Conserved name

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A conserved name or nomen conservandum (plural nomina conservanda, abbreviated as nom. Conserved name_sentence_0

cons.) Conserved name_sentence_1

is a scientific name that has specific nomenclatural protection. Conserved name_sentence_2

That is, the name is retained, even though it violates one or more rules which would otherwise prevent it from being legitimate. Conserved name_sentence_3

Nomen conservandum is a Latin term, meaning "a name to be conserved". Conserved name_sentence_4

The terms are often used interchangeably, such as by the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN), while the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature favours the term "conserved name". Conserved name_sentence_5

The process for conserving botanical names is different from that for zoological names. Conserved name_sentence_6

Under the botanical code, names may also be "suppressed", nomen rejiciendum (plural nomina rejicienda or nomina utique rejicienda, abbreviated as nom. Conserved name_sentence_7

rej. Conserved name_sentence_8

), or rejected in favour of a particular conserved name, and combinations based on a suppressed name are also listed as “nom. Conserved name_sentence_9

rej.”. Conserved name_sentence_10

Botany Conserved name_section_0

Conservation Conserved name_section_1

In botanical nomenclature, conservation is a nomenclatural procedure governed by Article 14 of the ICN. Conserved name_sentence_11

Its purpose is Conserved name_sentence_12

Conserved name_description_list_0

  • "to avoid disadvantageous nomenclatural changes entailed by the strict application of the rules, and especially of the principle of priority [...]" (Art. 14.1).Conserved name_item_0_0

Conservation is possible only for names at the rank of family, genus or species. Conserved name_sentence_13

It may effect a change in original spelling, type, or (most commonly) priority. Conserved name_sentence_14

Conserved name_unordered_list_1

  • Conserved spelling (orthographia conservanda, orth. cons.) allows spelling usage to be preserved even if the name was published with another spelling: Euonymus (not Evonymus), Guaiacum (not Guajacum), etc. (see orthographical variant).Conserved name_item_1_1
  • Conserved types (typus conservandus, typ. cons.) are often made when it is found that a type in fact belongs to a different taxon from the description, when a name has subsequently been generally misapplied to a different taxon, or when the type belongs to a small group separate from the monophyletic bulk of a taxon.Conserved name_item_1_2
  • Conservation of a name against an earlier taxonomic (heterotypic) synonym (which is termed a rejected name, nomen rejiciendum, nom. rej.) is relevant only if a particular taxonomist includes both types in the same taxon.Conserved name_item_1_3

Rejection Conserved name_section_2

Besides conservation of names of certain ranks (Art. Conserved name_sentence_15

14), the ICN also offers the option of outright rejection of a name (nomen utique rejiciendum) also called suppressed name under Article 56, another way of creating a nomen rejiciendum that cannot be used anymore. Conserved name_sentence_16

Outright rejection is possible for a name at any rank. Conserved name_sentence_17

Rejection (suppression) of individual names is distinct from suppression of works (opera utique oppressa) under Article 34, which allows for listing certain taxonomic ranks in certain publications which are considered not to include any validly published names. Conserved name_sentence_18

Effects Conserved name_section_3

Conflicting conserved names are treated according to the normal rules of priority. Conserved name_sentence_19

Separate proposals (informally referred to as "superconservation" proposals) may be made to protect a conserved name that would be overtaken by another. Conserved name_sentence_20

However, conservation has different consequences depending on the type of name that is conserved: Conserved name_sentence_21

Conserved name_unordered_list_2

  • A conserved family name is protected against all other family names based on genera that are considered by the taxonomist to be part of the same family.Conserved name_item_2_4
  • A conserved genus or species name is conserved against any homonyms, homotypic synonyms, and those specific heterotypic synonyms that are simultaneously declared nomina rejicienda (as well as their own homotypic synonyms). As taxonomic changes are made, other names may require new proposals for conservation and/or rejection.Conserved name_item_2_5

Documentation Conserved name_section_4

Conserved and rejected names (and suppressed names) are listed in the appendices to the ICN. Conserved name_sentence_22

As of the 2012 (Melbourne) edition, a separate volume holds the bulk of the appendices (except appendix I, on names of hybrids). Conserved name_sentence_23

The substance of the second volume is generated from a database which also holds a history of published proposals and their outcomes, the binding decisions on whether a name is validly published (article 38.4) and on whether it is a homonym (article 53.5). Conserved name_sentence_24

The database can be queried online. Conserved name_sentence_25

Procedure Conserved name_section_5

Conserved name_ordered_list_3

  1. The procedure starts by submitting a proposal to the journal Taxon (published by the IAPT). This proposal should present the case both for and against conservation of a name. Publication notifies anybody concerned that the matter is being considered and makes it possible for those interested to write in. Publication is the start of the formal procedure: it counts as referring the matter "to the appropriate Committee for study" and Rec 14A.1 comes into effect. The name in question is (somewhat) protected by this Recommendation ("... authors should follow existing usage as far as possible ...").Conserved name_item_3_6
  2. After reviewing the matter, judging the merits of the case, "the appropriate Committee" makes a decision either against ("not recommended") or in favor ("recommended"). Then the matter is passed to the General Committee.Conserved name_item_3_7
  3. After reviewing the matter, mostly from a procedural angle, the General Committee makes a decision, either against ("not recommended") or in favor ("recommended"). At this point Article 14.16 comes into effect. Art 14.16 authorizes all users to indeed use that name.Conserved name_item_3_8
  4. The General Committee reports to the Nomenclature Section of the International Botanical Congress, stating which names (including types and spellings) it recommends for conservation. Then, by Div.III.1, the Nomenclature Section makes a decision on which names (including types, spellings) are accepted into the Code. At this stage the de facto decision is made to modify the Code.Conserved name_item_3_9
  5. The Plenary Session of that same International Botanical Congress receives the "resolution moved by the Nomenclature Section of that Congress" and makes a de jure decision to modify the Code. By long tradition this step is ceremonial in nature only.Conserved name_item_3_10

In the course of time there have been different standards for the majority required for a decision. Conserved name_sentence_26

However, for decades the Nomenclature Section has required a 60% majority for an inclusion in the Code, and the Committees have followed this example, in 1996 adopting a 60% majority for a decision. Conserved name_sentence_27

Zoology Conserved name_section_6

For zoology, the term "conserved name", rather than nomen conservandum, is used in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, although informally both terms are used interchangeably. Conserved name_sentence_28

In the glossary of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the code for names of animals, one of several nomenclature codes), this definition is given: Conserved name_sentence_29

Conserved name_description_list_4

  • conserved name: A name otherwise unavailable or invalid that the Commission, by the use of its plenary power, has enabled to be used as a valid name by removal of the known obstacles to such use.Conserved name_item_4_11

This is a more generalized definition than the one for nomen protectum, which is specifically a conserved name that is either a junior synonym or homonym that is in use because the senior synonym or homonym has been made a nomen oblitum ("forgotten name"). Conserved name_sentence_30

An example of a conserved name is the dinosaur genus name Pachycephalosaurus, which was formally described in 1943. Conserved name_sentence_31

Later, Tylosteus (which was formally described in 1872) was found to be the same genus as Pachycephalosaurus (a synonym). Conserved name_sentence_32

By the usual rules, the genus Tylosteus has precedence and would normally be the correct name. Conserved name_sentence_33

But the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) ruled that the name Pachycephalosaurus was to be given precedence and treated as the valid name, because it was in more common use and better known to scientists. Conserved name_sentence_34

The ICZN's procedural details are different from those in botany, but the basic operating principle is the same, with petitions submitted to the commission for review. Conserved name_sentence_35

See also Conserved name_section_7

Conserved name_unordered_list_5

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: name.