Biological specificity

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Biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species. Biological specificity_sentence_0

Biochemist Linus Pauling stated that "Biological specificity is the set of characteristics of living organisms or constituents of living organisms of being special or doing something special. Biological specificity_sentence_1

Each animal or plant species is special. Biological specificity_sentence_2

It differs in some way from all other species...biological specificity is the major problem about understanding life." Biological specificity_sentence_3

Biological specificity within Homo sapiens Biological specificity_section_0

Homo sapiens has many characteristics that show the biological specificity in the form of behavior and morphological traits. Biological specificity_sentence_4

Morphologically, humans have an enlarged cranial capacity and more gracile features in comparison to other hominins. Biological specificity_sentence_5

The reduction of dentition is a feature that allows for the advantage of adaptability in diet and survival. Biological specificity_sentence_6

As a species, humans are culture dependent and much of human survival relies on the culture and social relationships. Biological specificity_sentence_7

With the evolutionary change of the reduction of the pelvis and enlarged cranial capacity; events like childbirth are dependent on a safe, social setting to assist in the childbirth; a birthing mother will seek others when going into labor. Biological specificity_sentence_8

This is a uniquely human experience, as other animals are able to give birth on their own and often choose to isolate themselves to do so to protect their young. Biological specificity_sentence_9

An example of a genetic adaptation unique to humans is the gene apolipoprotein E (APOE4) on chromosome 19. Biological specificity_sentence_10

While chimpanzees may have the APOE gene, the study “The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene appears functionally monomorphic in chimpanzees” shows that the diversity of the APOE gene in humans in unique. Biological specificity_sentence_11

The polymorphism in APOE is only in humans as they carry alleles APOE2, APOE3, APOE4; APOE4 which allows human to break down fatty protein and eat more protein than their ancestors is also a genomic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Biological specificity_sentence_12

There are many behavioral characteristics that are specific to Homo sapiens in addition to childbirth. Biological specificity_sentence_13

Specific and elaborate tool creation and use and language are other areas. Biological specificity_sentence_14

Humans do not simply communicate; language is essential to their survival and complex culture. Biological specificity_sentence_15

This culture must be learned, is variable and highly malleable to fit distinct social parameters. Biological specificity_sentence_16

Humans do not simply communicate with a code or general understanding, but adhere to social standards, hierarchies, technologies, complex system of regulations and must maintain many dimensions of relationships in order to survive. Biological specificity_sentence_17

This complexity of language and the dependence on culture is uniquely human. Biological specificity_sentence_18

Intraspecific behaviors and variations exist within Homo sapiens which adds to the complexity of culture and language. Biological specificity_sentence_19

Intraspecific variations are differences in behavior or biology within a species. Biological specificity_sentence_20

These variations and the complexity within our society lead to social constructs such as race, gender, and roles. Biological specificity_sentence_21

These add to power dynamics and hierarchies within the already multifaceted society. Biological specificity_sentence_22

Subtopics Biological specificity_section_1

Characteristics may further be described as being interspecific, intraspecific, and conspecific. Biological specificity_sentence_23

Interspecific Biological specificity_section_2

Interspecificity (literally between/among species), or being interspecific, describes issues between individuals of separate species. Biological specificity_sentence_24

These may include: Biological specificity_sentence_25

Biological specificity_unordered_list_0

  • Interspecies communication, communication between different species of animals, plants, fungi or bacteriaBiological specificity_item_0_0
  • Interspecific competition, when individuals of different species compete for the same resource in an ecosystemBiological specificity_item_0_1
  • Interspecific feeding, when adults of one species feed the young of another speciesBiological specificity_item_0_2
  • Interspecific hybridization, when two species within the same genus generate offspring. Offspring may develop into adults but may be sterile.Biological specificity_item_0_3
  • Interspecific interaction, the effects organisms in a community have on one anotherBiological specificity_item_0_4
  • Interspecific pregnancy, pregnancy involving an embryo or fetus belonging to another species than the carrierBiological specificity_item_0_5

Intraspecific Biological specificity_section_3

Intraspecificity (literally within species), or being intraspecific, describes behaviors, biochemical variations and other issues within individuals of a single species. Biological specificity_sentence_26

These may include: Biological specificity_sentence_27

Biological specificity_unordered_list_1

Conspecific Biological specificity_section_4

Two or more individual organisms, populations, or taxa are conspecific if they belong to the same species. Biological specificity_sentence_28

Where different species can interbreed and their gametes compete, the conspecific gametes take precedence over heterospecific gametes. Biological specificity_sentence_29

This is known as conspecific sperm precedence, or conspecific pollen precedence in plants. Biological specificity_sentence_30

Heterospecific Biological specificity_section_5

The antonym of conspecificity is the term heterospecificity: two individuals are heterospecific if they are considered to belong to different biological species. Biological specificity_sentence_31

Related concepts Biological specificity_section_6

Not to be confused with Congenic. Biological specificity_sentence_32

Congeners are organisms within the same genus. Biological specificity_sentence_33

See also Biological specificity_section_7

Biological specificity_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: specificity.