to 40 (as counted in 1860). Confederate States of America_sentence_855

Widows who were overwhelmed often abandoned their farms and merged into the households of relatives, or even became refugees living in camps with high rates of disease and death. Confederate States of America_sentence_856

In the Old South, being an "old maid" was something of an embarrassment to the woman and her family, but after the war, it became almost a norm. Confederate States of America_sentence_857

Some women welcomed the freedom of not having to marry. Confederate States of America_sentence_858

Divorce, while never fully accepted, became more common. Confederate States of America_sentence_859

The concept of the "New Woman" emerged – she was self-sufficient and independent, and stood in sharp contrast to the "Southern Belle" of antebellum lore. Confederate States of America_sentence_860

National flags Confederate States of America_section_50

Main article: Flags of the Confederate States of America Confederate States of America_sentence_861

Confederate States of America_unordered_list_9

  • Flags of the Confederate States of AmericaConfederate States of America_item_9_33
  • Confederate States of America_item_9_34
  • Confederate States of America_item_9_35
  • Confederate States of America_item_9_36
  • Confederate States of America_item_9_37
  • Confederate States of America_item_9_38
  • Confederate States of America_item_9_39
  • Confederate States of America_item_9_40

The first official flag of the Confederate States of America – called the "Stars and Bars" – originally had seven stars, representing the first seven states that initially formed the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_862

As more states joined, more stars were added, until the total was 13 (two stars were added for the divided states of Kentucky and Missouri). Confederate States of America_sentence_863

During the First Battle of Bull Run, (First Manassas) it sometimes proved difficult to distinguish the Stars and Bars from the Union flag. Confederate States of America_sentence_864

To rectify the situation, a separate "Battle Flag" was designed for use by troops in the field. Confederate States of America_sentence_865

Also known as the "Southern Cross", many variations sprang from the original square configuration. Confederate States of America_sentence_866

Although it was never officially adopted by the Confederate government, the popularity of the Southern Cross among both soldiers and the civilian population was a primary reason why it was made the main color feature when a new national flag was adopted in 1863. Confederate States of America_sentence_867

This new standard – known as the "Stainless Banner" – consisted of a lengthened white field area with a Battle Flag canton. Confederate States of America_sentence_868

This flag too had its problems when used in military operations as, on a windless day, it could easily be mistaken for a flag of truce or surrender. Confederate States of America_sentence_869

Thus, in 1865, a modified version of the Stainless Banner was adopted. Confederate States of America_sentence_870

This final national flag of the Confederacy kept the Battle Flag canton, but shortened the white field and added a vertical red bar to the fly end. Confederate States of America_sentence_871

Because of its depiction in the 20th-century and popular media, many people consider the rectangular battle flag with the dark blue bars as being synonymous with "the Confederate Flag", but this flag was never adopted as a Confederate national flag. Confederate States of America_sentence_872

(A version of it was used, however, by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest, during the Civil War.) Confederate States of America_sentence_873

The "Confederate Flag" has a color scheme similar to that of the most common Battle Flag design, but is rectangular, not square. Confederate States of America_sentence_874

The "Confederate Flag" is a highly recognizable symbol of the South in the United States today, and continues to be a controversial icon. Confederate States of America_sentence_875

Geography Confederate States of America_section_51

Region and climate Confederate States of America_section_52

The Confederate States of America claimed a total of 2,919 miles (4,698 km) of coastline, thus a large part of its territory lay on the seacoast with level and often sandy or marshy ground. Confederate States of America_sentence_876

Most of the interior portion consisted of arable farmland, though much was also hilly and mountainous, and the far western territories were deserts. Confederate States of America_sentence_877

The lower reaches of the Mississippi River bisected the country, with the western half often referred to as the Trans-Mississippi. Confederate States of America_sentence_878

The highest point (excluding Arizona and New Mexico) was Guadalupe Peak in Texas at 8,750 feet (2,670 m). Confederate States of America_sentence_879

Climate Confederate States of America_sentence_880

Much of the area claimed by the Confederate States of America had a humid subtropical climate with mild winters and long, hot, humid summers. Confederate States of America_sentence_881

The climate and terrain varied from vast swamps (such as those in Florida and Louisiana) to semi-arid steppes and arid deserts west of longitude 100 degrees west. Confederate States of America_sentence_882

The subtropical climate made winters mild but allowed infectious diseases to flourish. Confederate States of America_sentence_883

Consequently, on both sides more soldiers died from disease than were killed in combat, a fact hardly atypical of pre-World War I conflicts. Confederate States of America_sentence_884

Demographics Confederate States of America_section_53

Population Confederate States of America_section_54

The United States Census of 1860 gives a picture of the overall 1860 population for the areas that had joined the Confederacy. Confederate States of America_sentence_885

Note that the population numbers exclude non-assimilated Indian tribes. Confederate States of America_sentence_886

Confederate States of America_table_general_1

StateConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_0 Total

populationConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_1


number of slavesConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_2


number of householdsConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_3


free populationConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_4

Total number

slaveholdersConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_5

% of Free

population owning slavesConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_6

% of Free

families owning slavesConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_7


as % of populationConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_8


free coloredConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_0_9

AlabamaConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_1_0 964,201Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_1 435,080Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_2 96,603Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_3 529,121Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_4 33,730Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_5 6%Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_6 35%Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_7 45%Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_8 2,690Confederate States of America_cell_1_1_9
ArkansasConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_2_0 435,450Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_1 111,115Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_2 57,244Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_3 324,335Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_4 11,481Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_5 4%Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_6 20%Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_7 26%Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_8 144Confederate States of America_cell_1_2_9
FloridaConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_3_0 140,424Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_1 61,745Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_2 15,090Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_3 78,679Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_4 5,152Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_5 7%Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_6 34%Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_7 44%Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_8 932Confederate States of America_cell_1_3_9
GeorgiaConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_4_0 1,057,286Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_1 462,198Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_2 109,919Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_3 595,088Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_4 41,084Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_5 7%Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_6 37%Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_7 44%Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_8 3,500Confederate States of America_cell_1_4_9
LouisianaConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_5_0 708,002Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_1 331,726Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_2 74,725Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_3 376,276Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_4 22,033Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_5 6%Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_6 29%Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_7 47%Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_8 18,647Confederate States of America_cell_1_5_9
MississippiConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_6_0 791,305Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_1 436,631Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_2 63,015Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_3 354,674Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_4 30,943Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_5 9%Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_6 49%Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_7 55%Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_8 773Confederate States of America_cell_1_6_9
North CarolinaConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_7_0 992,622Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_1 331,059Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_2 125,090Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_3 661,563Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_4 34,658Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_5 5%Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_6 28%Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_7 33%Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_8 30,463Confederate States of America_cell_1_7_9
South CarolinaConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_8_0 703,708Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_1 402,406Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_2 58,642Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_3 301,302Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_4 26,701Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_5 9%Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_6 46%Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_7 57%Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_8 9,914Confederate States of America_cell_1_8_9
TennesseeConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_9_0 1,109,801Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_1 275,719Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_2 149,335Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_3 834,082Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_4 36,844Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_5 4%Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_6 25%Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_7 25%Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_8 7,300Confederate States of America_cell_1_9_9
TexasConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_10_0 604,215Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_1 182,566Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_2 76,781Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_3 421,649Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_4 21,878Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_5 5%Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_6 28%Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_7 30%Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_8 355Confederate States of America_cell_1_10_9
VirginiaConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_11_0 1,596,318Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_1 490,865Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_2 201,523Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_3 1,105,453Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_4 52,128Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_5 5%Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_6 26%Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_7 31%Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_8 58,042Confederate States of America_cell_1_11_9
TotalConfederate States of America_header_cell_1_12_0 9,103,332Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_1 3,521,110Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_2 1,027,967Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_3 5,582,222Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_4 316,632Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_5 6%Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_6 30.8%Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_7 39%Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_8 132,760Confederate States of America_cell_1_12_9

Confederate States of America_table_general_2

Age structureConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_0_0 0–14 yearsConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_0_1 15–59 yearsConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_0_2 60 years and overConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_0_3
White malesConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_1_0 43%Confederate States of America_cell_2_1_1 52%Confederate States of America_cell_2_1_2 4%Confederate States of America_cell_2_1_3
White femalesConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_2_0 44%Confederate States of America_cell_2_2_1 52%Confederate States of America_cell_2_2_2 4%Confederate States of America_cell_2_2_3
Male slavesConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_3_0 44%Confederate States of America_cell_2_3_1 51%Confederate States of America_cell_2_3_2 4%Confederate States of America_cell_2_3_3
Female slavesConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_4_0 45%Confederate States of America_cell_2_4_1 51%Confederate States of America_cell_2_4_2 3%Confederate States of America_cell_2_4_3
Free black malesConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_5_0 45%Confederate States of America_cell_2_5_1 50%Confederate States of America_cell_2_5_2 5%Confederate States of America_cell_2_5_3
Free black femalesConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_6_0 40%Confederate States of America_cell_2_6_1 54%Confederate States of America_cell_2_6_2 6%Confederate States of America_cell_2_6_3
Total populationConfederate States of America_header_cell_2_7_0 44%Confederate States of America_cell_2_7_1 52%Confederate States of America_cell_2_7_2 4%Confederate States of America_cell_2_7_3

In 1860, the areas that later formed the eleven Confederate states (and including the future West Virginia) had 132,760 (1.46%) free blacks. Confederate States of America_sentence_887

Males made up 49.2% of the total population and females 50.8% (whites: 48.60% male, 51.40% female; slaves: 50.15% male, 49.85% female; free blacks: 47.43% male, 52.57% female). Confederate States of America_sentence_888

Rural and urban population Confederate States of America_section_55

The CSA was overwhelmingly rural. Confederate States of America_sentence_889

Few towns had populations of more than 1,000 – the typical county seat had a population of fewer than 500. Confederate States of America_sentence_890

Cities were rare; of the twenty largest U.S. cities in the 1860 census, only New Orleans lay in Confederate territory – and the Union captured New Orleans in 1862. Confederate States of America_sentence_891

Only 13 Confederate-controlled cities ranked among the top 100 U.S. cities in 1860, most of them ports whose economic activities vanished or suffered severely in the Union blockade. Confederate States of America_sentence_892

The population of Richmond swelled after it became the Confederate capital, reaching an estimated 128,000 in 1864. Confederate States of America_sentence_893

Other Southern cities in the border slave-holding states such as Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Wheeling, Alexandria, Louisville, and St. Confederate States of America_sentence_894 Louis never came under the control of the Confederate government. Confederate States of America_sentence_895

The cities of the Confederacy included most prominently in order of size of population: Confederate States of America_sentence_896

Confederate States of America_table_general_3

#Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_0_0 CityConfederate States of America_header_cell_3_0_1 1860 populationConfederate States of America_header_cell_3_0_2 1860 U.S. rankConfederate States of America_header_cell_3_0_3 Return to U.S. controlConfederate States of America_header_cell_3_0_4
1.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_1_0 New Orleans, LouisianaConfederate States of America_cell_3_1_1 168,675Confederate States of America_cell_3_1_2 6Confederate States of America_cell_3_1_3 1862Confederate States of America_cell_3_1_4
2.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_2_0 Charleston, South CarolinaConfederate States of America_cell_3_2_1 40,522Confederate States of America_cell_3_2_2 22Confederate States of America_cell_3_2_3 1865Confederate States of America_cell_3_2_4
3.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_3_0 Richmond, VirginiaConfederate States of America_cell_3_3_1 37,910Confederate States of America_cell_3_3_2 25Confederate States of America_cell_3_3_3 1865Confederate States of America_cell_3_3_4
4.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_4_0 Mobile, AlabamaConfederate States of America_cell_3_4_1 29,258Confederate States of America_cell_3_4_2 27Confederate States of America_cell_3_4_3 1865Confederate States of America_cell_3_4_4
5.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_5_0 Memphis, TennesseeConfederate States of America_cell_3_5_1 22,623Confederate States of America_cell_3_5_2 38Confederate States of America_cell_3_5_3 1862Confederate States of America_cell_3_5_4
6.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_6_0 Savannah, GeorgiaConfederate States of America_cell_3_6_1 22,619Confederate States of America_cell_3_6_2 41Confederate States of America_cell_3_6_3 1864Confederate States of America_cell_3_6_4
7.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_7_0 Petersburg, VirginiaConfederate States of America_cell_3_7_1 18,266Confederate States of America_cell_3_7_2 50Confederate States of America_cell_3_7_3 1865Confederate States of America_cell_3_7_4
8.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_8_0 Nashville, TennesseeConfederate States of America_cell_3_8_1 16,988Confederate States of America_cell_3_8_2 54Confederate States of America_cell_3_8_3 1862Confederate States of America_cell_3_8_4
9.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_9_0 Norfolk, VirginiaConfederate States of America_cell_3_9_1 14,620Confederate States of America_cell_3_9_2 61Confederate States of America_cell_3_9_3 1862Confederate States of America_cell_3_9_4
10.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_10_0 Alexandria, VirginiaConfederate States of America_cell_3_10_1 12,652Confederate States of America_cell_3_10_2 75Confederate States of America_cell_3_10_3 1861Confederate States of America_cell_3_10_4
11.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_11_0 Augusta, GeorgiaConfederate States of America_cell_3_11_1 12,493Confederate States of America_cell_3_11_2 77Confederate States of America_cell_3_11_3 1865Confederate States of America_cell_3_11_4
12.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_12_0 Columbus, GeorgiaConfederate States of America_cell_3_12_1 9,621Confederate States of America_cell_3_12_2 97Confederate States of America_cell_3_12_3 1865Confederate States of America_cell_3_12_4
13.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_13_0 Atlanta, GeorgiaConfederate States of America_cell_3_13_1 9,554Confederate States of America_cell_3_13_2 99Confederate States of America_cell_3_13_3 1864Confederate States of America_cell_3_13_4
14.Confederate States of America_header_cell_3_14_0 Wilmington, North CarolinaConfederate States of America_cell_3_14_1 9,553Confederate States of America_cell_3_14_2 100Confederate States of America_cell_3_14_3 1865Confederate States of America_cell_3_14_4

(See also Atlanta in the Civil War, Charleston, South Carolina, in the Civil War, Nashville in the Civil War, New Orleans in the Civil War, Wilmington, North Carolina, in the American Civil War, and Richmond in the Civil War). Confederate States of America_sentence_897

Religion Confederate States of America_section_56

See also: Christian views on slavery Confederate States of America_sentence_898

The CSA was overwhelmingly Protestant. Confederate States of America_sentence_899

Both free and enslaved populations identified with evangelical Protestantism. Confederate States of America_sentence_900

Baptists and Methodists together formed majorities of both the white and the slave population (see Black church). Confederate States of America_sentence_901

Freedom of religion and separation of church and state were fully ensured by Confederate laws. Confederate States of America_sentence_902

Church attendance was very high and chaplains played a major role in the Army. Confederate States of America_sentence_903

Most large denominations experienced a North–South split in the prewar era on the issue of slavery. Confederate States of America_sentence_904

The creation of a new country necessitated independent structures. Confederate States of America_sentence_905

For example, the Presbyterian Church in the United States split, with much of the new leadership provided by Joseph Ruggles Wilson (father of President Woodrow Wilson). Confederate States of America_sentence_906

In 1861, he organized the meeting that formed General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian Church and served as its chief executive for 37 years. Confederate States of America_sentence_907

Baptists and Methodists both broke off from their Northern coreligionists over the slavery issue, forming the Southern Baptist Convention and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, respectively. Confederate States of America_sentence_908

Elites in the southeast favored the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America, which reluctantly split off the Episcopal Church (USA) in 1861. Confederate States of America_sentence_909

Other elites were Presbyterians belonging to the 1861-founded Presbyterian Church in the United States. Confederate States of America_sentence_910

Catholics included an Irish working class element in coastal cities and an old French element in southern Louisiana. Confederate States of America_sentence_911

Other insignificant and scattered religious populations included Lutherans, the Holiness movement, other Reformed, other Christian fundamentalists, the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement, the Churches of Christ, the Latter Day Saint movement, Adventists, Muslims, Jews, Native American animists, deists and irreligious people. Confederate States of America_sentence_912

The southern churches met the shortage of Army chaplains by sending missionaries. Confederate States of America_sentence_913

The Southern Baptists started in 1862 and had a total of 78 missionaries. Confederate States of America_sentence_914

Presbyterians were even more active with 112 missionaries in January 1865. Confederate States of America_sentence_915

Other missionaries were funded and supported by the Episcopalians, Methodists, and Lutherans. Confederate States of America_sentence_916

One result was wave after wave of revivals in the Army. Confederate States of America_sentence_917

Military leaders Confederate States of America_section_57

Further information: General officers in the Confederate States Army Confederate States of America_sentence_918

Military leaders of the Confederacy (with their state or country of birth and highest rank) included: Confederate States of America_sentence_919

See also Confederate States of America_section_58

American Civil War portal Confederate States of America_sentence_920

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: States of America.