This article is about the State of Connecticut.
For the river, see Connecticut River.
For other uses, see Connecticut (disambiguation).
|Before statehood||Connecticut Colony|
|Admitted to the Union||January 9, 1788 (5th)|
|Largest metro||Greater New York|
|Governor||Ned Lamont (D)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Susan Bysiewicz (D)|
|Legislature||Connecticut General Assembly|
|Upper house||Connecticut Senate|
|Lower house||Connecticut House of Representatives|
|Judiciary||Connecticut Supreme Court|
|U.S. senators||Richard Blumenthal (D)
Chris Murphy (D)
|U.S. House delegation||5 Democrats (list)|
|Total||5,567 sq mi (14,357 km)|
|Land||4,849 sq mi (12,559 km)|
|Water||698 sq mi (1,809 km) 12.6%|
|Length||70 mi (113 km)|
|Width||110 mi (177 km)|
|Elevation||500 ft (150 m)|
|Highest elevation (Massachusetts border on south slope of Mount Frissell)||2,379 ft (725 m)|
|Lowest elevation (Long Island Sound)||0 ft (0 m)|
|Density||739/sq mi (285/km)|
|Median household income||$76,106|
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 (Eastern)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC−04:00 (EDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||US-CT|
|Latitude||40°58′ N to 42°03′ N|
|Longitude||71°47′ W to 73°44′ W|
|Connecticut state symbols|
|Tree||Charter Oak, a white oak|
|State route marker|
As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index (0.962), and median household income in the United States.
Geographically the state is part of New England, and although its cultural history stems from the region, in the modern age large sections of it are increasingly connected to and associated with the tri-state area with New York and New Jersey.
The state is named for the Connecticut River which approximately bisects the state.
The word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of “Quononoquett (Conanicut),” a Mohegan-Pequot word for "long tidal river".
Half of Connecticut was initially part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America.
In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony.
Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, and the fourth most densely populated of the fifty states.
It is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", and the "Land of Steady Habits".
It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States (see Connecticut Compromise).
The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today.
The state also has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County.
Main article: Geology of Connecticut
Further information: Geology of New England
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, and other major cities and towns (by population) include Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich, and Bristol.
Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro.
There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut.
At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet (6 m) above sea level.
Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront (technically speaking).
The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the west (toward New York City) and to the east (toward the "race" near Rhode Island).
This situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, and many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound.
The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley.
Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills, it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in areas to the east of New Haven along the coast, the landscape features coastal marshes, beaches, and large scale maritime activities.
Further information: List of Connecticut rivers
Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities such as Stamford, Bridgeport, and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford.
Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green.
Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, and so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism.
Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, and look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 miles (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut.
The origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, and the town was split in half.
The southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien, and parts of Norwalk and Wilton.
This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border, as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.
Further information: Connecticut panhandle
Areas maintained by the National Park Service include Appalachian National Scenic Trail, Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor, and Weir Farm National Historic Site.
- Landmarks and cities of Connecticut
Northern Connecticut generally experiences a climate with cold winters with moderate snowfall and hot, humid summers.
Far southern and coastal Connecticut has a climate with cool winters with a mix of rain and infrequent snow, and the long hot and humid summers typical of the middle and lower East Coast.
Connecticut sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months.
Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine (higher than the U.S. national average), averaging 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.
Early spring (April) can range from slightly cool (40s to low 50s F) to warm (65 to 70 F), while mid and late spring (late April/May) is warm.
By late May, the building Bermuda High creates a southerly flow of warm and humid tropical air, bringing hot weather conditions throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 85 °F (29 °C) in Windsor Locks at the peak of summer in late July.
On occasion, heat waves with highs from 90 to 100 °F (38 °C) occur across Connecticut.
Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, quick moving summer thunderstorms can bring brief downpours with thunder and lightning.
Occasionally these thunderstorms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.
During hurricane season, the remains of tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region, though a direct hit is rare.
Weather commonly associated with the fall season typically begins in October and lasts to the first days of December.
Daily high temperatures in October and November range from the 50s to 60s (Fahrenheit) with nights in the 40s and upper 30s.
Colorful foliage begins across northern parts of the state in early October and moves south and east reaching southeast Connecticut by early November.
Far southern and coastal areas, however, have more oak and hickory trees (and fewer maples) and are often less colorful than areas to the north.
By December daytime highs are in the 40s °F for much of the state, and average overnight lows are below freezing.
Winters (December through mid-March) are generally cold from south to north in Connecticut.
The coldest month (January) has average high temperatures ranging from 38 °F (3 °C) in the coastal lowlands to 33 °F (1 °C) in the inland and northern portions on the state.
The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 60 inches (1,500 mm) in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20–25 inches (510–640 mm) along the southeast coast of Connecticut (Branford to Groton).
Generally, any locale north or west of Interstate 84 receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season.
Most of Connecticut has less than 60 days of snow cover.
Snow usually falls from late November to late March in the northern part of the state, and from early December to mid-March in the southern and coastal parts of the state.
Connecticut's record high temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the record low is −32 °F (−36 °C) which occurred in the Northwest Hills Falls Village on February 16, 1943, and Coventry on January 22, 1961.
|Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Connecticut cities (°F)|
Main article: Flora of Connecticut
See also: List of Connecticut tree species
Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) is the state flower and is native to low ridges in several parts of Connecticut.
Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), is found in wetlands in the southern parts of the state.
Connecticut has one native cactus (Opuntia humifusa), found in sandy coastal areas and low hillsides.
Several types of beach grasses and wildflowers are also native to Connecticut.
Connecticut spans USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5b to 7a.
Coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone where more southern and subtropical plants are cultivated.
In some coastal communities, Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia), Crape Myrtles, scrub palms (Sabal minor), Needle Palms (Rhapidophyllum hystrix), and other broadleaved evergreens are cultivated in small numbers.
Main article: History of Connecticut
Evidence of human presence in the Connecticut region dates to as much as 10,000 years ago.
Stone tools were used for hunting, fishing, and woodworking.
Semi-nomadic in lifestyle, these peoples moved seasonally to take advantage of various resources in the area.
They shared languages based on Algonquian.
The Connecticut region was inhabited by multiple Native American tribes which can be grouped into the Nipmuc, the Sequin or "River Indians" (which included the Tunxis, Schaghticoke, Podunk, Wangunk, Hammonasset, and Quinnipiac), the Mattabesec or "Wappinger Confederacy" and the Pequot-Mohegan.
The first European explorer in Connecticut was Dutchman Adriaen Block, who explored the region in 1614.
Dutch fur traders then sailed up the Connecticut River, which they called Versche Rivier ("Fresh River"), and built a fort at Dutch Point in Hartford that they named "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop).
The Connecticut Colony was originally a number of separate, smaller settlements at Windsor, Wethersfield, Saybrook, Hartford, and New Haven.
The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.
The main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636.
The New Haven Colony had its own constitution called "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony", signed on June 4, 1639.
The settlements were established without official sanction of the English Crown, and each was an independent political entity.
In 1662, Winthrop traveled to England and obtained a charter from Charles II which united the settlements of Connecticut.
Historically important colonial settlements included Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), Saybrook (1635), Hartford (1636), New Haven (1638), Fairfield (1639), Guilford (1639), Milford (1639), Stratford (1639), Farmington (1640), Stamford (1641), and New London (1646).
The Pequot War marked the first major clash between colonists and Native Americans in New England.
The Pequots reacted with increasing aggression to Colonial settlements in their territory—while simultaneously taking lands from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes.
Settlers responded to a murder in 1636 with a raid on a Pequot village on Block Island; the Pequots laid siege to Saybrook Colony's garrison that autumn, then raided Wethersfield in the spring of 1637.
Colonists declared war on the Pequots, organized a band of militia and allies from the Mohegan and Narragansett tribes, and attacked a Pequot village on the Mystic River, with death toll estimates ranging between 300 and 700 Pequots.
After suffering another major loss at a battle in Fairfield, the Pequots asked for a truce and peace terms.
The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time.
The Hartford Treaty with the Dutch was signed on September 19, 1650, but it was never ratified by the British.
According to it, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles (32 km), "provided the said line come not within 10 miles of Hudson River".
This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652.
On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea"—that is, to the Pacific Ocean.
Most Colonial royal grants were for long east–west strips.
Yale College was established in 1701, providing Connecticut with an important institution to educate clergy and civil leaders.
The Congregational church dominated religious life in the colony and, by extension, town affairs in many parts.
With more than 600 miles of coastline including along its navigable rivers, during the colonial years Connecticut developed the antecedents of a maritime tradition that would later produce booms in shipbuilding, marine transport, naval support, seafood production, and leisure boating.
Historical records list the Tryall as the first vessel built in Connecticut Colony, in 1649 at a site on the Connecticut River in present-day Wethersfield.
In the two decades leading up to 1776 and the American Revolution, Connecticut boatyards launched about 100 sloops, schooners and brigs according to a database of U.S. customs records maintained online by the Mystic Seaport Museum, the largest being the 180-ton Patient Mary launched in New Haven in 1763.
Main articles: American Revolutionary War, Lee Resolution, United States Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation § Ratification, Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War after Saratoga, Treaty of Paris (1783), Constitutional Convention (United States), Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Connecticut's legislature authorized the outfitting of six new regiments in 1775, in the wake of the clashes between British regulars and Massachusetts militia at Lexington and Concord.
There were some 1,200 Connecticut troops on hand at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775.
This force then marched to Danbury and destroyed homes and much of the depot.
For the winter of 1778–79, General George Washington decided to split the Continental Army into three divisions encircling New York City, where British General Sir Henry Clinton had taken up winter quarters.
Major General Israel Putnam chose Redding as the winter encampment quarters for some 3,000 regulars and militia under his command.
Soldiers at the Redding camp endured supply shortages, cold temperatures, and significant snow, with some historians dubbing the encampment "Connecticut's Valley Forge".
The state was also the launching site for a number of raids against Long Island orchestrated by Samuel Holden Parsons and Benjamin Tallmadge, and provided men and material for the war effort, especially to Washington's army outside New York City.
New London and Groton Heights were raided in September 1781 by Benedict Arnold, who had turned traitor to the British.
At the outset of the American Revolution, the Continental Congress assigned Nathaniel Shaw Jr. of New London as its naval agent in charge of recruiting privateers to seize British vessels as opportunities presented, with nearly 50 operating out of the Thames River which eventually drew the reprisal from the British force led by Arnold.
Early national period and industrial revolution
The state prospered during the era following the American Revolution, as mills and textile factories were built and seaports flourished from trade and fisheries.
After Congress established in 1790 the predecessor to the U.S. that would evolve into the U.S. Coast Guard, President Washington assigned Jonathan Maltbie as one of seven masters to enforce customs regulations, with Maltbie monitoring the southern New England coast with a 48-foot Revenue Cutter Servicecutter sloop named Argus.
In 1786, Connecticut ceded territory to the U.S. government that became part of the Northwest Territory.
The state retained land extending across the northern part of present-day Ohio called the Connecticut Western Reserve.
The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio.
Connecticut made agreements with Pennsylvania and New York which extinguished the land claims within those states' boundaries and created the Connecticut Panhandle.
The state then ceded the Western Reserve in 1800 to the federal government, which brought it to its present boundaries (other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts).
For the first time in 1800, Connecticut shipwrights launched more than 100 vessels in a single year.
Over the following decade to the doorstep of renewed hostilities with Britain that sparked the War of 1812, Connecticut boatyards constructed close to 1,000 vessels, the most productive stretch of any decade in the 19th century.
The British blockade during the War of 1812 hurt exports and bolstered the influence of Federalists who opposed the war.
The cessation of imports from Britain stimulated the construction of factories to manufacture textiles and machinery.
The war led to the development of fast clippers that helped extend the reach of New England merchants to the Pacific and Indian oceans.
The state was known for its political conservatism, typified by its Federalist party and the Yale College of Timothy Dwight.
The foremost intellectuals were Dwight and Noah Webster, who compiled his great dictionary in New Haven.
Religious tensions polarized the state, as the Congregational Church struggled to maintain traditional viewpoints, in alliance with the Federalists.
Connecticut had been governed under the "Fundamental Orders" since 1639, but the state adopted a new constitution in 1818.
Civil War era
Main article: Connecticut in the American Civil War
Connecticut manufacturers played a major role in supplying the Union forces with weapons and supplies during the Civil War.
The state furnished 55,000 men, formed into thirty full regiments of infantry, including two in the U.S. , with several Connecticut men becoming generals. Colored Troops
The Navy attracted 250 officers and 2,100 men, and Glastonbury native Gideon Welles was Secretary of the Navy.
James H. Ward of Hartford was the first U.S.
Naval Officer killed in the Civil War.
Connecticut casualties included 2,088 killed in combat, 2,801 dying from disease, and 689 dying in Confederate prison camps.
A surge of national unity in 1861 brought thousands flocking to the colors from every town and city.
However, as the war became a crusade to end slavery, many Democrats (especially Irish Catholics) pulled back.
The Democrats took a pro-slavery position and included many Copperheads willing to let the South secede.
The intensely fought 1863 election for governor was narrowly won by the Republicans.
Second industrial revolution
Connecticut's extensive industry, dense population, flat terrain, and wealth encouraged the construction of railroads starting in 1839.
By 1840, 102 miles (164 km) of line were in operation, growing to 402 miles (647 km) in 1850 and 601 miles (967 km) in 1860.
The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, called the New Haven or "The Consolidated", became the dominant Connecticut railroad company after 1872.
J. began financing the major New England railroads in the 1890s, dividing territory so that they would not compete. P. Morgan
The New Haven purchased 50 smaller companies, including steamship lines, and built a network of light rails (electrified trolleys) that provided inter-urban transportation for all of southern New England.
By 1912, the New Haven operated over 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of track with 120,000 employees.
As steam-powered passenger ships proliferated after the Civil War, Noank would produce the two largest built in Connecticut during the 19th century, with the 332-foot wooden steam paddle wheeler Rhode Island launched in 1882, and the 345-foot paddle wheeler Connecticut seven years later.
Connecticut shipyards would launch more than 165 steam-powered vessels in the 19th century.
In 1875, the first telephone exchange in the world was established in New Haven.
World War I
When World War I broke out in 1914, Connecticut became a major supplier of weaponry to the U.S. military; by 1918, 80% of the state's industries were producing goods for the war effort.
Connecticut was also an important U.S. Navy supplier, with Electric Boat receiving orders for 85 submarines, Lake Torpedo Boat building more than 20 subs, and the Groton Iron Works building freighters.
On June 21, 1916, the Navy made Groton the site for its East Coast submarine base and school.
The state enthusiastically supported the American war effort in 1917 and 1918 with large purchases of war bonds, a further expansion of industry, and an emphasis on increasing food production on the farms.
Thousands of state, local, and volunteer groups mobilized for the war effort and were coordinated by the Connecticut State Council of Defense.
Manufacturers wrestled with manpower shortages; Waterbury's American Brass and Manufacturing Company was running at half capacity, so the federal government agreed to furlough soldiers to work there.
In 1919, J. Henry Roraback started the Connecticut Light & Power Co. which became the state's dominant electric utility.
In 1925, Frederick Rentschler spurred the creation of Pratt & Whitney in Hartford to develop engines for aircraft; the company became an important military supplier in World War II and one of the three major manufacturers of jet engines in the world.
On September 21, 1938, the most destructive storm in New England history struck eastern Connecticut, killing hundreds of people.
The eye of the "Long Island Express" passed just west of New Haven and devastated the Connecticut shoreline between Old Saybrook and Stonington from the full force of wind and waves, even though they had partial protection by Long Island.
The hurricane caused extensive damage to infrastructure, homes, and businesses.
In New London, a 500-foot (150 m) sailing ship was driven into a warehouse complex, causing a major fire.
Heavy rainfall caused the Connecticut River to flood downtown Hartford and East Hartford.
An estimated 50,000 trees fell onto roadways.
World War II
Connecticut manufactured 4.1% of total U.S. military armaments produced during the war, ranking ninth among the 48 states, with major factories including Colt for firearms, Pratt & Whitney for aircraft engines, Chance Vought for fighter planes, Hamilton Standard for propellers, and Electric Boat for submarines and PT boats.
In Bridgeport, General Electric produced a significant new weapon to combat tanks: the bazooka.
The helicopter saw limited use in World War II, but future military production made Sikorsky Aircraft's Stratford plant Connecticut's largest single manufacturing site by the start of the 21st century.
Post-World War II economic expansion
Connecticut lost some wartime factories following the end of hostilities, but the state shared in a general post-war expansion that included the construction of highways and resulting in middle-class growth in suburban areas.
In 1965, Connecticut ratified its current constitution, replacing the document that had served since 1818.
In 1974, Connecticut elected Democratic Governor Ella T. Grasso, who became the first woman in any state to be elected governor without being the wife or widow of a previous governor.
Late 20th century
Connecticut's dependence on the defense industry posed an economic challenge at the end of the Cold War.
The resulting budget crisis helped elect Lowell Weicker as governor on a third-party ticket in 1990.
Weicker's remedy was a state income tax which proved effective in balancing the budget, but only for the short-term.
He did not run for a second term, in part because of this politically unpopular move.
Mohegan Sun followed four years later.
Early 21st century
In 2004, Republican Governor John G. Rowland resigned during a corruption investigation, later pleading guilty to federal charges.
Connecticut was hit by three major storms in just over 14 months in 2011 and 2012, with all three causing extensive property damage and electric outages.
Hurricane Irene struck Connecticut August 28, and damage totaled $235 million.
Two months later, the "Halloween nor'easter" dropped extensive snow onto trees, resulting in snapped branches and trunks that damaged power lines; some areas were without electricity for 11 days.
Hurricane Sandy had tropical storm-force winds when it reached Connecticut October 29, 2012.
Sandy's winds drove storm surges into streets and cut power to 98% of homes and businesses, with more than $360 million in damage.
The massacre spurred renewed efforts by activists for tighter laws on gun ownership nationally.
In the summer and fall of 2016, Connecticut experienced a drought in many parts of the state, causing some water-use bans.
This affected the agricultural economy in the state.
- The 21st century in Connecticut in photos
As of 2019, Connecticut had an estimated population of 3,565,287, which is a decrease of 7,378 (0.25%) from the prior year and a decrease of 8,810 (0.25%) since 2010.
This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 (222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state.
Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moved from 29th most populous state to 30th.
2018 estimates put Connecticut's population at 3,572,665.
6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older.
Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.
In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural".
The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890.
In the 2000 census, only 12.3% was considered rural.
Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the Gold Coast) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state and has high property costs and high incomes.
As of the 2010 United States Census, Connecticut's race and ethnic percentages were:
- 77.6% White (71.2% Non-Hispanic White, 6.4% White Hispanic)
- 10.1% Black or African American
- 0.3% Native American and Alaska Native
- 3.8% Asian
- 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
- 5.6% from some other race
- 2.6% two or more races
Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population in the 2010 Census.
The state's most populous ethnic group is Non-Hispanic White, but this has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010.
|Native Hawaiian and||–||–||–|
|Two or more races||–||2.2%||2.6%|
As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born.
In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.
As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31%, and Polish at 1.20%.
The largest European ancestry groups are:
- 19.3% Italian
- 17.9% Irish
- 10.7% English
- 10.4% German
- 8.6% Polish
- 6.6% French
- 3.0% French Canadian
- 2.7% American
- 2.0% Scottish
- 1.4% Scotch Irish
As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities.
Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
|White:||28,454 (78.8%)||28,543 (78.7%)||28,164 (78.8%)||...||...||...|
|Non-Hispanic White||20,704 (57.4%)||20,933 (57.7%)||20,395 (57.1%)||19,551 (54.3%)||18,842 (53.5%)||18,488 (53.2%)|
|Black||5,103 (14.1%)||5,154 (14.2%)||4,988 (14.0%)||4,453 (12.4%)||4,301 (12.2%)||4,423 (12.7%)|
|Asian||2,221 (6.2%)||2,280 (6.3%)||2,497 (7.0%)||2,583 (7.2%)||2,475 (7.0%)||2,232 (6.4%)|
|Native American||307 (0.9%)||308 (0.8%)||97 (0.3%)||26 (0.1%)||28 (0.1%)||38 (0.1%)|
|Hispanic (of any race)||8,208 (22.7%)||8,129 (22.4%)||8,275 (23.1%)||8,622 (23.9%)||8,833 (25.1%)||8,762 (25.2%)|
|Total Connecticut||36,085 (100%)||36,285 (100%)||35,746 (100%)||36,015 (100%)||35,221 (100%)||34.725 (100%)|
- Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
The religious affiliations of the people of Connecticut as of 2014:
A Pew survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations: Protestant 35%, Mormonism 1%, Jewish 3%, Roman Catholic 33%, Orthodox 1%, Non-religious 28%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Hinduism 1%, Buddhism 1% and Islam 1%.
Jewish congregations had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000.
According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2010 were: the Catholic Church, with 1,252,936; the United Church of Christ, with 96,506; and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, with 72,863.
Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.
Largest cities and towns
|City||Population (2018 Census estimate)|
|2. New Haven||130,418|
|8. New Britain||72,453|
|11. West Haven||54,879|
- The largest cities in the state
Connecticut's economic output in 2019 as measured by gross domestic product was $289 billion, up from $277.9 billion in 2018.
Connecticut's per capita personal income in 2019 was estimated at $79,087, the highest of any state.
There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; after New York, Connecticut had the second largest gap nationwide between the average incomes of the top 1% and the average incomes of the bottom 99%.
According to a 2018 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Connecticut had the third-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.75%.
New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459.
Hartford is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.
As of December 2019, Connecticut's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 3.8%, with U.S. unemployment at 3.5% that month.
Dating back to 1982, Connecticut recorded its lowest unemployment in 2000 between August and October, at 2.2%.
The highest unemployment rate during that period occurred in November and December 2010 at 9.3%, but economists expect record new levels of layoffs as a result of business closures in the spring of 2020 as the result of the coronavirus pandemic.
Tax is collected by the Connecticut Department of Revenue Services and by local municipalities.
As of 2012, Connecticut residents had the second highest rate in the nation of combined state and local taxes after New York, at 12.6% of income compared to the national average of 9.9% as reported by the Tax Foundation.
Before 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only income tax system.
Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.
In 1991, under Governor Lowell P. Weicker Jr., an independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%.
As of 2019, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals were divided into seven tax brackets of 3% (on income up to $10,000); 5% ($10,000-$50,000); 5.5% ($50,000-$100,000); 6% ($100,000-$200,000); 6.5% ($200,000-$250,000); 6.9% ($250,000-$500,000); and 6.99% above $500,000, with additional amounts owed depending on the bracket.
All wages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state.
However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction.
Since New York has higher income tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents who work in New York have no Connecticut income tax withheld.
Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount.
Connecticut levies a 6.35% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods.
Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute.
A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011.
There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions.
In 2001, Connecticut instituted what became an annual sales tax "holiday" each August lasting one week, when retailers do not have to remit sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing that has varied from year to year.
State law authorizes municipalities to tax property, including real estate, vehicles and other personal property, with state statute providing varying exemptions, credits and abatements.
All assessments are at 70% of fair market value.
The maximum property tax credit is $200 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.
According to the Tax Foundation, on a per capita basis in the 2017 fiscal year Connecticut residents paid the 3rd highest average property taxes in the nation after New Hampshire and New Jersey.
As of January 1, 2020, gasoline taxes and fees in Connecticut were 40.13 cents per gallon, 11th highest in the United States which had a nationwide average of 36.13 cents a gallon excluding federal taxes.
Diesel taxes and fees as of January 2020 in Connecticut were 46.50 cents per gallon, ninth highest nationally with the U.S. average at 37.91 cents.
In 2019, sales of single-family homes in Connecticut totaled 33,146 units, a 2.1 percent decline from the 2018 transaction total.
The median home sold in 2019 recorded a transaction amount of $260,000, up 0.4 percent from 2018.
Connecticut had the seventh highest rate of home foreclosure activity in the country in 2019 at 0.53 percent of the total housing stock.
See also: List of Connecticut companies
Finance, insurance and real estate was Connecticut's largest industry in 2018 as ranked by gross domestic product, generating $75.7 billion in GDP that year.
Major financial industry employers include The Hartford, Travelers, Cigna, the Aetna subsidiary of CVS Health, Mass Mutual, People's United Financial, Bank of America, Realogy, Bridgewater Associates, GE Capital, William Raveis Real Estate, and Berkshire Hathaway through reinsurance and residential real estate subsidiaries.
The combined educational, health and social services sector was the largest single industry as ranked by employment, with a combined workforce of 342,600 people at the end of 2019, ranking fourth the year before in GDP at $28.3 billion.
The broad business and professional services sector had the second highest GDP total in Connecticut in 2018 at an estimated $33.7 billion.
Manufacturing was the third biggest industry in 2018 with GDP of $30.8 billion, dominated by Raytheon Technologies formed in the March 2020 merger of Hartford-based United Technologies and Waltham, Mass.-based Raytheon Co. As of the merger, Raytheon Technologies employed about 19,000 people in Connecticut through subsidiaries Pratt & Whitney and Collins Aerospace.
Other major manufacturers include the Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, which makes submarines in Groton, Boehringer Ingelheim, a pharmaceuticals manufacturer with its U.S. headquarters in Ridgefield, and ASML, which in Wilton makes precision lithography machines used to create circuitry on semiconductors and flat-screen displays.
Connecticut historically was a center of gun manufacturing, and four gun-manufacturing firms continued to operate in the state as of December 2012, employing 2,000 people: Colt, Stag, Ruger, and Mossberg.
Other large components of the Connecticut economy in 2018 included wholesale trade ($18.1 billion in GDP); information services ($13.8 billion); retail ($13.7 billion); arts, entertainment and food services ($9.1 billion); and construction ($8.3 billion).
Tourists spent $9.3 billion in Connecticut in 2017 according to estimates as part of a series of studies commissioned by the state of Connecticut.
Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun are the two biggest tourist draws and number among the state's largest employers; both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut.
Connecticut's agricultural production totaled $580 million in 2017, with just over half of that revenue the result of nursery stock production.
Main article: Transportation in Connecticut
For a more comprehensive list, see List of State Routes in Connecticut.
The Interstate highways in the state are Interstate 95 (I-95) traveling southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 traveling southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 traveling north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 traveling north to south near the eastern border of the state.
The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form Connecticut Route 15 (Route 15), traveling from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and traveling parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin.
A series of major crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.
Other major arteries in the state include U.S. (US 7) in the west traveling parallel to the New York state line, Route 7Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and traveling north–south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with US 7, and Route 9 in the east.
Between New Haven and New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States.
Although I-95 has been widened in several spots, some areas are only three lanes and this strains traffic capacity, resulting in frequent and lengthy rush hour delays.
Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway and even US 1.
The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing.
Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycle ownership and use in the United States, particularly in New Haven.
According to the U.S. Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.
Rail is a popular travel mode between New Haven and New York City's Grand Central Terminal.
Southwestern Connecticut is served by the Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line, operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing New Canaan, Danbury, and Waterbury.
Connecticut lies along Amtrak's Northeast Corridor which features frequent Northeast Regional and Acela Express service from New Haven south to New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, DC, and Norfolk, VA.
Coastal cities and towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the Shore Line East commuter line.
Several new stations were completed along the Connecticut shoreline recently, and a commuter rail service called the Hartford Line between New Haven and Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line began operating in June 2018.
A proposed commuter rail service, the Central Corridor Rail Line, will connect New London with Norwich, Willimantic, Storrs, and Stafford Springs, with service continuing into Massachusetts and Brattleboro.
Amtrak also operates a shuttle service (CTRail) between New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, serving Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Hartford, Windsor Locks, and Springfield, MA and the Vermonter runs from Washington to St. Albans, Vermont via the same line.
Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven.
The bus route opened to the public on March 28, 2015.
Smaller regional air service is provided at Tweed New Haven Regional Airport.
Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut, Hartford–Brainard Airport in central Connecticut, and Groton-New London Airport in eastern Connecticut.
Sikorsky Memorial Airport is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation.
Law and government
Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875.
Before then, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals.
Main article: History of the Connecticut Constitution
Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State".
The origin of this nickname is uncertain, but it likely comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise.
Variations of the bicameral legislature had been proposed by Virginia and New Jersey, but Connecticut's plan was the one that was in effect until the early 20th century, when Senators ceased to be selected by their state legislatures and were instead directly elected.
Otherwise, it is still the design of Congress.
The nickname also might refer to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39.
These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal Connecticut state government written by a representative body in Connecticut.
The State of Connecticut government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of the state's constitutional history.
After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England through the Connecticut Charter of 1662.
Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority.
A constitution similar to the modern U.S. was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Constitution
Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965.
The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.
The governor heads the executive branch.
From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly.
In 1974, Ella Grasso was elected as the governor of Connecticut.
This was the first time in United States history when a woman was a governor without her husband being governor first.
There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Construction Services, Education, Emergency Management and Public Protection, Energy & Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs.
In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.
In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller, and Attorney General.
All executive officers are elected to four-year terms.
The legislature is the General Assembly.
Bills must pass each house in order to become law.
The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house.
Per Article XV of the state constitution, Senators and Representatives must be at least 18 years of age and are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years.
There also must always be between 30 and 50 senators and 125 to 225 representatives.
The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President pro tempore presides.
The Speaker of the House presides over the House.
As of 2020, Joe Aresimowicz is the Speaker of the House of Connecticut.
Connecticut has five representatives in the U.S. House, all of whom are Democrats.
Locally elected representatives also develop Local ordinances to govern cities and towns.
However, the State of Connecticut also provides statewide ordinances for noise control as well.
The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law.
Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes.
Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment.
In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.
The Appellate Court is a lesser statewide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.
The State of Connecticut also offers access to Arrest warrant enforcement statistics through the Office of Policy and Management.
See also: Administrative divisions of Connecticut
Connecticut does not have county government, unlike all other states except Rhode Island.
Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of sheriffs elected in each county.
In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories.
The judicial system is divided into judicial districts at the trial-court level which largely follow the old county lines.
The state is divided into 169 towns which serve as the fundamental political jurisdictions.
There are also 21 cities, most of which simply follow the boundaries of their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government.
There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town.
Naugatuck is a consolidated town and borough.
The state is also divided into nine regional councils of government defined by the state Office of Planning and Management, which facilitate regional planning and coordination of services between member towns.
The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions.
Each region has an administrative body made up chief executive officers of the member towns.
The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations".
Connecticut residents who register to vote may declare an affiliation to a political party, may become unaffiliated at will, and may change affiliations subject to certain waiting periods.
As of 2018 about 60% of registered voters are enrolled (just over 1% total in 28 third parties minor parties), and ratios among unaffiliated voters and the two major parties are about eight unaffiliated for every seven in the Democratic Party of Connecticut and for every four in the Connecticut Republican Party.
Many Connecticut towns and cities show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party.
In April 2012 both houses of the Connecticut state legislature passed a bill (20 to 16 and 86 to 62) that abolished the capital punishment for all future crimes, while 11 inmates who were waiting on the death row at the time could still be executed.
Further information: List of school districts in Connecticut
It earned an overall score of 83.5 out of 100 points.
On average, the country received a score of 75.2.
Connecticut posted a B-plus in the Chance-for-Success category, ranking fourth on factors that contribute to a person's success both within and outside the K-12 education system.
Connecticut received a mark of B-plus and finished fourth for School Finance.
It ranked 12th with a grade of C on the K-12 Achievement Index.
See also: Connecticut State Board of Education
See also: :Category:Public schools in Connecticut
The Connecticut State Board of Education manages the public school system for children in grades K–12.
Statistics for each school are made available to the public through an online database system called "CEDAR".
The CEDAR database also provides statistics for "ACES" or "RESC" schools for children with behavioral disorders.
See also: Country Day School movement
Colleges and universities
Main article: Connecticut State University System
- Central Connecticut State University (1849)
- University of Connecticut (1881)
- Eastern Connecticut State University (1889)
- Southern Connecticut State University (1893)
- Western Connecticut State University (1903)
- Charter Oak State College (1973)
Public community colleges
- Capital Community College (1946)
- Norwalk Community College (1961)
- Manchester Community College (1963)
- Naugatuck Valley Community College (1964)
- Northwestern Connecticut Community College (1965)
- Middlesex Community College (1966)
- Housatonic Community College (1967)
- Gateway Community College (1968)
- Asnuntuck Community College (1969)
- Tunxis Community College (1969)
- Quinebaug Valley Community College (1971)
- Three Rivers Community College (1992)
The state also has many noted private day schools, and its boarding schools draw students from around the world.
There are two Connecticut teams in the American Hockey League.
The state hosts several major sporting events.
Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area.
It was originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open" and is now known as the Travelers Championship.
Thompson International Speedway, Stafford Motor Speedway, and Waterford Speedbowl are oval tracks holding weekly races for NASCAR Modifieds and other classes, including the NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour.
Professional sports teams
They joined the National League for one season in 1876, making them the state's only Major League baseball franchise before moving to Brooklyn, New York and then disbanding one season later.
|Bridgeport Sound Tigers||Ice hockey||American Hockey League|
|Hartford Wolf Pack||Ice hockey||American Hockey League|
|Connecticut Whale||Ice hockey||National Women's Hockey League|
|Hartford Yard Goats||Baseball||Eastern League (AA)|
|Norwich Sea Unicorns||Baseball||New York–Penn League (A)|
|New Britain Bees||Baseball||Futures Collegiate Baseball League|
|Connecticut Sun||Basketball||Women's National Basketball Association|
|Hartford City FC||Soccer||National Premier Soccer League|
|Hartford Athletic||Soccer||USL Championship|
|AC Connecticut||Soccer||USL League Two|
|New England Black Wolves||Lacrosse||National Lacrosse League|
In 2004, UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year; they repeated the feat in 2014 and are still the only Division I school to win both titles in the same year.
The UConn women's basketball team holds the record for the longest consecutive winning streak in NCAA college basketball at 111 games, a streak that ended in 2017.
Yale alumnus Walter Camp is deemed the "Father of American Football", and he helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.
Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams are Quinnipiac University, Fairfield University, Central Connecticut State University, Sacred Heart University, and the University of Hartford.
Since 1998, the game has been played annually with the location of the matchup determined on a yearly basis.
Etymology and symbols
|Connecticut state symbols|
|Tree||Charter Oak, a white oak|
|Ship||USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Freedom Schooner Amistad|
|Slogan||Full of Surprises|
|State route marker|
The name "Connecticut" originated with the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river".
Connecticut's official nickname is "The Constitution State", adopted in 1959 and based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.
Connecticut is also unofficially known as "The Nutmeg State," whose origin is unknown.
It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg, which was a very valuable spice in the 18th and 19th centuries.
It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers.
It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.
Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits".
According to Webster's New International Dictionary (1993), a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter".
Linguist Allen Walker Read suggests the more playful term "connecticutie".
The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn".
- the official postal abbreviation is CT.
Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan, which is docked at Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck.
|State aircraft||Vought F4U Corsair|
|State hero||Nathan Hale|
|State heroine||Prudence Crandall|
|State composer||Charles Edward Ives|
|State statues in Statuary Hall||Roger Sherman and Jonathan Trumbull|
|State poet laureate||Margaret Gibson|
|Connecticut State Troubadour||Nekita Waller|
|State composer laureate||Jacob Druckman|
For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from Connecticut.
- George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States, grew up in Greenwich a member of the Bush political family, with roots in the state extending three generations.
- George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States, was born in New Haven.
- Richard and Karen Carpenter, brother and sister duo of The Carpenters who won a Grammy and sold more than sixty million albums by 1983; born in New Haven 1946 and 1950, respectively.
- Glenn Close, American actress who is best known for appearing as Alex Forrest in Fatal Attraction, and Cruella de Vil in Disney's live-action remake of 101 Dalmatians.
- Charles Dow, founder of The Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones & Company.
- Josiah Willard Gibbs was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
- Katharine Hepburn, named by the American Film Institute as the greatest female star in Hollywood history.
- Floyd Little, former American football hall-of-famer with the Denver Broncos
- Seth MacFarlane, a cartoonist, well known for creating Family Guy, American Dad, Cleveland Show, and the TED series.
- J.P. Morgan, financier and philanthropist who dominated a period of industrial consolidation and intervened in multiple economic panics during his time.
- Ralph Nader, torts lawyer, author, founder of the American Museum of Tort Law, and 2000 independent candidate for President of the United States.
- John Ratzenberger, actor who is famous for voicing a character in every Pixar movie.
- Jackie Robinson, who broke baseball's "color line," contributing significantly to the civil rights movement.
- Roger Sherman, a Founding Father who was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the United States: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution.
- Igor Sikorsky, who created and flew the first practical helicopter.
- Harriet Beecher Stowe, whose novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) energized anti-slavery forces in the American North.
- Meryl Streep, who holds the record for the most Academy Awards nominations for acting.
- Mark Twain resided in his innovative Hartford home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. He lived in Redding from 1908 until his death in 1910.
- Noah Webster was born in Hartford in an area that is now part of West Hartford and was the author of the Blue Backed Speller, now known as Webster's Dictionary. The Speller was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans.
- Eli Whitney, best known for inventing the cotton gin which shaped the economy of the Antebellum South, and promoting the design of interchangeable parts in production, a major development leading to the Industrial Revolution.
- Jocko Willink, retired US Navy SEAL Lieutenant Commander, author, podcaster, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu black belt, and co-founder of management consulting firm Echelon Front.
- Marguerite Yourcenar was living in Hartford when she wrote her masterpiece Memoirs of Hadrian.
- Index of Connecticut-related articles
- Outline of Connecticut
- 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Connecticut
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connecticut.