Confrerie Pictura

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The Confrerie Pictura was a more or less academic club of artists founded in 1656 in The Hague, (The Netherlands) by local art painters, who were unsatisfied by the Guild of Saint Luke there. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_0

History Confrerie Pictura_section_0

The guild of St. Luke in the Hague existed already in the 15th century and like most large Dutch cities, it catered not just to painters, but were united also with glaziers, engravers, sculptors, goldsmiths, printers and book sellers. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_1

In those days guilds were represented in churches with their own altars, and in the case of the painters' guild, they were sponsored by the church, and sometimes even ensured an income for church fathers through donations to the St. Luke's altar. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_2

After the Protestant Reformation, this all changed, and the churches were no longer a part of guild life. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_3

With the altarpieces gone that had traditionally been the public signboard for the artists, a new venue was necessary for sales. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_4

In addition, with the influx of talented painters from the Southern Netherlands cities such as Antwerp, the guild fathers felt that more protective measures were necessary. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_5

When securing a new protective charter for the St. Luke's guild failed to have the desired effect, the Confrerie Pictura was set up by 48 dissatisfied painters. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_6

They were led by the first deacon and popular Hague portrait painter Adriaen Hanneman. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_7

Among the founders were Willem Doudijns (1630–1697), Jacob van der Does (1623–1673), Jan de Bisschop (1628–1671), Theodor van der Schuer, Dirck van der Lisse, Daniel Mijtens the Younger, Johannes Mytens, Willem van Diest, Adriaen van de Venne, Robbert Duval, Joris van der Haagen and Augustinus Terwesten. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_8

Charter of 1656 Confrerie Pictura_section_1

The goal of the Confrerie Pictura was to protect the Hague painters and to reinforce ties between its members. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_9

Everyone working as a painter in The Hague was obliged to be a member of the Confrerie. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_10

Guilds installed strict rules to restrict what was seen as unfair trading, but also obliged its members to attend the funerals of its members for instance. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_11

The Confrerie had a set of 28 rules. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_12

One important rule was that its members were obliged to exhibit their works permanently at their meeting room. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_13

As soon as a work had been sold it had to be replaced by a new one. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_14

The Confrerie started meeting upstairs at the Boterwaag building, where butter was traded at the Prinsegracht. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_15

They paid rent by donating a painting to the city council. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_16

The Confrerie was governed by a deacon (deken), three governors (hoofdmannen) and a secretary, who were chosen every two years by the Magistrate of The Hague. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_17

Haagse Tekenacademie Confrerie Pictura_section_2

Later, in the 1680s the Confrerie received a somewhat better place at the Koorenhuis, the building where wheat was traded, also on the Prinsegracht. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_18

They had four separate rooms at the upper floor of this building. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_19

In 1682, several members of Confrerie Pictura: Willem Doudijns, Daniel Mijtens the Younger, Augustinus Terwesten, Theodor van der Schuer and Robbert Duval, founded a proper art school called The Hague Drawing Academy. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_20

(Dutch: Haagsche Teekenacademie) It would occupy one of the rooms in the Koorenhuis building. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_21

The academy proved to be a success, and later on it would transform into the Royal Academy of Art, The Hague, which still exists today. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_22

The original building is undergoing a restoration and expansion, but still exists (though damaged in the second world war) on the Prinsessegracht 4 in the Hague. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_23

Many original works of the founders and early members can be seen in the building's decorations. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_24

Legacy Confrerie Pictura_section_3

Paying dues to a second guild in addition to Confrerie Pictura proved too expensive for most painters, however protective it was, and the St. Luke's guild was soon to be dissolved. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_25

Confrerie Pictura existed until 1849, when the newly founded art society Pulchri Studio (founded 1847) proved to be a more modern alternative. Confrerie Pictura_sentence_26

See also Confrerie Pictura_section_4

Confrerie Pictura_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Pictura.