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The term conjunto (Spanish pronunciation: [koŋˈxunto, literally group, ensemble) refers to several types of small musical ensembles present in different Latin American musical traditions, mainly in Mexico and Cuba. Conjunto_sentence_0

While Mexican conjuntos play styles such as norteño and tejano, Cuban conjuntos specialize in the son, as well as its derivations such as salsa. Conjunto_sentence_1

Mexican Conjunto_section_0

Mexican conjunto music, also known as conjunto tejano, was born in south Texas at the end of the 19th century, after German settlers introduced the button accordion. Conjunto_sentence_2

The bajo sexto has come to accompany the button accordion and is integral to the conjunto sound. Conjunto_sentence_3

Many conjuntos are concentrated in the Southwestern portion of the United States, primarily in Texas and California. Conjunto_sentence_4

In Mexico, the term conjunto is associated with norteño and tejano music. Conjunto_sentence_5

Since tejano was bred out of norteño music originally, this association is not entirely false. Conjunto_sentence_6

However, due to various cultural and socioeconomic developments in the 1900s, norteño musicians began trailblazing the tejano genre as a tangent to conjunto. Conjunto_sentence_7

In the United States and Mexico, a conjunto band is composed of four main instruments: the button accordion, the bajo sexto, an electric bass, and a drum set. Conjunto_sentence_8

They are popular in northern Mexico and southern Texas. Conjunto_sentence_9

German and East European settlers brought their accordions, waltzes and polkas to the region, which were adapted by the local population. Conjunto_sentence_10

Texas accordion player Flaco Jiménez is probably the best-known conjunto musician in the United States, with a career spanning sixty years and earning him six Grammy awards. Conjunto_sentence_11

Chulas Fronteras is a documentary film from the 1970s which illustrates how the music meshed into the lives of families in south Texas and northern Mexico. Conjunto_sentence_12

Other types of Mexican conjunto Conjunto_section_1

Jarocho Conjunto_section_2

A conjunto jarocho is a type of Mexican folk ensemble. Conjunto_sentence_13

Often it consists of requinto, arpa jarocha, jarana and leona, but can also have violin, pandero octagonal, quijada, marimbol or güiro. Conjunto_sentence_14

Its repertory covers sones jarochos in 4, 8 and 4. Conjunto_sentence_15

Huasteco Conjunto_section_3

A conjunto huasteco is a type of Mexican folk ensemble. Conjunto_sentence_16

Often it consists of guitarra huapanguera, jarana huasteca and violin, but can also have other violins and guitars. Conjunto_sentence_17

Its repertory covers sones huastecos in 4 and 8, and rancheras. Conjunto_sentence_18

Arpa grande Conjunto_section_4

A conjunto de arpa grande is a type of Mexican folk ensemble. Conjunto_sentence_19

Often it consists of diatonic harp, Mexican vihuela, guitar and two violins. Conjunto_sentence_20

Its repertory covers planeco music: sones planecos in 4 and 8, and rancheras. Conjunto_sentence_21

Calentano Conjunto_section_5

A conjunto calentano is a type of Mexican folk ensemble. Conjunto_sentence_22

Often it consists of violin, guitar and tamborita, but can also have other violin, guitarra panzona, guitarra sexta and harp. Conjunto_sentence_23

Its repertory covers calentano music: sones calentanos and gustos, and other musical forms such as Indias, malagueñas, peteneras, valses, polkas, pasos dobles, sones, chilenas, minuets, rancheras, and corridos. Conjunto_sentence_24

Cuban Conjunto_section_6

Cuban conjunto music was developed in the 1940s by famous tres player Arsenio Rodríguez by adding several instruments (a piano, a tumbadora and various trumpets) to the typical son cubano ensemble, the septeto. Conjunto_sentence_25

Septetos consisted of a lead vocalist and guitar(s), double bass, bongó, maracas and trumpet. Conjunto_sentence_26

Even though the origins of the conjunto cubano can be traced to several sextetos and septetos of the 1920s, it wasn't until the 1940s when Arsenio Rodríguez expanded the Sexteto Bellamar that the conjunto was established. Conjunto_sentence_27

However, some authors argue that the Conjunto Kubavana, conducted by Alberto Ruiz, was the very first Cuban conjunto, founded around 1937. Conjunto_sentence_28

The conjunto contrasted with ballroom orchestras, the charangas, orquestas and danzoneras that were made popular by bandleaders such as Antonio Arcaño. Conjunto_sentence_29

Conjunto music was crucial in the early development of salsa. Conjunto_sentence_30

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Puerto Rican music scene in New York City revolved around charangas such as Charlie Palmieri's Duboney Orchestra. Conjunto_sentence_31

Their music was largely based on Cuban styles such as mambo, chachachá and, most importantly, pachanga. Conjunto_sentence_32

Key charanga flautist, bandleader and entrepreneur Johnny Pacheco switched from the charanga configuration to the conjunto in 1964. Conjunto_sentence_33

However, the first New York-based conjunto was Eddie Palmieri's "La Perfecta", which had its debut in 1962. Conjunto_sentence_34

These conjuntos would be crucial in the early development of the most successful Latin American music genre to date, salsa. Conjunto_sentence_35

Notably, the introduction of Puerto Rican music styles such as bomba and plena within the conjunto and Cuban music in general resulted in what is known today as salsa. Conjunto_sentence_36

See also Conjunto_section_7


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