Country music

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For other uses, see Country music (disambiguation). Country music_sentence_0

Country music_table_infobox_0

CountryCountry music_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesCountry music_header_cell_0_1_0 Country and westernCountry music_cell_0_1_1
Stylistic originsCountry music_header_cell_0_2_0 Country music_cell_0_2_1
Cultural originsCountry music_header_cell_0_3_0 1920s, Southern U.S.Country music_cell_0_3_1
SubgenresCountry music_header_cell_0_4_0
Fusion genresCountry music_header_cell_0_5_0
Other topicsCountry music_header_cell_0_6_0

Country (also called country and western) is a genre of popular music that takes its roots from genres such as blues and old-time music, and various types of American folk music including Appalachian, Cajun, and the cowboy Western music styles of Red Dirt, New Mexico, Texas country, and Tejano. Country music_sentence_1

Its popularized roots originate in the Southern United States of the early 1920s. Country music_sentence_2

Country music often consists of ballads and dance tunes with generally simple forms, folk lyrics, and harmonies mostly accompanied by string instruments such as banjos, electric and acoustic guitars, steel guitars (such as pedal steels and dobros), and fiddles as well as harmonicas. Country music_sentence_3

Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. Country music_sentence_4

According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music; it came to encompass Western music, which evolved parallel to hillbilly music from similar roots, in the mid-20th century. Country music_sentence_5

In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, and second most popular in the morning commute. Country music_sentence_6

The term country music is used today to describe many styles and subgenres. Country music_sentence_7

The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans and blue-collar American life. Country music_sentence_8

It has been inspired by American popular music, and American folk music which had its roots in Celtic music, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, corridos, African-American music, French folk music, and other folk musical traditions. Country music_sentence_9

Origins Country music_section_0

Main articles: Appalachian music, Blues, Celtic folk, Old-time music, and Western music (North America) Country music_sentence_10

The main components of the modern country music style date back to music traditions throughout the Southern United States and Southwestern United States, while its place in American popular music was established in the 1920s during the early days of music recording. Country music_sentence_11

Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon.” Country music_sentence_12

Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains, of the Southeastern United States, brought the folk music and instruments of Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin along with them for nearly 300 years, which developed into Appalachian music. Country music_sentence_13

As the country expanded westward, the Mississippi River and Louisiana became a crossroads for country music, giving rise to Cajun music. Country music_sentence_14

In the Southwestern United States, it was the Rocky Mountains, American frontier, and Rio Grande that acted as a similar backdrop for Native American, Mexican, and cowboy ballads, which resulted in New Mexico music and the development of Western music, and its directly related Red Dirt, Texas country, and Tejano music styles. Country music_sentence_15

Role of East Tennessee Country music_section_1

Main article: Music of East Tennessee Country music_sentence_16

The U.S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Country music_sentence_17

Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Country music_sentence_18

Historians have also noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, and the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. Country music_sentence_19

In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Country music_sentence_20

Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage. Country music_sentence_21

Generations Country music_section_2

The first generation emerged in the 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. Country music_sentence_22

James Gideon "Gid" Tanner (1885–1960) was an American old-time fiddler and one of the earliest stars of what would come to be known as country music. Country music_sentence_23

His band, the Skillet Lickers, was one of the most innovative and influential string bands of the 1920s and 1930s. Country music_sentence_24

Its most notable members were Clayton McMichen (fiddle and vocal), Dan Hornsby (vocals), Riley Puckett (guitar and vocal) and Robert Lee Sweat (guitar). Country music_sentence_25

New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records (series 15000D "Old Familiar Tunes") (Samantha Bumgarner) in 1924, and RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music the Carter Family. Country music_sentence_26

Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. Country music_sentence_27

During the second generation (1930s–1940s), radio became a popular source of entertainment, and "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, and as far west as California. Country music_sentence_28

The most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. Country music_sentence_29

During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood, many featuring the king of the "singing cowboys", Gene Autry. Country music_sentence_30

Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who also appeared in Hollywood westerns. Country music_sentence_31

His mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Country music_sentence_32

Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country music_sentence_33

Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie". Country music_sentence_34

The third generation (1950s–1960s) started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Country music_sentence_35

Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Country music_sentence_36

Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods, became popular among poor communities in New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas; the basic ensemble consisted of classical guitar, bass guitar, dobro or steel guitar, though some larger ensembles featured electric guitars, trumpets, keyboards (especially the honky-tonk piano, a type of tack piano), banjos, and drums. Country music_sentence_37

This sound had its roots in the Native American, Hispano, and American frontier music of the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico, including Western, honky tonk, ranchera, and corrido. Country music_sentence_38

By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, and honky tonk was played by most country bands. Country music_sentence_39

Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre; rockabilly was also a starting point for eventual rock-and-roll superstar Elvis Presley, who would return to his country roots near the end of his life. Country music_sentence_40

Beginning in the mid-1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee; Patsy Cline and Jim Reeves were two of the most broadly popular Nashville sound artists, and their deaths in separate plane crashes in the early 1960s were a factor in the genre's decline. Country music_sentence_41

Starting in the early 1950s, and during the mid-1960s, Western singer-songwriters such as Michael Martin Murphey and Marty Robbins rose in prominence as did others, throughout Western music traditions, like New Mexico music's Al Hurricane. Country music_sentence_42

The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. Country music_sentence_43

In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. Country music_sentence_44

At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. Country music_sentence_45

What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Country music_sentence_46

Fourth generation (1970s–1980s) music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, and country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Country music_sentence_47

Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a series of hugely successful songs blending country and folk-rock musical styles. Country music_sentence_48

By the mid-1970s, Texas country and Tejano music gained popularity with performers like Freddie Fender. Country music_sentence_49

During the early 1980s country artists continued to see their records perform well on the pop charts. Country music_sentence_50

In 1980 a style of "neocountry disco music" was popularized. Country music_sentence_51

During the mid-1980s a group of new artists began to emerge who rejected the more polished country-pop sound that had been prominent on radio and the charts in favor of more traditional "back-to-basics" production; this neotraditional movement would dominate country music through the late 1980s and was typified by the likes of George Strait. Country music_sentence_52

Attempts to combine punk and country were pioneered by Jason and the Scorchers, and in the 1980s Southern Californian cowpunk scene with bands like the Long Ryders and Mojo Nixon. Country music_sentence_53

During the fifth generation (1990s), country music became a worldwide phenomenon. Country music_sentence_54

Two types of artists enjoyed mainstream popularity: neotraditionalists such as Alan Jackson, and the more broadly popular stadium country acts, in particular Garth Brooks. Country music_sentence_55

The Dixie Chicks became one of the most popular country bands in the 1990s and early 2000s. Country music_sentence_56

The sixth generation (2000s–present) has seen a certain amount of diversification in regard to country music styles. Country music_sentence_57

The influence of rock music in country has become more overt during the late 2000s and early 2010s. Country music_sentence_58

Most of the best-selling country songs of this era were in the country pop genre, such as those by Lady Antebellum, Florida Georgia Line, Carrie Underwood and Taylor Swift. Country music_sentence_59

Hip-hop also made its mark on country music with the emergence of country rap. Country music_sentence_60

History Country music_section_3

First generation (1920s) Country music_section_4

The first commercial recordings of what was considered instrumental music in the traditional country style were "Arkansas Traveler" and "Turkey in the Straw" by fiddlers Henry Gilliland & A.C. Country music_sentence_61 (Eck) Robertson on June 30, 1922, for Victor Records and released in April 1923. Country music_sentence_62

Columbia Records began issuing records with "hillbilly" music (series 15000D "Old Familiar Tunes") as early as 1924. Country music_sentence_63

The first commercial recording of what is widely considered to be the first country song featuring vocals and lyrics was Fiddlin' John Carson with "Little Log Cabin in the Lane" for Okeh Records on June 14, 1923. Country music_sentence_64

Vernon Dalhart was the first country singer to have a nationwide hit in May 1924 with "Wreck of the Old 97". Country music_sentence_65

The flip side of the record was "Lonesome Road Blues", which also became very popular. Country music_sentence_66

In April 1924, "Aunt" Samantha Bumgarner and Eva Davis became the first female musicians to record and release country songs. Country music_sentence_67

Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the decade and into the 1930s. Country music_sentence_68

Other important early recording artists were Riley Puckett, Don Richardson, Fiddlin' John Carson, Uncle Dave Macon, Al Hopkins, Ernest V. Stoneman, Blind Alfred Reed, Charlie Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers and the Skillet Lickers. Country music_sentence_69

The steel guitar entered country music as early as 1922, when Jimmie Tarlton met famed Hawaiian guitarist Frank Ferera on the West Coast. Country music_sentence_70

Jimmie Rodgers and the Carter Family are widely considered to be important early country musicians. Country music_sentence_71

From Scott County, Virginia, the Carters had learned sight reading of hymnals and sheet music using solfege. Country music_sentence_72

Their songs were first captured at a historic recording session in Bristol, Tennessee, on August 1, 1927, where Ralph Peer was the talent scout and sound recordist. Country music_sentence_73

A scene in the movie O Brother, Where Art Thou? Country music_sentence_74

depicts a similar occurrence in the same timeframe. Country music_sentence_75

Rodgers fused hillbilly country, gospel, jazz, blues, pop, cowboy, and folk, and many of his best songs were his compositions, including "Blue Yodel", which sold over a million records and established Rodgers as the premier singer of early country music. Country music_sentence_76

Beginning in 1927, and for the next 17 years, the Carters recorded some 300 old-time ballads, traditional tunes, country songs and gospel hymns, all representative of America's southeastern folklore and heritage. Country music_sentence_77

Second generation (1930s–1940s) Country music_section_5

See also: 1940s in music § Country Country music_sentence_78

Record sales declined during the Great Depression, but radio became a popular source of entertainment, and "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started by radio stations all over the South, as far north as Chicago, and as far west as California. Country music_sentence_79

The most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. Country music_sentence_80

Some of the early stars on the Opry were Uncle Dave Macon, Roy Acuff and African American harmonica player DeFord Bailey. Country music_sentence_81

WSM's 50,000-watt signal (in 1934) could often be heard across the country. Country music_sentence_82

Many musicians performed and recorded songs in any number of styles. Country music_sentence_83

Moon Mullican, for example, played Western swing but also recorded songs that can be called rockabilly. Country music_sentence_84

Between 1947 and 1949, country crooner Eddy Arnold placed eight songs in the top 10. Country music_sentence_85

From 1945 to 1955 Jenny Lou Carson was one of the most prolific songwriters in country music. Country music_sentence_86

Singing cowboys and western swing Country music_section_6

In the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Country music_sentence_87

Some of the popular singing cowboys from the era were Gene Autry, the Sons of the Pioneers, and Roy Rogers. Country music_sentence_88

Country music and western music were frequently played together on the same radio stations, hence the term country and western music. Country music_sentence_89

Cowgirls contributed to the sound in various family groups. Country music_sentence_90

Patsy Montana opened the door for female artists with her history-making song "I Want To Be a Cowboy's Sweetheart". Country music_sentence_91

This would begin a movement toward opportunities for women to have successful solo careers. Country music_sentence_92

Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who also appeared in Hollywood westerns. Country music_sentence_93

His mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Country music_sentence_94

Cliff Bruner, Moon Mullican, Milton Brown and Adolph Hofner were other early Western swing pioneers. Country music_sentence_95

Spade Cooley and Tex Williams also had very popular bands and appeared in films. Country music_sentence_96

At its height, Western swing rivaled the popularity of big band swing music. Country music_sentence_97

Changing instrumentation Country music_section_7

Drums were scorned by early country musicians as being "too loud" and "not pure", but by 1935 Western swing big band leader Bob Wills had added drums to the Texas Playboys. Country music_sentence_98

In the mid-1940s, the Grand Ole Opry did not want the Playboys' drummer to appear on stage. Country music_sentence_99

Although drums were commonly used by rockabilly groups by 1955, the less-conservative-than-the-Grand-Ole-Opry Louisiana Hayride kept its infrequently used drummer back stage as late as 1956. Country music_sentence_100

By the early 1960s, however, it was rare for a country band not to have a drummer. Country music_sentence_101

Bob Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country music_sentence_102

A decade later (1948) Arthur Smith achieved top 10 US country chart success with his MGM Records recording of "Guitar Boogie", which crossed over to the US pop chart, introducing many people to the potential of the electric guitar. Country music_sentence_103

For several decades Nashville session players preferred the warm tones of the Gibson and Gretsch archtop electrics, but a "hot" Fender style, using guitars which became available beginning in the early 1950s, eventually prevailed as the signature guitar sound of country. Country music_sentence_104

Hillbilly boogie Country music_section_8

Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie". Country music_sentence_105

The trickle of what was initially called hillbilly boogie, or okie boogie (later to be renamed country boogie), became a flood beginning in late 1945. Country music_sentence_106

One notable release from this period was the Delmore Brothers' "Freight Train Boogie", considered to be part of the combined evolution of country music and blues towards rockabilly. Country music_sentence_107

In 1948, Arthur "Guitar Boogie" Smith achieved top ten US country chart success with his MGM Records recordings of "Guitar Boogie" and "Banjo Boogie", with the former crossing over to the US pop charts. Country music_sentence_108

Other country boogie artists included Moon Mullican, Merrill Moore and Tennessee Ernie Ford. Country music_sentence_109

The hillbilly boogie period lasted into the 1950s and remains one of many subgenres of country into the 21st century. Country music_sentence_110

Bluegrass, folk and gospel Country music_section_9

Main article: Bluegrass music Country music_sentence_111

By the end of World War II, "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass had emerged when Bill Monroe joined with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs, introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Country music_sentence_112

That was the ordination of bluegrass music and how Bill Monroe came to be known as the "Father of Bluegrass." Country music_sentence_113

Gospel music, too, remained a popular component of bluegrass and other sorts of country music. Country music_sentence_114

Red Foley, the biggest country star following World War II, had one of the first million-selling gospel hits ("Peace in the Valley") and also sang boogie, blues and rockabilly. Country music_sentence_115

In the post-war period, country music was called "folk" in the trades, and "hillbilly" within the industry. Country music_sentence_116

In 1944, Billboard replaced the term "hillbilly" with "folk songs and blues," and switched to "country" or "country and Western" in 1949. Country music_sentence_117

Honky tonk Country music_section_10

Another type of stripped down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, bass, dobro or steel guitar (and later) drums became popular, especially among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma. Country music_sentence_118

It became known as honky tonk and had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states, particularly Texas, together with the blues of the American South. Country music_sentence_119

Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys personified this music which has been described as "a little bit of this, and a little bit of that, a little bit of black and a little bit of white ... just loud enough to keep you from thinking too much and to go right on ordering the whiskey." Country music_sentence_120

East Texan Al Dexter had a hit with "Honky Tonk Blues", and seven years later "Pistol Packin' Mama". Country music_sentence_121

These "honky tonk" songs associated barrooms, were performed by the likes of Ernest Tubb, Kitty Wells (the first major female country solo singer), Ted Daffan, Floyd Tillman, and the Maddox Brothers and Rose, Lefty Frizzell and Hank Williams, would later be called "traditional" country. Country music_sentence_122

Williams' influence in particular would prove to be enormous, inspiring many of the pioneers of rock and roll, such as Elvis Presley and Jerry Lee Lewis, as well as Chuck Berry and Ike Turner, while providing a framework for emerging honky tonk talents like George Jones. Country music_sentence_123

Webb Pierce was the top-charting country artist of the 1950s, with 13 of his singles spending 113 weeks at number one. Country music_sentence_124

He charted 48 singles during the decade; 31 reached the top ten and 26 reached the top four. Country music_sentence_125

Third generation (1950s–1960s) Country music_section_11

See also: 1950s in music and 1960s in music Country music_sentence_126

Following in the footsteps of Gene Autry, Lydia Mendoza, Roy Rogers, and Patsy Montana. Country music_sentence_127

By the early 1950s, a blend of Western swing, country boogie, and honky tonk was played by most country bands. Country music_sentence_128

Western music, influenced by the cowboy ballads, New Mexico, Texas country and Tejano music rhythms of the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico, reached its peak in popularity in the late 1950s, most notably with the song "El Paso", first recorded by Marty Robbins in September 1959. Country music_sentence_129

Western music's influence would continue to grow within the country music sphere, Western musicians like Michael Martin Murphey, New Mexico music artists Al Hurricane and Antonia Apodaca, Tejano music performer Little Joe, and even folk revivalist John Denver, all first rose to prominence during this time. Country music_sentence_130

This Western music influence largely kept the music of the folk revival and folk rock from influencing the country music genre much, despite the similarity in instrumentation and origins (see, for instance, the Byrds' negative reception during their appearance on the Grand Ole Opry). Country music_sentence_131

The main concern was largely political: most folk revival was largely driven by progressive activists, a stark contrast to the culturally conservative audiences of country music. Country music_sentence_132

Only a handful of folk artists, such as Burl Ives and Canadian musician Gordon Lightfoot, would cross over into country music after the folk revival died out. Country music_sentence_133

During the mid-1950s a new style of country music became popular, eventually to be referred to as rockabilly. Country music_sentence_134

In 1953, the first all-country radio station was established in Lubbock, Texas. Country music_sentence_135

The music of the 1960s and 1970s targeted the American working class, and truckers in particular. Country music_sentence_136

As country radio became more popular, trucking songs like the 1963 hit song Six Days on the Road by Dave Dudley began to make up their own subgenre of country. Country music_sentence_137

These revamped songs sought to portray American truckers as a "new folk hero", marking a significant shift in sound from earlier country music. Country music_sentence_138

The song was written by actual truckers and contained numerous references to the trucker culture of the time like "ICC" for Interstate Commerce Commission and "little white pills" as a reference to amphetamines. Country music_sentence_139

Starday Records in Nashville followed up on Dudley's initial success with the release of Give me 40 Acres by the Willis Brothers. Country music_sentence_140

Rockabilly Country music_section_12

Main article: Rockabilly Country music_sentence_141

Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s; one of the first rock and roll superstars was former Western yodeler Bill Haley, who repurposed his Four Aces of Western Swing into a rockabilly band in the early 1950s and renamed it the Comets. Country music_sentence_142

Bill Haley & His Comets are credited with two of the first successful rock and roll records, "Crazy Man, Crazy" of 1953 and "Rock Around the Clock" in 1954. Country music_sentence_143

1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Country music_sentence_144

Rockabilly was an early form of rock and roll, an upbeat combination of blues and country music. Country music_sentence_145

The number two, three and four songs on Billboard's charts for that year were Elvis Presley, "Heartbreak Hotel"; Johnny Cash, "I Walk the Line"; and Carl Perkins, "Blue Suede Shoes" Thumper Jones (George Jones) Cash and Presley placed songs in the top 5 in 1958 with No. Country music_sentence_146

3 "Guess Things Happen That Way/Come In, Stranger" by Cash, and No. Country music_sentence_147

5 by Presley "Don't/I Beg of You." Country music_sentence_148

Presley acknowledged the influence of rhythm and blues artists and his style, saying "The colored folk been singin' and playin' it just the way I'm doin' it now, man for more years than I know." Country music_sentence_149

Within a few years, many rockabilly musicians returned to a more mainstream style or had defined their own unique style. Country music_sentence_150

Country music gained national television exposure through Ozark Jubilee on ABC-TV and radio from 1955 to 1960 from Springfield, Missouri. Country music_sentence_151

The program showcased top stars including several rockabilly artists, some from the Ozarks. Country music_sentence_152

As Webb Pierce put it in 1956, "Once upon a time, it was almost impossible to sell country music in a place like New York City. Country music_sentence_153

Nowadays, television takes us everywhere, and country music records and sheet music sell as well in large cities as anywhere else." Country music_sentence_154

The late 1950s saw the emergence of Buddy Holly, but by the end of the decade, backlash as well as traditional artists such as Ray Price, Marty Robbins, and Johnny Horton began to shift the industry away from the rock n' roll influences of the mid-1950s. Country music_sentence_155

The Country Music Association was founded in 1958, in part because numerous country musicians were appalled by the increased influence of rock and roll on country music. Country music_sentence_156

The Nashville and countrypolitan sounds Country music_section_13

Main article: Nashville sound Country music_sentence_157

Beginning in the mid-1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee. Country music_sentence_158

Under the direction of producers such as Chet Atkins, Bill Porter, Paul Cohen, Owen Bradley, Bob Ferguson, and later Billy Sherrill, the sound brought country music to a diverse audience and helped revive country as it emerged from a commercially fallow period. Country music_sentence_159

This subgenre was notable for borrowing from 1950s pop stylings: a prominent and smooth vocal, backed by a string section (violins and other orchestral strings) and vocal chorus. Country music_sentence_160

Instrumental soloing was de-emphasized in favor of trademark "licks". Country music_sentence_161

Leading artists in this genre included Jim Reeves, Skeeter Davis, Connie Smith, the Browns, Patsy Cline, and Eddy Arnold. Country music_sentence_162

The "slip note" piano style of session musician Floyd Cramer was an important component of this style. Country music_sentence_163

The Nashville Sound collapsed in mainstream popularity in 1964, a victim of both the British Invasion and the deaths of Reeves and Cline in separate airplane crashes. Country music_sentence_164

By the mid-1960s, the genre had developed into countrypolitan. Country music_sentence_165

Countrypolitan was aimed straight at mainstream markets, and it sold well throughout the later 1960s into the early 1970s. Country music_sentence_166

Top artists included Tammy Wynette, Lynn Anderson and Charlie Rich, as well as such former "hard country" artists as Ray Price and Marty Robbins. Country music_sentence_167

Despite the appeal of the Nashville sound, many traditional country artists emerged during this period and dominated the genre: Loretta Lynn, Merle Haggard, Buck Owens, Porter Wagoner, George Jones, and Sonny James among them. Country music_sentence_168

Country-soul crossover Country music_section_14

Main article: Country soul Country music_sentence_169

In 1962, Ray Charles surprised the pop world by turning his attention to country and western music, topping the charts and rating number three for the year on Billboard's pop chart with the "I Can't Stop Loving You" single, and recording the landmark album Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music. Country music_sentence_170

Bakersfield sound Country music_section_15

Another subgenre of country music grew out of hardcore honky tonk with elements of Western swing and originated 112 miles (180 km) north-northwest of Los Angeles in Bakersfield, California, where many "Okies" and other Dust Bowl migrants had settled. Country music_sentence_171

Influenced by one-time West Coast residents Bob Wills and Lefty Frizzell, by 1966 it was known as the Bakersfield sound. Country music_sentence_172

It relied on electric instruments and amplification, in particular the Telecaster electric guitar, more than other subgenres of the country music of the era, and it can be described as having a sharp, hard, driving, no-frills, edgy flavor—hard guitars and honky-tonk harmonies. Country music_sentence_173

Leading practitioners of this style were Buck Owens, Merle Haggard, Tommy Collins, Gary Allan, and Wynn Stewart, each of whom had his own style. Country music_sentence_174

Ken Nelson, who had produced Owens and Haggard and Rose Maddox became interested in the trucking song subgenre following the success of Six Days on the Road and asked Red Simpson to record an album of trucking songs. Country music_sentence_175

Haggard's White Line Fever was also part of the trucking subgenre. Country music_sentence_176

Western music and the cowboy ballad becoming part of country music Country music_section_16

See also: Western music (North America) Country music_sentence_177

The country music scene of the 1940s until the 1970s was largely dominated by Western music influences, so much so that the genre began to be called "Country and Western". Country music_sentence_178

Even today, cowboy and frontier values continue to play a role in the larger country music, with Western wear, cowboy boots, and cowboy hats continues to be in fashion for country artists. Country music_sentence_179

West of the Mississippi river, many of these Western genres continue to flourish, including the Red Dirt of Oklahoma, New Mexico music of New Mexico, and both Texas country music and Tejano music of Texas. Country music_sentence_180

During the 1950s until the early 1970s, the latter part of the Western heyday in country music, many of these genres featured popular artist that continue to influence both their distinctive genres and larger country music. Country music_sentence_181

Red Dirt featured Bob Childers and Steve Ripley; for New Mexico music Al Hurricane, Al Hurricane Jr., and Antonia Apodaca; and within the Texas scenes Willie Nelson, Freddie Fender, and Little Joe. Country music_sentence_182

As Outlaw country music emerged as subgenre in its own right, Red Dirt, New Mexico, Texas country, and Tejano grew in popularity as a part of the Outlaw country movement. Country music_sentence_183

Originating in the bars, fiestas, and honky-tonks of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas, their music supplemented outlaw country's singer-songwriter tradition as well as future rock-inspired alternative country and hip hop-inspired country rap artists. Country music_sentence_184

Country music_unordered_list_0

  • Country music_item_0_0
  • Country music_item_0_1
  • Country music_item_0_2
  • Country music_item_0_3
  • Country music_item_0_4
  • Country music_item_0_5

Fourth generation (1970s–1980s) Country music_section_17

See also: 1970s in music § Country, and 1980s in music § Country Country music_sentence_185

Outlaw country Country music_section_18

Main article: Outlaw country Country music_sentence_186

Derived from the traditional Western, including Red Dirt, New Mexico, Texas country, Tejano, and honky-tonk musical styles of the late 1950s and 1960s. Country music_sentence_187

Songs such as the 1963 Johnny Cash popularized "Ring of Fire" show clear influences from the likes of Al Hurricane and Little Joe, this influence just happened to culminate with artists such as Ray Price (whose band, the "Cherokee Cowboys", included Willie Nelson and Roger Miller) and mixed with the anger of an alienated subculture of the nation during the period, outlaw country revolutionized the genre of country music. Country music_sentence_188

"After I left Nashville (the early 70s), I wanted to relax and play the music that I wanted to play, and just stay around Texas, maybe Oklahoma. Country music_sentence_189

Waylon and I had that outlaw image going, and when it caught on at colleges and we started selling records, we were O.K. Country music_sentence_190

The whole outlaw thing, it had nothing to do with the music, it was something that got written in an article, and the young people said, 'Well, that's pretty cool.' Country music_sentence_191

And started listening." Country music_sentence_192

(Willie Nelson) The term outlaw country is traditionally associated with Willie Nelson, Jerry Jeff Walker, Hank Williams, Jr., Merle Haggard, Waylon Jennings and Joe Ely. Country music_sentence_193

It was encapsulated in the 1976 album Wanted! Country music_sentence_194 The Outlaws. Country music_sentence_195

Country pop Country music_section_19

Main article: Country pop Country music_sentence_196

Country pop or soft pop, with roots in the countrypolitan sound, folk music, and soft rock, is a subgenre that first emerged in the 1970s. Country music_sentence_197

Although the term first referred to country music songs and artists that crossed over to top 40 radio, country pop acts are now more likely to cross over to adult contemporary music. Country music_sentence_198

It started with pop music singers like Glen Campbell, Bobbie Gentry, John Denver, Olivia Newton-John, Anne Murray, B. Country music_sentence_199 J. Thomas, the Bellamy Brothers, and Linda Ronstadt having hits on the country charts. Country music_sentence_200

Between 1972 and 1975, singer/guitarist John Denver released a series of hugely successful songs blending country and folk-rock musical styles ("Rocky Mountain High", "Sunshine on My Shoulders", "Annie's Song", "Thank God I'm a Country Boy", and "I'm Sorry"), and was named Country Music Entertainer of the Year in 1975. Country music_sentence_201

The year before, Olivia Newton-John, an Australian pop singer, won the "Best Female Country Vocal Performance" as well as the Country Music Association's most coveted award for females, "Female Vocalist of the Year". Country music_sentence_202

In response George Jones, Tammy Wynette, Jean Shepard and other traditional Nashville country artists dissatisfied with the new trend formed the short-lived "Association of Country Entertainers" in 1974; the ACE soon unraveled in the wake of Jones and Wynette's bitter divorce and Shepard's realization that most others in the industry lacked her passion for the movement. Country music_sentence_203

During the mid-1970s, Dolly Parton, a successful mainstream country artist since the late 1960s, mounted a high-profile campaign to cross over to pop music, culminating in her 1977 hit "Here You Come Again", which topped the U.S. country singles chart, and also reached No. Country music_sentence_204

3 on the pop singles charts. Country music_sentence_205

Parton's male counterpart, Kenny Rogers, came from the opposite direction, aiming his music at the country charts, after a successful career in pop, rock and folk music with the First Edition, achieving success the same year with "Lucille", which topped the country charts and reached No. Country music_sentence_206

5 on the U.S. pop singles charts, as well as reaching Number 1 on the British all-genre chart. Country music_sentence_207

Parton and Rogers would both continue to have success on both country and pop charts simultaneously, well into the 1980s. Country music_sentence_208

Artists like Crystal Gayle, Ronnie Milsap and Barbara Mandrell would also find success on the pop charts with their records. Country music_sentence_209

In 1975, author Paul Hemphill stated in the Saturday Evening Post, "Country music isn't really country anymore; it is a hybrid of nearly every form of popular music in America." Country music_sentence_210

During the early 1980s, country artists continued to see their records perform well on the pop charts. Country music_sentence_211

Willie Nelson and Juice Newton each had two songs in the top 5 of the Billboard Hot 100 in the early eighties: Nelson charted "Always on My Mind" (No. Country music_sentence_212

5, 1982) and "To All the Girls I've Loved Before" (No. Country music_sentence_213

5, 1984, a duet with Julio Iglesias), and Newton achieved success with "Queen of Hearts" (No. Country music_sentence_214

2, 1981) and "Angel of the Morning" (No. Country music_sentence_215

4, 1981). Country music_sentence_216

Four country songs topped the Billboard Hot 100 in the 1980s: "Lady" by Kenny Rogers, from the late fall of 1980; "9 to 5" by Dolly Parton, "I Love a Rainy Night" by Eddie Rabbitt (these two back-to-back at the top in early 1981); and "Islands in the Stream", a duet by Dolly Parton and Kenny Rogers in 1983, a pop-country crossover hit written by Barry, Robin, and Maurice Gibb of the Bee Gees. Country music_sentence_217

Newton's "Queen of Hearts" almost reached No. Country music_sentence_218

1, but was kept out of the spot by the pop ballad juggernaut "Endless Love" by Diana Ross and Lionel Richie. Country music_sentence_219

The move of country music toward neotraditional styles led to a marked decline in country/pop crossovers in the late 1980s, and only one song in that period—Roy Orbison's "You Got It", from 1989—made the top 10 of both the Billboard Hot Country Singles" and Hot 100 charts, due largely to a revival of interest in Orbison after his sudden death. Country music_sentence_220

The only song with substantial country airplay to reach number one on the pop charts in the late 1980s was "At This Moment" by Billy Vera and the Beaters, an R&B song with slide guitar embellishment that appeared at number 42 on the country charts from minor crossover airplay. Country music_sentence_221

The record-setting, multi-platinum group Alabama was named Artist of the Decade for the 1980s by the Academy of Country Music. Country music_sentence_222

Country rock Country music_section_20

Main article: Country rock Country music_sentence_223

See also: Cowpunk Country music_sentence_224

Country rock is a genre that started in the 1960s but became prominent in the 1970s. Country music_sentence_225

The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. Country music_sentence_226

In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. Country music_sentence_227

At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. Country music_sentence_228

What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Country music_sentence_229

Early innovators in this new style of music in the 1960s and 1970s included Bob Dylan, who was the first to revert to country music with his 1967 album John Wesley Harding (and even more so with that album's follow-up, Nashville Skyline), followed by Gene Clark, Clark's former band the Byrds (with Gram Parsons on Sweetheart of the Rodeo) and its spin-off the Flying Burrito Brothers (also featuring Gram Parsons), guitarist Clarence White, Michael Nesmith (the Monkees and the First National Band), the Grateful Dead, Neil Young, Commander Cody, the Allman Brothers, the Marshall Tucker Band, Poco, Buffalo Springfield, and Eagles, among many, even the former folk music duo Ian & Sylvia, who formed Great Speckled Bird in 1969. Country music_sentence_230

The Eagles would become the most successful of these country rock acts, and their compilation album Their Greatest Hits (1971–1975) remains the second-best-selling album in the US with 29 million copies sold. Country music_sentence_231

The Rolling Stones also got into the act with songs like "Dead Flowers" and a country version of "Honky Tonk Women". Country music_sentence_232

Described by AllMusic as the "father of country-rock", Gram Parsons' work in the early 1970s was acclaimed for its purity and for his appreciation for aspects of traditional country music. Country music_sentence_233

Though his career was cut tragically short by his 1973 death, his legacy was carried on by his protégé and duet partner Emmylou Harris; Harris would release her debut solo in 1975, an amalgamation of country, rock and roll, folk, blues and pop. Country music_sentence_234

Subsequent to the initial blending of the two polar opposite genres, other offspring soon resulted, including Southern rock, heartland rock and in more recent years, alternative country. Country music_sentence_235

In the decades that followed, artists such as Juice Newton, Alabama, Hank Williams, Jr. (and, to an even greater extent, Hank Williams III), Gary Allan, Shania Twain, Brooks & Dunn, Faith Hill, Garth Brooks, Alan Jackson, Dwight Yoakam, Steve Earle, Dolly Parton, Rosanne Cash and Linda Ronstadt moved country further towards rock influence. Country music_sentence_236

Neocountry Country music_section_21

In 1980, a style of "neocountry disco music" was popularized by the film Urban Cowboy, which also included more traditional songs such as "The Devil Went Down to Georgia" by the Charlie Daniels Band. Country music_sentence_237

It was during this time that a glut of pop-country crossover artists began appearing on the country charts: former pop stars Bill Medley (of the Righteous Brothers), "England Dan" Seals (of England Dan and John Ford Coley), Tom Jones, and Merrill Osmond (both alone and with some of his brothers; his younger sister Marie Osmond was already an established country star) all recorded significant country hits in the early 1980s. Country music_sentence_238

Sales in record stores rocketed to $250 million in 1981; by 1984, 900 radio stations began programming country or neocountry pop full-time. Country music_sentence_239

As with most sudden trends, however, by 1984 sales had dropped below 1979 figures. Country music_sentence_240

Truck driving country Country music_section_22

Main article: Truck-driving country Country music_sentence_241

Truck driving country music is a genre of country music and is a fusion of honky-tonk, country rock and the Bakersfield sound. Country music_sentence_242

It has the tempo of country rock and the emotion of honky-tonk, and its lyrics focus on a truck driver's lifestyle. Country music_sentence_243

Truck driving country songs often deal with the profession of trucking and love. Country music_sentence_244

Well-known artists who sing truck driving country include Dave Dudley, Red Sovine, Dick Curless, Red Simpson, Del Reeves, the Willis Brothers and Jerry Reed, with C. Country music_sentence_245 W. McCall and Cledus Maggard (pseudonyms of Bill Fries and Jay Huguely, respectively) being more humorous entries in the subgenre. Country music_sentence_246

Dudley is known as the father of truck driving country. Country music_sentence_247

Neotraditionalist movement Country music_section_23

Main article: Neotraditionalist country Country music_sentence_248

During the mid-1980s, a group of new artists began to emerge who rejected the more polished country-pop sound that had been prominent on radio and the charts, in favor of more, traditional, "back-to-basics" production. Country music_sentence_249

Many of the artists during the latter half of the 1980s drew on traditional honky-tonk, bluegrass, folk and western swing. Country music_sentence_250

Artists who typified this sound included Travis Tritt, Reba McEntire, George Strait, Keith Whitley, Alan Jackson, Ricky Skaggs, Patty Loveless, Kathy Mattea, Randy Travis, Dwight Yoakam, and the Judds. Country music_sentence_251

Beginning in 1989, a confluence of events brought an unprecedented commercial boom to country music. Country music_sentence_252

New marketing strategies were used to engage fans, powered by technology that more accurately tracked the popularity of country music, and boosted by a political and economic climate that focused attention on the genre. Country music_sentence_253

Garth Brooks ("Friends in Low Places") in particular attracted fans with his fusion of neotraditionalist country and stadium rock. Country music_sentence_254

Other artists such as Brooks and Dunn ("Boot Scootin' Boogie") also combined conventional country with slick, rock elements, while Lorrie Morgan, Mary Chapin Carpenter, and Kathy Mattea updated neotraditionalist styles. Country music_sentence_255

Fifth generation (1990s) Country music_section_24

See also: 1990s in music § Country Country music_sentence_256

Country music was aided by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Docket 80–90, which led to a significant expansion of FM radio in the 1980s by adding numerous higher-fidelity FM signals to rural and suburban areas. Country music_sentence_257

At this point, country music was mainly heard on rural AM radio stations; the expansion of FM was particularly helpful to country music, which migrated to FM from the AM band as AM became overcome by talk radio (the country music stations that stayed on AM developed the classic country format for the AM audience). Country music_sentence_258

At the same time, beautiful music stations already in rural areas began abandoning the format (leading to its effective demise) to adopt country music as well. Country music_sentence_259

This wider availability of country music led to producers seeking to polish their product for a wider audience. Country music_sentence_260

In 1990, Billboard, which had published a country music chart since the 1940s, changed the methodology it used to compile the chart: singles sales were removed from the methodology, and only airplay on country radio determined a song's place on the chart. Country music_sentence_261

In the 1990s, country music became a worldwide phenomenon thanks to Garth Brooks, who enjoyed one of the most successful careers in popular music history, breaking records for both sales and concert attendance throughout the decade. Country music_sentence_262

The RIAA has certified his recordings at a combined (128× platinum), denoting roughly 113 million U.S. shipments. Country music_sentence_263

Other artists who experienced success during this time included Clint Black, Sammy Kershaw, Aaron Tippin, Travis Tritt, Alan Jackson and the newly formed duo of Brooks & Dunn; George Strait, whose career began in the 1980s, also continued to have widespread success in this decade and beyond. Country music_sentence_264

Toby Keith began his career as a more pop-oriented country singer in the 1990s, evolving into an outlaw persona in the late 1990s with Pull My Chain and its follow-up, Unleashed. Country music_sentence_265

Success of female artists Country music_section_25

Female artists such as Reba McEntire, Patty Loveless, Faith Hill, Martina McBride, Deana Carter, LeAnn Rimes, Mindy McCready, Lorrie Morgan, Shania Twain, and Mary Chapin Carpenter all released platinum-selling albums in the 1990s. Country music_sentence_266

The Dixie Chicks became one of the most popular country bands in the 1990s and early 2000s. Country music_sentence_267

Their 1998 debut album Wide Open Spaces went on to become certified 12x platinum while their 1999 album Fly went on to become 10x platinum. Country music_sentence_268

After their third album, Home, was released in 2003, the band made political news in part because of lead singer Natalie Maines's comments disparaging then-President George W. Bush while the band was overseas (Maines stated that she and her bandmates were ashamed to be from the same state as Bush, who had just commenced the Iraq War a few days prior). Country music_sentence_269

The comments caused a rift between the band and the country music scene, and the band's fourth (and most recent) album, 2006's Taking the Long Way, took a more rock-oriented direction; the album was commercially successful overall among non-country audiences but largely ignored among country audiences. Country music_sentence_270

After Taking the Long Way, the band broke up for a decade (with two of its members continuing as the Court Yard Hounds) before reuniting in 2016 and releasing new material in 2020. Country music_sentence_271

Shania Twain became the best selling female country artist of the decade. Country music_sentence_272

This was primarily due to the success of her breakthrough sophomore 1995 album, The Woman in Me, which was certified 12x platinum sold over 20 million copies worldwide and its follow up, 1997's Come On Over, which was certified 20x platinum and sold over 40 million copies. Country music_sentence_273

The album became a major worldwide phenomenon and became one of the world's best selling albums of 1998, 1999 and 2000; it also went on to become the best selling country album of all time. Country music_sentence_274

Unlike the majority of her contemporaries, Twain enjoyed large international success that had been seen by very few country artists, before or after her. Country music_sentence_275

Critics have noted that Twain enjoyed much of her success due to breaking free of traditional country stereotypes and for incorporating elements of rock and pop into her music. Country music_sentence_276

In 2002, she released her successful fourth studio album, titled Up! Country music_sentence_277 , which was certified 11x platinum and sold over 15 million copies worldwide. Country music_sentence_278

Twain has been credited with breaking international boundaries for country music, as well as inspiring many country artists to incorporate different genres into their music in order to attract a wider audience. Country music_sentence_279

She is also credited with changing the way in which many female country performers would market themselves, as unlike many before her she used fashion and her sex appeal to get rid of the stereotypical 'honky-tonk' image the majority of country singers had in order to distinguish herself from many female country artists of the time. Country music_sentence_280

Line dancing revival Country music_section_26

In the early-mid-1990s, country western music was influenced by the popularity of line dancing. Country music_sentence_281

This influence was so great that Chet Atkins was quoted as saying, "The music has gotten pretty bad, I think. Country music_sentence_282

It's all that damn line dancing." Country music_sentence_283

By the end of the decade, however, at least one line dance choreographer complained that good country line dance music was no longer being released. Country music_sentence_284

In contrast, artists such as Don Williams and George Jones who had more or less had consistent chart success through the 1970s and 1980s suddenly had their fortunes fall rapidly around 1991 when the new chart rules took effect. Country music_sentence_285

With the fusion genre of "country trap" —a fusion of country/western themes to a hip hop beat, but usually with fully sung lyrics—emerging in the late 2010s, line dancing country had a minor revival. Country music_sentence_286

Examples of the phenomenon include "Old Town Road" by Lil Nas X and "The Git Up" by Blanco Brown, both of which topped the Billboard country charts despite scant radio airplay. Country music_sentence_287

Alt-country/Americana Country music_section_27

Main articles: Alt country and cowpunk Country music_sentence_288

Country influences combined with Punk rock and alternative rock to forge the "cowpunk" scene in Southern California during the 1980s, which included bands such as the Long Ryders, Lone Justice and the Beat Farmers, as well as the established punk group X, whose music had begun to include country and rockabilly influences. Country music_sentence_289

Simultaneously, a generation of diverse country artists outside of California emerged that rejected the perceived cultural and musical conservatism associated with Nashville's mainstream country musicians in favor of more countercultural outlaw country and the folk singer-songwriter traditions of artists such as Woody Guthrie, Gram Parsons and Bob Dylan. Country music_sentence_290

Artists from outside California who were associated with early alternative country included singer-songwriters such as Lucinda Williams, Lyle Lovett and Steve Earle, the Nashville country rock band Jason and the Scorchers and the British post-punk band the Mekons. Country music_sentence_291

Earle, in particular, was noted for his popularity with both country and college rock audiences: He promoted his 1986 debut album Guitar Town with a tour that saw him open for both country singer Dwight Yoakam and alternative rock band the Replacements. Country music_sentence_292

Yoakam also cultivated a fanbase spanning multiple genres through his stripped-down honky-tonk influenced sound, association with the cowpunk scene, and performances at Los Angeles punk rock clubs. Country music_sentence_293

These early styles had coalesced into a genre by the time the Illinois group Uncle Tupelo released their influential debut album No Depression in 1990. Country music_sentence_294

The album is widely credited as being the first "alternative country" album, and inspired the name of No Depression magazine, which exclusively covered the new genre. Country music_sentence_295

Following Uncle Tupelo's disbanding in 1994, its members formed two significant bands in genre: Wilco and Son Volt. Country music_sentence_296

Although Wilco's sound had moved away from country and towards indie rock by the time they released their critically acclaimed album Yankee Hotel Foxtrot in 2002, they have continued to be an influence on later alt-country artists. Country music_sentence_297

Other acts who became prominent in the alt-country genre during the 1990s and 2000s included the Bottle Rockets, the Handsome Family, Blue Mountain, Robbie Fulks, Blood Oranges, Bright Eyes, Drive-By Truckers, Old 97's, Old Crow Medicine Show, Nickel Creek, Neko Case, and Whiskeytown, whose lead singer Ryan Adams later had a successful solo-career. Country music_sentence_298

Alt-country, in various iterations overlapped with other genres, including Red Dirt country music (Cross Canadian Ragweed), jam bands (My Morning Jacket and the String Cheese Incident), and indie folk (the Avett Brothers). Country music_sentence_299

Despite the genre's growing popularity in the 1980s, '90s and 2000s, alternative country and neo-traditionalist artists saw minimal support from country radio in those decades, despite strong sales and critical acclaim for albums such as the soundtrack to the 2000 film O Brother, Where Art Thou?. Country music_sentence_300

In 1987, the Beat Farmers gained airplay on country music stations with their song "Make It Last", but the single was pulled from the format when station programmers decreed the band's music was too rock-oriented for their audience. Country music_sentence_301

However, some alt-country songs have been crossover hits to mainstream country radio in cover versions by established artists on the format; Lucinda Williams' "Passionate Kisses" was a hit for Mary Chapin Carpenter in 1993, Ryan Adams's "When the Stars Go Blue" was a hit for Tim McGraw in 2007, and Old Crow Medicine Show's "Wagon Wheel" was a hit for Darius Rucker in 2013. Country music_sentence_302

In the 2010s, the alt-country genre saw an increase in its critical and commercial popularity, owing to the success of artists such as the Civil Wars, Chris Stapleton, Sturgill Simpson, Jason Isbell, Lydia Loveless and Margo Price. Country music_sentence_303

In 2019, Kacey Musgraves – a country artist who had gained a following with indie rock fans and music critics despite minimal airplay on country radio – won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year for her album Golden Hour. Country music_sentence_304

Sixth generation (2000s–present) Country music_section_28

Australia Country music_section_29

Main article: Australian country music Country music_sentence_305

Australian country music has a long tradition. Country music_sentence_306

Influenced by American country music, it has developed a distinct style, shaped by British and Irish folk ballads and Australian bush balladeers like Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson. Country music_sentence_307

Country instruments, including the guitar, banjo, fiddle and harmonica, create the distinctive sound of country music in Australia and accompany songs with strong storyline and memorable chorus. Country music_sentence_308

Folk songs sung in Australia between the 1780s and 1920s, based around such themes as the struggle against government tyranny, or the lives of bushrangers, swagmen, drovers, stockmen and shearers, continue to influence the genre. Country music_sentence_309

This strain of Australian country, with lyrics focusing on Australian subjects, is generally known as "bush music" or "bush band music". Country music_sentence_310

"Waltzing Matilda", often regarded as Australia's unofficial national anthem, is a quintessential Australian country song, influenced more by British and Irish folk ballads than by American country and western music. Country music_sentence_311

The lyrics were composed by the poet Banjo Paterson in 1895. Country music_sentence_312

Other popular songs from this tradition include "The Wild Colonial Boy", "Click Go the Shears", "The Queensland Drover" and "The Dying Stockman". Country music_sentence_313

Later themes which endure to the present include the experiences of war, of droughts and flooding rains, of Aboriginality and of the railways and trucking routes which link Australia's vast distances. Country music_sentence_314

Pioneers of a more Americanised popular country music in Australia included Tex Morton (known as "The Father of Australian Country Music") in the 1930s. Country music_sentence_315

Author Andrew Smith delivers a through research and engaged view of Tex Morton's life and his impact on the country music scene in Australia in the 1930s and 1940s. Country music_sentence_316

Other early stars included Buddy Williams, Shirley Thoms and Smoky Dawson. Country music_sentence_317

Buddy Williams (1918–1986) was the first Australian-born to record country music in Australia in the late 1930s and was the pioneer of a distinctly Australian style of country music called the bush ballad that others such as Slim Dusty would make popular in later years. Country music_sentence_318

During the Second World War, many of Buddy Williams recording sessions were done whilst on leave from the Army. Country music_sentence_319

At the end of the war, Williams would go on to operate some of the largest travelling tent rodeo shows Australia has ever seen. Country music_sentence_320

In 1952, Dawson began a radio show and went on to national stardom as a singing cowboy of radio, TV and film. Country music_sentence_321

Slim Dusty (1927–2003) was known as the "King of Australian Country Music" and helped to popularise the Australian bush ballad. Country music_sentence_322

His successful career spanned almost six decades, and his 1957 hit "A Pub with No Beer" was the biggest-selling record by an Australian to that time, and with over seven million record sales in Australia he is the most successful artist in Australian musical history. Country music_sentence_323

Dusty recorded and released his one-hundredth album in the year 2000 and was given the honour of singing "Waltzing Matilda" in the closing ceremony of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Country music_sentence_324

Dusty's wife Joy McKean penned several of his most popular songs. Country music_sentence_325

Chad Morgan, who began recording in the 1950s, has represented a vaudeville style of comic Australian country; Frank Ifield achieved considerable success in the early 1960s, especially in the UK Singles Charts and Reg Lindsay was one of the first Australians to perform at Nashville's Grand Ole Opry in 1974. Country music_sentence_326

Eric Bogle's 1972 folk lament to the Gallipoli Campaign "And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda" recalled the British and Irish origins of Australian folk-country. Country music_sentence_327

Singer-songwriter Paul Kelly, whose music style straddles folk, rock and country, is often described as the poet laureate of Australian music. Country music_sentence_328

By the 1990s, country music had attained crossover success in the pop charts, with artists like James Blundell and James Reyne singing "Way Out West", and country star Kasey Chambers winning the ARIA Award for Best Female Artist in 2000, 2002 and 2004, tying with pop stars Wendy Matthews and Sia for the most wins in that category. Country music_sentence_329

Furthermore, Chambers has gone on to win nine ARIA Awards for Best Country Album and, in 2018, became the youngest artist to ever be inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame. Country music_sentence_330

The crossover influence of Australian country is also evident in the music of successful contemporary bands the Waifs and the John Butler Trio. Country music_sentence_331

Nick Cave has been heavily influenced by the country artist Johnny Cash. Country music_sentence_332

In 2000, Cash, covered Cave's "The Mercy Seat" on the album American III: Solitary Man, seemingly repaying Cave for the compliment he paid by covering Cash's "The Singer" (originally "The Folk Singer") on his Kicking Against the Pricks album. Country music_sentence_333

Subsequently, Cave cut a duet with Cash on a version of Hank Williams' "I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry" for Cash's American IV: The Man Comes Around album (2002). Country music_sentence_334

Popular contemporary performers of Australian country music include John Williamson (who wrote the iconic "True Blue"), Lee Kernaghan (whose hits include "Boys from the Bush" and "The Outback Club"), Gina Jeffreys, Forever Road and Sara Storer. Country music_sentence_335

In the United States, Olivia Newton-John, Sherrié Austin and Keith Urban have attained great success. Country music_sentence_336

During her time as a country singer in the 1970s, Newton-John became the first (and to date only) non-American winner of the Country Music Association Award for Female Vocalist of the Year which many considered a controversial decision by the CMA; after starring in the rock-and-roll musical film Grease in 1978, Newton-John (mirroring the character she played in the film) shifted to pop music in the 1980s. Country music_sentence_337

Urban is arguably considered the most successful international Australian country star, winning nine CMA Awards, including three Male Vocalist of the Year wins and two wins of the CMA's top honour Entertainer of the Year. Country music_sentence_338

Pop star Kylie Minogue found success with her 2018 country pop album Golden which she recorded in Nashville reaching number one in Scotland, the UK and her native Australia. Country music_sentence_339

Country music has been a particularly popular form of musical expression among Indigenous Australians. Country music_sentence_340

Troy Cassar-Daley is among Australia's successful contemporary indigenous performers, and Kev Carmody and Archie Roach employ a combination of folk-rock and country music to sing about Aboriginal rights issues. Country music_sentence_341

The Tamworth Country Music Festival began in 1973 and now attracts up to 100,000 visitors annually. Country music_sentence_342

Held in Tamworth, New South Wales (country music capital of Australia), it celebrates the culture and heritage of Australian country music. Country music_sentence_343

During the festival the CMAA holds the Country Music Awards of Australia ceremony awarding the Golden Guitar trophies. Country music_sentence_344

Other significant country music festivals include the Whittlesea Country Music Festival (near Melbourne) and the Mildura Country Music Festival for "independent" performers during October, and the Canberra Country Music Festival held in the national capital during November. Country music_sentence_345

Country HQ showcases new talent on the rise in the country music scene down under. Country music_sentence_346

CMC (the Country Music Channel), a 24‑hour music channel dedicated to non-stop country music, can be viewed on pay TV and features once a year the Golden Guitar Awards, CMAs and CCMAs alongside international shows such as The Wilkinsons, The Road Hammers, and Country Music Across America. Country music_sentence_347

Canada Country music_section_30

Main articles: Canadian country music, Canadian Country Music Association, and Canadian Country Music Hall of Fame Country music_sentence_348

Outside of the United States, Canada has the largest country music fan and artist base, something that is to be expected given the two countries' proximity and cultural parallels. Country music_sentence_349

Mainstream country music is culturally ingrained in the prairie provinces, the British Columbia Interior, Ontario, and in Atlantic Canada. Country music_sentence_350

Celtic traditional music developed in Atlantic Canada in the form of Scottish, Acadian and Irish folk music popular amongst Irish, French and Scottish immigrants to Canada's Atlantic Provinces (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island). Country music_sentence_351

Like the southern United States and Appalachia, all four regions are of heavy British Isles stock and rural; as such, the development of traditional music in the Maritimes somewhat mirrored the development of country music in the US South and Appalachia. Country music_sentence_352

Country and Western music never really developed separately in Canada; however, after its introduction to Canada, following the spread of radio, it developed quite quickly out of the Atlantic Canadian traditional scene. Country music_sentence_353

While true Atlantic Canadian traditional music is very Celtic or "sea shanty" in nature, even today, the lines have often been blurred. Country music_sentence_354

Certain areas often are viewed as embracing one strain or the other more openly. Country music_sentence_355

For example, in Newfoundland the traditional music remains unique and Irish in nature, whereas traditional musicians in other parts of the region may play both genres interchangeably. Country music_sentence_356

Don Messer's Jubilee was a Halifax, Nova Scotia-based country/folk variety television show that was broadcast nationally from 1957 to 1969. Country music_sentence_357

In Canada it out-performed The Ed Sullivan Show broadcast from the United States and became the top-rated television show throughout much of the 1960s. Country music_sentence_358

Don Messer's Jubilee followed a consistent format throughout its years, beginning with a tune named "Goin' to the Barndance Tonight", followed by fiddle tunes by Messer, songs from some of his "Islanders" including singers Marg Osburne and Charlie Chamberlain, the featured guest performance, and a closing hymn. Country music_sentence_359

It ended with "Till We Meet Again". Country music_sentence_360

The guest performance slot gave national exposure to numerous Canadian folk musicians, including Stompin' Tom Connors and Catherine McKinnon. Country music_sentence_361

Some Maritime country performers went on to further fame beyond Canada. Country music_sentence_362

Hank Snow, Wilf Carter (also known as Montana Slim), and Anne Murray are the three most notable. Country music_sentence_363

The cancellation of the show by the public broadcaster in 1969 caused a nationwide protest, including the raising of questions in the Parliament of Canada. Country music_sentence_364

The Prairie provinces, due to their western cowboy and agrarian nature, are the true heartland of Canadian country music. Country music_sentence_365

While the Prairies never developed a traditional music culture anything like the Maritimes, the folk music of the Prairies often reflected the cultural origins of the settlers, who were a mix of Scottish, Ukrainian, German and others. Country music_sentence_366

For these reasons polkas and Western music were always popular in the region, and with the introduction of the radio, mainstream country music flourished. Country music_sentence_367

As the culture of the region is western and frontier in nature, the specific genre of country and western is more popular today in the Prairies than in any other part of the country. Country music_sentence_368

No other area of the country embraces all aspects of the culture, from two-step dancing, to the cowboy dress, to rodeos, to the music itself, like the Prairies do. Country music_sentence_369

The Atlantic Provinces, on the other hand, produce far more traditional musicians, but they are not usually specifically country in nature, usually bordering more on the folk or Celtic genres. Country music_sentence_370

Canadian country pop star Shania Twain is the best-selling female country artist of all time and one of the best-selling artists of all time in any genre. Country music_sentence_371

Furthermore, she is the only woman in history to have three consecutive albums be certified Diamond. Country music_sentence_372

Mexico and Latin America Country music_section_31

United Kingdom Country music_section_32

Other international country music Country music_section_33

Tom Roland, from the Country Music Association International, explains country music's global popularity: "In this respect, at least, Country Music listeners around the globe have something in common with those in the United States. Country music_sentence_373

In Germany, for instance, Rohrbach identifies three general groups that gravitate to the genre: people intrigued with the American cowboy icon, middle-aged fans who seek an alternative to harder rock music and younger listeners drawn to the pop-influenced sound that underscores many current Country hits." Country music_sentence_374

One of the first Americans to perform country music abroad was George Hamilton IV. Country music_sentence_375

He was the first country musician to perform in the Soviet Union; he also toured in Australia and the Middle East. Country music_sentence_376

He was deemed the "International Ambassador of Country Music" for his contributions to the globalization of country music. Country music_sentence_377

Johnny Cash, Emmylou Harris, Keith Urban, and Dwight Yoakam have also made numerous international tours. Country music_sentence_378

The Country Music Association undertakes various initiatives to promote country music internationally. Country music_sentence_379

Asia Country music_section_34

In India, the Anglo-Indian community is well known for enjoying and performing country music. Country music_sentence_380

An annual concert festival called "Blazing Guitars" held in Chennai brings together Anglo-Indian musicians from all over the country (including some who have emigrated to places like Australia). Country music_sentence_381

The year 2003 brought home – grown Indian, Bobby Cash to the forefront of the country music culture in India when he became India's first international country music artist to chart singles in Australia. Country music_sentence_382

In Iran, country music has appeared in recent years. Country music_sentence_383

According to Melody Music Magazine, the pioneer of country music in Iran is the English-speaking country music band Dream Rovers, whose founder, singer and songwriter is Erfan Rezayatbakhsh (elf). Country music_sentence_384

The band was formed in 2007 in Tehran, and during this time they have been trying to introduce and popularize country music in Iran by releasing two studio albums and performing live at concerts, despite the difficulties that the Islamic regime in Iran makes for bands that are active in the western music field. Country music_sentence_385

In Japan, electronic music producer and DJ Yasutaka Nakata started to create a country-folk style of music for model and entertainer Mito Natsume. Country music_sentence_386

Mito's activities as a singer has yielded to her debut studio album, Natsumelo, in 2017. Country music_sentence_387

In the Philippines, country music has found their way into Cordilleran way of life, which often compares the Igorot lifestyle to that of American cowboys. Country music_sentence_388

Baguio City has a FM station that caters to country music, DZWR 99.9 Country, which is part of the Catholic Media Network. Country music_sentence_389

Bombo Radyo Baguio has a segment on its Sunday slot for Igorot, Ilocano and country music. Country music_sentence_390

And as of recently, DWUB occasionally plays country music. Country music_sentence_391

Ireland Country music_section_35

Continental Europe Country music_section_36

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country music.