Conservation status

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Conservation status_table_infobox_0

Conservation status by IUCN Red List categoryConservation status_header_cell_0_0_0
ExtinctConservation status_header_cell_0_1_0
Conservation status_header_cell_0_2_0 Conservation status_cell_0_2_1
ThreatenedConservation status_header_cell_0_3_0
Conservation status_header_cell_0_4_0 Conservation status_cell_0_4_1
Lower RiskConservation status_header_cell_0_5_0
Conservation status_header_cell_0_6_0 Conservation status_cell_0_6_1
Conservation status_header_cell_0_7_0 Conservation status_cell_0_7_1

The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Conservation status_sentence_0

Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Conservation status_sentence_1

Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use. Conservation status_sentence_2

International systems Conservation status_section_0

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Conservation status_section_1

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Conservation status_sentence_3

Species are classified by the IUCN Red List into nine groups set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation. Conservation status_sentence_4

Also included are species that have gone extinct since 1500 CE. Conservation status_sentence_5

When discussing the IUCN Red List, the official term "threatened" is a grouping of three categories: critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable. Conservation status_sentence_6

Conservation status_unordered_list_0

  • Extinct (EX) – No known living individualsConservation status_item_0_0
  • Extinct in the wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic rangeConservation status_item_0_1
  • Critically endangered (CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wildConservation status_item_0_2
  • Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wildConservation status_item_0_3
  • Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wildConservation status_item_0_4
  • Near threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near futureConservation status_item_0_5
  • Least concern (LC) – Lowest risk; does not qualify for a higher risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.Conservation status_item_0_6
  • Data deficient (DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinctionConservation status_item_0_7
  • Not evaluated (NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.Conservation status_item_0_8

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Conservation status_section_2

aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Conservation status_sentence_7

Many countries require CITES permits when importing plants and animals listed on CITES. Conservation status_sentence_8

Multi-country systems Conservation status_section_3

In the European Union (EU), the Birds and Habitats Directives are the legal instruments that evaluate the conservation status within the EU of species and habitats. Conservation status_sentence_9

NatureServe conservation status focuses on Latin America, the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Conservation status_sentence_10

It has been developed by scientists from NatureServe, The Nature Conservancy, and a network of natural heritage programs and data centers. Conservation status_sentence_11

It is increasingly integrated with the IUCN Red List system. Conservation status_sentence_12

Its categories for species include: presumed extinct (GX), possibly extinct (GH), critically imperiled (G1), imperiled (G2), vulnerable (G3), apparently secure (G4), and secure (G5). Conservation status_sentence_13

The system also allows ambiguous or uncertain ranks including inexact numeric ranks (e.g. Conservation status_sentence_14

G2? Conservation status_sentence_15

), and range ranks (e.g. G2G3) for when the exact rank is uncertain. Conservation status_sentence_16

NatureServe adds a qualifier for captive or cultivated only (C), which has a similar meaning to the IUCN Red List extinct in the wild (EW) status. Conservation status_sentence_17

The Red Data Book of the Russian Federation is used within the Russian Federation, and also accepted in parts of Africa. Conservation status_sentence_18

National systems Conservation status_section_4

In Australia, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) describes lists of threatened species, ecological communities and threatening processes. Conservation status_sentence_19

The categories resemble those of the 1994 IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria (version 2.3). Conservation status_sentence_20

Prior to the EPBC Act, a simpler classification system was used by the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. Conservation status_sentence_21

Some state and territory governments also have their own systems for conservation status. Conservation status_sentence_22

The codes for the Western Australian conservation system are given at Declared Rare and Priority Flora List (abbreviated to DECF when using in a taxobox). Conservation status_sentence_23

In Belgium, the Flemish Research Institute for Nature and Forest publishes an online set of more than 150 nature indicators in Dutch. Conservation status_sentence_24

In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) is a group of experts that assesses and designates which wild species are in some danger of disappearing from Canada. Conservation status_sentence_25

Under the Species at Risk Act (SARA), it is up to the federal government, which is politically accountable, to legally protect species assessed by COSEWIC. Conservation status_sentence_26

In China, the State, provinces and some counties have determined their key protected wildlife species. Conservation status_sentence_27

There is the China red data book. Conservation status_sentence_28

In Finland, many species are protected under the Nature Conservation Act, and through the EU Habitats Directive and EU Birds Directive. Conservation status_sentence_29

In Germany, the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation publishes "red lists of endangered species". Conservation status_sentence_30

India has the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972, Amended 2003 and the Biological Diversity Act, 2002. Conservation status_sentence_31

In Japan, the Ministry of Environment publishes a Threatened Wildlife of Japan Red Data Book. Conservation status_sentence_32

In the Netherlands, the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality publishes a list of threatened species, and conservation is enforced by the Nature Conservation Act 1998. Conservation status_sentence_33

Species are also protected through the Wild Birds and Habitats Directives. Conservation status_sentence_34

In New Zealand, the Department of Conservation publishes the New Zealand Threat Classification System lists. Conservation status_sentence_35

As of January 2008 threatened species or subspecies are assigned one of seven categories: Nationally Critical, Nationally Endangered, Nationally Vulnerable, Declining, Recovering, Relict, or Naturally Uncommon. Conservation status_sentence_36

While the classification looks only at a national level, many species are unique to New Zealand, and species which are secure overseas are noted as such. Conservation status_sentence_37

In Russia, the Red Book of Russian Federation came out in 2001, it contains categories defining preservation status for different species. Conservation status_sentence_38

In it there are 8 taxa of amphibians, 21 taxa of reptiles, 128 taxa of birds, and 74 taxa of mammals, in total 231. Conservation status_sentence_39

There are also more than 30 regional red books, for example the red book of the Altaic region which came out in 1994. Conservation status_sentence_40

In South Africa, The South African National Biodiversity Institute, established under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004, is responsible for drawing up lists of affected species, and monitoring compliance with CITES decisions. Conservation status_sentence_41

It is envisaged that previously diverse Red lists would be more easily kept current, both technically and financially. Conservation status_sentence_42

In Thailand, the Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act of BE 2535 defines fifteen reserved animal species and two classes of protected species, of which hunting, breeding, possession, and trade are prohibited or restricted by law. Conservation status_sentence_43

The National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is responsible for the regulation of these activities. Conservation status_sentence_44

In Ukraine, the Ministry of Environment Protection maintains list of endangered species (divided into seven categories from "0" - extinct to "VI" - rehabilitated) and publishes it in the Red Book of Ukraine. Conservation status_sentence_45

In the United States of America, the Endangered Species Act created the Endangered Species List. Conservation status_sentence_46

Consumer guides Conservation status_section_5

Main article: Sustainable seafood advisory lists and certification Conservation status_sentence_47

Some consumer guides for seafood, such as Seafood Watch, divide fish and other sea creatures into three categories, analogous to conservation status categories: Conservation status_sentence_48

Conservation status_unordered_list_1

  • Red ("say no" or "avoid")Conservation status_item_1_9
  • Yellow or orange ("think twice", "good alternatives" or "some concerns")Conservation status_item_1_10
  • Green ("best seafood choices")Conservation status_item_1_11

The categories do not simply reflect the imperilment of individual species, but also consider the environmental impacts of how and where they are fished, such as through bycatch or ocean bottom trawlers. Conservation status_sentence_49

Often groups of species are assessed rather than individual species (e.g. squid, prawns). Conservation status_sentence_50

The Marine Conservation Society has five levels of ratings for seafood species, as displayed on their FishOnline website. Conservation status_sentence_51

See also Conservation status_section_6

Conservation status_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: status.