Cork (city)

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This article is about the city in Ireland. Cork (city)_sentence_0

For the county of the same name, see County Cork. Cork (city)_sentence_1

Cork (city)_table_infobox_0


CorcaighCork (city)_header_cell_0_0_0

StateCork (city)_header_cell_0_1_0 IrelandCork (city)_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceCork (city)_header_cell_0_2_0 MunsterCork (city)_cell_0_2_1
CountyCork (city)_header_cell_0_3_0 CorkCork (city)_cell_0_3_1
FoundedCork (city)_header_cell_0_4_0 6th century ADCork (city)_cell_0_4_1
City rightsCork (city)_header_cell_0_5_0 1185 ADCork (city)_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentCork (city)_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeCork (city)_header_cell_0_7_0 Cork City CouncilCork (city)_cell_0_7_1
Lord MayorCork (city)_header_cell_0_8_0 Joe KavanaghCork (city)_cell_0_8_1
LEAsCork (city)_header_cell_0_9_0 5Cork (city)_cell_0_9_1
Dáil ÉireannCork (city)_header_cell_0_10_0 Cork (city)_cell_0_10_1
European ParliamentCork (city)_header_cell_0_11_0 SouthCork (city)_cell_0_11_1
AreaCork (city)_header_cell_0_12_0
CityCork (city)_header_cell_0_13_0 187 km (72 sq mi)Cork (city)_cell_0_13_1
UrbanCork (city)_header_cell_0_14_0 174 km (67 sq mi)Cork (city)_cell_0_14_1
MetroCork (city)_header_cell_0_15_0 820 km (320 sq mi)Cork (city)_cell_0_15_1
PopulationCork (city)_header_cell_0_16_0
Estimate (2019)Cork (city)_header_cell_0_17_0 210,000Cork (city)_cell_0_17_1
DensityCork (city)_header_cell_0_18_0 1,123/km (2,910/sq mi)Cork (city)_cell_0_18_1
UrbanCork (city)_header_cell_0_19_0 208,669Cork (city)_cell_0_19_1
MetroCork (city)_header_cell_0_20_0 305,222Cork (city)_cell_0_20_1
DemonymCork (city)_header_cell_0_21_0 Corkonian LeesiderCork (city)_cell_0_21_1
Time zoneCork (city)_header_cell_0_22_0 UTC0 (WET)Cork (city)_cell_0_22_1
Summer (DST)Cork (city)_header_cell_0_23_0 UTC+1 (IST)Cork (city)_cell_0_23_1
EircodeCork (city)_header_cell_0_24_0 T12, T21 and T23Cork (city)_cell_0_24_1
Area code(s)Cork (city)_header_cell_0_25_0 021Cork (city)_cell_0_25_1
Vehicle index mark codeCork (city)_header_cell_0_26_0 CCork (city)_cell_0_26_1
WebsiteCork (city)_header_cell_0_27_0 Cork (city)_cell_0_27_1

Cork (/kɔːrk/; Irish: Corcaigh, pronounced [ˈkoɾkɪɟ, from corcach, meaning "marsh") is the second largest city in Ireland, located in the south-west of Ireland, in the province of Munster. Cork (city)_sentence_2

Following an extension to the city's boundary in 2019, its population is c. 210,000. Cork (city)_sentence_3

The city centre is an island positioned between two channels of the River Lee which meet downstream at the eastern end of the city centre, where the quays and docks along the river lead outwards towards Lough Mahon and Cork Harbour, one of the largest natural harbours in the world. Cork (city)_sentence_4

Originally a monastic settlement, Cork was expanded by Viking invaders around 915. Cork (city)_sentence_5

Its charter was granted by Prince John in 1185. Cork (city)_sentence_6

Cork city was once fully walled, and the remnants of the old medieval town centre can be found around South and North Main streets. Cork (city)_sentence_7

The third largest city by population on the island of Ireland, the city's cognomen of "the rebel city" originates in its support for the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. Cork (city)_sentence_8

Corkonians sometimes refer to the city as "the real capital", a reference to its opposition to the Anglo-Irish Treaty in the Irish Civil War. Cork (city)_sentence_9

History Cork (city)_section_0

Main article: History of Cork Cork (city)_sentence_10

Cork was originally a monastic settlement, reputedly founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century. Cork (city)_sentence_11

Cork became (more) urbanised some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman (Viking) settlers founded a trading port. Cork (city)_sentence_12

It has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network. Cork (city)_sentence_13

The ecclesiastical settlement continued alongside the Viking longphort, with the two developing a type of symbiotic relationship; the Norsemen providing otherwise unobtainable trade goods for the monastery, and perhaps also military aid. Cork (city)_sentence_14

The city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185. Cork (city)_sentence_15

The city was once fully walled, and some wall sections and gates remain today. Cork (city)_sentence_16

For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Cork (city)_sentence_17

Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens to keep them from attacking the city. Cork (city)_sentence_18

The present extent of the city has exceeded the medieval boundaries of the Barony of Cork City; it now takes in much of the neighbouring Barony of Cork. Cork (city)_sentence_19

Together, these baronies are located between the Barony of Barrymore to the east, Muskerry East to the west and Kerrycurrihy to the south. Cork (city)_sentence_20

The city's municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. Cork (city)_sentence_21

The medieval population of Cork was about 2,100 people. Cork (city)_sentence_22

It suffered a severe blow in 1349 when almost half the townspeople died of plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. Cork (city)_sentence_23

In 1491, Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck, a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England. Cork (city)_sentence_24

The then mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. Cork (city)_sentence_25

The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, and the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900 following the knighthood of the incumbent mayor by Queen Victoria on her visit to the city. Cork (city)_sentence_26

Since the nineteenth century, Cork had been a strongly Irish nationalist city, with widespread support for Irish Home Rule and the Irish Parliamentary Party, but from 1910 stood firmly behind William O'Brien's dissident All-for-Ireland Party. Cork (city)_sentence_27

O'Brien published a third local newspaper, the Cork Free Press. Cork (city)_sentence_28

Cork was overtaken by Belfast as Ireland's second largest city in the nineteenth-century. Cork (city)_sentence_29

In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was burnt down by the British Black and Tans, in an event known as the "Burning of Cork" and saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. Cork (city)_sentence_30

During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea. Cork (city)_sentence_31

Climate Cork (city)_section_1

The climate of Cork, like the vast majority of Ireland, is mild oceanic (Cfb in the Köppen climate classification) and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork (city)_sentence_32

Cork lies in plant Hardiness zone 9b. Cork (city)_sentence_33

Met Éireann maintains a climatological weather station at Cork Airport, a few kilometres south of the city centre. Cork (city)_sentence_34

The airport is at an altitude of 151 metres (495 ft) and temperatures can often differ by a few degrees between the airport and the rest of the city. Cork (city)_sentence_35

There are also smaller synoptic weather stations at UCC and Clover Hill. Cork (city)_sentence_36

Due to its position on the coast, Cork city is subject to occasional flooding. Cork (city)_sentence_37

Temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) or above 25 °C (77 °F) are rare. Cork (city)_sentence_38

Cork Airport records an average of 1,227.9 millimetres (48.34 in) of precipitation annually, most of which is rain. Cork (city)_sentence_39

The airport records an average of 7 days of hail and 11 days of snow or sleet a year; though it only records lying snow for 2 days of the year. Cork (city)_sentence_40

The low altitude of the city, and moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow very rarely occurs in the city itself. Cork (city)_sentence_41

There are on average 204 "rainy" days a year (over 0.2 millimetres (0.0079 in) of rainfall), of which there are 73 days with "heavy rain" (over 5 millimetres (0.20 in)). Cork (city)_sentence_42

Cork is also a generally foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog a year, most common during mornings and during winter. Cork (city)_sentence_43

Despite this, however, Cork is also one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine every day and only having 67 days where there is no "recordable sunshine", mostly during and around winter. Cork (city)_sentence_44

Culture Cork (city)_section_2

The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art and Design provide a throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of several courses at University College Cork (UCC). Cork (city)_sentence_45

Important elements in the cultural life of the city are: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a troupe member prior to Hollywood fame; the Institute for Choreography and Dance, a national contemporary dance resource; the Triskel Arts Centre (capacity c.90), which includes the Triskel Christchurch independent cinema; dance venue the Firkin Crane (capacity c.240); the Cork Academy of Dramatic Art (CADA) and Graffiti Theatre Company; and the Cork Jazz Festival, Cork Film Festival and Live at the Marquee events. Cork (city)_sentence_46

The Everyman Palace Theatre (capacity c.650) and the Granary Theatre (capacity c.150) both host plays throughout the year. Cork (city)_sentence_47

Cork is home to the RTÉ Vanbrugh Quartet, and popular rock musicians and bands including John Spillane, Rory Gallagher, Five Go Down to the Sea? Cork (city)_sentence_48 , Microdisney, The Frank and Walters, Sultans of Ping, Simple Kid, Fred and Mick Flannery. Cork (city)_sentence_49

The opera singers Cara O'Sullivan, Mary Hegarty, Brendan Collins, and Sam McElroy are also Cork born. Cork (city)_sentence_50

Ranging in capacity from 50 to 1,000, the main music venues in the city are the Cork Opera House (capacity c.1000), The Everyman, Cyprus Avenue, Dali, Triskel Christchurch, The Roundy, and Coughlan's. Cork (city)_sentence_51

The city's literary community centres on the Munster Literature Centre and the Triskel Arts Centre. Cork (city)_sentence_52

The short story writers Frank O'Connor and Seán Ó Faoláin hailed from Cork, and contemporary writers include Thomas McCarthy, Gerry Murphy, and novelist and poet William Wall. Cork (city)_sentence_53

Additions to the arts infrastructure include modern additions to the Crawford Municipal Art Gallery and renovations to the Cork Opera House in the early 21st century. Cork (city)_sentence_54

The Lewis Glucksman Gallery opened in the Autumn of 2004 at UCC, was nominated for the Stirling Prize in the United Kingdom, and the building of a new €60 million School of Music was completed in September 2007. Cork (city)_sentence_55

Cork was the European Capital of Culture for 2005, and in 2009 was included in the Lonely Planet's top 10 "Best in Travel 2010". Cork (city)_sentence_56

The guide described Cork as being "at the top of its game: sophisticated, vibrant and diverse". Cork (city)_sentence_57

There is a rivalry between Cork and Dublin, similar to the rivalry between Manchester and London, Melbourne and Sydney or Barcelona and Madrid. Cork (city)_sentence_58

Some Corkonians view themselves as different from the rest of Ireland, and refer to themselves as "The Rebels"; the county is known as the Rebel County. Cork (city)_sentence_59

This view sometimes manifests itself in humorous references to the Real Capital and the sale of T-shirts with light-hearted banners celebrating The People's Republic of Cork. Cork (city)_sentence_60

Food Cork (city)_section_3

The city has many local traditions in food, including crubeens, tripe and drisheen, which were historically served in eating houses like that run by Katty Barry in the mid-20th century. Cork (city)_sentence_61

The English Market sells locally produced foods, including fresh fish, meats, fruit and vegetables, eggs and artisan cheeses and breads. Cork (city)_sentence_62

During certain city festivals, food stalls are also sometimes erected on city streets such as St. Cork (city)_sentence_63 Patrick's Street or Grand Parade. Cork (city)_sentence_64

Accent Cork (city)_section_4

The Cork accent, part of the Southwest dialect of Hiberno-English, displays various features which set it apart from other accents in Ireland. Cork (city)_sentence_65

Patterns of tone and intonation often rise and fall, with the overall tone tending to be more high-pitched than other Irish accents. Cork (city)_sentence_66

English spoken in Cork has a number of dialect words that are peculiar to the city and environs. Cork (city)_sentence_67

Like standard Hiberno-English, some of these words originate from the Irish language, but others through other languages Cork's inhabitants encountered at home and abroad. Cork (city)_sentence_68

The Cork accent displays varying degrees of rhoticity, usually indicative of the speaker's local community. Cork (city)_sentence_69

Media Cork (city)_section_5

Broadcasting Cork (city)_section_6

Broadcasting companies based in Cork include RTÉ Cork, which has a radio, television and production unit on Father Matthew Street in the city centre. Cork (city)_sentence_70

Communicorp Media opened a radio studio in 2019 in the city covering content on both Today FM and Newstalk. Cork (city)_sentence_71

Virgin Media Television also has an office in the city which covers local news stories developing within the city and county. Cork (city)_sentence_72

The city's FM radio band features RTÉ Radio 1, RTÉ 2fm, RTÉ lyric fm, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, Today FM, Classic Hits, Newstalk and the religious station Spirit Radio. Cork (city)_sentence_73

There are also local stations such as Cork's 96FM, Cork's Red FM, C103, CUH 102.0FM, UCC 98.3FM (formerly Cork Campus Radio 97.4fm) and Christian radio station Life 93.1FM. Cork (city)_sentence_74

Cork also has a temporary licensed citywide community station 'Cork FM Community Radio' on 100.5FM, which is on-air on Saturdays and Sundays only. Cork (city)_sentence_75

Cork has also been home to pirate radio stations, including South Coast Radio and ERI in the 1980s. Cork (city)_sentence_76

Today some small pirates stations remain. Cork (city)_sentence_77

Print Cork (city)_section_7

Cork is home to one of Ireland's main national newspapers, the Irish Examiner (formerly the Cork Examiner). Cork (city)_sentence_78

Its 'sister paper', The Echo (formerly the Evening Echo), was for decades connected to the "Echo boys", who were poor and often homeless children who sold the newspaper. Cork (city)_sentence_79

Today, the shouts of the vendors selling the Echo can still be heard in parts of the city centre. Cork (city)_sentence_80

One of the biggest free newspapers in the city is the Cork Independent. Cork (city)_sentence_81

The city's university publishes the UCC Express and Motley magazine. Cork (city)_sentence_82

Places of interest Cork (city)_section_8

Further information: List of public art in Cork City Cork (city)_sentence_83

Cork features architecturally notable buildings originating from the Medieval to Modern periods. Cork (city)_sentence_84

The only notable remnant of the Medieval era is the Red Abbey. Cork (city)_sentence_85

There are two cathedrals in the city; St. Cork (city)_sentence_86 Mary's Cathedral and Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral. Cork (city)_sentence_87

St Mary's Cathedral, often referred to as the North Cathedral, is the Catholic cathedral of the city and was begun in 1808. Cork (city)_sentence_88

Its distinctive tower was added in the 1860s. Cork (city)_sentence_89

St Fin Barre's Cathedral serves the Church of Ireland (Anglican) and is possibly the more famous of the two. Cork (city)_sentence_90

It is built on the foundations of an earlier cathedral. Cork (city)_sentence_91

Work began in 1862 and ended in 1879 under the direction of architect William Burges. Cork (city)_sentence_92

St. Cork (city)_sentence_93 Patrick's Street, the main street of the city which was remodelled in the mid-2000s, is known for the architecture of the buildings along its pedestrian-friendly route and is the main shopping thoroughfare. Cork (city)_sentence_94

At its northern end is a landmark statue of Father Mathew. Cork (city)_sentence_95

The reason for its curved shape is that it was originally a channel of the River Lee which was built over on arches. Cork (city)_sentence_96

The General Post Office, with its limestone façade, is on Oliver Plunkett Street, on the site of the Theatre Royal which was built in 1760 and burned down in 1840. Cork (city)_sentence_97

The English circus proprietor Pablo Fanque rebuilt an amphitheatre on the spot in 1850, which was subsequently transformed into a theatre and then into the present General Post Office in 1877. Cork (city)_sentence_98

The Grand Parade is a tree-lined avenue, home to offices, shops and financial institutions. Cork (city)_sentence_99

The old financial centre is the South Mall, with several banks whose interior derive from the 19th century, such as the Allied Irish Bank's which was once an exchange. Cork (city)_sentence_100

Many of the city's buildings are in the Georgian style, although there are a number of examples of modern landmark structures, such as County Hall tower, which was, at one time the tallest building in Ireland until being superseded by another Cork City building: The Elysian. Cork (city)_sentence_101

Outside the County Hall is the landmark sculpture of two men, known locally as 'Cha and Miah'. Cork (city)_sentence_102

Across the river from County Hall is Ireland's longest building; built in Victorian times, Our Lady's Psychiatric Hospital has now been partially renovated and converted into a residential housing complex called Atkins Hall, after its architect William Atkins. Cork (city)_sentence_103

Cork's most famous building is the church tower of Shandon, which dominates the North side of the city. Cork (city)_sentence_104

It is widely regarded as the symbol of the city. Cork (city)_sentence_105

The North and East sides are faced in red sandstone, and the West and South sides are clad in the predominant stone of the region, white limestone. Cork (city)_sentence_106

At the top sits a weather vane in the form of an eleven-foot salmon. Cork (city)_sentence_107

Another site in Shandon is Skiddy's Almshouse, which was built in the 18th century to provide a home to the poorest of the city. Cork (city)_sentence_108

Cork City Hall, another notable building of limestone, replaced the previous one which was destroyed by the Black and Tans during the War of Independence in an event known as the "Burning of Cork". Cork (city)_sentence_109

The cost of this new building was provided by the UK Government in the 1930s as a gesture of reconciliation. Cork (city)_sentence_110

Other notable places include Elizabeth Fort, the Cork Opera House, Christ Church on South Main Street (now the Triskel Arts Centre and original site of early Hiberno-Norse church), and St Mary's Dominican Church on Popes Quay. Cork (city)_sentence_111

Other popular tourist attractions include the grounds of University College Cork, through which the River Lee flows, the Women's Gaol at Sunday's Well (now a heritage centre) and the English Market. Cork (city)_sentence_112

This covered market traces its origins back to 1610, and the present building dates from 1786. Cork (city)_sentence_113

Parks and amenity spaces include Fitzgerald's Park to the west of the city (which contains the Cork Public Museum), the angling lake known as The Lough, Bishop Lucey Park (which is centrally located and contains a portion of the old city wall) and the Marina and Atlantic Pond (an avenue and amenity near Blackrock used by joggers, runners and rowing clubs). Cork (city)_sentence_114

Up until April 2009, there were also two large commercial breweries in the city. Cork (city)_sentence_115

The Beamish and Crawford on South Main Street closed in April 2009 and transferred production to the Murphy's brewery in Lady's Well. Cork (city)_sentence_116

This brewery also produces Heineken for the Irish market. Cork (city)_sentence_117

There is also the Franciscan Well brewery, which started as an independent brewery in 1998 but has since been acquired by Coors. Cork (city)_sentence_118

Local government and politics Cork (city)_section_9

With a population of approximately 210,000, Cork is the second-most populous city in the State and the 16th-most populous area of local government. Cork (city)_sentence_119

Per the Local Government Act 2001, Cork City Council is a tier-1 entity of local government with the same status in law as a county council. Cork (city)_sentence_120

While local government in Ireland has limited powers in comparison with other countries, the council has responsibility for planning, roads, sanitation, libraries, street lighting, parks, and a number of other important functions. Cork (city)_sentence_121

Cork City Council has 31 elected members representing six electoral areas. Cork (city)_sentence_122

As of the 2019 Cork City Council election, the council's members are affiliated to the following political parties: Fianna Fáil (8 members), Fine Gael (7 members), Green Party (4 members), Sinn Féin (4 members), Labour (1 member), Solidarity–People Before Profit (1 member), Workers' Party (1 member), Independents (5 members). Cork (city)_sentence_123

Certain councillors are co-opted to represent the city at the South-West Regional Authority. Cork (city)_sentence_124

A new Lord Mayor of Cork is chosen in a vote by the elected members of the council under a D'Hondt system count. Cork (city)_sentence_125

Since June 2020, the mayor has been Joe Kavanagh of Fine Gael. Cork (city)_sentence_126

Cork City Hall is located along Albert Quay on the south side of the city. Cork (city)_sentence_127

It officially opened on 8 September 1936, following the previous building being destroyed in the "Burning of Cork" in 1920. Cork (city)_sentence_128

The administrative offices for Cork County Council are also located within the city limits, on the Carrigrohane Road on the west side of the city. Cork (city)_sentence_129

For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is part of two constituencies: Cork North-Central and Cork South-Central which each returns four TDs. Cork (city)_sentence_130

Following the 2016 general election, these constituencies together returned two TDs for the Fine Gael party, three for Fianna Fáil, two for Sinn Féin and one for the Anti-Austerity Alliance-People Before Profit. Cork (city)_sentence_131

In 2018, cabinet approval was given for an extension of the Cork City Council boundary, to include Cork Airport, Douglas, Ballincollig and other surrounding areas. Cork (city)_sentence_132

This extension was completed in mid-2019. Cork (city)_sentence_133

Economy Cork (city)_section_10

Main article: Economy of Cork Cork (city)_sentence_134

Retail Cork (city)_section_11

The retail trade in Cork city includes a mix of modern shopping centres and family owned local shops. Cork (city)_sentence_135

Shopping centres can be found in several of Cork's suburbs, including Blackpool, Ballincollig, Douglas, Ballyvolane, Wilton and at Mahon Point Shopping Centre. Cork (city)_sentence_136

Other shopping arcades are in the city centre, including the "Cornmarket Centre" on Cornmarket Street, "Merchant's Quay Shopping Centre" on Merchant's Quay, home to Debenhams, Dunnes Stores and Marks & Spencer, and a retail street called Opera Lane off St. Patrick's Street/Academy Street. Cork (city)_sentence_137

A mixed retail and office development, on the site of the former Capitol Cineplex, with approximately 60,000 square feet (5,600 m) of retail space, was opened in June 2017. Cork (city)_sentence_138

Retail tenants in this development include Facebook, AlienVault and Huawei. Cork (city)_sentence_139

Cork's main shopping street is St. Cork (city)_sentence_140 Patrick's Street and is the most expensive street in the country per sq. Cork (city)_sentence_141

metre after Dublin's Grafton Street. Cork (city)_sentence_142

The area was impacted by the post-2008 downturn, though retail growth has increased since, with Penneys announcing expansion plans in 2015, redesigning of some facades on the street, and opening of newer outlets, including Superdry in 2015. Cork (city)_sentence_143

Other shopping areas in the city centre include Oliver Plunkett St. and Grand Parade. Cork (city)_sentence_144

Cork is home to some of the country's leading department stores with the foundations of shops such as Dunnes Stores and the former Roches Stores being laid in the city. Cork (city)_sentence_145

Industry Cork (city)_section_12

Cork City is a hub of industry in the region. Cork (city)_sentence_146

Several pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the area, including Pfizer Inc., Johnson & Johnson and Swiss company Novartis. Cork (city)_sentence_147

Perhaps the most famous product of the Cork pharmaceutical industry is Viagra. Cork (city)_sentence_148

Cork is also the European headquarters of Apple Inc. where over 3,000 staff are involved in manufacturing, R&D and customer support. Cork (city)_sentence_149

Logitech and EMC Corporation are also important IT employers in the area. Cork (city)_sentence_150

Three hospitals are also among the top ten employers in the city. Cork (city)_sentence_151

The city is also home to the Heineken Brewery that brews Murphy's Irish Stout and the nearby Beamish and Crawford brewery (taken over by Heineken in 2008) which have been in the city for generations. Cork (city)_sentence_152

45% of the world's Tic Tac sweets are manufactured at the city's Ferrero factory. Cork (city)_sentence_153

For many years, Cork was the home to Ford Motor Company, which manufactured cars in the docklands area before the plant was closed in 1984. Cork (city)_sentence_154

Henry Ford's grandfather was from West Cork, which was one of the main reasons for opening up the manufacturing facility in Cork. Cork (city)_sentence_155

Technology has since replaced the older manufacturing businesses of the 1970s and 1980s, with people now working at a number of IT companies across the city area – such as, the online retailer, which has offices at Cork Airport Business Park. Cork (city)_sentence_156

Cork's deep harbour allows large ships to enter, bringing trade and easy import/export of products. Cork (city)_sentence_157

Cork Airport also allows easy access to continental Europe and Cork Kent railway station in the city centre provides good rail links for domestic trade. Cork (city)_sentence_158

Employment Cork (city)_section_13

According to the 2011 Cork City Employment & Land Use Survey, the single largest employers in the city (all with over 1,000 employees) include Cork University Hospital, Apple Inc, University College Cork, Boston Scientific, Cork City Council, Cork Institute of Technology, Bon Secours Hospital, Cork, retailers Supervalu and Centra, the Irish Defence Forces at Collins Barracks, and the Mercy University Hospital. Cork (city)_sentence_159

Transport Cork (city)_section_14

Air Cork (city)_section_15

Main article: Cork Airport Cork (city)_sentence_160

Cork Airport is the second busiest airport in the Republic of Ireland, and is situated on the south side of Cork city close to Ballygarvan. Cork (city)_sentence_161

Nine airlines fly to more than 45 destinations in Europe. Cork (city)_sentence_162

Scheduled airlines using Cork airport include Aer Lingus, Aer Lingus Regional operated by Stobart Air, Air France, Flybe, Iberia Express, Ryanair, Swiss International Air Lines and Volotea. Cork (city)_sentence_163

Bus Cork (city)_section_16

Public bus services within the city are provided by the national bus operator Bus Éireann. Cork (city)_sentence_164

City routes are numbered from 201 through to 226 and connect the city centre to the principal suburbs, colleges, shopping centres and places of interest. Cork (city)_sentence_165

Two of these bus routes provide orbital services across the Northern and Southern districts of the city respectively. Cork (city)_sentence_166

Buses to the outer suburbs and towns, such as Ballincollig, Glanmire, Midleton and Carrigaline are provided from the city's bus terminal at Parnell Place in the city centre. Cork (city)_sentence_167

Suburban services also include shuttles to Cork Airport, and a park and ride facility in the south suburbs only. Cork (city)_sentence_168

Long-distance buses depart from the bus terminal in Parnell Place to destinations throughout Ireland. Cork (city)_sentence_169

Hourly services run to Killarney/Tralee, Waterford, Athlone and Shannon Airport/Limerick/Galway and there are six services daily to Dublin. Cork (city)_sentence_170

There is also a daily Eurolines bus service that connects Cork to Victoria Coach Station in London via South Wales and Bristol. Cork (city)_sentence_171

Private operators include Irish Citylink, Aircoach and Dublin Coach. Cork (city)_sentence_172

Irish Citylink serves Limerick and Galway. Cork (city)_sentence_173

Aircoach operates an Express non-stop service which serves Dublin City Centre and Dublin Airport 18 times daily in each direction. Cork (city)_sentence_174

Dublin Coach serves Dublin via Fermoy, Mitchelstown, Cashel and Cahir. Cork (city)_sentence_175

Harbour and waterways Cork (city)_section_17

See also: Port of Cork Cork (city)_sentence_176

The Cross River Ferry, from Rushbrooke to Passage West, links the R624 to R610. Cork (city)_sentence_177

This service is used by some commuters to avoid traffic in the Jack Lynch Tunnel and Dunkettle area. Cork (city)_sentence_178

The Port of Cork is situated at Ringaskiddy, 16 kilometres (10 miles) SE via the N28. Cork (city)_sentence_179

Brittany Ferries operates direct car ferry services from Cork to Roscoff in France. Cork (city)_sentence_180

Road Cork (city)_section_18

The city's road infrastructure improved in the late 20th and early 21st century, including from the early 1980s construction of the Cork South Link dual carriageway which links the Kinsale Road roundabout with the city centre. Cork (city)_sentence_181

Shortly after, the first sections of the South Ring dual carriageway were opened. Cork (city)_sentence_182

Work continued on extending the N25 South Ring Road through the 1990s, culminating in the opening of the Jack Lynch Tunnel under the River Lee. Cork (city)_sentence_183

The Kinsale Road flyover opened in August 2006 to remove a bottleneck for traffic heading to Cork Airport or Killarney. Cork (city)_sentence_184

Other projects completed at this time include the N20 Blackpool bypass and the N20 Cork to Mallow road projects. Cork (city)_sentence_185

The N22 Ballincollig dual carriageway bypass, which links to the Western end of the Cork Southern Ring road was opened in September 2004. Cork (city)_sentence_186

City centre road improvements include the Patrick Street project – which reconstructed the street with a pedestrian focus. Cork (city)_sentence_187

The M8 motorway links Cork with Dublin. Cork (city)_sentence_188

From 2012, cycle paths and bike stands were added in a number of areas. Cork (city)_sentence_189

Subsequently, in 2014, a public bicycle rental scheme was launched. Cork (city)_sentence_190

The scheme is operated by An Rothar Nua on behalf of the National Transport Authority, with funding supplemented by an advertising sponsor. Cork (city)_sentence_191

The scheme supports 330 bikes with 31 stations placed around the city for paid public use. Cork (city)_sentence_192

Rail Cork (city)_section_19

Railway and tramway heritage Cork (city)_section_20

Cork was one of the most rail-oriented cities in Ireland, featuring eight stations at various times. Cork (city)_sentence_193

The main route, still much the same today, is from Dublin Heuston. Cork (city)_sentence_194

Originally terminating on the city's outskirts at Blackpool, the route now reaches the city centre terminus of Kent Station via the Glanmire tunnel and Kilnap Viaduct. Cork (city)_sentence_195

Now a through station, the line through Kent connects the towns of Cobh and Midleton east of the city. Cork (city)_sentence_196

This also connected to the seaside town of Youghal, until the 1980s. Cork (city)_sentence_197

Other rail routes terminating or traversing Cork city were the Cork, Blackrock and Passage Railway, a line to Macroom, the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway to Blarney, Coachford and Donoughmore, as well as the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway connecting Bantry, Skibbereen, Clonakilty and many other West Cork towns. Cork (city)_sentence_198

West Cork trains terminated at Albert Quay, across the river from Kent Station (though an on-street rail system connected the two for rolling stock and cargo movement). Cork (city)_sentence_199

Within the city there have been two tram networks in operation. Cork (city)_sentence_200

A proposal to develop a horse-drawn tram (linking the city's railway termini) was made by American George Francis Train in the 1860s, and implemented in 1872 by the Cork Tramway Company. Cork (city)_sentence_201

However, the company ceased trading in 1875 after Cork Corporation refused permission to extend the line. Cork (city)_sentence_202

In December 1898, the Cork Electric Tramways and Lighting Company began operating on the Blackpool–Douglas, Summerhill–Sunday's Well and Tivoli–Blackrock routes. Cork (city)_sentence_203

Increased usage of cars and buses in the 1920s led to a reduction in the use of trams, which discontinued operations permanently on 30 September 1931. Cork (city)_sentence_204

The wider city area, including the city's suburbs, is served by three railway stations. Cork (city)_sentence_205

These are Cork Kent railway station, Little Island railway station and Glounthaune railway station. Cork (city)_sentence_206

Current routes Cork (city)_section_21

Cork's Kent Station is the main railway station in the city. Cork (city)_sentence_207

From here, Irish Rail services run to destinations all over Ireland. Cork (city)_sentence_208

The main line from Cork to Dublin has hourly departures on the half-hour from Cork, and is linked from Limerick Junction with connections to Clonmel and Waterford. Cork (city)_sentence_209

InterCity services are also available to Killarney and Tralee, and to Limerick, Ennis, Athenry and Galway (via Limerick Junction and the Limerick to Galway railway line). Cork (city)_sentence_210

The Cork Suburban Rail system also departs from Kent Station and provides connections to parts of Metropolitan Cork. Cork (city)_sentence_211

Stations include Little Island, Mallow, Midleton, Fota and Cobh. Cork (city)_sentence_212

In July 2009 the Glounthaune to Midleton line was reopened, with new stations at Carrigtwohill and Midleton (and additional stations proposed for Blarney and elsewhere). Cork (city)_sentence_213

Little Island railway station serves Cork's Eastern Suburbs. Cork (city)_sentence_214

Education Cork (city)_section_22

See also: :Category:Education in Cork (city) and :Category:Secondary schools in County Cork Cork (city)_sentence_215

Cork is an important educational centre in Ireland – There are over 35,000 third level students in the city, meaning the city has a higher ratio of students in the population than the national average. Cork (city)_sentence_216

Over 10% of the population of the Metropolitan area are students in University College Cork (UCC) and Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), including nearly 3,000 international students from over 100 different countries. Cork (city)_sentence_217

UCC is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland and offers courses in arts, commerce, engineering, law, medicine and science. Cork (city)_sentence_218

It has been named "Irish University of the Year" four times since 2003, most recently in 2016. Cork (city)_sentence_219

Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) was named Irish "Institute of Technology of the Year" in 2007, 2010 and 2016 and offers third level courses in Computing and IT, Business, Humanities and Engineering (Mechanical, Electronic, Electrical, and Chemical). Cork (city)_sentence_220

The National Maritime College of Ireland is located in Cork and is the only Irish college in which Nautical Studies and Marine Engineering can be undertaken. Cork (city)_sentence_221

CIT incorporates the Cork School of Music and Crawford College of Art and Design as constituent schools. Cork (city)_sentence_222

The Cork College of Commerce is the largest 'College of Further Education' in Ireland. Cork (city)_sentence_223

Other 3rd level institutions include Griffith College Cork, a private institution, and various other colleges. Cork (city)_sentence_224

Research institutes linked to the third level colleges in the city support the research and innovation capacity of the city and region. Cork (city)_sentence_225

Examples include the Tyndall National Institute (ICT hardware research), IMERC (Marine Energy), Environmental Research Institute, NIMBUS (Network Embedded Systems); and CREATE (Advanced Therapeutic Engineering). Cork (city)_sentence_226

UCC and CIT also have start-up company incubation centres. Cork (city)_sentence_227

In UCC, the IGNITE Graduate Business Innovation Centre aims to foster and support entrepreneurship. Cork (city)_sentence_228

In CIT, The Rubicon Centre is a business innovation hub that is home to 57 knowledge based start-up companies. Cork (city)_sentence_229

Sport Cork (city)_section_23

See also: List of Cork people – Sports Cork (city)_sentence_230

Rugby, Gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastimes for Corkonians. Cork (city)_sentence_231

Gaelic games Cork (city)_section_24

Main article: Cork GAA Cork (city)_sentence_232

Hurling and football are the most popular spectator sports in the city. Cork (city)_sentence_233

Hurling has a strong identity with city and county – with Cork winning 30 All-Ireland Championships. Cork (city)_sentence_234

Gaelic football is also popular, and Cork has won 7 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship titles. Cork (city)_sentence_235

Cork is the only county that has won both championships at least 7 times and the only that has won both in the 21st century. Cork (city)_sentence_236

There are many Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in Cork City, including Blackrock National Hurling Club, St. Cork (city)_sentence_237 Finbarr's, Glen Rovers, Na Piarsaigh, Nemo Rangers and Douglas GAA. Cork (city)_sentence_238

The main public venues are Páirc Uí Chaoimh and Páirc Uí Rinn (named after the noted Glen Rovers player Christy Ring). Cork (city)_sentence_239

Camogie (hurling for ladies) and women's Gaelic football are increasing in popularity. Cork (city)_sentence_240

Association football Cork (city)_section_25

Main article: League of Ireland in Cork city Cork (city)_sentence_241

Cork City F.C. are the largest and most successful association football team in Cork, winning three League of Ireland titles, four FAI Cup titles, and one "All Ireland" Setanta Sports Cup title. Cork (city)_sentence_242

They play their home games on the south side of the city in Turners Cross. Cork (city)_sentence_243

Several, now defunct, Cork clubs played in the League of Ireland before 1984. Cork (city)_sentence_244

In total, teams from the city have won the league 12 times. Cork (city)_sentence_245

Association football is also played by amateur and school clubs across the city, as well as in "five-a-side" style leagues. Cork (city)_sentence_246

Rugby Cork (city)_section_26

Rugby union is played at various levels, from school to senior league level. Cork (city)_sentence_247

There are two first division clubs in Cork city. Cork (city)_sentence_248

Cork Constitution (five-time All Ireland League Champions) play their home games in Ballintemple and Dolphin R.F.C. Cork (city)_sentence_249

play at home in Musgrave Park. Cork (city)_sentence_250

Other notable rugby clubs in the city include, Highfield, Sunday's Well and UCC. Cork (city)_sentence_251

At schools level, Christian Brothers College and Presentation Brothers College are two of the country's better known rugby nurseries. Cork (city)_sentence_252

Munster Rugby plays a number of its home matches in the Pro14 at Musgrave Park in Ballyphehane. Cork (city)_sentence_253

In the past Heineken Cup matches have also been played at Musgrave Park, but most of these are now played at Thomond Park in Limerick. Cork (city)_sentence_254

In May 2006 and again in May 2008 Munster became the Heineken Cup champions, with many players hailing from Cork city and county. Cork (city)_sentence_255

Water sports Cork (city)_section_27

There are a variety of watersports in Cork, including rowing and sailing. Cork (city)_sentence_256

There are five rowing clubs training on the river Lee, including Shandon BC, UCC RC, Pres RC, Lee RC, and Cork BC. Cork (city)_sentence_257

Naomhóga Chorcaí is a rowing club whose members row traditional naomhóga on the Lee in occasional competitions. Cork (city)_sentence_258

The "Ocean to City" race has been held annually since 2005, and attracts teams and boats from local and visiting clubs who row the 24 kilometres (15 mi) from Crosshaven into Cork city centre. Cork (city)_sentence_259

The National Rowing Center was moved to Inniscarra – approximately 12 km outside the city centre – in 2007. Cork (city)_sentence_260

Cork's maritime sailing heritage is maintained through its sailing clubs. Cork (city)_sentence_261

The Royal Cork Yacht Club located in Crosshaven (outside the city) is the world's oldest yacht club, and "Cork Week" is a notable sailing event. Cork (city)_sentence_262

Cricket Cork (city)_section_28

The most notable cricket club in Cork is Cork County Cricket Club, which was formed in 1874. Cork (city)_sentence_263

Although located within the Munster jurisdiction, the club plays in the Leinster Senior League. Cork (city)_sentence_264

The club plays at the Mardyke, a ground which has hosted three first-class matches in 1947, 1961 and 1973. Cork (city)_sentence_265

All three involved Ireland playing Scotland. Cork (city)_sentence_266

The Cork Cricket Academy operates within the city, with the stated aim of introducing the sport to schools in the city and county. Cork (city)_sentence_267

Cork's other main cricket club, Harlequins Cricket Club, play close to Cork Airport. Cork (city)_sentence_268

The provincial representative side, the Munster Reds, plays its home matches in the Twenty20 Inter-Provincial Trophy at the Mardyke Cricket Ground. Cork (city)_sentence_269

Other sports Cork (city)_section_29

The city contains clubs active in national competitions in basketball (Neptune and UCC Demons) and American Football (Cork Admirals). Cork (city)_sentence_270

There are also golf, pitch and putt, hockey, tennis, and athletics clubs in the Cork area. Cork (city)_sentence_271

The city is the home of road bowling, which is played in the north-side and south-west suburbs. Cork (city)_sentence_272

There are boxing and martial arts clubs (including Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Karate, Muay Thai and Taekwondo) within the city, while the sports-based performance art of professional wrestling maintains a presence via local promotion Phoenix Wrestling. Cork (city)_sentence_273

Cork Racing, a motorsport team based in Cork, has raced in the Irish Formula Ford Championship since 2005. Cork (city)_sentence_274

Cork also hosts one of Ireland's most successful Australian Rules Football teams, the Leeside Lions, who have won the Australian Rules Football League of Ireland Premiership several times. Cork (city)_sentence_275

Twin cities Cork (city)_section_30

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Republic of Ireland Cork (city)_sentence_276

Cork is twinned with Cologne, Coventry, Rennes, San Francisco, Swansea and Shanghai. Cork (city)_sentence_277

As of February 2017, the city council was also in talks to twin with Bordeaux, Saint Petersburg and Miami. Cork (city)_sentence_278

Demographics Cork (city)_section_31

The population of Cork City and its suburbs was recorded as 208,669 by the 2016 census, with in excess of 300,000 in the Metropolitan Cork area. Cork (city)_sentence_279

Cork (city)_table_infobox_1

NationalityCork (city)_header_cell_1_0_0 PopulationCork (city)_header_cell_1_0_1
PolandCork (city)_cell_1_1_0 6,822Cork (city)_cell_1_1_1
United KingdomCork (city)_cell_1_2_0 3,075Cork (city)_cell_1_2_1
LithuaniaCork (city)_cell_1_3_0 1,126Cork (city)_cell_1_3_1
FranceCork (city)_cell_1_4_0 960Cork (city)_cell_1_4_1
GermanyCork (city)_cell_1_5_0 866Cork (city)_cell_1_5_1
IndiaCork (city)_cell_1_6_0 824Cork (city)_cell_1_6_1
NigeriaCork (city)_cell_1_7_0 640Cork (city)_cell_1_7_1
HungaryCork (city)_cell_1_8_0 543Cork (city)_cell_1_8_1
SlovakiaCork (city)_cell_1_9_0 523Cork (city)_cell_1_9_1
SpainCork (city)_cell_1_10_0 520Cork (city)_cell_1_10_1

There were 119,230 people present in the Cork City Council administered area at the time of the 2011 census, of these 117,221 indicated that they were usually present in Cork. Cork (city)_sentence_280

In common with other Irish urban centres, the female population (50.67%) is higher than the male population (49.33%), although the gap is somewhat smaller than in other cities. Cork (city)_sentence_281

In the 2011 census, of those usually resident, 100,901 (86.08%) were Irish citizens; 10,295 (8.78%) were citizens of other EU countries; 4,316 (3.68%) were citizens of countries elsewhere in the world; 1,709 (1.46%) did not state their citizenship. Cork (city)_sentence_282

By the 2016 census, the population of the city and suburbs were 81% white Irish, 10% other white, 1.4% black/black Irish, 2.5% Asian/Asian Irish, 1.7% other, with 2.6% not stating an ethnicity. Cork (city)_sentence_283

Also as of the census, the population was 76.4% Catholic, 8.1% other stated religion, with 12.8% having no religion and 2.7% not stated. Cork (city)_sentence_284

While Cork saw some Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe in the 19th century, with second-generation immigrants like Gerald Goldberg holding public office, the community later declined and the synagogue closed. Cork (city)_sentence_285

Later immigrant communities retain their places of worship. Cork (city)_sentence_286

In the 2011 and 2016 censuses, Roman Catholicism was the most common religion in the city overall, followed by Anglicanism, Presbyterianism, and Islam. Cork (city)_sentence_287

As of the 2016 census, an increasing number of residents (15%) indicated that they had no religion – a higher rate of increase and a higher overall percentage than the national average (10%). Cork (city)_sentence_288

City boundary expansion Cork (city)_section_32

Further information: 2019 Cork boundary change Cork (city)_sentence_289

Legislation to expand the boundary of the city, which would increase its area to 187 km (72 sq mi) and the population within its bounds from 125,000 to 210,000, was debated and approved in Dáil Éireann in June 2018. Cork (city)_sentence_290

Corresponding legislation was drafted during July 2018, and signed into law, as part of the Local Government Act 2018, by President Michael D. Higgins in January 2019. Cork (city)_sentence_291

The boundary change occurred at the end of May 2019, following the 2019 local elections. Cork (city)_sentence_292

Notable residents Cork (city)_section_33

See also: List of Cork people Cork (city)_sentence_293

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: (city).