Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_table_infobox_0

Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina Hrvati Bosne i Hercegovine Хрвати Босне и ХерцеговинеCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_table_caption_0
Total populationCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_0_0
LanguagesCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_1_0
ReligionCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_2_0
Related ethnic groupsCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_0_3_0

The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croatian: Hrvati Bosne i Hercegovine / Хрвати Босне и Херцеговине), often referred to as Bosnian Croats (Serbo-Croatian: Bosanski Hrvati / Босански Хрвати) or Herzegovinian Croats (Serbo-Croatian: Hercegovački Hrvati / Херцеговачки Хрвати), are the third most populous ethnic group in the country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_0

Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina have made significant contributions to the culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_1

Most Croats declare themselves Roman Catholics and speakers of Croatian. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_2

From the 15th to the 19th century, Catholics in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina were often persecuted under the Ottoman Empire, causing many of them to flee the area. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_3

In the 20th century, political turmoil and poor economic conditions caused more to emigrate. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_4

Ethnic cleansing within Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 1990s saw Croats forced to different parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina, although having lived in numerous regions prior to the Bosnian War. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_5

According to the report by the Bosnia and Herzegovina statistics office, on the census of 2013 there were 544,780 Croats living in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_6

History Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_0

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_7

Kingdom of Croatia Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_1

Croats settled the areas of modern Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 7th century. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_8

Constantine VII in De Administrando Imperio writes that Croats settled Dalmatia and from there they settled Illyricum and Pannonia There, they assimilated with native Illyrians and Romans during the great migration of the Slavs. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_9

The Croats adopted Christianity and began to develop their own culture, art, and political institutions, culminating in their own kingdom, which consisted of two principalities: Pannonian Croatia in the north, and Dalmatian Croatia in the south. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_10

Red Croatia, to the south, was land of a few minor states. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_11

One of the most important events of the Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early Middle Ages is the First Croatian Assembly held in 753 in Županjac (present-day Tomislavgrad). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_12

The second major event was the coronation of Tomislav, the first King of Croatia, in ca. 925, in the fields of Županjac. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_13

By this act, Pannonian Croatia and Dalmatian Croatia formed a united Croatian kingdom, which included Dalmatia, Bosnia and Pannonia (eastern Slavonia and eastern Bosnia), and Savia (western Slavonia). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_14

High and late middle age Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_2

In 1102 Croatia entered into a union with the Kingdom of Hungary. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_15

After this, Bosnia, which was earlier part of the Kingdom of Croatia, started to disassociate with Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_16

At first, Bosnia became a separate principality under Ban Kulin who managed to solidify Bosnian autonomy at the expense of more powerful neighbours, but only in the 14th century did Bosnia become a formidable state. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_17

In the 14th century, King Tvrtko I conquered part of western Serbia and later parts of the Kingdom of Croatia, which he accomplished by defeating various Croatian nobles and supporting Hungary. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_18

Thus, the Kingdom of Bosnia emerged, but part of present territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina remained in the Kingdom of Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_19

Regarding to culture and religion, Bosnia was closer to Croatia than the Orthodox lands to the east, and the Diocese of Bosnia is mentioned as Catholic in the 11th century, and later fell under the jurisdiction of the croatian Archdiocese of Split and in the 12th Century under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Dubrovnik. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_20

Another connection of Bosnia with Croatia is that Bosnian rulers always used the political title "Ban Kulin" in similarity with their Croatian counterparts. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_21

The specific religion in medieval Bosnia was Bogomilism and Bosnian Church, so some of the notable feudal lords in Medieval Bosnia were followers of this religion, such as Duke Hrvoje Hrvatinić. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_22

Due to the scarcity of historical records, there are no definite figures dealing with the religious composition of medieval Bosnia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_23

However, some Croat scholars suggest that a majority of Bosnia's medieval population were Catholics who, according to Zlopaša, accounted for 700,000 of 900,000 of the total Bosnian population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_24

Some 100,000 were Bogomils and other 100,000 were Orthodox Christians. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_25

Ottoman Empire Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_3

In the middle of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire started to conquer Bosnia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_26

In 1451 they took Vrhbosna province and conquered Bosnia in 1463. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_27

Herzegovina was conquered in 1481, while northern Bosnia was still under Hungary and Croatia until 1527, when it was conquered by the Ottomans. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_28

After the Turkish conquest, many Catholic Bosnians converted to Islam, and their numbers in some areas shrank as many fled from fear of conversion and persecution. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_29

The Ottoman conquest changed the demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, reducing the number of Catholics, and eliminating the Bosnian Church, whose members apparently converted to Islam en masse. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_30

The present-day boundaries of Bosnia and Herzegovina were made in 1699, when the Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in order to establish peace between the Austrian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_31

Another significant event for Bosnian Croats is the boundary established by an agreement between the Republic of Ragusa and the Ottoman Empire, where Ragusans promised to give in part of their territory in Neum to the Ottomans in order to protect themselves from the Republic of Venice. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_32

The activity of the Catholic Church was limited, while the Ottomans preferred the Orthodox Church because Catholicism was the faith of Austria, the Ottoman enemies, while Orthodoxy was common in Bosnia, and thus it was more acceptable to the Ottomans. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_33

In the first 50 years of Ottoman rule, many Catholics fled from Bosnia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_34

A number of Catholics also converted to Orthodox Christianity. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_35

Franciscans were only Catholic priests to be active in Bosnia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_36

Before the Ottomans arrived in Bosnia, there was 35 Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and four in Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_37

Some monasteries were destroyed and some were converted to mosques. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_38

In the 1680s there were only 10 Franciscan monasteries left in Bosnia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_39

The Catholic Church in Bosnia divided its administration into two dioceses, one was the Croatian Bosnia diocese, part which was not conquered by the Ottomans, and other was Bosna Srebrena diocese. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_40

Between 1516 and 1524, a planned persecution and forced Islamization of Catholics occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_41

In that year, Franciscan monasteries in Kraljeva Sutjeska, Visoko, Fojnica, Kreševo and Konjic, and later in Mostar. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_42

It is believed that during that time, some 100,000 Croats converted to Islam. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_43

In 1528 the Ottomans conquered Jajce and Banja Luka, thus destroying the Croatian defence line on Vrbas river. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_44

After that conquest, Croatia reduced to around 37,000 km². Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_45

During the 18th century, Turkish rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina started to weaken, and after the Napoleonic Wars their rule rapidly decreased; the Ottoman Empire lost its demographic, civilization, and other reserves for military and territorial expansion, while the Austrian Empire, as the rest of the European countries, gained them. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_46

From 1815 to 1878 the Ottoman's authority in Bosnia and Herzegovina was decreasing. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_47

After the reorganization of the Ottoman army and abolition of the Jannisaries, Bosnian nobility revolted, led by Husein Gradaščević, who wanted to establish autonomy in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to stop any further social reforms. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_48

During the 19th Century, various reforms were made in order to increase freedom of religion which sharpened relations between of Catholics and Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_49

Soon, economic decay would happen and nationalist influence from Europe came to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_50

Since the state administration was very disorganized and the national conscience was very strong among the Christian population, the Ottoman Empire lost control over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_51

On 19 June 1875 Catholic Croats, led by Don Ivan Musić, revolted because of high taxes in West Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_52

Their goal was to subordinate Bosnia to the rule of the Emperor of Austria, respectively King of Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_53

During the revolt, for the first time Bosnian Croats used the flag of Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_54

Soon after, the Orthodox population in East Herzegovina also revolted, which led to the Herzegovina Uprising. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_55

The Ottoman authorities were unable to defeat the rebels, so Serbia and Montenegro took advantage of this weakness and attacked the Ottoman Empire in 1876, soon after the Russian Empire did the same. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_56

The Turks lost the war in 1878, and this resulted in over 150,000 refugees who went to Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_57

After the Congress of Berlin was held in the same year, Bosnia and Herzegovina was transferred to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_58

Austria-Hungary Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_4

Even after the fall of the Ottoman rule, the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_59

In the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia, Croatian politicians strived for the unification of the Kingdom of Dalmatia with Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_60

Another ambition of Croatian politicians was to incorporate the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina into the Kingdom of Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_61

The Habsburg Governor Béni Kállay resorted to co-opt religious institutions. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_62

Soon, the Austrian Emperor gained support to name Orthodox metropolitans and Catholic bishops and to choose Muslim hierarchy. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_63

The first Catholic archbishop was Josip Stadler. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_64

Both apostolic vicarates, Bosnian and Herzegovinian, were abolished, and instead three dioceses were founded; Vrhbosna diocese with a seat in Sarajevo, Banja Luka diocese with a seat in Banja Luka and Mostar-Duvno diocese with a seat in Mostar. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_65

At the time, Bosnia and Herzegovina was facing a Habsburg attempt at modernization. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_66

Between 180,000 and 200,000 people inhabited Bosnia and Herzegovina, the majority were Croats, Serbs, Muslims and in smaller percentages Slovenes, Czechs and others. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_67

During this period, the most significant event is Bosnian entry to European political life and the shaping of ethnic Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina into a modern nation. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_68

At the end of the 19th century, Bosnian Croats founded various reading, cultural and singing societies, and at the beginning of the 20th century, a new Bosnian Croat intelligentsia played a major role in the political life of Croats. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_69

The Croatian Support Society for Needs of Students of Middle Schools and High Schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1902, and in 1907 it was merged with Croatian Society for Education of Children in Craft and Trade, also founded in 1902, into Croatian Cultural Society Napredak (Progress). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_70

Napredak educated and gave scholarships to more than 20,000 students. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_71

Students of Napredak were not only Bosnian Croats, but also Croats from other regions. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_72

Kallay tried to unify all Bosnians into a single nation of Bosniaks, but he failed to do so after Bosnians created their national political parties. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_73

Before the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, the Croat People's Union (HNZ) become a political party; its ideology was very similar to that of the Croatian-Serbian Coalition in Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_74

In 1909, Stadler opposed such a policy and founded a new political party, the Croat Catholic Association (HKU), an opponent of the secular HNZ. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_75

HKU emphasized clerical ideals and religious exclusivity. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_76

However, Bosnian Croats mostly supported the secular nationalist policy of the HNZ. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_77

HNZ and Muslim Nation Organization formed a coalition which ruled the country from 1911 until the dissolution of the Bosnian parliament in 1914. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_78

Kingdom of Yugoslavia Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_5

After World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina became part of the internationally unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs which existed between October and December 1918. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_79

In December 1918, this state united with the Kingdom of Serbia as Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes,which was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_80

This new state was characterized by Serbian nationalism, and was a form of "Greater Serbia". Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_81

Serbs held control over armed forces and politics of the state. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_82

With around 40% Serbs living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbian leadership of the state wanted to implement a Serbian hegemony in this region. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_83

Bosnian Croats constituted around a quarter of the total Bosnian population, but they did not have a single municipality president. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_84

The regime of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was characterized by limited parliamentarism, drastic elective manipulations and later King Alexander's 6 January Dictatorship, state robbery present outside Serbia and political killings (Milan Šufflay, Ivo Pilar) and corruption. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_85

Yugoslavia was preoccupied with political struggles, which led to the collapse of the state after Dušan Simović organized a coup in March 1941 and after which Nazi Germany invaded Yugoslavia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_86

King Alexander was killed in 1934, which led to the end of dictatorship. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_87

In 1939, faced with killings, corruption scandals, violence and the failure of centralized policy, the Serbian leadership agreed a compromise with Croats. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_88

On 24 August 1939, the president of the Croatian Peasant Party, Vladko Maček and Dragiša Cvetković made an agreement (Cvetković-Maček agreement) according to which Banovina of Croatia was created on territory of Sava and Littoral Banovina and on districts of Dubrovnik, Šid, Brčko, Ilok, Gradačac, Derventa, Travnik and Fojnica. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_89

Around 30% of the present-day territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina become part of Banovina of Croatia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_90

Those parts had a Croatian majority. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_91

Creation of Banovina of Croatia was one of the solutions to the "Croatian issue". Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_92

World War II Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_6

Further information: World War II in Yugoslavia and Independent State of Croatia Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_93

After the collapse of Yugoslavia amidst German and Italian invasion in April 1941, the Axis puppet state which encompassed the entire Bosnia and Herzegovina, Independent State of Croatia (NDH) under the radical Croat nationalist ustaša regime was established. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_94

Bosnian Croats were divided, as some supported NDH, some actively opposed it by joining or supporting the Yugoslav Partisans, while others chose to wait, not attracted either by fascist ustaše or communist-led resistance. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_95

After ustaše campaign of ethnic cleansing and terror, targeting Serbs, Jews, and Roma, a brutal civil war ensued. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_96

Ustaše regime also persecuted any opponents or dissidents among Bosnian Croats, especially communists, pre-war members of the now-banned Croatian Peasant Party, and those connected with the partisan resistance. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_97

Ustaše executed many Bosnian Croats, for instance, resistance fighters and supporters Jakov Dugandžić, Mostar's Ljubo Brešan and 19-year old Mostar gymnasium student Ante Zuanić, as well as a prominent Mostar CPP member Blaž Slišković (in Jasenovac concentration camp). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_98

Prominent Croat communist intellectual from Bosnia, Ognjen Prica, was shot by Ustaše in Kerestinec prison. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_99

Families of Bosnian Croats who left to join the partisan resistance were usually interned or sent to concentration camps by ustase authorities. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_100

Numerous Bosnian Croats joined the partisan movement, fighting against the Axis forces and ustaše regime. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_101

Some of them included people's heroes such as Franjo Kluz, Ivan Marković Irac, Stipe Đerek, Karlo Batko, Ante Šarić "Rade Španac" and others. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_102

From the very beginning of the uprising against the Axis, many Bosnian Croats became commanders of partisan units (e.g., Josip Mažar-Šoša, Ivica Marušić-Ratko etc.), even though the units themselves were predominantly composed of Serbs. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_103

The territory that partisans liberated and managed to keep under their control from November 1942 to January 1943 (dubbed the Republic of Bihać) included all of rural Western Herzegovina west of Neretva and Široki Brijeg, including Livno. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_104

Livno and its area, under partisan control from August to October 1942, was very important for Bosnian Croat resistance, as key CPP members Florijan Sučić and Ivan Pelivan joined the resistance and mobilized many other Croats. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_105

Bosnian Croats' representatives, among which Mostar lawyer Cvitan Spužević, also actively participated in the provisional assembly of the country, ZAVNOBiH (State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_106

ZAVNOBiH proclaimed the statehood of Bosnia-Herzegovina and equality of Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs in the country in its historic session in 1943. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_107

The first government of People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1945 included several prominent Croats - Jakov Grgurić (deputy prime minister), Cvitan Spužević (minister of construction), Ante Babić (education), and Ante Martinović (forestry). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_108

After the partisans liberated most of Yugoslavia and NDH collapsed in May 1945, some NDH soldiers and civilians retreated towards the British-occupied zone in Austria near Bleiburg. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_109

Many of them were killed by the Yugoslav partisans after the Bleiburg repatriations. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_110

In the closing stages of the war and the immediate aftermath, some Bosnian Croats who previously supported the ustaše regime or were merely perceived as potential opponents of the new communist Yugoslavia were persecuted or executed (notably, Herzegovina friars). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_111

Total casualties and losses of Bosnian Croats in the WWII and the aftermath are estimated at 64-79.000. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_112

According to Vladimir Žerjavić, 17.000 Bosnian Croats died in partisan ranks, 22.000 in NDH forces, while 25.000 lost their lives as civilians; of civilians, almost ¾ or 19.000 died as a result of Axis terror or in ustaše concentration camps. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_113

At the end of 1977, 8.8% of Bosnian recipients of veteran's pensions were Croats, while during the WWII Croats composed around 23% of the country's population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_114

Socialist Yugoslavia Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_7

Main article: Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_115

After the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina became one of the 6 constitutive republics of Socialist Yugoslavia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_116

Intensive state campaign of nationalization of property, followed by industrialization and urbanization variously affected Bosnian Croats. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_117

While some centers and areas prospered, other rural areas underwent depopulation and urban flight, as well as (most notably western Herzegovina) high rates of emigration to the Western world. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_118

Office holders usually rotated among the three ethnic communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_119

In the 1980s, many Bosnian Croat politicians were in high positions - for instance, Ante Marković, Branko Mikulić, and Mato Andrić. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_120

Bosnian War Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_8

Citizens of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina voted for the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the referendum that was held between 29 February and 1 March 1992. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_121

The referendum question was: "Are you in favor of a sovereign and independent Bosnia-Herzegovina, a state of equal citizens and nations of Muslims, Serbs, Croats and others who live in it?" Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_122

Independence was strongly favoured by Bosniak and Bosnian Croat voters, but the referendum was largely boycotted by Bosnian Serbs. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_123

The total turn out of voters was 63.6% of which 99.7% voted for the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_124

On 5 April 1992, Serb forces started the Siege of Sarajevo. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_125

On 12 May, Yugoslav People's Army left Bosnia and Herzegovina and left most of the arms to the Army of Republika Srpska, headed by Ratko Mladić. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_126

The first unit to oppose Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina was the Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) founded by Croatian Party of Rights of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 18 December 1991. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_127

The Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia established its own force, the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) on 8 April 1992. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_128

HVO consisted from 20-30% of Bosniaks who joined HVO because local Muslim militias were unable to arm themselves. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_129

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia was founded on 18 November 1991 as a community of municipalities where majority of population were Croats. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_130

In its founding acts, Herzeg-Bosnia had no separatist character. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_131

The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was declared by the Bosnian Croat leadership as a temporary region, which after war ended, would again become part of a united Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_132

At the beginning of the Bosnian War, Bosnian Croats were first to organize themselves, especially Croats in western Herzegovina who were already armed. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_133

At the end of May 1992, Croats launched a counter-offensive, liberating Mostar after a month of fighting. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_134

Also, in central Bosnia and Posavina, Croatian forces stopped the Serbian advance, and in some places they repelled the enemy. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_135

On 16 June 1992, President of Croatia, Franjo Tuđman and President of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Alija Izetbegović signed an alliance according to which, Bosnia and Herzegovina legalized the activity of Croatian Army and Croatian Defence Council on its territory. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_136

Bosnian Croat political leadership and the leadership of Croatia urged Izetbegović to form a confederation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, but Izetbegović denied this since he tried to represent Serbian interests as well as those of Bosniaks and Croats. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_137

The Bosnian Croat leadership was irritated by Izetbegović's neutrality, so Mate Boban threatened to pull back the HVO from actions in Bosnia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_138

Since the UN implemented embargo to Bosnia and Herzegovina on the import of arms, Bosniak and Croat forces had difficulties fighting Serbian units, which were supplied with arms from the Middle East, just before the outbreak of war. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_139

However, after Croat and Bosniak forces reorganized in late May 1992, the Serbian advance was halted and their forces mostly remained in their positions during the war. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_140

The tensions between Croats and Bosniaks started on 19 June 1992, but the real war began in October. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_141

The Croat-Bosniak War was at its peak during 1993. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_142

In March 1994, the Bosniak and Croat leadership signed the Washington agreement, according to which, the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH)-controlled and HVO-controlled areas were united into the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_143

After the Washington agreement was signed, the Croatian Army, HVO and ARBiH liberated southwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina in seven military operations. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_144

In December 1995, the Bosnian War ended with the signing of the Dayton agreement. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_145

However, the same agreement caused problem in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and was largely ineffective. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_146

According to the information published by the Research and Documentation Centre in Sarajevo, 7,762 Croats were killed or missing. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_147

From the territory of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 230,000 Croats were expelled, while from territory of Republika Srpska, 152,856 Croats were expelled. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_148

Demographics Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_9

Comprising 15.43% of the country's population, Croats have been unequally spread across the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_149

This has further been reflected and reinforced by the post-1995 political division of the country. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_150

Currently, according to the 2013 census, 91% of them live in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while just 5.4% and 3.2% live in Republika Srpska and Brčko District, respectively. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_151

In RS, Croat share in the entity population is just 2% (29,645), while in Brčko it stands at 20.7% (17,252). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_152

On the other hand, in the Federation Croats form 22.4% of the entity population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_153

Four out of ten Federation's cantons have Croat majority. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_154

All Croat-majority municipalities are located in this entity as well. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_155

Municipalities Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_10

However, Croats are further variously spread in the Federation itself. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_156

Most of the municipalities with a clear Croat majority form two compact regions. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_157

One is in the southwest of the country, along the border with Croatia, from Kupres and Livno in the northwest along West Herzegovina to Ravno in the southeast (Široki Brijeg, Ljubuški, Livno, Čitluk, Tomislavgrad, Čapljina, Posušje, Grude, Prozor-Rama, Stolac, Neum, Kupres, Ravno). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_158

Around 40% of country's and 45% of Federation's Croats live here. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_159

The second is Posavina Canton in the north (Orašje, Odžak, Domaljevac-Šamac). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_160

This canton's share in the Croat population is 6%. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_161

Other Croat-majority or -plurality municipalities are enclaves in Central Bosnia and around Zenica (Dobretići, Vitez, Busovača, Kiseljak, Usora, Kreševo, Žepče). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_162

In ethnically mixed Jajce and Novi Travnik in Central Bosnia, Croats form 46% of the population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_163

In Mostar area, Croats comprise the plurality of the population both in the municipality (48.4%) and the city itself (49%). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_164

Mostar is the largest city in Herzegovina and the city with the largest Croat population in the country (51,216 in the area and 29,475 in the urban district). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_165

Croats comprise an overwhelming majority in the western part of both the city and the entire municipality. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_166

Croats comprise 41% of the population in Uskoplje, a third in Vareš and Pelagićevo, and a quarter in Glamoč and Donji Žabar. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_167

In Grahovo, Croats make around 15% of the population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_168

In addition to that, 762 Croats form the plurality (40.4%) in an ethnically diverse small town Glamoč. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_169

Cantons Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_11

There are 4 Croat-majority cantons and in total 6 cantons in which Croats form more than 10% of the population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_170

Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_table_general_1

CantonCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_0_0 CroatsCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_0_1 %Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_0_2 Share in

total Croat populationCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_header_cell_1_0_3

West HerzegovinaCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_1_0 93,783Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_1_1 96.82%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_1_2 17.21%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_1_3
Canton 10Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_0 64,604Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_1 76.79%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_2 11.86%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_2_3
Posavina CantonCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_0 33,600Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_1 77.32%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_2 6.17%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_3_3
Central Bosnia CantonCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_0 97,629Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_1 38.33%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_2 17.92%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_4_3
Herzegovina-Neretva CantonCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_0 118,297Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_1 53.29%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_2 21.71%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_5_3
Zenica-Doboj CantonCroats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_0 43,819Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_1 12.02%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_2 8.04%Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_cell_1_6_3

Demographic history Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_12

Ottoman Empire Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_13

Some estimates state that the population of medieval Bosnia, was between 850,000 - 900,000 inhabitants, of which 750,000 were Catholics (85,22%), 80,000 were Bogomils (9,09%) and 50,000 were Orthodox Christians (5,68%). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_171

During the Ottoman rule, the number of Catholics decreased drastically. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_172

When the Turks conquered Bosnia in 1463, according to their data, they took 100,000 Catholics into captivity and 30,000 Catholic boys to serve as janissaries. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_173

In 1558/59, in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, there were 360,000 Catholics (57%), 220,000 Muslims (34%) and 55,000 Orthodox Christians (9%). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_174

Many Catholics fled to Venetian or Habsburg-ruled lands. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_175

In 1624, there was around 450,000 Muslims (67%), 150,000 Catholics (22%) and 75,000 Orthodox Christians (11%). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_176

In 1776, according to Klaić, there were around 50,000 Catholics in Bosnia. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_177

However, the Turkish censuses were biased, and they only numbered the houses and later exclusively included the male population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_178

Throughout this period, Catholic majority persisted in the southwest of the country (western Herzegovina), parts of central Bosnia, and Posavina, mostly in rural areas. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_179

Austria-Hungary and Kingdom of Yugoslavia Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_14

During Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918), the number and share of Croats started to slowly increase. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_180

Croats from Croatia moved to the country to work in the austro-Hungarian administration or as teachers, doctors and officers. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_181

According to the Croatian author Vjekoslav Klaić, at the beginning of the period, in 1878, there were 646,678 Orthodox Christians (respectively Serbs, 48.4%), 480,596 Muslims (35.9%), 207,199 Catholics (respectively Croats, 15.5%) and 3,000 Jews (0.2%). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_182

In 1895, Bosnia and Herzegovina had 1,336,091 inhabitants, of which there was 571,250 Orthodox Christians (42.76%), 492,710 Muslims (36,88%), 265,788 Catholics (19.89%), 5,805 Jews (0.43%) and 53 others (0.04%). Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_183

The slow process of nation-building on one hand and the austro-Hungarian administration's downplaying ethnic differences and nationalism while trying to keep Croatian and Serbian influence on the country at bay on the other hand make it difficult to assess the actual ethnic allegiance at this period. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_184

The main characteristic of the ethnic policy of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1941) was a Serbian attempt to implement Serbian hegemony and to serbianize rest of the population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_185

According to the 1931 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had 2,323,787 inhabitants of which Serbs made 44.25%, Muslims 30.90%, Croats 23.58% and others made 1.02% of the total population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_186

Communist Yugoslavia Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_15

The first Yugoslav census recorded a decreasing number of Croats; from the first census in 1948 to the last one from 1991, the percentage of Croatians decreased from 23% to 17.3%, even though the total number increased. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_187

According to the 1953 census, Croats were in the majority in territories which became part of Banovina of Croatia in 1939. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_188

Their total number was 654,229, that is 23,00% of total Bosnian population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_189

According to the 1961 census, Croats made up 21.7% of total population, and their number was 711,660. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_190

After that, districts were divided into smaller municipalities. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_191

According to the 1971 census, Croats were 20.6% of total population, and their number was 772,491. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_192

According to the 1981 census, Croats made up 18.60% of total population, and their number was 767,247. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_193

In comparison to the 1971 census, for the first time the percentage of Croats was below 20%, and after 1981, their percentage continued to fall. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_194

From 1971 to 1991, the percentage of Croats fell due to emigration into Croatia and Western Europe. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_195

Nevertheless, the fall in population percentage is only absent in western Herzegovina municipalities where Croats account for more than 98% of the population. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_196

According to the 1991 census, Croats were 17.3% of the total population, and their number was 755,895. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_sentence_197

Bosnian War Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina_section_16

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of Bosnia and Herzegovina.