Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Related ethnic groups|
The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croatian: Hrvati Bosne i Hercegovine / Хрвати Босне и Херцеговине), often referred to as Bosnian Croats (Serbo-Croatian: Bosanski Hrvati / Босански Хрвати) or Herzegovinian Croats (Serbo-Croatian: Hercegovački Hrvati / Херцеговачки Хрвати), are the third most populous ethnic group in the country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina have made significant contributions to the culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
From the 15th to the 19th century, Catholics in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina were often persecuted under the Ottoman Empire, causing many of them to flee the area.
In the 20th century, political turmoil and poor economic conditions caused more to emigrate.
Ethnic cleansing within Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 1990s saw Croats forced to different parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina, although having lived in numerous regions prior to the Bosnian War.
According to the report by the Bosnia and Herzegovina statistics office, on the census of 2013 there were 544,780 Croats living in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kingdom of Croatia
Croats settled the areas of modern Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 7th century.
Constantine VII in De Administrando Imperio writes that Croats settled Dalmatia and from there they settled Illyricum and Pannonia There, they assimilated with native Illyrians and Romans during the great migration of the Slavs.
The Croats adopted Christianity and began to develop their own culture, art, and political institutions, culminating in their own kingdom, which consisted of two principalities: Pannonian Croatia in the north, and Dalmatian Croatia in the south.
Red Croatia, to the south, was land of a few minor states.
One of the most important events of the Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early Middle Ages is the First Croatian Assembly held in 753 in Županjac (present-day Tomislavgrad).
The second major event was the coronation of Tomislav, the first King of Croatia, in ca. 925, in the fields of Županjac.
By this act, Pannonian Croatia and Dalmatian Croatia formed a united Croatian kingdom, which included Dalmatia, Bosnia and Pannonia (eastern Slavonia and eastern Bosnia), and Savia (western Slavonia).
High and late middle age
In 1102 Croatia entered into a union with the Kingdom of Hungary.
After this, Bosnia, which was earlier part of the Kingdom of Croatia, started to disassociate with Croatia.
At first, Bosnia became a separate principality under Ban Kulin who managed to solidify Bosnian autonomy at the expense of more powerful neighbours, but only in the 14th century did Bosnia become a formidable state.
In the 14th century, King Tvrtko I conquered part of western Serbia and later parts of the Kingdom of Croatia, which he accomplished by defeating various Croatian nobles and supporting Hungary.
Regarding to culture and religion, Bosnia was closer to Croatia than the Orthodox lands to the east, and the Diocese of Bosnia is mentioned as Catholic in the 11th century, and later fell under the jurisdiction of the croatian Archdiocese of Split and in the 12th Century under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Dubrovnik.
Another connection of Bosnia with Croatia is that Bosnian rulers always used the political title "Ban Kulin" in similarity with their Croatian counterparts.
Due to the scarcity of historical records, there are no definite figures dealing with the religious composition of medieval Bosnia.
However, some Croat scholars suggest that a majority of Bosnia's medieval population were Catholics who, according to Zlopaša, accounted for 700,000 of 900,000 of the total Bosnian population.
Some 100,000 were Bogomils and other 100,000 were Orthodox Christians.
In the middle of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire started to conquer Bosnia.
In 1451 they took Vrhbosna province and conquered Bosnia in 1463.
Herzegovina was conquered in 1481, while northern Bosnia was still under Hungary and Croatia until 1527, when it was conquered by the Ottomans.
After the Turkish conquest, many Catholic Bosnians converted to Islam, and their numbers in some areas shrank as many fled from fear of conversion and persecution.
The Ottoman conquest changed the demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, reducing the number of Catholics, and eliminating the Bosnian Church, whose members apparently converted to Islam en masse.
Another significant event for Bosnian Croats is the boundary established by an agreement between the Republic of Ragusa and the Ottoman Empire, where Ragusans promised to give in part of their territory in Neum to the Ottomans in order to protect themselves from the Republic of Venice.
The activity of the Catholic Church was limited, while the Ottomans preferred the Orthodox Church because Catholicism was the faith of Austria, the Ottoman enemies, while Orthodoxy was common in Bosnia, and thus it was more acceptable to the Ottomans.
In the first 50 years of Ottoman rule, many Catholics fled from Bosnia.
A number of Catholics also converted to Orthodox Christianity.
Franciscans were only Catholic priests to be active in Bosnia.
Before the Ottomans arrived in Bosnia, there was 35 Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and four in Herzegovina.
Some monasteries were destroyed and some were converted to mosques.
In the 1680s there were only 10 Franciscan monasteries left in Bosnia.
The Catholic Church in Bosnia divided its administration into two dioceses, one was the Croatian Bosnia diocese, part which was not conquered by the Ottomans, and other was Bosna Srebrena diocese.
Between 1516 and 1524, a planned persecution and forced Islamization of Catholics occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It is believed that during that time, some 100,000 Croats converted to Islam.
After that conquest, Croatia reduced to around 37,000 km².
During the 18th century, Turkish rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina started to weaken, and after the Napoleonic Wars their rule rapidly decreased; the Ottoman Empire lost its demographic, civilization, and other reserves for military and territorial expansion, while the Austrian Empire, as the rest of the European countries, gained them.
From 1815 to 1878 the Ottoman's authority in Bosnia and Herzegovina was decreasing.
After the reorganization of the Ottoman army and abolition of the Jannisaries, Bosnian nobility revolted, led by Husein Gradaščević, who wanted to establish autonomy in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to stop any further social reforms.
During the 19th Century, various reforms were made in order to increase freedom of religion which sharpened relations between of Catholics and Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Soon, economic decay would happen and nationalist influence from Europe came to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Since the state administration was very disorganized and the national conscience was very strong among the Christian population, the Ottoman Empire lost control over Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On 19 June 1875 Catholic Croats, led by Don Ivan Musić, revolted because of high taxes in West Herzegovina.
Their goal was to subordinate Bosnia to the rule of the Emperor of Austria, respectively King of Croatia.
During the revolt, for the first time Bosnian Croats used the flag of Croatia.
Soon after, the Orthodox population in East Herzegovina also revolted, which led to the Herzegovina Uprising.
The Ottoman authorities were unable to defeat the rebels, so Serbia and Montenegro took advantage of this weakness and attacked the Ottoman Empire in 1876, soon after the Russian Empire did the same.
The Turks lost the war in 1878, and this resulted in over 150,000 refugees who went to Croatia.
Even after the fall of the Ottoman rule, the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided.
Another ambition of Croatian politicians was to incorporate the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina into the Kingdom of Croatia.
The Habsburg Governor Béni Kállay resorted to co-opt religious institutions.
Soon, the Austrian Emperor gained support to name Orthodox metropolitans and Catholic bishops and to choose Muslim hierarchy.
The first Catholic archbishop was Josip Stadler.
Both apostolic vicarates, Bosnian and Herzegovinian, were abolished, and instead three dioceses were founded; Vrhbosna diocese with a seat in Sarajevo, Banja Luka diocese with a seat in Banja Luka and Mostar-Duvno diocese with a seat in Mostar.
At the time, Bosnia and Herzegovina was facing a Habsburg attempt at modernization.
During this period, the most significant event is Bosnian entry to European political life and the shaping of ethnic Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina into a modern nation.
At the end of the 19th century, Bosnian Croats founded various reading, cultural and singing societies, and at the beginning of the 20th century, a new Bosnian Croat intelligentsia played a major role in the political life of Croats.
The Croatian Support Society for Needs of Students of Middle Schools and High Schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1902, and in 1907 it was merged with Croatian Society for Education of Children in Craft and Trade, also founded in 1902, into Croatian Cultural Society Napredak (Progress).
Napredak educated and gave scholarships to more than 20,000 students.
Students of Napredak were not only Bosnian Croats, but also Croats from other regions.
Kallay tried to unify all Bosnians into a single nation of Bosniaks, but he failed to do so after Bosnians created their national political parties.
In 1909, Stadler opposed such a policy and founded a new political party, the Croat Catholic Association (HKU), an opponent of the secular HNZ.
HKU emphasized clerical ideals and religious exclusivity.
However, Bosnian Croats mostly supported the secular nationalist policy of the HNZ.
HNZ and Muslim Nation Organization formed a coalition which ruled the country from 1911 until the dissolution of the Bosnian parliament in 1914.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
After World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina became part of the internationally unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs which existed between October and December 1918.
In December 1918, this state united with the Kingdom of Serbia as Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes,which was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929.
Serbs held control over armed forces and politics of the state.
With around 40% Serbs living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbian leadership of the state wanted to implement a Serbian hegemony in this region.
Bosnian Croats constituted around a quarter of the total Bosnian population, but they did not have a single municipality president.
The regime of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was characterized by limited parliamentarism, drastic elective manipulations and later King Alexander's 6 January Dictatorship, state robbery present outside Serbia and political killings (Milan Šufflay, Ivo Pilar) and corruption.
Yugoslavia was preoccupied with political struggles, which led to the collapse of the state after Dušan Simović organized a coup in March 1941 and after which Nazi Germany invaded Yugoslavia.
King Alexander was killed in 1934, which led to the end of dictatorship.
In 1939, faced with killings, corruption scandals, violence and the failure of centralized policy, the Serbian leadership agreed a compromise with Croats.
On 24 August 1939, the president of the Croatian Peasant Party, Vladko Maček and Dragiša Cvetković made an agreement (Cvetković-Maček agreement) according to which Banovina of Croatia was created on territory of Sava and Littoral Banovina and on districts of Dubrovnik, Šid, Brčko, Ilok, Gradačac, Derventa, Travnik and Fojnica.
Around 30% of the present-day territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina become part of Banovina of Croatia.
Those parts had a Croatian majority.
Creation of Banovina of Croatia was one of the solutions to the "Croatian issue".
World War II
After the collapse of Yugoslavia amidst German and Italian invasion in April 1941, the Axis puppet state which encompassed the entire Bosnia and Herzegovina, Independent State of Croatia (NDH) under the radical Croat nationalist ustaša regime was established.
Bosnian Croats were divided, as some supported NDH, some actively opposed it by joining or supporting the Yugoslav Partisans, while others chose to wait, not attracted either by fascist ustaše or communist-led resistance.
Ustaše regime also persecuted any opponents or dissidents among Bosnian Croats, especially communists, pre-war members of the now-banned Croatian Peasant Party, and those connected with the partisan resistance.
Ustaše executed many Bosnian Croats, for instance, resistance fighters and supporters Jakov Dugandžić, Mostar's Ljubo Brešan and 19-year old Mostar gymnasium student Ante Zuanić, as well as a prominent Mostar CPP member Blaž Slišković (in Jasenovac concentration camp).
Families of Bosnian Croats who left to join the partisan resistance were usually interned or sent to concentration camps by ustase authorities.
Numerous Bosnian Croats joined the partisan movement, fighting against the Axis forces and ustaše regime.
From the very beginning of the uprising against the Axis, many Bosnian Croats became commanders of partisan units (e.g., Josip Mažar-Šoša, Ivica Marušić-Ratko etc.), even though the units themselves were predominantly composed of Serbs.
The territory that partisans liberated and managed to keep under their control from November 1942 to January 1943 (dubbed the Republic of Bihać) included all of rural Western Herzegovina west of Neretva and Široki Brijeg, including Livno.
Livno and its area, under partisan control from August to October 1942, was very important for Bosnian Croat resistance, as key CPP members Florijan Sučić and Ivan Pelivan joined the resistance and mobilized many other Croats.
Bosnian Croats' representatives, among which Mostar lawyer Cvitan Spužević, also actively participated in the provisional assembly of the country, ZAVNOBiH (State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina).
ZAVNOBiH proclaimed the statehood of Bosnia-Herzegovina and equality of Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs in the country in its historic session in 1943.
The first government of People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1945 included several prominent Croats - Jakov Grgurić (deputy prime minister), Cvitan Spužević (minister of construction), Ante Babić (education), and Ante Martinović (forestry).
After the partisans liberated most of Yugoslavia and NDH collapsed in May 1945, some NDH soldiers and civilians retreated towards the British-occupied zone in Austria near Bleiburg.
Many of them were killed by the Yugoslav partisans after the Bleiburg repatriations.
In the closing stages of the war and the immediate aftermath, some Bosnian Croats who previously supported the ustaše regime or were merely perceived as potential opponents of the new communist Yugoslavia were persecuted or executed (notably, Herzegovina friars).
Total casualties and losses of Bosnian Croats in the WWII and the aftermath are estimated at 64-79.000.
According to Vladimir Žerjavić, 17.000 Bosnian Croats died in partisan ranks, 22.000 in NDH forces, while 25.000 lost their lives as civilians; of civilians, almost ¾ or 19.000 died as a result of Axis terror or in ustaše concentration camps.
At the end of 1977, 8.8% of Bosnian recipients of veteran's pensions were Croats, while during the WWII Croats composed around 23% of the country's population.
Main article: Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
After the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina became one of the 6 constitutive republics of Socialist Yugoslavia.
Intensive state campaign of nationalization of property, followed by industrialization and urbanization variously affected Bosnian Croats.
While some centers and areas prospered, other rural areas underwent depopulation and urban flight, as well as (most notably western Herzegovina) high rates of emigration to the Western world.
Office holders usually rotated among the three ethnic communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The referendum question was: "Are you in favor of a sovereign and independent Bosnia-Herzegovina, a state of equal citizens and nations of Muslims, Serbs, Croats and others who live in it?"
Independence was strongly favoured by Bosniak and Bosnian Croat voters, but the referendum was largely boycotted by Bosnian Serbs.
The total turn out of voters was 63.6% of which 99.7% voted for the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On 5 April 1992, Serb forces started the Siege of Sarajevo.
The first unit to oppose Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina was the Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) founded by Croatian Party of Rights of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 18 December 1991.
HVO consisted from 20-30% of Bosniaks who joined HVO because local Muslim militias were unable to arm themselves.
Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia was founded on 18 November 1991 as a community of municipalities where majority of population were Croats.
In its founding acts, Herzeg-Bosnia had no separatist character.
The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was declared by the Bosnian Croat leadership as a temporary region, which after war ended, would again become part of a united Bosnia and Herzegovina.
At the beginning of the Bosnian War, Bosnian Croats were first to organize themselves, especially Croats in western Herzegovina who were already armed.
At the end of May 1992, Croats launched a counter-offensive, liberating Mostar after a month of fighting.
Also, in central Bosnia and Posavina, Croatian forces stopped the Serbian advance, and in some places they repelled the enemy.
On 16 June 1992, President of Croatia, Franjo Tuđman and President of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Alija Izetbegović signed an alliance according to which, Bosnia and Herzegovina legalized the activity of Croatian Army and Croatian Defence Council on its territory.
Bosnian Croat political leadership and the leadership of Croatia urged Izetbegović to form a confederation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, but Izetbegović denied this since he tried to represent Serbian interests as well as those of Bosniaks and Croats.
The Bosnian Croat leadership was irritated by Izetbegović's neutrality, so Mate Boban threatened to pull back the HVO from actions in Bosnia.
Since the UN implemented embargo to Bosnia and Herzegovina on the import of arms, Bosniak and Croat forces had difficulties fighting Serbian units, which were supplied with arms from the Middle East, just before the outbreak of war.
However, after Croat and Bosniak forces reorganized in late May 1992, the Serbian advance was halted and their forces mostly remained in their positions during the war.
The tensions between Croats and Bosniaks started on 19 June 1992, but the real war began in October.
The Croat-Bosniak War was at its peak during 1993.
In March 1994, the Bosniak and Croat leadership signed the Washington agreement, according to which, the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH)-controlled and HVO-controlled areas were united into the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
After the Washington agreement was signed, the Croatian Army, HVO and ARBiH liberated southwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina in seven military operations.
In December 1995, the Bosnian War ended with the signing of the Dayton agreement.
However, the same agreement caused problem in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and was largely ineffective.
According to the information published by the Research and Documentation Centre in Sarajevo, 7,762 Croats were killed or missing.
From the territory of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 230,000 Croats were expelled, while from territory of Republika Srpska, 152,856 Croats were expelled.
Comprising 15.43% of the country's population, Croats have been unequally spread across the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
This has further been reflected and reinforced by the post-1995 political division of the country.
In RS, Croat share in the entity population is just 2% (29,645), while in Brčko it stands at 20.7% (17,252).
On the other hand, in the Federation Croats form 22.4% of the entity population.
Four out of ten Federation's cantons have Croat majority.
All Croat-majority municipalities are located in this entity as well.
However, Croats are further variously spread in the Federation itself.
Most of the municipalities with a clear Croat majority form two compact regions.
One is in the southwest of the country, along the border with Croatia, from Kupres and Livno in the northwest along West Herzegovina to Ravno in the southeast (Široki Brijeg, Ljubuški, Livno, Čitluk, Tomislavgrad, Čapljina, Posušje, Grude, Prozor-Rama, Stolac, Neum, Kupres, Ravno).
Around 40% of country's and 45% of Federation's Croats live here.
This canton's share in the Croat population is 6%.
In Mostar area, Croats comprise the plurality of the population both in the municipality (48.4%) and the city itself (49%).
Mostar is the largest city in Herzegovina and the city with the largest Croat population in the country (51,216 in the area and 29,475 in the urban district).
Croats comprise an overwhelming majority in the western part of both the city and the entire municipality.
In Grahovo, Croats make around 15% of the population.
In addition to that, 762 Croats form the plurality (40.4%) in an ethnically diverse small town Glamoč.
There are 4 Croat-majority cantons and in total 6 cantons in which Croats form more than 10% of the population.
total Croat population
|Central Bosnia Canton||97,629||38.33%||17.92%|
Some estimates state that the population of medieval Bosnia, was between 850,000 - 900,000 inhabitants, of which 750,000 were Catholics (85,22%), 80,000 were Bogomils (9,09%) and 50,000 were Orthodox Christians (5,68%).
During the Ottoman rule, the number of Catholics decreased drastically.
When the Turks conquered Bosnia in 1463, according to their data, they took 100,000 Catholics into captivity and 30,000 Catholic boys to serve as janissaries.
In 1558/59, in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, there were 360,000 Catholics (57%), 220,000 Muslims (34%) and 55,000 Orthodox Christians (9%).
Many Catholics fled to Venetian or Habsburg-ruled lands.
In 1624, there was around 450,000 Muslims (67%), 150,000 Catholics (22%) and 75,000 Orthodox Christians (11%).
In 1776, according to Klaić, there were around 50,000 Catholics in Bosnia.
However, the Turkish censuses were biased, and they only numbered the houses and later exclusively included the male population.
Throughout this period, Catholic majority persisted in the southwest of the country (western Herzegovina), parts of central Bosnia, and Posavina, mostly in rural areas.
Austria-Hungary and Kingdom of Yugoslavia
During Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918), the number and share of Croats started to slowly increase.
Croats from Croatia moved to the country to work in the austro-Hungarian administration or as teachers, doctors and officers.
According to the Croatian author Vjekoslav Klaić, at the beginning of the period, in 1878, there were 646,678 Orthodox Christians (respectively Serbs, 48.4%), 480,596 Muslims (35.9%), 207,199 Catholics (respectively Croats, 15.5%) and 3,000 Jews (0.2%).
In 1895, Bosnia and Herzegovina had 1,336,091 inhabitants, of which there was 571,250 Orthodox Christians (42.76%), 492,710 Muslims (36,88%), 265,788 Catholics (19.89%), 5,805 Jews (0.43%) and 53 others (0.04%).
The slow process of nation-building on one hand and the austro-Hungarian administration's downplaying ethnic differences and nationalism while trying to keep Croatian and Serbian influence on the country at bay on the other hand make it difficult to assess the actual ethnic allegiance at this period.
The main characteristic of the ethnic policy of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1941) was a Serbian attempt to implement Serbian hegemony and to serbianize rest of the population.
According to the 1931 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had 2,323,787 inhabitants of which Serbs made 44.25%, Muslims 30.90%, Croats 23.58% and others made 1.02% of the total population.
The first Yugoslav census recorded a decreasing number of Croats; from the first census in 1948 to the last one from 1991, the percentage of Croatians decreased from 23% to 17.3%, even though the total number increased.
According to the 1953 census, Croats were in the majority in territories which became part of Banovina of Croatia in 1939.
Their total number was 654,229, that is 23,00% of total Bosnian population.
According to the 1961 census, Croats made up 21.7% of total population, and their number was 711,660.
After that, districts were divided into smaller municipalities.
According to the 1971 census, Croats were 20.6% of total population, and their number was 772,491.
According to the 1981 census, Croats made up 18.60% of total population, and their number was 767,247.
In comparison to the 1971 census, for the first time the percentage of Croats was below 20%, and after 1981, their percentage continued to fall.
From 1971 to 1991, the percentage of Croats fell due to emigration into Croatia and Western Europe.
Nevertheless, the fall in population percentage is only absent in western Herzegovina municipalities where Croats account for more than 98% of the population.
According to the 1991 census, Croats were 17.3% of the total population, and their number was 755,895.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina.