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This article is about the State of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_0

For the river, see Connecticut River. Connecticut_sentence_1

For other uses, see Connecticut (disambiguation). Connecticut_sentence_2


CountryConnecticut_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesConnecticut_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodConnecticut_header_cell_0_2_0 Connecticut ColonyConnecticut_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionConnecticut_header_cell_0_3_0 January 9, 1788 (5th)Connecticut_cell_0_3_1
CapitalConnecticut_header_cell_0_4_0 HartfordConnecticut_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityConnecticut_header_cell_0_5_0 BridgeportConnecticut_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroConnecticut_header_cell_0_6_0 Greater New YorkConnecticut_cell_0_6_1
GovernorConnecticut_header_cell_0_8_0 Ned Lamont (D)Connecticut_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorConnecticut_header_cell_0_9_0 Susan Bysiewicz (D)Connecticut_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureConnecticut_header_cell_0_10_0 Connecticut General AssemblyConnecticut_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseConnecticut_header_cell_0_11_0 Connecticut SenateConnecticut_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseConnecticut_header_cell_0_12_0 Connecticut House of RepresentativesConnecticut_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryConnecticut_header_cell_0_13_0 Connecticut Supreme CourtConnecticut_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsConnecticut_header_cell_0_14_0 Richard Blumenthal (D)

Chris Murphy (D)Connecticut_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationConnecticut_header_cell_0_15_0 5 Democrats (list)Connecticut_cell_0_15_1
TotalConnecticut_header_cell_0_17_0 5,567 sq mi (14,357 km)Connecticut_cell_0_17_1
LandConnecticut_header_cell_0_18_0 4,849 sq mi (12,559 km)Connecticut_cell_0_18_1
WaterConnecticut_header_cell_0_19_0 698 sq mi (1,809 km)  12.6%Connecticut_cell_0_19_1
Area rankConnecticut_header_cell_0_20_0 48thConnecticut_cell_0_20_1
LengthConnecticut_header_cell_0_22_0 70 mi (113 km)Connecticut_cell_0_22_1
WidthConnecticut_header_cell_0_23_0 110 mi (177 km)Connecticut_cell_0_23_1
ElevationConnecticut_header_cell_0_24_0 500 ft (150 m)Connecticut_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Massachusetts border on south slope of Mount Frissell)Connecticut_header_cell_0_25_0 2,379 ft (725 m)Connecticut_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Long Island Sound)Connecticut_header_cell_0_26_0 0 ft (0 m)Connecticut_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)Connecticut_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalConnecticut_header_cell_0_28_0 3,565,287Connecticut_cell_0_28_1
RankConnecticut_header_cell_0_29_0 29thConnecticut_cell_0_29_1
DensityConnecticut_header_cell_0_30_0 739/sq mi (285/km)Connecticut_cell_0_30_1
Density rankConnecticut_header_cell_0_31_0 4thConnecticut_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeConnecticut_header_cell_0_32_0 $76,106Connecticut_cell_0_32_1
Income rankConnecticut_header_cell_0_33_0 6thConnecticut_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Connecticut_header_cell_0_34_0 (colloquial)Connecticut_cell_0_34_1
Official languageConnecticut_header_cell_0_36_0 NoneConnecticut_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneConnecticut_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)Connecticut_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Connecticut_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Connecticut_cell_0_38_1
USPS abbreviationConnecticut_header_cell_0_39_0 CTConnecticut_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeConnecticut_header_cell_0_40_0 US-CTConnecticut_cell_0_40_1
Traditional abbreviationConnecticut_header_cell_0_41_0 Conn.Connecticut_cell_0_41_1
LatitudeConnecticut_header_cell_0_42_0 40°58′ N to 42°03′ NConnecticut_cell_0_42_1
LongitudeConnecticut_header_cell_0_43_0 71°47′ W to 73°44′ WConnecticut_cell_0_43_1
WebsiteConnecticut_header_cell_0_44_0 Connecticut_cell_0_44_1


Connecticut state symbolsConnecticut_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaConnecticut_header_cell_1_1_0
BirdConnecticut_header_cell_1_2_0 American robinConnecticut_cell_1_2_1
FishConnecticut_header_cell_1_3_0 American shadConnecticut_cell_1_3_1
FlowerConnecticut_header_cell_1_4_0 Mountain laurelConnecticut_cell_1_4_1
InsectConnecticut_header_cell_1_5_0 European mantisConnecticut_cell_1_5_1
MammalConnecticut_header_cell_1_6_0 Sperm whaleConnecticut_cell_1_6_1
TreeConnecticut_header_cell_1_7_0 Charter Oak, a white oakConnecticut_cell_1_7_1
Inanimate insigniaConnecticut_header_cell_1_8_0
DanceConnecticut_header_cell_1_9_0 Square danceConnecticut_cell_1_9_1
FossilConnecticut_header_cell_1_10_0 Dinosaur tracksConnecticut_cell_1_10_1
MineralConnecticut_header_cell_1_11_0 GarnetConnecticut_cell_1_11_1
MottoConnecticut_header_cell_1_12_0 Connecticut_cell_1_12_1
TartanConnecticut_header_cell_1_13_0 Connecticut_cell_1_13_1
State route markerConnecticut_header_cell_1_14_0
State quarterConnecticut_header_cell_1_15_0

Connecticut (/kəˈnɛtɪkət/ (listen)) is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Connecticut_sentence_3

As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index (0.962), and median household income in the United States. Connecticut_sentence_4

It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Connecticut_sentence_5

Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport. Connecticut_sentence_6

Geographically the state is part of New England, and although its cultural history stems from the region, in the modern age large sections of it are increasingly connected to and associated with the tri-state area with New York and New Jersey. Connecticut_sentence_7

The state is named for the Connecticut River which approximately bisects the state. Connecticut_sentence_8

The word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of “Quononoquett (Conanicut),” a Mohegan-Pequot word for "long tidal river". Connecticut_sentence_9

Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Connecticut_sentence_10

Half of Connecticut was initially part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Connecticut_sentence_11

Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. Connecticut_sentence_12

The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. Connecticut_sentence_13

In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. Connecticut_sentence_14

This was one of the Thirteen Colonies which rejected British rule in the American Revolution. Connecticut_sentence_15

Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, and the fourth most densely populated of the fifty states. Connecticut_sentence_16

It is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", and the "Land of Steady Habits". Connecticut_sentence_17

It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States (see Connecticut Compromise). Connecticut_sentence_18

The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. Connecticut_sentence_19

The state also has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Connecticut_sentence_20

Geography Connecticut_section_0

Main article: Geology of Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_21

Further information: Geology of New England Connecticut_sentence_22

Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. Connecticut_sentence_23

The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, and other major cities and towns (by population) include Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich, and Bristol. Connecticut_sentence_24

Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro. Connecticut_sentence_25

There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_26

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. Connecticut_sentence_27

The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42°3′ N, 73°29′ W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. Connecticut_sentence_28

At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet (6 m) above sea level. Connecticut_sentence_29

Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront (technically speaking). Connecticut_sentence_30

The coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, which is an estuary. Connecticut_sentence_31

The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the west (toward New York City) and to the east (toward the "race" near Rhode Island). Connecticut_sentence_32

This situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, and many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast. Connecticut_sentence_33

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound. Connecticut_sentence_34

The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Connecticut_sentence_35

Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills, it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in areas to the east of New Haven along the coast, the landscape features coastal marshes, beaches, and large scale maritime activities. Connecticut_sentence_36

Further information: List of Connecticut rivers Connecticut_sentence_37

Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities such as Stamford, Bridgeport, and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_38

Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green. Connecticut_sentence_39

Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, and so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Connecticut_sentence_40

Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, and look less visually like traditional New England. Connecticut_sentence_41

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 miles (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_42

The origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, and the town was split in half. Connecticut_sentence_43

The southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien, and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. Connecticut_sentence_44

This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border, as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York. Connecticut_sentence_45

Further information: Connecticut panhandle Connecticut_sentence_46

Areas maintained by the National Park Service include Appalachian National Scenic Trail, Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor, and Weir Farm National Historic Site. Connecticut_sentence_47


  • Landmarks and cities of ConnecticutConnecticut_item_0_0
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Climate Connecticut_section_1

Connecticut lies at the rough transition zone between the southern end of the humid continental climate, and the northern portion of the humid subtropical climate. Connecticut_sentence_48

Northern Connecticut generally experiences a climate with cold winters with moderate snowfall and hot, humid summers. Connecticut_sentence_49

Far southern and coastal Connecticut has a climate with cool winters with a mix of rain and infrequent snow, and the long hot and humid summers typical of the middle and lower East Coast. Connecticut_sentence_50

Connecticut sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months. Connecticut_sentence_51

Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine (higher than the U.S. national average), averaging 2,400 hours of sunshine annually. Connecticut_sentence_52

Early spring (April) can range from slightly cool (40s to low 50s F) to warm (65 to 70 F), while mid and late spring (late April/May) is warm. Connecticut_sentence_53

By late May, the building Bermuda High creates a southerly flow of warm and humid tropical air, bringing hot weather conditions throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 85 °F (29 °C) in Windsor Locks at the peak of summer in late July. Connecticut_sentence_54

On occasion, heat waves with highs from 90 to 100 °F (38 °C) occur across Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_55

Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, quick moving summer thunderstorms can bring brief downpours with thunder and lightning. Connecticut_sentence_56

Occasionally these thunderstorms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year. Connecticut_sentence_57

During hurricane season, the remains of tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region, though a direct hit is rare. Connecticut_sentence_58

Weather commonly associated with the fall season typically begins in October and lasts to the first days of December. Connecticut_sentence_59

Daily high temperatures in October and November range from the 50s to 60s (Fahrenheit) with nights in the 40s and upper 30s. Connecticut_sentence_60

Colorful foliage begins across northern parts of the state in early October and moves south and east reaching southeast Connecticut by early November. Connecticut_sentence_61

Far southern and coastal areas, however, have more oak and hickory trees (and fewer maples) and are often less colorful than areas to the north. Connecticut_sentence_62

By December daytime highs are in the 40s °F for much of the state, and average overnight lows are below freezing. Connecticut_sentence_63

Winters (December through mid-March) are generally cold from south to north in Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_64

The coldest month (January) has average high temperatures ranging from 38 °F (3 °C) in the coastal lowlands to 33 °F (1 °C) in the inland and northern portions on the state. Connecticut_sentence_65

The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 60 inches (1,500 mm) in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20–25 inches (510–640 mm) along the southeast coast of Connecticut (Branford to Groton). Connecticut_sentence_66

Generally, any locale north or west of Interstate 84 receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season. Connecticut_sentence_67

Most of Connecticut has less than 60 days of snow cover. Connecticut_sentence_68

Snow usually falls from late November to late March in the northern part of the state, and from early December to mid-March in the southern and coastal parts of the state. Connecticut_sentence_69

Connecticut's record high temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the record low is −32 °F (−36 °C) which occurred in the Northwest Hills Falls Village on February 16, 1943, and Coventry on January 22, 1961. Connecticut_sentence_70


Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Connecticut cities (°F)Connecticut_cell_2_0_0
CityConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_0 JanConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_1 FebConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_2 MarConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_3 AprConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_4 MayConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_5 JunConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_6 JulConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_7 AugConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_8 SepConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_9 OctConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_10 NovConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_11 DecConnecticut_header_cell_2_1_12
BridgeportConnecticut_header_cell_2_2_0 37/23Connecticut_cell_2_2_1 40/25Connecticut_cell_2_2_2 47/32Connecticut_cell_2_2_3 58/41Connecticut_cell_2_2_4 68/51Connecticut_cell_2_2_5 77/60Connecticut_cell_2_2_6 82/66Connecticut_cell_2_2_7 81/65Connecticut_cell_2_2_8 74/58Connecticut_cell_2_2_9 63/46Connecticut_cell_2_2_10 53/38Connecticut_cell_2_2_11 42/28Connecticut_cell_2_2_12
HartfordConnecticut_header_cell_2_3_0 35/16Connecticut_cell_2_3_1 39/19Connecticut_cell_2_3_2 47/27Connecticut_cell_2_3_3 59/38Connecticut_cell_2_3_4 70/48Connecticut_cell_2_3_5 79/57Connecticut_cell_2_3_6 84/63Connecticut_cell_2_3_7 82/61Connecticut_cell_2_3_8 74/51Connecticut_cell_2_3_9 63/40Connecticut_cell_2_3_10 52/32Connecticut_cell_2_3_11 40/22Connecticut_cell_2_3_12

Flora Connecticut_section_2

Main article: Flora of Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_71

See also: List of Connecticut tree species Connecticut_sentence_72

Forests consist of a mix of Northeastern coastal forests of Oak in southern areas of the state, to the upland New England-Acadian forests in the northwestern parts of the state. Connecticut_sentence_73

Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) is the state flower and is native to low ridges in several parts of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_74

Rosebay Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) is also native to eastern uplands of Connecticut and Pachaug State Forest is home to the Rhododendron Sanctuary Trail. Connecticut_sentence_75

Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), is found in wetlands in the southern parts of the state. Connecticut_sentence_76

Connecticut has one native cactus (Opuntia humifusa), found in sandy coastal areas and low hillsides. Connecticut_sentence_77

Several types of beach grasses and wildflowers are also native to Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_78

Connecticut spans USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5b to 7a. Connecticut_sentence_79

Coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone where more southern and subtropical plants are cultivated. Connecticut_sentence_80

In some coastal communities, Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia), Crape Myrtles, scrub palms (Sabal minor), Needle Palms (Rhapidophyllum hystrix), and other broadleaved evergreens are cultivated in small numbers. Connecticut_sentence_81

History Connecticut_section_3

Main article: History of Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_82

First Peoples Connecticut_section_4

The name Connecticut is derived from the Mohegan-Pequot word that has been translated as "long tidal river" and "upon the long river", referring to the Connecticut River. Connecticut_sentence_83

Evidence of human presence in the Connecticut region dates to as much as 10,000 years ago. Connecticut_sentence_84

Stone tools were used for hunting, fishing, and woodworking. Connecticut_sentence_85

Semi-nomadic in lifestyle, these peoples moved seasonally to take advantage of various resources in the area. Connecticut_sentence_86

They shared languages based on Algonquian. Connecticut_sentence_87

The Connecticut region was inhabited by multiple Native American tribes which can be grouped into the Nipmuc, the Sequin or "River Indians" (which included the Tunxis, Schaghticoke, Podunk, Wangunk, Hammonasset, and Quinnipiac), the Mattabesec or "Wappinger Confederacy" and the Pequot-Mohegan. Connecticut_sentence_88

Some of these groups continue to abide in Connecticut, including the Mohegans, the Pequots, and the Paugusetts. Connecticut_sentence_89

Colonial period Connecticut_section_5

Main articles: New Netherland, Saybrook Colony, Connecticut Colony, New Haven Colony, New England Confederation, and Dominion of New England Connecticut_sentence_90

The first European explorer in Connecticut was Dutchman Adriaen Block, who explored the region in 1614. Connecticut_sentence_91

Dutch fur traders then sailed up the Connecticut River, which they called Versche Rivier ("Fresh River"), and built a fort at Dutch Point in Hartford that they named "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop). Connecticut_sentence_92

The Connecticut Colony was originally a number of separate, smaller settlements at Windsor, Wethersfield, Saybrook, Hartford, and New Haven. Connecticut_sentence_93

The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year. Connecticut_sentence_94

John Winthrop the Younger of Massachusetts received a commission to create Saybrook Colony at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. Connecticut_sentence_95

The main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. Connecticut_sentence_96

They were Puritans from Massachusetts Bay Colony led by Thomas Hooker, who established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_97

The Quinnipiack Colony was established by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, and others at New Haven in March 1638. Connecticut_sentence_98

The New Haven Colony had its own constitution called "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony", signed on June 4, 1639. Connecticut_sentence_99

The settlements were established without official sanction of the English Crown, and each was an independent political entity. Connecticut_sentence_100

In 1662, Winthrop traveled to England and obtained a charter from Charles II which united the settlements of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_101

Historically important colonial settlements included Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), Saybrook (1635), Hartford (1636), New Haven (1638), Fairfield (1639), Guilford (1639), Milford (1639), Stratford (1639), Farmington (1640), Stamford (1641), and New London (1646). Connecticut_sentence_102

The Pequot War marked the first major clash between colonists and Native Americans in New England. Connecticut_sentence_103

The Pequots reacted with increasing aggression to Colonial settlements in their territory—while simultaneously taking lands from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes. Connecticut_sentence_104

Settlers responded to a murder in 1636 with a raid on a Pequot village on Block Island; the Pequots laid siege to Saybrook Colony's garrison that autumn, then raided Wethersfield in the spring of 1637. Connecticut_sentence_105

Colonists declared war on the Pequots, organized a band of militia and allies from the Mohegan and Narragansett tribes, and attacked a Pequot village on the Mystic River, with death toll estimates ranging between 300 and 700 Pequots. Connecticut_sentence_106

After suffering another major loss at a battle in Fairfield, the Pequots asked for a truce and peace terms. Connecticut_sentence_107

The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. Connecticut_sentence_108

The Hartford Treaty with the Dutch was signed on September 19, 1650, but it was never ratified by the British. Connecticut_sentence_109

According to it, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles (32 km), "provided the said line come not within 10 miles of Hudson River". Connecticut_sentence_110

This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. Connecticut_sentence_111

Conflict continued concerning colonial limits until the Duke of York captured New Netherland in 1664. Connecticut_sentence_112

On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea"—that is, to the Pacific Ocean. Connecticut_sentence_113

Most Colonial royal grants were for long east–west strips. Connecticut_sentence_114

Connecticut took its grant seriously and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna River and Delaware River named Westmoreland County. Connecticut_sentence_115

This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania. Connecticut_sentence_116

Yale College was established in 1701, providing Connecticut with an important institution to educate clergy and civil leaders. Connecticut_sentence_117

The Congregational church dominated religious life in the colony and, by extension, town affairs in many parts. Connecticut_sentence_118

With more than 600 miles of coastline including along its navigable rivers, during the colonial years Connecticut developed the antecedents of a maritime tradition that would later produce booms in shipbuilding, marine transport, naval support, seafood production, and leisure boating. Connecticut_sentence_119

Historical records list the Tryall as the first vessel built in Connecticut Colony, in 1649 at a site on the Connecticut River in present-day Wethersfield. Connecticut_sentence_120

In the two decades leading up to 1776 and the American Revolution, Connecticut boatyards launched about 100 sloops, schooners and brigs according to a database of U.S. customs records maintained online by the Mystic Seaport Museum, the largest being the 180-ton Patient Mary launched in New Haven in 1763. Connecticut_sentence_121

Connecticut's first lighthouse was constructed in 1760 at the mouth of the Thames River with the New London Harbor Lighthouse. Connecticut_sentence_122

American Revolution Connecticut_section_6

Main articles: American Revolutionary War, Lee Resolution, United States Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation § Ratification, Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War after Saratoga, Treaty of Paris (1783), Constitutional Convention (United States), Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Connecticut_sentence_123

Connecticut designated four delegates to the Second Continental Congress who signed the Declaration of Independence: Samuel Huntington, Roger Sherman, William Williams, and Oliver Wolcott. Connecticut_sentence_124

Connecticut's legislature authorized the outfitting of six new regiments in 1775, in the wake of the clashes between British regulars and Massachusetts militia at Lexington and Concord. Connecticut_sentence_125

There were some 1,200 Connecticut troops on hand at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775. Connecticut_sentence_126

In 1775, David Bushnell invented the Turtle which the following year launched the first submarine attack in history, unsuccessfully against a British warship at anchor in New York Harbor. Connecticut_sentence_127

In 1777, the British got word of Continental Army supplies in Danbury, and they landed an expeditionary force of some 2,000 troops in Westport. Connecticut_sentence_128

This force then marched to Danbury and destroyed homes and much of the depot. Connecticut_sentence_129

Continental Army troops and militia led by General David Wooster and General Benedict Arnold engaged them on their return march at Ridgefield in 1777. Connecticut_sentence_130

For the winter of 1778–79, General George Washington decided to split the Continental Army into three divisions encircling New York City, where British General Sir Henry Clinton had taken up winter quarters. Connecticut_sentence_131

Major General Israel Putnam chose Redding as the winter encampment quarters for some 3,000 regulars and militia under his command. Connecticut_sentence_132

The Redding encampment allowed Putnam's soldiers to guard the replenished supply depot in Danbury and to support any operations along Long Island Sound and the Hudson River Valley. Connecticut_sentence_133

Some of the men were veterans of the winter encampment at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania the previous winter. Connecticut_sentence_134

Soldiers at the Redding camp endured supply shortages, cold temperatures, and significant snow, with some historians dubbing the encampment "Connecticut's Valley Forge". Connecticut_sentence_135

The state was also the launching site for a number of raids against Long Island orchestrated by Samuel Holden Parsons and Benjamin Tallmadge, and provided men and material for the war effort, especially to Washington's army outside New York City. Connecticut_sentence_136

General William Tryon raided the Connecticut coast in July 1779, focusing on New Haven, Norwalk, and Fairfield. Connecticut_sentence_137

New London and Groton Heights were raided in September 1781 by Benedict Arnold, who had turned traitor to the British. Connecticut_sentence_138

At the outset of the American Revolution, the Continental Congress assigned Nathaniel Shaw Jr. of New London as its naval agent in charge of recruiting privateers to seize British vessels as opportunities presented, with nearly 50 operating out of the Thames River which eventually drew the reprisal from the British force led by Arnold. Connecticut_sentence_139

19th century Connecticut_section_7

Early national period and industrial revolution Connecticut_section_8

Connecticut ratified the U.S. Connecticut_sentence_140 Constitution on January 9, 1788, becoming the fifth state. Connecticut_sentence_141

The state prospered during the era following the American Revolution, as mills and textile factories were built and seaports flourished from trade and fisheries. Connecticut_sentence_142

After Congress established in 1790 the predecessor to the U.S. Connecticut_sentence_143 Revenue Cutter Service that would evolve into the U.S. Coast Guard, President Washington assigned Jonathan Maltbie as one of seven masters to enforce customs regulations, with Maltbie monitoring the southern New England coast with a 48-foot cutter sloop named Argus. Connecticut_sentence_144

In 1786, Connecticut ceded territory to the U.S. government that became part of the Northwest Territory. Connecticut_sentence_145

The state retained land extending across the northern part of present-day Ohio called the Connecticut Western Reserve. Connecticut_sentence_146

The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Connecticut_sentence_147

Connecticut made agreements with Pennsylvania and New York which extinguished the land claims within those states' boundaries and created the Connecticut Panhandle. Connecticut_sentence_148

The state then ceded the Western Reserve in 1800 to the federal government, which brought it to its present boundaries (other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts). Connecticut_sentence_149

For the first time in 1800, Connecticut shipwrights launched more than 100 vessels in a single year. Connecticut_sentence_150

Over the following decade to the doorstep of renewed hostilities with Britain that sparked the War of 1812, Connecticut boatyards constructed close to 1,000 vessels, the most productive stretch of any decade in the 19th century. Connecticut_sentence_151

During the war, the British launched raids in Stonington and Essex and blockaded vessels in the Thames River. Connecticut_sentence_152

Derby native Isaac Hull became Connecticut's best-known naval figure to win renown during the conflict, as captain of the USS Constitution. Connecticut_sentence_153

The British blockade during the War of 1812 hurt exports and bolstered the influence of Federalists who opposed the war. Connecticut_sentence_154

The cessation of imports from Britain stimulated the construction of factories to manufacture textiles and machinery. Connecticut_sentence_155

Connecticut came to be recognized as a major center for manufacturing, due in part to the inventions of Eli Whitney and other early innovators of the Industrial Revolution. Connecticut_sentence_156

The war led to the development of fast clippers that helped extend the reach of New England merchants to the Pacific and Indian oceans. Connecticut_sentence_157

The first half of the 19th century saw as well a rapid rise in whaling, with New London emerging as one of the New England industry's three biggest home ports after Nantucket and New Bedford. Connecticut_sentence_158

The state was known for its political conservatism, typified by its Federalist party and the Yale College of Timothy Dwight. Connecticut_sentence_159

The foremost intellectuals were Dwight and Noah Webster, who compiled his great dictionary in New Haven. Connecticut_sentence_160

Religious tensions polarized the state, as the Congregational Church struggled to maintain traditional viewpoints, in alliance with the Federalists. Connecticut_sentence_161

The failure of the Hartford Convention in 1814 hurt the Federalist cause, with the Democratic-Republican Party gaining control in 1817. Connecticut_sentence_162

Connecticut had been governed under the "Fundamental Orders" since 1639, but the state adopted a new constitution in 1818. Connecticut_sentence_163

Civil War era Connecticut_section_9

Main article: Connecticut in the American Civil War Connecticut_sentence_164

Connecticut manufacturers played a major role in supplying the Union forces with weapons and supplies during the Civil War. Connecticut_sentence_165

The state furnished 55,000 men, formed into thirty full regiments of infantry, including two in the U.S. Connecticut_sentence_166 Colored Troops, with several Connecticut men becoming generals. Connecticut_sentence_167

The Navy attracted 250 officers and 2,100 men, and Glastonbury native Gideon Welles was Secretary of the Navy. Connecticut_sentence_168

James H. Ward of Hartford was the first U.S. Connecticut_sentence_169

Naval Officer killed in the Civil War. Connecticut_sentence_170

Connecticut casualties included 2,088 killed in combat, 2,801 dying from disease, and 689 dying in Confederate prison camps. Connecticut_sentence_171

A surge of national unity in 1861 brought thousands flocking to the colors from every town and city. Connecticut_sentence_172

However, as the war became a crusade to end slavery, many Democrats (especially Irish Catholics) pulled back. Connecticut_sentence_173

The Democrats took a pro-slavery position and included many Copperheads willing to let the South secede. Connecticut_sentence_174

The intensely fought 1863 election for governor was narrowly won by the Republicans. Connecticut_sentence_175

Second industrial revolution Connecticut_section_10

Connecticut's extensive industry, dense population, flat terrain, and wealth encouraged the construction of railroads starting in 1839. Connecticut_sentence_176

By 1840, 102 miles (164 km) of line were in operation, growing to 402 miles (647 km) in 1850 and 601 miles (967 km) in 1860. Connecticut_sentence_177

The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, called the New Haven or "The Consolidated", became the dominant Connecticut railroad company after 1872. Connecticut_sentence_178

J. Connecticut_sentence_179 P. Morgan began financing the major New England railroads in the 1890s, dividing territory so that they would not compete. Connecticut_sentence_180

The New Haven purchased 50 smaller companies, including steamship lines, and built a network of light rails (electrified trolleys) that provided inter-urban transportation for all of southern New England. Connecticut_sentence_181

By 1912, the New Haven operated over 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of track with 120,000 employees. Connecticut_sentence_182

As steam-powered passenger ships proliferated after the Civil War, Noank would produce the two largest built in Connecticut during the 19th century, with the 332-foot wooden steam paddle wheeler Rhode Island launched in 1882, and the 345-foot paddle wheeler Connecticut seven years later. Connecticut_sentence_183

Connecticut shipyards would launch more than 165 steam-powered vessels in the 19th century. Connecticut_sentence_184

In 1875, the first telephone exchange in the world was established in New Haven. Connecticut_sentence_185

20th century Connecticut_section_11

World War I Connecticut_section_12

When World War I broke out in 1914, Connecticut became a major supplier of weaponry to the U.S. military; by 1918, 80% of the state's industries were producing goods for the war effort. Connecticut_sentence_186

Remington Arms in Bridgeport produced half the small-arms cartridges used by the U.S. Army, with other major suppliers including Winchester in New Haven and Colt in Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_187

Connecticut was also an important U.S. Navy supplier, with Electric Boat receiving orders for 85 submarines, Lake Torpedo Boat building more than 20 subs, and the Groton Iron Works building freighters. Connecticut_sentence_188

On June 21, 1916, the Navy made Groton the site for its East Coast submarine base and school. Connecticut_sentence_189

The state enthusiastically supported the American war effort in 1917 and 1918 with large purchases of war bonds, a further expansion of industry, and an emphasis on increasing food production on the farms. Connecticut_sentence_190

Thousands of state, local, and volunteer groups mobilized for the war effort and were coordinated by the Connecticut State Council of Defense. Connecticut_sentence_191

Manufacturers wrestled with manpower shortages; Waterbury's American Brass and Manufacturing Company was running at half capacity, so the federal government agreed to furlough soldiers to work there. Connecticut_sentence_192

Interwar period Connecticut_section_13

In 1919, J. Henry Roraback started the Connecticut Light & Power Co. which became the state's dominant electric utility. Connecticut_sentence_193

In 1925, Frederick Rentschler spurred the creation of Pratt & Whitney in Hartford to develop engines for aircraft; the company became an important military supplier in World War II and one of the three major manufacturers of jet engines in the world. Connecticut_sentence_194

On September 21, 1938, the most destructive storm in New England history struck eastern Connecticut, killing hundreds of people. Connecticut_sentence_195

The eye of the "Long Island Express" passed just west of New Haven and devastated the Connecticut shoreline between Old Saybrook and Stonington from the full force of wind and waves, even though they had partial protection by Long Island. Connecticut_sentence_196

The hurricane caused extensive damage to infrastructure, homes, and businesses. Connecticut_sentence_197

In New London, a 500-foot (150 m) sailing ship was driven into a warehouse complex, causing a major fire. Connecticut_sentence_198

Heavy rainfall caused the Connecticut River to flood downtown Hartford and East Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_199

An estimated 50,000 trees fell onto roadways. Connecticut_sentence_200

World War II Connecticut_section_14

The advent of lend-lease in support of Britain helped lift Connecticut from the Great Depression, with the state a major production center for weaponry and supplies used in World War II. Connecticut_sentence_201

Connecticut manufactured 4.1% of total U.S. military armaments produced during the war, ranking ninth among the 48 states, with major factories including Colt for firearms, Pratt & Whitney for aircraft engines, Chance Vought for fighter planes, Hamilton Standard for propellers, and Electric Boat for submarines and PT boats. Connecticut_sentence_202

In Bridgeport, General Electric produced a significant new weapon to combat tanks: the bazooka. Connecticut_sentence_203

On May 13, 1940, Igor Sikorsky made an untethered flight of the first practical helicopter. Connecticut_sentence_204

The helicopter saw limited use in World War II, but future military production made Sikorsky Aircraft's Stratford plant Connecticut's largest single manufacturing site by the start of the 21st century. Connecticut_sentence_205

Post-World War II economic expansion Connecticut_section_15

Connecticut lost some wartime factories following the end of hostilities, but the state shared in a general post-war expansion that included the construction of highways and resulting in middle-class growth in suburban areas. Connecticut_sentence_206

Prescott Bush represented Connecticut in the U.S. Senate from 1952 to 1963; his son George H.W. Connecticut_sentence_207 Bush and grandson George W. Bush both became presidents of the United States. Connecticut_sentence_208

In 1965, Connecticut ratified its current constitution, replacing the document that had served since 1818. Connecticut_sentence_209

In 1968, commercial operation began for the Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in East Haddam; in 1970, the Millstone Nuclear Power Station began operations in Waterford. Connecticut_sentence_210

In 1974, Connecticut elected Democratic Governor Ella T. Grasso, who became the first woman in any state to be elected governor without being the wife or widow of a previous governor. Connecticut_sentence_211

Late 20th century Connecticut_section_16

Connecticut's dependence on the defense industry posed an economic challenge at the end of the Cold War. Connecticut_sentence_212

The resulting budget crisis helped elect Lowell Weicker as governor on a third-party ticket in 1990. Connecticut_sentence_213

Weicker's remedy was a state income tax which proved effective in balancing the budget, but only for the short-term. Connecticut_sentence_214

He did not run for a second term, in part because of this politically unpopular move. Connecticut_sentence_215

In 1992, initial construction was completed on Foxwoods Casino at the Mashantucket Pequots reservation in eastern Connecticut, which became the largest casino in the Western Hemisphere. Connecticut_sentence_216

Mohegan Sun followed four years later. Connecticut_sentence_217

Early 21st century Connecticut_section_17

In 2000, presidential candidate Al Gore chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his running mate, marking the first time that a major party presidential ticket included someone of the Jewish faith. Connecticut_sentence_218

Gore and Lieberman fell five votes short of George W. Bush and Dick Cheney in the Electoral College. Connecticut_sentence_219

In the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, 65 state residents were killed, mostly Fairfield County residents who were working in the World Trade Center. Connecticut_sentence_220

In 2004, Republican Governor John G. Rowland resigned during a corruption investigation, later pleading guilty to federal charges. Connecticut_sentence_221

Connecticut was hit by three major storms in just over 14 months in 2011 and 2012, with all three causing extensive property damage and electric outages. Connecticut_sentence_222

Hurricane Irene struck Connecticut August 28, and damage totaled $235 million. Connecticut_sentence_223

Two months later, the "Halloween nor'easter" dropped extensive snow onto trees, resulting in snapped branches and trunks that damaged power lines; some areas were without electricity for 11 days. Connecticut_sentence_224

Hurricane Sandy had tropical storm-force winds when it reached Connecticut October 29, 2012. Connecticut_sentence_225

Sandy's winds drove storm surges into streets and cut power to 98% of homes and businesses, with more than $360 million in damage. Connecticut_sentence_226

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, and then killed himself. Connecticut_sentence_227

The massacre spurred renewed efforts by activists for tighter laws on gun ownership nationally. Connecticut_sentence_228

In the summer and fall of 2016, Connecticut experienced a drought in many parts of the state, causing some water-use bans. Connecticut_sentence_229

As of November 15, 2016 (2016-11-15), 45% of the state was listed at Severe Drought by the U.S. Drought Monitor, including almost all of Hartford and Litchfield counties. Connecticut_sentence_230

All the rest of the state was in Moderate Drought or Severe Drought, including Middlesex, Fairfield, New London, New Haven, Windham, and Tolland counties. Connecticut_sentence_231

This affected the agricultural economy in the state. Connecticut_sentence_232


  • The 21st century in Connecticut in photosConnecticut_item_1_12
  • Connecticut_item_1_13
  • Connecticut_item_1_14
  • Connecticut_item_1_15
  • Connecticut_item_1_16
  • Connecticut_item_1_17
  • Connecticut_item_1_18

Demographics Connecticut_section_18

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Connecticut was 3,565,287 on July 1, 2019, a 0.25% decrease since the 2010 United States Census. Connecticut_sentence_233

As of 2019, Connecticut had an estimated population of 3,565,287, which is a decrease of 7,378 (0.25%) from the prior year and a decrease of 8,810 (0.25%) since 2010. Connecticut_sentence_234

This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 (222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Connecticut_sentence_235

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273. Connecticut_sentence_236

Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moved from 29th most populous state to 30th. Connecticut_sentence_237

2018 estimates put Connecticut's population at 3,572,665. Connecticut_sentence_238

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Connecticut_sentence_239

Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male. Connecticut_sentence_240

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural". Connecticut_sentence_241

The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. Connecticut_sentence_242

In the 2000 census, only 12.3% was considered rural. Connecticut_sentence_243

Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the Gold Coast) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state and has high property costs and high incomes. Connecticut_sentence_244

The center of population of Connecticut is located in the town of Cheshire. Connecticut_sentence_245

Population Connecticut_section_19

As of the 2010 United States Census, Connecticut's race and ethnic percentages were: Connecticut_sentence_246


Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population in the 2010 Census. Connecticut_sentence_247

The state's most populous ethnic group is Non-Hispanic White, but this has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010. Connecticut_sentence_248


Connecticut's racial breakdown of populationConnecticut_table_caption_3
Racial compositionConnecticut_header_cell_3_0_0 1990Connecticut_header_cell_3_0_1 2000Connecticut_header_cell_3_0_2 2010Connecticut_header_cell_3_0_3
WhiteConnecticut_cell_3_1_0 87.0%Connecticut_cell_3_1_1 81.6%Connecticut_cell_3_1_2 77.6%Connecticut_cell_3_1_3
BlackConnecticut_cell_3_2_0 8.3%Connecticut_cell_3_2_1 9.1%Connecticut_cell_3_2_2 10.1%Connecticut_cell_3_2_3
AsianConnecticut_cell_3_3_0 1.5%Connecticut_cell_3_3_1 2.4%Connecticut_cell_3_3_2 3.8%Connecticut_cell_3_3_3
NativeConnecticut_cell_3_4_0 0.2%Connecticut_cell_3_4_1 0.3%Connecticut_cell_3_4_2 0.3%Connecticut_cell_3_4_3
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderConnecticut_cell_3_5_0

Connecticut_cell_3_5_1 Connecticut_cell_3_5_2 Connecticut_cell_3_5_3
Other raceConnecticut_cell_3_6_0 2.9%Connecticut_cell_3_6_1 4.3%Connecticut_cell_3_6_2 5.6%Connecticut_cell_3_6_3
Two or more racesConnecticut_cell_3_7_0 Connecticut_cell_3_7_1 2.2%Connecticut_cell_3_7_2 2.6%Connecticut_cell_3_7_3

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born. Connecticut_sentence_249

In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918. Connecticut_sentence_250

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31%, and Polish at 1.20%. Connecticut_sentence_251

The largest European ancestry groups are: Connecticut_sentence_252


Birth data Connecticut_section_20

As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Connecticut_sentence_253

Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Connecticut_sentence_254


Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherConnecticut_table_caption_4
RaceConnecticut_header_cell_4_0_0 2013Connecticut_header_cell_4_0_1 2014Connecticut_header_cell_4_0_2 2015Connecticut_header_cell_4_0_3 2016Connecticut_header_cell_4_0_4 2017Connecticut_header_cell_4_0_5 2018Connecticut_header_cell_4_0_6
White:Connecticut_cell_4_1_0 28,454 (78.8%)Connecticut_cell_4_1_1 28,543 (78.7%)Connecticut_cell_4_1_2 28,164 (78.8%)Connecticut_cell_4_1_3 ...Connecticut_cell_4_1_4 ...Connecticut_cell_4_1_5 ...Connecticut_cell_4_1_6
Non-Hispanic WhiteConnecticut_cell_4_2_0 20,704 (57.4%)Connecticut_cell_4_2_1 20,933 (57.7%)Connecticut_cell_4_2_2 20,395 (57.1%)Connecticut_cell_4_2_3 19,551 (54.3%)Connecticut_cell_4_2_4 18,842 (53.5%)Connecticut_cell_4_2_5 18,488 (53.2%)Connecticut_cell_4_2_6
BlackConnecticut_cell_4_3_0 5,103 (14.1%)Connecticut_cell_4_3_1 5,154 (14.2%)Connecticut_cell_4_3_2 4,988 (14.0%)Connecticut_cell_4_3_3 4,453 (12.4%)Connecticut_cell_4_3_4 4,301 (12.2%)Connecticut_cell_4_3_5 4,423 (12.7%)Connecticut_cell_4_3_6
AsianConnecticut_cell_4_4_0 2,221 (6.2%)Connecticut_cell_4_4_1 2,280 (6.3%)Connecticut_cell_4_4_2 2,497 (7.0%)Connecticut_cell_4_4_3 2,583 (7.2%)Connecticut_cell_4_4_4 2,475 (7.0%)Connecticut_cell_4_4_5 2,232 (6.4%)Connecticut_cell_4_4_6
Native AmericanConnecticut_cell_4_5_0 307 (0.9%)Connecticut_cell_4_5_1 308 (0.8%)Connecticut_cell_4_5_2 97 (0.3%)Connecticut_cell_4_5_3 26 (0.1%)Connecticut_cell_4_5_4 28 (0.1%)Connecticut_cell_4_5_5 38 (0.1%)Connecticut_cell_4_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Connecticut_cell_4_6_0 8,208 (22.7%)Connecticut_cell_4_6_1 8,129 (22.4%)Connecticut_cell_4_6_2 8,275 (23.1%)Connecticut_cell_4_6_3 8,622 (23.9%)Connecticut_cell_4_6_4 8,833 (25.1%)Connecticut_cell_4_6_5 8,762 (25.2%)Connecticut_cell_4_6_6
Total ConnecticutConnecticut_cell_4_7_0 36,085 (100%)Connecticut_cell_4_7_1 36,285 (100%)Connecticut_cell_4_7_2 35,746 (100%)Connecticut_cell_4_7_3 36,015 (100%)Connecticut_cell_4_7_4 35,221 (100%)Connecticut_cell_4_7_5 34.725 (100%)Connecticut_cell_4_7_6


  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Connecticut_item_4_36

Religion Connecticut_section_21

The religious affiliations of the people of Connecticut as of 2014: Connecticut_sentence_255

A Pew survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations: Protestant 35%, Mormonism 1%, Jewish 3%, Roman Catholic 33%, Orthodox 1%, Non-religious 28%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Hinduism 1%, Buddhism 1% and Islam 1%. Connecticut_sentence_256

Jewish congregations had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000. Connecticut_sentence_257

The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_258

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2010 were: the Catholic Church, with 1,252,936; the United Church of Christ, with 96,506; and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, with 72,863. Connecticut_sentence_259

Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low. Connecticut_sentence_260

Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: The First Cathedral in Bloomfield, Connecticut located in Hartford County. Connecticut_sentence_261

Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford, which is sovereign over the Diocese of Bridgeport and the Diocese of Norwich. Connecticut_sentence_262

Largest cities and towns Connecticut_section_22


Most Populous CitiesConnecticut_table_caption_5
CityConnecticut_header_cell_5_0_0 Population (2018 Census estimate)Connecticut_header_cell_5_0_1
1. BridgeportConnecticut_cell_5_1_0 144,900Connecticut_cell_5_1_1
2. New HavenConnecticut_cell_5_2_0 130,418Connecticut_cell_5_2_1
3. StamfordConnecticut_cell_5_3_0 129,775Connecticut_cell_5_3_1
4. HartfordConnecticut_cell_5_4_0 122,587Connecticut_cell_5_4_1
5. WaterburyConnecticut_cell_5_5_0 108,093Connecticut_cell_5_5_1
6. NorwalkConnecticut_cell_5_6_0 89,047Connecticut_cell_5_6_1
7. DanburyConnecticut_cell_5_7_0 84,730Connecticut_cell_5_7_1
8. New BritainConnecticut_cell_5_8_0 72,453Connecticut_cell_5_8_1
9. BristolConnecticut_cell_5_9_0 60,032Connecticut_cell_5_9_1
10. MeridenConnecticut_cell_5_10_0 59,540Connecticut_cell_5_10_1
11. West HavenConnecticut_cell_5_11_0 54,879Connecticut_cell_5_11_1
12. MilfordConnecticut_cell_5_12_0 53,120Connecticut_cell_5_12_1


  • The largest cities in the stateConnecticut_item_5_37
  • Connecticut_item_5_38
  • Connecticut_item_5_39
  • Connecticut_item_5_40
  • Connecticut_item_5_41
  • Connecticut_item_5_42

Economy Connecticut_section_23

See also: List of Connecticut locations by per capita income Connecticut_sentence_263

Connecticut's economic output in 2019 as measured by gross domestic product was $289 billion, up from $277.9 billion in 2018. Connecticut_sentence_264

Connecticut's per capita personal income in 2019 was estimated at $79,087, the highest of any state. Connecticut_sentence_265

There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; after New York, Connecticut had the second largest gap nationwide between the average incomes of the top 1% and the average incomes of the bottom 99%. Connecticut_sentence_266

According to a 2018 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Connecticut had the third-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.75%. Connecticut_sentence_267

New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. Connecticut_sentence_268

Hartford is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000. Connecticut_sentence_269

As of December 2019, Connecticut's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 3.8%, with U.S. unemployment at 3.5% that month. Connecticut_sentence_270

Dating back to 1982, Connecticut recorded its lowest unemployment in 2000 between August and October, at 2.2%. Connecticut_sentence_271

The highest unemployment rate during that period occurred in November and December 2010 at 9.3%, but economists expect record new levels of layoffs as a result of business closures in the spring of 2020 as the result of the coronavirus pandemic. Connecticut_sentence_272

Taxation Connecticut_section_24

Tax is collected by the Connecticut Department of Revenue Services and by local municipalities. Connecticut_sentence_273

As of 2012, Connecticut residents had the second highest rate in the nation of combined state and local taxes after New York, at 12.6% of income compared to the national average of 9.9% as reported by the Tax Foundation. Connecticut_sentence_274

Before 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only income tax system. Connecticut_sentence_275

Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing. Connecticut_sentence_276

In 1991, under Governor Lowell P. Weicker Jr., an independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. Connecticut_sentence_277

The new tax policy drew investment firms to Connecticut; as of 2019, Fairfield County was home to the headquarters for 16 of the 200 largest hedge funds in the world. Connecticut_sentence_278

As of 2019, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals were divided into seven tax brackets of 3% (on income up to $10,000); 5% ($10,000-$50,000); 5.5% ($50,000-$100,000); 6% ($100,000-$200,000); 6.5% ($200,000-$250,000); 6.9% ($250,000-$500,000); and 6.99% above $500,000, with additional amounts owed depending on the bracket. Connecticut_sentence_279

All wages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. Connecticut_sentence_280

However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Connecticut_sentence_281

Since New York has higher income tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents who work in New York have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut_sentence_282

Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount. Connecticut_sentence_283

Connecticut levies a 6.35% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Connecticut_sentence_284

Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. Connecticut_sentence_285

A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011. Connecticut_sentence_286

There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. Connecticut_sentence_287

In 2001, Connecticut instituted what became an annual sales tax "holiday" each August lasting one week, when retailers do not have to remit sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing that has varied from year to year. Connecticut_sentence_288

State law authorizes municipalities to tax property, including real estate, vehicles and other personal property, with state statute providing varying exemptions, credits and abatements. Connecticut_sentence_289

All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. Connecticut_sentence_290

The maximum property tax credit is $200 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward. Connecticut_sentence_291

According to the Tax Foundation, on a per capita basis in the 2017 fiscal year Connecticut residents paid the 3rd highest average property taxes in the nation after New Hampshire and New Jersey. Connecticut_sentence_292

As of January 1, 2020, gasoline taxes and fees in Connecticut were 40.13 cents per gallon, 11th highest in the United States which had a nationwide average of 36.13 cents a gallon excluding federal taxes. Connecticut_sentence_293

Diesel taxes and fees as of January 2020 in Connecticut were 46.50 cents per gallon, ninth highest nationally with the U.S. average at 37.91 cents. Connecticut_sentence_294

Real estate Connecticut_section_25

In 2019, sales of single-family homes in Connecticut totaled 33,146 units, a 2.1 percent decline from the 2018 transaction total. Connecticut_sentence_295

The median home sold in 2019 recorded a transaction amount of $260,000, up 0.4 percent from 2018. Connecticut_sentence_296

Connecticut had the seventh highest rate of home foreclosure activity in the country in 2019 at 0.53 percent of the total housing stock. Connecticut_sentence_297

Industries Connecticut_section_26

See also: List of Connecticut companies Connecticut_sentence_298

Finance, insurance and real estate was Connecticut's largest industry in 2018 as ranked by gross domestic product, generating $75.7 billion in GDP that year. Connecticut_sentence_299

Major financial industry employers include The Hartford, Travelers, Cigna, the Aetna subsidiary of CVS Health, Mass Mutual, People's United Financial, Bank of America, Realogy, Bridgewater Associates, GE Capital, William Raveis Real Estate, and Berkshire Hathaway through reinsurance and residential real estate subsidiaries. Connecticut_sentence_300

The combined educational, health and social services sector was the largest single industry as ranked by employment, with a combined workforce of 342,600 people at the end of 2019, ranking fourth the year before in GDP at $28.3 billion. Connecticut_sentence_301

The broad business and professional services sector had the second highest GDP total in Connecticut in 2018 at an estimated $33.7 billion. Connecticut_sentence_302

Manufacturing was the third biggest industry in 2018 with GDP of $30.8 billion, dominated by Raytheon Technologies formed in the March 2020 merger of Hartford-based United Technologies and Waltham, Mass.-based Raytheon Co. As of the merger, Raytheon Technologies employed about 19,000 people in Connecticut through subsidiaries Pratt & Whitney and Collins Aerospace. Connecticut_sentence_303

Lockheed Martin subsidiary Sikorsky Aircraft operates Connecticut's single largest manufacturing plant in Stratford, where it makes helicopters. Connecticut_sentence_304

Other major manufacturers include the Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, which makes submarines in Groton, Boehringer Ingelheim, a pharmaceuticals manufacturer with its U.S. headquarters in Ridgefield, and ASML, which in Wilton makes precision lithography machines used to create circuitry on semiconductors and flat-screen displays. Connecticut_sentence_305

Connecticut historically was a center of gun manufacturing, and four gun-manufacturing firms continued to operate in the state as of December 2012, employing 2,000 people: Colt, Stag, Ruger, and Mossberg. Connecticut_sentence_306

Marlin, owned by Remington, closed in April 2011. Connecticut_sentence_307

Other large components of the Connecticut economy in 2018 included wholesale trade ($18.1 billion in GDP); information services ($13.8 billion); retail ($13.7 billion); arts, entertainment and food services ($9.1 billion); and construction ($8.3 billion). Connecticut_sentence_308

Tourists spent $9.3 billion in Connecticut in 2017 according to estimates as part of a series of studies commissioned by the state of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_309

Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun are the two biggest tourist draws and number among the state's largest employers; both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_310

Connecticut's agricultural production totaled $580 million in 2017, with just over half of that revenue the result of nursery stock production. Connecticut_sentence_311

Milk production totaled $81 million that year, with other major product categories including eggs, vegetables and fruit, tobacco and shellfish. Connecticut_sentence_312

Transportation Connecticut_section_27

Main article: Transportation in Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_313

Roads Connecticut_section_28

For a more comprehensive list, see List of State Routes in Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_314

The Interstate highways in the state are Interstate 95 (I-95) traveling southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 traveling southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 traveling north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 traveling north to south near the eastern border of the state. Connecticut_sentence_315

The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form Connecticut Route 15 (Route 15), traveling from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and traveling parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin. Connecticut_sentence_316

I-95 and Route 15 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. Connecticut_sentence_317

A series of major crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988. Connecticut_sentence_318

Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Connecticut_sentence_319 Route 7 (US 7) in the west traveling parallel to the New York state line, Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and traveling north–south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with US 7, and Route 9 in the east. Connecticut_sentence_320

Between New Haven and New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Connecticut_sentence_321

Although I-95 has been widened in several spots, some areas are only three lanes and this strains traffic capacity, resulting in frequent and lengthy rush hour delays. Connecticut_sentence_322

Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway and even US 1. Connecticut_sentence_323

The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing. Connecticut_sentence_324

Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycle ownership and use in the United States, particularly in New Haven. Connecticut_sentence_325

According to the U.S. Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast. Connecticut_sentence_326

Rail Connecticut_section_29

Rail is a popular travel mode between New Haven and New York City's Grand Central Terminal. Connecticut_sentence_327

Southwestern Connecticut is served by the Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line, operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing New Canaan, Danbury, and Waterbury. Connecticut_sentence_328

Connecticut lies along Amtrak's Northeast Corridor which features frequent Northeast Regional and Acela Express service from New Haven south to New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, DC, and Norfolk, VA. Connecticut_sentence_329

Coastal cities and towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the Shore Line East commuter line. Connecticut_sentence_330

Several new stations were completed along the Connecticut shoreline recently, and a commuter rail service called the Hartford Line between New Haven and Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line began operating in June 2018. Connecticut_sentence_331

A proposed commuter rail service, the Central Corridor Rail Line, will connect New London with Norwich, Willimantic, Storrs, and Stafford Springs, with service continuing into Massachusetts and Brattleboro. Connecticut_sentence_332

Amtrak also operates a shuttle service (CTRail) between New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, serving Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Hartford, Windsor Locks, and Springfield, MA and the Vermonter runs from Washington to St. Albans, Vermont via the same line. Connecticut_sentence_333

Bus Connecticut_section_30

Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Connecticut_sentence_334

Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. Connecticut_sentence_335

Connecticut Transit also operates CTfastrak, a bus rapid transit service between New Britain and Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_336

The bus route opened to the public on March 28, 2015. Connecticut_sentence_337

Air Connecticut_section_31

Bradley International Airport, is located in Windsor Locks, 15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_338

Many residents of central and southern Connecticut also make heavy use of JFK International Airport and Newark International Airports, especially for international travel. Connecticut_sentence_339

Smaller regional air service is provided at Tweed New Haven Regional Airport. Connecticut_sentence_340

Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut, Hartford–Brainard Airport in central Connecticut, and Groton-New London Airport in eastern Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_341

Sikorsky Memorial Airport is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation. Connecticut_sentence_342

Ferry Connecticut_section_32

The Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry travels between Bridgeport, Connecticut and Port Jefferson, New York by crossing Long Island Sound. Connecticut_sentence_343

Ferry service also operates out of New London to Orient, New York; Fishers Island, New York; and Block Island, Rhode Island, which are popular tourist destinations. Connecticut_sentence_344

Small local services operate the Rocky Hill–Glastonbury Ferry and the Chester–Hadlyme Ferry which cross the Connecticut River. Connecticut_sentence_345

Law and government Connecticut_section_33

Main articles: Law of Connecticut and Administrative divisions of Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_346

Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Connecticut_sentence_347

Before then, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals. Connecticut_sentence_348

Constitutional history Connecticut_section_34

Main article: History of the Connecticut Constitution Connecticut_sentence_349

Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State". Connecticut_sentence_350

The origin of this nickname is uncertain, but it likely comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise. Connecticut_sentence_351

This plan combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution. Connecticut_sentence_352

Variations of the bicameral legislature had been proposed by Virginia and New Jersey, but Connecticut's plan was the one that was in effect until the early 20th century, when Senators ceased to be selected by their state legislatures and were instead directly elected. Connecticut_sentence_353

Otherwise, it is still the design of Congress. Connecticut_sentence_354

The nickname also might refer to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39. Connecticut_sentence_355

These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal Connecticut state government written by a representative body in Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_356

The State of Connecticut government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of the state's constitutional history. Connecticut_sentence_357

After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England through the Connecticut Charter of 1662. Connecticut_sentence_358

Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. Connecticut_sentence_359

A constitution similar to the modern U.S. Connecticut_sentence_360 Constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Connecticut_sentence_361

Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. Connecticut_sentence_362

The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications. Connecticut_sentence_363

Executive Connecticut_section_35

The governor heads the executive branch. Connecticut_sentence_364

As of 2020, Ned Lamont is the Governor and Susan Bysiewicz is the Lieutenant Governor; both are Democrats. Connecticut_sentence_365

From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut_sentence_366

In 1974, Ella Grasso was elected as the governor of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_367

This was the first time in United States history when a woman was a governor without her husband being governor first. Connecticut_sentence_368

There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Construction Services, Education, Emergency Management and Public Protection, Energy & Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs. Connecticut_sentence_369

In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions. Connecticut_sentence_370

In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller, and Attorney General. Connecticut_sentence_371

All executive officers are elected to four-year terms. Connecticut_sentence_372

Legislative Connecticut_section_36

The legislature is the General Assembly. Connecticut_sentence_373

The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of an upper body, the State Senate (36 senators); and a lower body, the House of Representatives (151 representatives). Connecticut_sentence_374

Bills must pass each house in order to become law. Connecticut_sentence_375

The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Connecticut_sentence_376

Per Article XV of the state constitution, Senators and Representatives must be at least 18 years of age and are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. Connecticut_sentence_377

There also must always be between 30 and 50 senators and 125 to 225 representatives. Connecticut_sentence_378

The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President pro tempore presides. Connecticut_sentence_379

The Speaker of the House presides over the House. Connecticut_sentence_380

As of 2020, Joe Aresimowicz is the Speaker of the House of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_381

As of 2019, Connecticut's United States Senators are Richard Blumenthal (Democrat) and Chris Murphy (Democrat). Connecticut_sentence_382

Connecticut has five representatives in the U.S. House, all of whom are Democrats. Connecticut_sentence_383

Locally elected representatives also develop Local ordinances to govern cities and towns. Connecticut_sentence_384

The town ordinances often include noise control and zoning guidelines. Connecticut_sentence_385

However, the State of Connecticut also provides statewide ordinances for noise control as well. Connecticut_sentence_386

Judicial Connecticut_section_37

The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_387

The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Connecticut_sentence_388

Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Connecticut_sentence_389

Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. Connecticut_sentence_390

As of 2020 the Chief Justice is Richard A. Robinson. Connecticut_sentence_391

In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches. Connecticut_sentence_392

The Appellate Court is a lesser statewide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states. Connecticut_sentence_393

The State of Connecticut also offers access to Arrest warrant enforcement statistics through the Office of Policy and Management. Connecticut_sentence_394

Local government Connecticut_section_38

See also: Administrative divisions of Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_395


Connecticut does not have county government, unlike all other states except Rhode Island. Connecticut_sentence_396

Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of sheriffs elected in each county. Connecticut_sentence_397

In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. Connecticut_sentence_398

The judicial system is divided into judicial districts at the trial-court level which largely follow the old county lines. Connecticut_sentence_399

The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports and census reporting. Connecticut_sentence_400

Connecticut shares with the rest of New England a governmental institution called the New England town. Connecticut_sentence_401

The state is divided into 169 towns which serve as the fundamental political jurisdictions. Connecticut_sentence_402

There are also 21 cities, most of which simply follow the boundaries of their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. Connecticut_sentence_403

There are two exceptions: the City of Groton, which is a subsection of the Town of Groton, and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester. Connecticut_sentence_404

There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town. Connecticut_sentence_405

Naugatuck is a consolidated town and borough. Connecticut_sentence_406

The state is also divided into nine regional councils of government defined by the state Office of Planning and Management, which facilitate regional planning and coordination of services between member towns. Connecticut_sentence_407

The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Connecticut_sentence_408

Each region has an administrative body made up chief executive officers of the member towns. Connecticut_sentence_409

The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations". Connecticut_sentence_410

Politics Connecticut_section_39

Further information: Political party strength in Connecticut and Elections in Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_411

Registered voters Connecticut_section_40

Connecticut residents who register to vote may declare an affiliation to a political party, may become unaffiliated at will, and may change affiliations subject to certain waiting periods. Connecticut_sentence_412

As of 2018 about 60% of registered voters are enrolled (just over 1% total in 28 third parties minor parties), and ratios among unaffiliated voters and the two major parties are about eight unaffiliated for every seven in the Democratic Party of Connecticut and for every four in the Connecticut Republican Party. Connecticut_sentence_413

(Among the minor parties, the Libertarian Party and Green Party appeared in the Presidential-electors column in 2016, and drew, respectively, 2.96% and 1.39% of the vote.) Connecticut_sentence_414

Many Connecticut towns and cities show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. Connecticut_sentence_415

Voting Connecticut_section_41

In April 2012 both houses of the Connecticut state legislature passed a bill (20 to 16 and 86 to 62) that abolished the capital punishment for all future crimes, while 11 inmates who were waiting on the death row at the time could still be executed. Connecticut_sentence_416

In July 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor M. Connecticut_sentence_417 Jodi Rell to pass SustiNet, the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation. Connecticut_sentence_418

Education Connecticut_section_42

Further information: List of school districts in Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_419

Connecticut ranked third in the nation for educational performance, according to Education Week's Quality Counts 2018 report. Connecticut_sentence_420

It earned an overall score of 83.5 out of 100 points. Connecticut_sentence_421

On average, the country received a score of 75.2. Connecticut_sentence_422

Connecticut posted a B-plus in the Chance-for-Success category, ranking fourth on factors that contribute to a person's success both within and outside the K-12 education system. Connecticut_sentence_423

Connecticut received a mark of B-plus and finished fourth for School Finance. Connecticut_sentence_424

It ranked 12th with a grade of C on the K-12 Achievement Index. Connecticut_sentence_425

K–12 Connecticut_section_43

See also: Connecticut State Board of Education Connecticut_sentence_426

Public schools Connecticut_section_44

See also: :Category:Public schools in Connecticut Connecticut_sentence_427

The Connecticut State Board of Education manages the public school system for children in grades K–12. Connecticut_sentence_428

Board of Education members are appointed by the Governor of Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_429

Statistics for each school are made available to the public through an online database system called "CEDAR". Connecticut_sentence_430

The CEDAR database also provides statistics for "ACES" or "RESC" schools for children with behavioral disorders. Connecticut_sentence_431

Private schools Connecticut_section_45

See also: Country Day School movement Connecticut_sentence_432

Colleges and universities Connecticut_section_46

Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, Litchfield Law School, which operated from 1773 to 1833 in Litchfield. Connecticut_sentence_433

Hartford Public High School (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the Collegiate School (1628) in Manhattan and the Boston Latin School (1635). Connecticut_sentence_434

Private Connecticut_section_47

Public universities Connecticut_section_48

Main article: Connecticut State University System Connecticut_sentence_435


Public community colleges Connecticut_section_49


The state also has many noted private day schools, and its boarding schools draw students from around the world. Connecticut_sentence_436

Sports Connecticut_section_50

There are two Connecticut teams in the American Hockey League. Connecticut_sentence_437

The Bridgeport Sound Tigers is a farm team for the New York Islanders which competes at the Webster Bank Arena in Bridgeport. Connecticut_sentence_438

The Hartford Wolf Pack is the affiliate of the New York Rangers; they play in the XL Center in Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_439

The Hartford Yard Goats of the Eastern League are a AA affiliate of the Colorado Rockies. Connecticut_sentence_440

Also, the Norwich Sea Unicorns play in the New York-Penn League and are an A affiliate of the Detroit Tigers. Connecticut_sentence_441

The New Britain Bees play in the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball. Connecticut_sentence_442

The Connecticut Sun of the WNBA currently play at the Mohegan Sun Arena in Uncasville. Connecticut_sentence_443

In soccer, Hartford Athletic began play in the USL Championship in 2019, serving as the reserve team for the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. Connecticut_sentence_444

The state hosts several major sporting events. Connecticut_sentence_445

Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Connecticut_sentence_446

It was originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open" and is now known as the Travelers Championship. Connecticut_sentence_447

The Connecticut Open tennis tournament is held annually in the Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center at Yale University in New Haven. Connecticut_sentence_448

Lime Rock Park in Salisbury is a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) road racing course, home to the International Motor Sports Association, SCCA, United States Auto Club, and K&N Pro Series East races. Connecticut_sentence_449

Thompson International Speedway, Stafford Motor Speedway, and Waterford Speedbowl are oval tracks holding weekly races for NASCAR Modifieds and other classes, including the NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour. Connecticut_sentence_450

The state also hosts several major mixed martial arts events for Bellator MMA and the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Connecticut_sentence_451

Professional sports teams Connecticut_section_51

The Hartford Whalers of the National Hockey League played in Hartford from 1975 to 1997 at the Hartford Civic Center. Connecticut_sentence_452

They departed to Raleigh, North Carolina after disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, and they are now known as the Carolina Hurricanes. Connecticut_sentence_453

In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the National Football League known as the Hartford Blues. Connecticut_sentence_454

They joined the National League for one season in 1876, making them the state's only Major League baseball franchise before moving to Brooklyn, New York and then disbanding one season later. Connecticut_sentence_455

From 2000 until 2006 the city was home to the Hartford FoxForce of World TeamTennis. Connecticut_sentence_456


TeamConnecticut_header_cell_6_0_0 SportConnecticut_header_cell_6_0_1 LeagueConnecticut_header_cell_6_0_2
Bridgeport Sound TigersConnecticut_cell_6_1_0 Ice hockeyConnecticut_cell_6_1_1 American Hockey LeagueConnecticut_cell_6_1_2
Hartford Wolf PackConnecticut_cell_6_2_0 Ice hockeyConnecticut_cell_6_2_1 American Hockey LeagueConnecticut_cell_6_2_2
Connecticut WhaleConnecticut_cell_6_3_0 Ice hockeyConnecticut_cell_6_3_1 National Women's Hockey LeagueConnecticut_cell_6_3_2
Hartford Yard GoatsConnecticut_cell_6_4_0 BaseballConnecticut_cell_6_4_1 Eastern League (AA)Connecticut_cell_6_4_2
Norwich Sea UnicornsConnecticut_cell_6_5_0 BaseballConnecticut_cell_6_5_1 New York–Penn League (A)Connecticut_cell_6_5_2
New Britain BeesConnecticut_cell_6_6_0 BaseballConnecticut_cell_6_6_1 Futures Collegiate Baseball LeagueConnecticut_cell_6_6_2
Connecticut SunConnecticut_cell_6_7_0 BasketballConnecticut_cell_6_7_1 Women's National Basketball AssociationConnecticut_cell_6_7_2
Hartford City FCConnecticut_cell_6_8_0 SoccerConnecticut_cell_6_8_1 National Premier Soccer LeagueConnecticut_cell_6_8_2
Hartford AthleticConnecticut_cell_6_9_0 SoccerConnecticut_cell_6_9_1 USL ChampionshipConnecticut_cell_6_9_2
AC ConnecticutConnecticut_cell_6_10_0 SoccerConnecticut_cell_6_10_1 USL League TwoConnecticut_cell_6_10_2
New England Black WolvesConnecticut_cell_6_11_0 LacrosseConnecticut_cell_6_11_1 National Lacrosse LeagueConnecticut_cell_6_11_2

College sports Connecticut_section_52

The Connecticut Huskies are the team of the University of Connecticut (UConn); they play NCAA Division I sports. Connecticut_sentence_457

Both the men's basketball and women's basketball teams have won multiple national championships. Connecticut_sentence_458

In 2004, UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year; they repeated the feat in 2014 and are still the only Division I school to win both titles in the same year. Connecticut_sentence_459

The UConn women's basketball team holds the record for the longest consecutive winning streak in NCAA college basketball at 111 games, a streak that ended in 2017. Connecticut_sentence_460

The UConn Huskies football team has played in the Football Bowl Subdivision since 2002, and has played in four bowl games. Connecticut_sentence_461

New Haven biennially hosts "The Game" between the Yale Bulldogs and the Harvard Crimson, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Connecticut_sentence_462

Yale alumnus Walter Camp is deemed the "Father of American Football", and he helped develop modern football while living in New Haven. Connecticut_sentence_463

Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams are Quinnipiac University, Fairfield University, Central Connecticut State University, Sacred Heart University, and the University of Hartford. Connecticut_sentence_464

The Constitution State Rivalry is an in-state college football rivalry between Sacred Heart University and Central Connecticut State University. Connecticut_sentence_465

Both teams compete at the NCAA Division 1 Football Championship Subdivision level in the Northeast Conference. Connecticut_sentence_466

Since 1998, the game has been played annually with the location of the matchup determined on a yearly basis. Connecticut_sentence_467

Etymology and symbols Connecticut_section_53


Connecticut state symbolsConnecticut_header_cell_7_0_0
Living insigniaConnecticut_header_cell_7_1_0
BirdConnecticut_header_cell_7_2_0 American robinConnecticut_cell_7_2_1
FishConnecticut_header_cell_7_3_0 American shadConnecticut_cell_7_3_1
FlowerConnecticut_header_cell_7_4_0 Mountain laurelConnecticut_cell_7_4_1
InsectConnecticut_header_cell_7_5_0 European mantisConnecticut_cell_7_5_1
MammalConnecticut_header_cell_7_6_0 Sperm whaleConnecticut_cell_7_6_1
TreeConnecticut_header_cell_7_7_0 Charter Oak, a white oakConnecticut_cell_7_7_1
Inanimate insigniaConnecticut_header_cell_7_8_0
DanceConnecticut_header_cell_7_9_0 Square danceConnecticut_cell_7_9_1
FossilConnecticut_header_cell_7_10_0 Dinosaur tracksConnecticut_cell_7_10_1
MineralConnecticut_header_cell_7_11_0 GarnetConnecticut_cell_7_11_1
MottoConnecticut_header_cell_7_12_0 Connecticut_cell_7_12_1
ShellConnecticut_header_cell_7_13_0 Eastern oysterConnecticut_cell_7_13_1
ShipConnecticut_header_cell_7_14_0 USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Freedom Schooner AmistadConnecticut_cell_7_14_1
SloganConnecticut_header_cell_7_15_0 Full of SurprisesConnecticut_cell_7_15_1
SongConnecticut_header_cell_7_16_0 Connecticut_cell_7_16_1
TartanConnecticut_header_cell_7_17_0 Connecticut_cell_7_17_1
State route markerConnecticut_header_cell_7_18_0
State quarterConnecticut_header_cell_7_19_0

The name "Connecticut" originated with the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river". Connecticut_sentence_468

Connecticut's official nickname is "The Constitution State", adopted in 1959 and based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world. Connecticut_sentence_469

Connecticut is also unofficially known as "The Nutmeg State," whose origin is unknown. Connecticut_sentence_470

It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg, which was a very valuable spice in the 18th and 19th centuries. Connecticut_sentence_471

It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. Connecticut_sentence_472

It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers. Connecticut_sentence_473

George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State" because of the material aid that the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut_sentence_474

Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits". Connecticut_sentence_475

According to Webster's New International Dictionary (1993), a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". Connecticut_sentence_476

There are numerous other terms coined in print but not in use, such as "Connecticotian" (Cotton Mather in 1702) and "Connecticutensian" (Samuel Peters in 1781). Connecticut_sentence_477

Linguist Allen Walker Read suggests the more playful term "connecticutie". Connecticut_sentence_478

"Nutmegger" is sometimes used, as is "Yankee" The official state song is "Yankee Doodle". Connecticut_sentence_479

The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn". Connecticut_sentence_480

the official postal abbreviation is CT. Connecticut_sentence_481

Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan, which is docked at Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck. Connecticut_sentence_482


  • Connecticut_item_9_63
  • Connecticut_item_9_64


Connecticut state insignia and historical figuresConnecticut_table_caption_8
State aircraftConnecticut_cell_8_0_0 Vought F4U CorsairConnecticut_cell_8_0_1
State heroConnecticut_cell_8_1_0 Nathan HaleConnecticut_cell_8_1_1
State heroineConnecticut_cell_8_2_0 Prudence CrandallConnecticut_cell_8_2_1
State composerConnecticut_cell_8_3_0 Charles Edward IvesConnecticut_cell_8_3_1
State statues in Statuary HallConnecticut_cell_8_4_0 Roger Sherman and Jonathan TrumbullConnecticut_cell_8_4_1
State poet laureateConnecticut_cell_8_5_0 Margaret GibsonConnecticut_cell_8_5_1
Connecticut State TroubadourConnecticut_cell_8_6_0 Nekita WallerConnecticut_cell_8_6_1
State composer laureateConnecticut_cell_8_7_0 Jacob DruckmanConnecticut_cell_8_7_1

Notable people Connecticut_section_54

For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from Connecticut. Connecticut_sentence_483


  • George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States, grew up in Greenwich a member of the Bush political family, with roots in the state extending three generations.Connecticut_item_10_65
  • George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States, was born in New Haven.Connecticut_item_10_66
  • Richard and Karen Carpenter, brother and sister duo of The Carpenters who won a Grammy and sold more than sixty million albums by 1983; born in New Haven 1946 and 1950, respectively.Connecticut_item_10_67
  • Glenn Close, American actress who is best known for appearing as Alex Forrest in Fatal Attraction, and Cruella de Vil in Disney's live-action remake of 101 Dalmatians.Connecticut_item_10_68
  • Charles Dow, founder of The Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones & Company.Connecticut_item_10_69
  • Josiah Willard Gibbs was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.Connecticut_item_10_70
  • Katharine Hepburn, named by the American Film Institute as the greatest female star in Hollywood history.Connecticut_item_10_71
  • Floyd Little, former American football hall-of-famer with the Denver BroncosConnecticut_item_10_72
  • Seth MacFarlane, a cartoonist, well known for creating Family Guy, American Dad, Cleveland Show, and the TED series.Connecticut_item_10_73
  • J.P. Morgan, financier and philanthropist who dominated a period of industrial consolidation and intervened in multiple economic panics during his time.Connecticut_item_10_74
  • Ralph Nader, torts lawyer, author, founder of the American Museum of Tort Law, and 2000 independent candidate for President of the United States.Connecticut_item_10_75
  • John Ratzenberger, actor who is famous for voicing a character in every Pixar movie.Connecticut_item_10_76
  • Jackie Robinson, who broke baseball's "color line," contributing significantly to the civil rights movement.Connecticut_item_10_77
  • Roger Sherman, a Founding Father who was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the United States: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution.Connecticut_item_10_78
  • Igor Sikorsky, who created and flew the first practical helicopter.Connecticut_item_10_79
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe, whose novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) energized anti-slavery forces in the American North.Connecticut_item_10_80
  • Meryl Streep, who holds the record for the most Academy Awards nominations for acting.Connecticut_item_10_81
  • Mark Twain resided in his innovative Hartford home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. He lived in Redding from 1908 until his death in 1910.Connecticut_item_10_82
  • Noah Webster was born in Hartford in an area that is now part of West Hartford and was the author of the Blue Backed Speller, now known as Webster's Dictionary. The Speller was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans.Connecticut_item_10_83
  • Eli Whitney, best known for inventing the cotton gin which shaped the economy of the Antebellum South, and promoting the design of interchangeable parts in production, a major development leading to the Industrial Revolution.Connecticut_item_10_84
  • Jocko Willink, retired US Navy SEAL Lieutenant Commander, author, podcaster, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu black belt, and co-founder of management consulting firm Echelon Front.Connecticut_item_10_85
  • Marguerite Yourcenar was living in Hartford when she wrote her masterpiece Memoirs of Hadrian.Connecticut_item_10_86

See also Connecticut_section_55


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: