Cornet

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This article is about the modern brass instrument. Cornet_sentence_0

For the organ stop, see Cornet (organ stop). Cornet_sentence_1

For other uses, see Cornet (disambiguation). Cornet_sentence_2

Not to be confused with cornett or coronet. Cornet_sentence_3

Cornet_table_infobox_0

CornetCornet_table_caption_0
Brass instrumentCornet_header_cell_0_0_0
ClassificationCornet_header_cell_0_1_0 Cornet_cell_0_1_1
Hornbostel–Sachs classificationCornet_header_cell_0_2_0 423.232

(Valved aerophone sounded by lip movement)Cornet_cell_0_2_1

DevelopedCornet_header_cell_0_3_0 Early 19th century from the post hornCornet_cell_0_3_1
Playing rangeCornet_header_cell_0_4_0
Related instrumentsCornet_header_cell_0_5_0

The cornet (/ˈkɔːrnɪt/, US: /kɔːrˈnɛt/) is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, and mellower tone quality. Cornet_sentence_4

The most common cornet is a transposing instrument in B♭, though there is also a soprano cornet in E♭ and cornets in A and C. All are unrelated to the Renaissance and early Baroque cornett. Cornet_sentence_5

History Cornet_section_0

The cornet derived from the posthorn, by applying rotary valves to it in the 1820s in France. Cornet_sentence_6

However by the 1830s, Parisian makers were using piston valves. Cornet_sentence_7

Cornets first appeared as separate instrumental parts in 19th-century French compositions. Cornet_sentence_8

This instrument could not have been developed without the improvement of piston valves by Silesian horn player Friedrich Blühmel and Heinrich Stölzel in the early 19th century. Cornet_sentence_9

These two instrument makers almost simultaneously invented valves, though it is likely that Blühmel (or Blümel) was the inventor, and Stölzel who developed a practical instrument. Cornet_sentence_10

They jointly applied for a patent and were granted this for a period of ten years. Cornet_sentence_11

Later, and most importantly, François Périnet received a patent in 1838 for an improved valve which is the basis of all modern brass instrument piston valves. Cornet_sentence_12

The first notable virtuoso player was Jean-Baptiste Arban, who studied the cornet extensively and published La grande méthode complète de cornet à piston et de saxhorn, commonly referred to as the Arban method, in 1864. Cornet_sentence_13

Up until the early 20th century, the trumpet and cornet co-existed in musical ensembles. Cornet_sentence_14

Symphonic repertoire often involves separate parts for trumpet and cornet. Cornet_sentence_15

As several instrument builders made improvements to both instruments, they started to look and sound more alike. Cornet_sentence_16

The modern-day cornet is used in brass bands, concert bands, and in specific orchestral repertoire that requires a more mellow sound. Cornet_sentence_17

The name cornet derives from corne, meaning horn, itself from Latin 'cornu'. Cornet_sentence_18

While not musically related, instruments of the Zink family (which includes serpents) are named "cornetto" or "cornett" in modern English to distinguish them from the valved cornet described here. Cornet_sentence_19

The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica referred to serpents as "old wooden cornets". Cornet_sentence_20

The Roman/Etruscan cornu (or simply "horn") is the lingual ancestor of these. Cornet_sentence_21

It is a predecessor of the post horn from which the cornet evolved, and was used like a bugle to signal orders on the battlefield. Cornet_sentence_22

Relationship to trumpet Cornet_section_1

The cornet was invented by adding valves to the post horn around 1828. Cornet_sentence_23

The valves allowed for melodic playing throughout the register of the cornet. Cornet_sentence_24

Trumpets were slower to adopt the new valve technology, so for the next 100 years or more, composers often wrote separate parts for trumpet and cornet. Cornet_sentence_25

The trumpet would play fanfare-like passages, while the cornet played more melodic passages. Cornet_sentence_26

The modern trumpet has valves that allow it to play the same notes and fingerings as the cornet. Cornet_sentence_27

Cornets and trumpets made in a given key (usually the key of B♭) play at the same pitch, and the technique for playing the instruments is nearly identical. Cornet_sentence_28

However, cornets and trumpets are not entirely interchangeable, as they differ in timbre. Cornet_sentence_29

Also available, but usually seen only in the brass band, is an E♭ soprano model, pitched a fourth above the standard B♭. Cornet_sentence_30

Unlike the trumpet, which has a cylindrical bore up to the bell section, the tubing of the cornet has a mostly conical bore, starting very narrow at the mouthpiece and gradually widening towards the bell. Cornet_sentence_31

Cornets following the 1913 patent of E.A. Cornet_sentence_32 Couturier can have a continuously conical bore. Cornet_sentence_33

The conical bore of the cornet is primarily responsible for its characteristic warm, mellow tone, which can be distinguished from the more penetrating sound of the trumpet. Cornet_sentence_34

The conical bore of the cornet also makes it more agile than the trumpet when playing fast passages, but correct pitching is often less assured. Cornet_sentence_35

The cornet is often preferred for young beginners as it is easier to hold, with its centre of gravity much closer to the player. Cornet_sentence_36

The cornet mouthpiece has a shorter and narrower shank than that of a trumpet so it can fit the cornet's smaller mouthpiece receiver. Cornet_sentence_37

The cup size is often deeper than that of a trumpet mouthpiece. Cornet_sentence_38

One variety is the short model traditional cornet, also known as a "Shepherd's Crook" shaped model. Cornet_sentence_39

These are most often large–bore instruments with a rich mellow sound. Cornet_sentence_40

There is also a long-model or "American-wrap" cornet, often with a smaller bore and a brighter sound, which is produced in a variety of different tubing wraps and is closer to a trumpet in appearance. Cornet_sentence_41

The Shepherd's Crook model is preferred by cornet traditionalists. Cornet_sentence_42

The long-model cornet is generally used in concert bands in the United States, but has found little following in British-style brass and concert bands. Cornet_sentence_43

A third and relatively rare variety—distinct from the long-model or "American-wrap" cornet—is the "long cornet", which was produced in the mid-20th Century by C.G. Cornet_sentence_44 Conn and F.E. Cornet_sentence_45 Olds and visually is nearly indistinguishable from a trumpet except that it has a receiver fashioned to accept cornet mouthpieces. Cornet_sentence_46

Echo cornet Cornet_section_2

The echo cornet has been called an obsolete variant. Cornet_sentence_47

It has a mute chamber (or echo chamber) mounted to the side acting as a second bell when the fourth valve is pressed. Cornet_sentence_48

The second bell has a sound similar to that of a Harmon mute and is typically used to play echo phrases, whereupon the player imitates the sound from the primary bell using the echo chamber. Cornet_sentence_49

Playing technique Cornet_section_3

Like the trumpet and all other modern brass wind instruments, the cornet makes a sound when the player vibrates ("buzzes") the lips in the mouthpiece, creating a vibrating column of air in the tubing. Cornet_sentence_50

The frequency of the air column's vibration can be modified by changing the lip tension and aperture or "embouchure", and by altering the tongue position to change the shape of the oral cavity, thereby increasing or decreasing the speed of the airstream. Cornet_sentence_51

In addition, the column of air can be lengthened by engaging one or more valves, thus lowering the pitch. Cornet_sentence_52

Double and triple tonguing are also possible. Cornet_sentence_53

Without valves, the player could produce only a harmonic series of notes like those played by the bugle and other "natural" brass instruments. Cornet_sentence_54

These notes are far apart for most of the instrument's range, making diatonic and chromatic playing impossible except in the extreme high register. Cornet_sentence_55

The valves change the length of the vibrating column and provide the cornet with the ability to play chromatically. Cornet_sentence_56

Ensembles with cornets Cornet_section_4

Brass band Cornet_section_5

British brass bands consist only of brass instruments and a percussion section. Cornet_sentence_57

The cornet is the leading melodic instrument in this ensemble; trumpets are never used. Cornet_sentence_58

The ensemble consists of about thirty musicians, including nine B♭ cornets and one E♭ cornet (soprano cornet). Cornet_sentence_59

In the UK, companies such as Besson and Boosey & Hawkes specialized in instrument for brass bands. Cornet_sentence_60

In America, 19th-century manufacturers such as Graves and Company, Hall and Quinby, E.G. Wright and the Boston Musical Instrument Manufactury made instruments for this ensemble. Cornet_sentence_61

Concert band Cornet_section_6

The cornet features in the British-style concert band, and early American concert band pieces, particularly those written or transcribed before 1960, often feature distinct, separate parts for trumpets and cornets. Cornet_sentence_62

Cornet parts are rarely included in later American pieces, however, and cornets are replaced in modern American bands by the trumpet. Cornet_sentence_63

This slight difference in instrumentation derives from the British concert band's heritage in military bands, where the highest brass instrument is always the cornet. Cornet_sentence_64

There are usually four to six B♭ cornets present in a British concert band, but no E♭ instrument, as this role is taken by the E♭ clarinet. Cornet_sentence_65

Fanfare orkest Cornet_section_7

Fanfare orkesten ("fanfare orchestras"), found in only the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Lithuania, use the complete saxhorn family of instruments. Cornet_sentence_66

The standard instrumentation includes both the cornet and the trumpet; however, in recent decades, the cornet has largely been replaced by the trumpet. Cornet_sentence_67

Jazz ensemble Cornet_section_8

In old style jazz bands, the cornet was preferred to the trumpet, but from the swing era onwards, it has been largely replaced by the louder, more piercing trumpet. Cornet_sentence_68

Likewise the cornet has been largely phased out of big bands by a growing taste for louder and more aggressive instruments, especially since the advent of bebop in the post World War II era. Cornet_sentence_69

Jazz pioneer Buddy Bolden played the cornet, and Louis Armstrong started off on the cornet but his switch to the trumpet is often credited with beginning of the trumpet's dominance in jazz. Cornet_sentence_70

Cornetists such as Bubber Miley and Rex Stewart contributed substantially to the Duke Ellington Orchestra's early sound. Cornet_sentence_71

Other influential jazz cornetists include Freddie Keppard, King Oliver, Bix Beiderbecke, Ruby Braff, Bobby Hackett, and Nat Adderley. Cornet_sentence_72

Notable performances on cornet by players generally associated with the trumpet include Freddie Hubbard's on Empyrean Isles by Herbie Hancock and Don Cherry's on The Shape of Jazz to Come by Ornette Coleman. Cornet_sentence_73

Symphony orchestra Cornet_section_9

Soon after its invention, the cornet was introduced into the symphony orchestra, supplementing the trumpets. Cornet_sentence_74

The use of valves meant they could play a full chromatic scale in contrast with trumpets, which were still restricted to the harmonic series. Cornet_sentence_75

In addition, their tone was found to unify the horn and trumpet sections. Cornet_sentence_76

Hector Berlioz was the first significant composer to use them in these ways, and his orchestral works often use pairs of both trumpets and cornets, the latter playing more of the melodic lines. Cornet_sentence_77

In his Symphonie fantastique (1830), he added a counter-melody for a solo cornet in the second movement (Un Bal). Cornet_sentence_78

Cornets continued to be used, particularly in French compositions, well after the valve trumpet was common. Cornet_sentence_79

They blended well with other instruments, and were held to be better suited to certain types of melody. Cornet_sentence_80

Tchaikovsky used them effectively this way in his Capriccio Italien (1880). Cornet_sentence_81

From the early 20th century, the cornet and trumpet combination was still favored by some composers, including Edward Elgar and Igor Stravinsky, but tended to be used for occasions when the composer wanted the specific mellower and more agile sound. Cornet_sentence_82

The sounds of cornet and trumpet have grown closer together over time and the former is now rarely used as an ensemble instrument: in the first version of his ballet Petrushka (1911), Stravinsky gives a celebrated solo to the cornet; in the 1946 revision he removed cornets from the orchestration and instead assigned the solo to the trumpet. Cornet_sentence_83

See also Cornet_section_10

Cornet_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornet.