Cuba

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"Republic of Cuba" redirects here. Cuba_sentence_0

For the first republic that existed between 1902 to 1906 and 1909 to 1959, see Republic of Cuba (1902–1959). Cuba_sentence_1

This article is about the country. Cuba_sentence_2

For other uses, see Cuba (disambiguation). Cuba_sentence_3

Cuba_table_infobox_0

Republic of Cuba

República de Cuba  (Spanish)Cuba_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest cityCuba_header_cell_0_1_0

HavanaCuba_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesCuba_header_cell_0_2_0 SpanishCuba_cell_0_2_1
Ethnic groups (2012)Cuba_header_cell_0_3_0 Cuba_cell_0_3_1
ReligionCuba_header_cell_0_4_0 Christian 59.2%
None 23% 

Folk 17.4%

Other 0.4% (2010 est.)Cuba_cell_0_4_1
Demonym(s)Cuba_header_cell_0_5_0 CubanCuba_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentCuba_header_cell_0_6_0 Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republicCuba_cell_0_6_1
First Secretary of the Communist PartyCuba_header_cell_0_7_0 Raúl CastroCuba_cell_0_7_1
PresidentCuba_header_cell_0_8_0 Miguel Díaz-CanelCuba_cell_0_8_1
First Vice PresidentCuba_header_cell_0_9_0 Salvador Valdés MesaCuba_cell_0_9_1
Second Secretary of the Communist PartyCuba_header_cell_0_10_0 José Machado VenturaCuba_cell_0_10_1
Prime MinisterCuba_header_cell_0_11_0 Manuel Marrero CruzCuba_cell_0_11_1
President of the National AssemblyCuba_header_cell_0_12_0 Esteban Lazo HernándezCuba_cell_0_12_1
LegislatureCuba_header_cell_0_13_0 National Assembly of People's PowerCuba_cell_0_13_1
IndependenceCuba_header_cell_0_14_0
Declaration of IndependenceCuba_header_cell_0_15_0 10 October 1868Cuba_cell_0_15_1
War of IndependenceCuba_header_cell_0_16_0 24 February 1895Cuba_cell_0_16_1
Recognized (handed over from Spain to the United States)Cuba_header_cell_0_17_0 10 December 1898Cuba_cell_0_17_1
Republic declared (independence from United States)Cuba_header_cell_0_18_0 20 May 1902Cuba_cell_0_18_1
Cuban RevolutionCuba_header_cell_0_19_0 26 July 1953 – 1 January 1959Cuba_cell_0_19_1
Current constitutionCuba_header_cell_0_20_0 10 April 2019Cuba_cell_0_20_1
Area Cuba_header_cell_0_21_0
TotalCuba_header_cell_0_22_0 109,884 km (42,426 sq mi) (104th)Cuba_cell_0_22_1
Water (%)Cuba_header_cell_0_23_0 0Cuba_cell_0_23_1
PopulationCuba_header_cell_0_24_0
2019 censusCuba_header_cell_0_25_0 11,193,470 (82nd)Cuba_cell_0_25_1
DensityCuba_header_cell_0_26_0 101.9/km (263.9/sq mi) (81st)Cuba_cell_0_26_1
GDP (PPP)Cuba_header_cell_0_27_0 2015 estimateCuba_cell_0_27_1
TotalCuba_header_cell_0_28_0 US$ 254.865 billionCuba_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaCuba_header_cell_0_29_0 US$ 22,237Cuba_cell_0_29_1
GDP (nominal)Cuba_header_cell_0_30_0 2018 estimateCuba_cell_0_30_1
TotalCuba_header_cell_0_31_0 $100.023 billion (63rd)Cuba_cell_0_31_1
Per capitaCuba_header_cell_0_32_0 $8,822 (76th)Cuba_cell_0_32_1
Gini (2000)Cuba_header_cell_0_33_0 38.0

mediumCuba_cell_0_33_1

HDI (2018)Cuba_header_cell_0_34_0 0.778

high · 72ndCuba_cell_0_34_1

CurrencyCuba_header_cell_0_35_0 (CUC)Cuba_cell_0_35_1
Time zoneCuba_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC−5 (CST)Cuba_cell_0_36_1
Summer (DST)Cuba_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−4 (CDT)Cuba_cell_0_37_1
Driving sideCuba_header_cell_0_38_0 rightCuba_cell_0_38_1
Calling codeCuba_header_cell_0_39_0 +53Cuba_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeCuba_header_cell_0_40_0 CUCuba_cell_0_40_1
Internet TLDCuba_header_cell_0_41_0 .cuCuba_cell_0_41_1

Cuba (/ˈkjuːbə/ (listen) KEW-bə, Spanish: [ˈkuβa (listen)), officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: República de Cuba [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkuβa (listen)) is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba_sentence_4

Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. Cuba_sentence_5

It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. Cuba_sentence_6

state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Hispaniola, and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Cuba_sentence_7

Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. Cuba_sentence_8

The official area of the Republic of Cuba is 109,884 square kilometers (42,426 sq mi) (without the territorial waters). Cuba_sentence_9

The main island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 104,556 square kilometers (40,369 sq mi). Cuba_sentence_10

Cuba is the second-most populous country in the Caribbean after Haiti, with over 11 million inhabitants. Cuba_sentence_11

The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century. Cuba_sentence_12

From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902. Cuba_sentence_13

As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Cuba_sentence_14

Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Cuba_sentence_15

Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. Cuba_sentence_16

The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba_sentence_17

Cuba is one of a few extant Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Cuba_sentence_18

Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including short-term arbitrary imprisonment. Cuba_sentence_19

Under Castro, Cuba was involved in a broad range of military and humanitarian activities in Guinea-Bissau, Syria, Angola, Algeria, South Yemen, North Vietnam, Laos, Zaire, Iraq, Libya, Zanzibar, Ghana, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Congo-Brazzaville, Sierra Leone, Cape Verde, Nigeria, Benin, Cameroon, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Cuba_sentence_20

Cuba sent more than 400,000 of its citizens to fight in Angola (1975–91) and defeated South Africa's armed forces in conventional warfare involving tanks, planes, and artillery. Cuba_sentence_21

Cuban intervention in Angola contributed to the downfall of the apartheid regime in South Africa. Cuba_sentence_22

Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America. Cuba_sentence_23

It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the Taíno Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Cuba_sentence_24

Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and the Organization of American States. Cuba_sentence_25

It has currently one of the world's only planned economies, and its economy is dominated by the tourism industry and the exports of skilled labor, sugar, tobacco, and coffee. Cuba_sentence_26

According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 72nd in the world in 2019. Cuba_sentence_27

It also ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. Cuba_sentence_28

It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Cuba_sentence_29

Etymology Cuba_section_0

Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation [is] unknown". Cuba_sentence_30

The exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as 'where fertile land is abundant' (cubao), or 'great place' (coabana). Cuba_sentence_31

Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal. Cuba_sentence_32

History Cuba_section_1

Main articles: History of Cuba and Timeline of Cuban history Cuba_sentence_33

Pre-Columbian era Cuba_section_2

Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by two distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas: the Taíno (including the Ciboney people), and the Guanahatabey. Cuba_sentence_34

The ancestors of the Taíno migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. Cuba_sentence_35

The Taíno arrived from Hispaniola sometime in the 3rd century A.D. Cuba_sentence_36

When Columbus arrived, they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. Cuba_sentence_37

It is unknown when or how the Guanahatabey arrived in Cuba, having both a different language and culture to the Taíno, but is inferenced that they were a relict population of pre-Taíno]] settlers of the Greater Antilles. Cuba_sentence_38

The Taíno were farmers, as well as fishers and hunter-gatherers. Cuba_sentence_39

Spanish colonization and rule (1492–1898) Cuba_section_3

Main article: Captaincy General of Cuba Cuba_sentence_40

After first landing on an island then called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, discovering Cuba on 27 October 1492, and landed in northeastern coast on October 28. Cuba_sentence_41

(This was near what is now Bariay, Holguín Province.) Cuba_sentence_42

Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. Cuba_sentence_43

In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Cuba_sentence_44

Other settlements soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which later became the capital. Cuba_sentence_45

The indigenous Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled the feudal system in medieval Europe. Cuba_sentence_46

Within a century, the indigenous people were virtually wiped out due to multiple factors, primarily Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance (immunity), aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. Cuba_sentence_47

In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had previously survived smallpox. Cuba_sentence_48

On 18 May 1539, conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana with some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the American Southeast, starting at what is now Florida, in search of gold, treasure, fame and power. Cuba_sentence_49

On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba. Cuba_sentence_50

He arrived in Santiago, Cuba, on 4 November 1549, and immediately declared the liberty of all natives. Cuba_sentence_51

He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, and he built Havana's first church made of masonry. Cuba_sentence_52

After the French captured Havana in 1555, the governor's son, Francisco de Angulo, went to the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Cuba_sentence_53

Cuba developed slowly and, unlike the plantation islands of the Caribbean, had a diversified agriculture. Cuba_sentence_54

Most importantly, the colony developed as an urbanized society that primarily supported the Spanish colonial empire. Cuba_sentence_55

By the mid-18th century, there were 50,000 slaves on theisland, compared to 60,000 in Barbados and 300,000 in Virginia; as well as 450,000 in Saint-Domingue, all of which had large-scale sugarcane plantations. Cuba_sentence_56

The Seven Years' War, which erupted in 1754 across three continents, eventually arrived in the Spanish Caribbean. Cuba_sentence_57

Spain's alliance with the French pitched them into direct conflict with the British, and in 1762, a British expedition consisting of dozens of ships and thousands of troops set out from Portsmouth to capture Cuba. Cuba_sentence_58

The British arrived on 6 June, and by August, had placed Havana under siege. Cuba_sentence_59

When Havana surrendered, the admiral of the British fleet, George Pocock and the commander of the land forces George Keppel, the 3rd Earl of Albemarle, entered the city, and took control of the western part of the island. Cuba_sentence_60

The British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Cuba_sentence_61

Though Havana, which had become the third-largest city in the Americas, was to enter an era of sustained development and increasing ties with North America during this period, the British occupation of the city proved short-lived. Cuba_sentence_62

Pressure from London to sugar merchants, fearing a decline in sugar prices, forced negotiations with the Spanish over the captured territories. Cuba_sentence_63

Less than a year after Britain captured Havana, it signed the 1763 Treaty of Paris together with France and Spain, ending the Seven Years' War. Cuba_sentence_64

The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for Cuba. Cuba_sentence_65

The French had recommended this to Spain, advising that declining to give up Florida could result in Spain instead losing New Spain and much of their colonies on South American mainland in the future. Cuba_sentence_66

Many in Britain were disappointed, believing that Florida was a poor return for Cuba and Britain's other gains in the war. Cuba_sentence_67

The largest factor for the growth of Cuba's commerce in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century was the Haitian Revolution. Cuba_sentence_68

When the enslaved peoples of what had been the Caribbean's richest colony freed themselves through violent revolt, Cuban planters perceived the region's changing circumstances with both a sense of fear and opportunity. Cuba_sentence_69

They were afraid because of the prospect that slaves might revolt in Cuba as well, and numerous prohibitions during the 1790s on the sale of slaves in Cuba that had previously been slaves in French colonies underscored this anxiety. Cuba_sentence_70

The planters saw opportunity, however, because they thought that they could exploit the situation by transforming Cuba into the slave society and sugar-producing "pearl of the Antilles" that Haiti had been before the revolution. Cuba_sentence_71

As the historian Ada Ferrer has written, "At a basic level, liberation in Saint-Domingue helped entrench its denial in Cuba. Cuba_sentence_72

As slavery and colonialism collapsed in the French colony, the Spanish island underwent transformations that were almost the mirror image of Haiti's." Cuba_sentence_73

Estimates suggest that between 1790 and 1820 some 325,000 Africans were imported to Cuba as slaves, which was four times the amount that had arrived between 1760 and 1790. Cuba_sentence_74

Although a smaller proportion of the population of Cuba was enslaved, at times, slaves arose in revolt. Cuba_sentence_75

In 1812, the Aponte Slave Rebellion took place, but it was ultimately suppressed. Cuba_sentence_76

The population of Cuba in 1817 was 630,980 (of which 291,021 were white, 115,691 were free people of color (mixed-race), and 224,268 black slaves). Cuba_sentence_77

This was a much higher proportion of free blacks to slaves than in Virginia, for instance, or the other Caribbean islands. Cuba_sentence_78

Historians such as Magnus Mõrner, who have studied slavery in Latin America, found that manumissions increased when slave economies were in decline, as in 18th-century Cuba and early 19th-century Maryland in the United States. Cuba_sentence_79

In part due to Cuban slaves working primarily in urbanized settings, by the 19th century, the practice of coartacion had developed (or "buying oneself out of slavery", a "uniquely Cuban development"), according to historian Herbert S. Klein. Cuba_sentence_80

Due to a shortage of white labor, blacks dominated urban industries "to such an extent that when whites in large numbers came to Cuba in the middle of the nineteenth century, they were unable to displace Negro workers." Cuba_sentence_81

A system of diversified agriculture, with small farms and fewer slaves, served to supply the cities with produce and other goods. Cuba_sentence_82

In the 1820s, when the rest of Spain's empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba remained loyal to Spain. Cuba_sentence_83

Its economy was based on serving the empire. Cuba_sentence_84

By 1860, Cuba had 213,167 free people of color (39% of its non-white population of 550,000). Cuba_sentence_85

By contrast, Virginia, with about the same number of blacks, had only 58,042 or 11% who were free; the rest were enslaved. Cuba_sentence_86

Independence movements Cuba_section_4

See also: Cuban War of Independence Cuba_sentence_87

Full independence from Spain was the goal of a rebellion in 1868 led by planter Carlos Manuel de Céspedes. Cuba_sentence_88

De Céspedes, a sugar planter, freed his slaves to fight with him for an independent Cuba. Cuba_sentence_89

On 27 December 1868, he issued a decree condemning slavery in theory but accepting it in practice and declaring free any slaves whose masters present them for military service. Cuba_sentence_90

The 1868 rebellion resulted in a prolonged conflict known as the Ten Years' War. Cuba_sentence_91

A great number of the rebels were volunteers from Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and the United States, as well as numerous Chinese indentured servants. Cuba_sentence_92

A battalion of 500 Chinese fought under the command of General Máximo Gómez in the 1874 Battle of Las Guasimas. Cuba_sentence_93

A monument in Havana honors the Cuban Chinese who fell in the war. Cuba_sentence_94

A group of Dominican exiles, led by Máximo Gómez, Luis Marcano, and Modesto Díaz, utilizing the experience they had gained in the Dominican Restoration War (1863–65), became instructors of military strategy and tactics. Cuba_sentence_95

With reinforcements and guidance from the Dominicans, the Cubans defeated Spanish detachments, cut railway lines, and gained dominance over vast sections of the eastern portion of the island. Cuba_sentence_96

On 19 February 1874, Gómez and 700 other rebels marched westward from their eastern base and defeated 2,000 Spanish troops at El Naranjo. Cuba_sentence_97

The Spaniards lost 100 killed and 200 wounded and the rebels a total of 150 killed and wounded. Cuba_sentence_98

The most significant rebel victory came at the Battle of Las Guasimas, 16-20 March 1874, when 2,000 rebels, led by Antonio Maceo and Gómez, defeated 5,000 Spanish troops with 5 cannons. Cuba_sentence_99

The five-day battle cost the Spanish 1,037 casualties and the rebels 174 casualties. Cuba_sentence_100

The United States declined to recognize the new Cuban government, although many European and Latin American nations did so. Cuba_sentence_101

In 1878, the Pact of Zanjón ended the conflict, with Spain promising greater autonomy to Cuba. Cuba_sentence_102

Spain sustained 200,000 casualties, mostly from disease; the rebels sustained 100,000–150,000 dead. Cuba_sentence_103

In 1879–80, Cuban patriot Calixto García attempted to start another war known as the Little War but failed to receive enough support. Cuba_sentence_104

Slavery in Cuba was abolished in 1875 but the process was completed only in 1886. Cuba_sentence_105

An exiled dissident named José Martí founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York in 1892. Cuba_sentence_106

The aim of the party was to achieve Cuban independence from Spain. Cuba_sentence_107

In January 1895 Martí traveled to Monte Cristi and Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic to join the efforts of Máximo Gómez. Cuba_sentence_108

Martí recorded his political views in the Manifesto of Montecristi. Cuba_sentence_109

Fighting against the Spanish army began in Cuba on 24 February 1895, but Martí was unable to reach Cuba until 11 April 1895. Cuba_sentence_110

Martí was killed in the Battle of Dos Rios on 19 May 1895. Cuba_sentence_111

His death immortalized him as Cuba's national hero. Cuba_sentence_112

Around 200,000 Spanish troops outnumbered the much smaller rebel army, which relied mostly on guerrilla and sabotage tactics. Cuba_sentence_113

The Spaniards began a campaign of suppression. Cuba_sentence_114

General Valeriano Weyler, the military governor of Cuba, herded the rural population into what he called reconcentrados, described by international observers as "fortified towns". Cuba_sentence_115

These are often considered the prototype for 20th-century concentration camps. Cuba_sentence_116

Between 200,000 and 400,000 Cuban civilians died from starvation and disease in the Spanish concentration camps, numbers verified by the Red Cross and United States Senator Redfield Proctor, a former Secretary of War. Cuba_sentence_117

American and European protests against Spanish conduct on the island followed. Cuba_sentence_118

The U.S. battleship USS Maine was sent to protect American interests, but soon after arrival, it exploded in Havana harbor and sank quickly, killing nearly three quarters of the crew. Cuba_sentence_119

The cause and responsibility for the sinking of the ship remained unclear after a board of inquiry. Cuba_sentence_120

Popular opinion in the U.S., fueled by an active press, concluded that the Spanish were to blame and demanded action. Cuba_sentence_121

Spain and the United States declared war on each other in late April 1898. Cuba_sentence_122

Over the previous decades, five U.S. presidents—Polk, Pierce, Buchanan, Grant, and McKinley—had tried to buy the island of Cuba from Spain. Cuba_sentence_123

The Battle of Santiago de Cuba, on 3 July 1898, was the largest naval engagement during the Spanish–American War, and resulted in the destruction of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron. Cuba_sentence_124

Resistance in Santiago consolidated around Fort Canosa, while major battles between Spaniards and Americans took place at Las Guasimas on 24 June, and at El Caney and San Juan Hill on 1 July, after which the American advance ground to a halt. Cuba_sentence_125

The Americans lost 81 killed and 360 wounded in taking El Caney, where the Spanish defenders lost 38 killed, 138 wounded and 160 captured. Cuba_sentence_126

At San Juan, the Americans lost 216 killed and 1,024 wounded; Spanish losses were 58 killed, 170 wounded and 39 captured. Cuba_sentence_127

Spanish troops successfully defended Fort Canosa, allowing them to stabilize their line and bar the entry to Santiago. Cuba_sentence_128

The Americans and Cubans began a brutal siege of the city, which surrendered on 16 July after the defeat of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron. Cuba_sentence_129

Spain had sacrificed more of its sons to hold on to Cuba than she had in attempting to cling on to Mexico and South America, and suffered over 62,000 dead in the 1895–98 war. Cuba_sentence_130

Republic (1902–1959) Cuba_section_5

Main article: Republic of Cuba (1902–1959) Cuba_sentence_131

First years (1902–1925) Cuba_section_6

After the Spanish–American War, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris (1898), by which Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States for the sum of US$20 million and Cuba became a protectorate of the United States. Cuba_sentence_132

Cuba gained formal independence from the U.S. on 20 May 1902, as the Republic of Cuba. Cuba_sentence_133

Under Cuba's new constitution, the U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations. Cuba_sentence_134

Under the Platt Amendment, the U.S. leased the Guantánamo Bay Naval Base from Cuba. Cuba_sentence_135

Following disputed elections in 1906, the first president, Tomás Estrada Palma, faced an armed revolt by independence war veterans who defeated the meager government forces. Cuba_sentence_136

The U.S. intervened by occupying Cuba and named Charles Edward Magoon as Governor for three years. Cuba_sentence_137

Cuban historians have characterized Magoon's governorship as having introduced political and social corruption. Cuba_sentence_138

In 1908, self-government was restored when José Miguel Gómez was elected President, but the U.S. continued intervening in Cuban affairs. Cuba_sentence_139

In 1912, the Partido Independiente de Color attempted to establish a separate black republic in Oriente Province, but was suppressed by General Monteagudo with considerable bloodshed. Cuba_sentence_140

In 1924, Gerardo Machado was elected president. Cuba_sentence_141

During his administration, tourism increased markedly, and American-owned hotels and restaurants were built to accommodate the influx of tourists. Cuba_sentence_142

The tourist boom led to increases in gambling and prostitution in Cuba. Cuba_sentence_143

The Wall Street Crash of 1929 led to a collapse in the price of sugar, political unrest, and repression. Cuba_sentence_144

Protesting students, known as the Generation of 1930, turned to violence in opposition to the increasingly unpopular Machado. Cuba_sentence_145

A general strike (in which the Communist Party sided with Machado), uprisings among sugar workers, and an army revolt forced Machado into exile in August 1933. Cuba_sentence_146

He was replaced by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada. Cuba_sentence_147

Revolution of 1933–1940 Cuba_section_7

In September 1933, the Sergeants' Revolt, led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista, overthrew Cespedes. Cuba_sentence_148

A five-member executive committee (the Pentarchy of 1933) was chosen to head a provisional government. Cuba_sentence_149

Ramón Grau San Martín was then appointed as provisional president. Cuba_sentence_150

Grau resigned in 1934, leaving the way clear for Batista, who dominated Cuban politics for the next 25 years, at first through a series of puppet-presidents. Cuba_sentence_151

The period from 1933 to 1937 was a time of "virtually unremitting social and political warfare". Cuba_sentence_152

On balance, during the period 1933–1940 Cuba suffered from fragile politic structures, reflected in the fact that it saw three different presidents in two years (1935–1936), and in the militaristic and repressive policies of Batista as Head of the Army. Cuba_sentence_153

Constitution of 1940 Cuba_section_8

A new constitution was adopted in 1940, which engineered radical progressive ideas, including the right to labor and health care. Cuba_sentence_154

Batista was elected president in the same year, holding the post until 1944. Cuba_sentence_155

He is so far the only non-white Cuban to win the nation's highest political office. Cuba_sentence_156

His government carried out major social reforms. Cuba_sentence_157

Several members of the Communist Party held office under his administration. Cuba_sentence_158

Cuban armed forces were not greatly involved in combat during World War II—though president Batista did suggest a joint U.S.-Latin American assault on Francoist Spain to overthrow its authoritarian regime. Cuba_sentence_159

Cuba lost 6 merchant ships during the war, and the Cuban Navy was credited with sinking the German submarine U-176. Cuba_sentence_160

Batista adhered to the 1940 constitution's strictures preventing his re-election. Cuba_sentence_161

Ramon Grau San Martin was the winner of the next election, in 1944. Cuba_sentence_162

Grau further corroded the base of the already teetering legitimacy of the Cuban political system, in particular by undermining the deeply flawed, though not entirely ineffectual, Congress and Supreme Court. Cuba_sentence_163

Carlos Prío Socarrás, a protégé of Grau, became president in 1948. Cuba_sentence_164

The two terms of the Auténtico Party brought an influx of investment, which fueled an economic boom, raised living standards for all segments of society, and created a middle class in most urban areas. Cuba_sentence_165

After finishing his term in 1944 Batista lived in Florida, returning to Cuba to run for president in 1952. Cuba_sentence_166

Facing certain electoral defeat, he led a military coup that preempted the election. Cuba_sentence_167

Back in power, and receiving financial, military, and logistical support from the United States government, Batista suspended the 1940 Constitution and revoked most political liberties, including the right to strike. Cuba_sentence_168

He then aligned with the wealthiest landowners who owned the largest sugar plantations, and presided over a stagnating economy that widened the gap between rich and poor Cubans. Cuba_sentence_169

Batista outlawed the Cuban Communist Party in 1952. Cuba_sentence_170

After the coup, Cuba had Latin America's highest per capita consumption rates of meat, vegetables, cereals, automobiles, telephones and radios, though about one third of the population was considered poor and enjoyed relatively little of this consumption. Cuba_sentence_171

In 1958, Cuba was a relatively well-advanced country by Latin American standards, and in some cases by world standards. Cuba_sentence_172

On the other hand, Cuba was affected by perhaps the largest labor union privileges in Latin America, including bans on dismissals and mechanization. Cuba_sentence_173

They were obtained in large measure "at the cost of the unemployed and the peasants", leading to disparities. Cuba_sentence_174

Between 1933 and 1958, Cuba extended economic regulations enormously, causing economic problems. Cuba_sentence_175

Unemployment became a problem as graduates entering the workforce could not find jobs. Cuba_sentence_176

The middle class, which was comparable to that of the United States, became increasingly dissatisfied with unemployment and political persecution. Cuba_sentence_177

The labor unions supported Batista until the very end. Cuba_sentence_178

Batista stayed in power until he was forced into exile in December 1958. Cuba_sentence_179

Revolution and Communist party rule (1959–present) Cuba_section_9

Main article: Cuban Revolution Cuba_sentence_180

See also: Foreign interventions by Cuba Cuba_sentence_181

In the 1950s, various organizations, including some advocating armed uprising, competed for public support in bringing about political change. Cuba_sentence_182

In 1956, Fidel Castro and about 80 supporters landed from the yacht Granma in an attempt to start a rebellion against the Batista government. Cuba_sentence_183

It was not until 1958 that Castro's July 26th Movement emerged as the leading revolutionary group. Cuba_sentence_184

By late 1958 the rebels had broken out of the Sierra Maestra and launched a general popular insurrection. Cuba_sentence_185

After Castro's fighters captured Santa Clara, Batista fled with his family to the Dominican Republic on 1 January 1959. Cuba_sentence_186

Later he went into exile on the Portuguese island of Madeira and finally settled in Estoril, near Lisbon. Cuba_sentence_187

Fidel Castro's forces entered the capital on 8 January 1959. Cuba_sentence_188

The liberal Manuel Urrutia Lleó became the provisional president. Cuba_sentence_189

Dominican Republic strongman Rafael Trujillo and Castro both supported attempts to overthrow each other. Cuba_sentence_190

On 14 June 1959, a Cuban-supported invasion force landed from an airplane at Constanza, Dominican Republic, only to be immediately massacred. Cuba_sentence_191

A week later, two yachts offloaded 186 invaders onto Chris-Craft launches for a landing on the North coast. Cuba_sentence_192

Dominican Air Force pilots fired rockets from their Vampire Jets into the approaching launches, killing all but 30 men, who managed to make it to the beaches at Maimon and Estero Hondo. Cuba_sentence_193

Trujillo ordered his son, Ramfis, to lead the hunt for the survivors, and soon they were captured. Cuba_sentence_194

The leaders of the invasion were taken aboard a Dominican Air Force plane and then pushed out in mid-air, falling to their deaths. Cuba_sentence_195

Militant anti-Castro groups, funded by exiles, by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and by Trujillo's Dominican government, carried out armed attacks and set up guerrilla bases in Cuba's mountainous regions. Cuba_sentence_196

This led to the six-year Escambray rebellion (1959–65), which lasted longer and involved more soldiers than the Cuban Revolution. Cuba_sentence_197

The United States Department of State has estimated that 3,200 people were executed from 1959 to 1962. Cuba_sentence_198

According to Amnesty International, official death sentences from 1959–87 numbered 237 of which all but 21 were actually carried out. Cuba_sentence_199

Other estimates for the total number of political executions range from 4,000 to 33,000. Cuba_sentence_200

The vast majority of those executed directly following the 1959 revolution were policemen, politicians, and informers of the Batista regime accused of crimes such as torture and murder, and their public trials and executions had widespread popular support among the Cuban population. Cuba_sentence_201

The United States government initially reacted favorably to the Cuban revolution, seeing it as part of a movement to bring democracy to Latin America. Cuba_sentence_202

Castro's legalization of the Communist party and the hundreds of executions of Batista agents, policemen and soldiers that followed caused a deterioration in the relationship between the two countries. Cuba_sentence_203

The promulgation of the Agrarian Reform Law, expropriating thousands of acres of farmland (including from large U.S. landholders), further worsened relations. Cuba_sentence_204

In response, between 1960 and 1964 the U.S. imposed a range of sanctions, eventually including a total ban on trade between the countries and a freeze on all Cuban-owned assets in the U.S. Cuba_sentence_205

In February 1960, Castro signed a commercial agreement with Soviet Vice-Premier Anastas Mikoyan. Cuba_sentence_206

In March 1960, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his approval to a CIA plan to arm and train a group of Cuban refugees to overthrow the Castro regime. Cuba_sentence_207

The invasion (known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion) took place on 14 April 1961, during the term of President John F. Kennedy. Cuba_sentence_208

About 1,400 Cuban exiles disembarked at the Bay of Pigs, but failed in their attempt to overthrow Castro. Cuba_sentence_209

In January 1962, Cuba was suspended from the Organization of American States (OAS), and later the same year the OAS started to impose sanctions against Cuba of similar nature to the U.S. sanctions. Cuba_sentence_210

The Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) almost sparked World War III. Cuba_sentence_211

By 1963, Cuba was moving towards a full-fledged Communist system modeled on the USSR. Cuba_sentence_212

In 1963, Cuba sent 686 troops together with 22 tanks and other military equipment to support Algeria in the Sand War against Morocco. Cuba_sentence_213

In 1964, Cuba organized a meeting of Latin American communists in Havana and stoked a civil war in the Dominican Republic in 1965 that prompted the U.S. military to intervene there. Cuba_sentence_214

Che Guevara engaged in guerrilla activities in Congo and was killed in 1967 while attempting to start a revolution in Bolivia. Cuba_sentence_215

During the 1970s, Fidel Castro dispatched tens of thousands of troops in support of Soviet-supported wars in Africa. Cuba_sentence_216

He supported the MPLA in Angola and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia. Cuba_sentence_217

In November 1975, Cuba poured more than 65,000 troops and 400 Soviet-made tanks into Angola in one of the fastest military mobilizations in history. Cuba_sentence_218

South Africa developed nuclear weapons due to the threat to its security posed by the presence of large numbers of Cuban troops in Angola and Mozambique. Cuba_sentence_219

In 1976 and again in 1988, the Cubans defeated white South African forces in Angola. Cuba_sentence_220

An estimated 5,000 Cubans were killed in action during the Angolan Civil War. Cuba_sentence_221

In March 1978, Cuba sent 12,000 regular troops to Ethiopia, assisted by mechanized Soviet battalions, to help defeat a Somali invasion (see Ogaden War). Cuba_sentence_222

The Cubans and the Russians pushed the Somalis back to their original borders. Cuba_sentence_223

The presence of a substantial number of blacks and mulattoes in the Cuban forces (40–50 percent in Angola) helped give teeth to Castro's campaign against racism and related prejudice like xenophobia. Cuba_sentence_224

Despite Cuba's small size and the long distance separating it from the Middle East, Castro's Cuba played an active role in the region during the Cold War. Cuba_sentence_225

In 1972, a major Cuban military mission consisting of tank, air, and artillery specialists was dispatched to South Yemen. Cuba_sentence_226

The Cubans were also involved in the Yom Kippur War (1973). Cuba_sentence_227

Israeli sources reported the presence of a Cuban tank brigade in the Golan Heights, which was supported by two brigades. Cuba_sentence_228

The Israelis defeated the Cuban-Syrian tank forces on the Golan front; Cuban losses were 180 killed and 250 wounded. Cuba_sentence_229

The standard of living in the 1970s was "extremely spartan" and discontent was rife. Cuba_sentence_230

Fidel Castro admitted the failures of economic policies in a 1970 speech. Cuba_sentence_231

In 1975, the OAS lifted its sanctions against Cuba, with the approval of 16 member states, including the U.S. Cuba_sentence_232

The U.S., however, maintained its own sanctions. Cuba_sentence_233

In 1979, the U.S. objected to the presence of Soviet combat troops on the island. Cuba_sentence_234

U.S. Cuba_sentence_235 forces invaded the Caribbean island of Grenada in 1983, killing more than two dozen Cubans and expelling the remainder of the Cuban aid force from the island. Cuba_sentence_236

Cuba gradually withdrew its troops from Angola in 1989–91. Cuba_sentence_237

Soviet troops began to withdraw from Cuba in September 1991, and Castro's rule was severely tested in the aftermath of the Soviet collapse in December 1991 (known in Cuba as the Special Period). Cuba_sentence_238

The country faced a severe economic downturn following the withdrawal of Soviet subsidies worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually, resulting in effects such as food and fuel shortages. Cuba_sentence_239

The government did not accept American donations of food, medicines, and cash until 1993. Cuba_sentence_240

On 5 August 1994, state security dispersed protesters in a spontaneous protest in Havana. Cuba_sentence_241

Cuba has since found a new source of aid and support in the People's Republic of China. Cuba_sentence_242

In addition, Hugo Chávez, then-President of Venezuela, and Evo Morales, President of Bolivia, became allies and both countries are major oil and gas exporters. Cuba_sentence_243

In 2003, the government arrested and imprisoned a large number of civil activists, a period known as the "Black Spring". Cuba_sentence_244

In February 2008, Fidel Castro announced his resignation as President of Cuba following the onset of his reported serious gastrointestinal illness in July 2006. Cuba_sentence_245

On 24 February his brother, Raúl Castro, was declared the new President. Cuba_sentence_246

In his inauguration speech, Raúl promised that some of the restrictions on freedom in Cuba would be removed. Cuba_sentence_247

In March 2009, Raúl Castro removed some of his brother's appointees. Cuba_sentence_248

On 3 June 2009, the Organization of American States adopted a resolution to end the 47-year ban on Cuban membership of the group. Cuba_sentence_249

The resolution stated, however, that full membership would be delayed until Cuba was "in conformity with the practices, purposes, and principles of the OAS". Cuba_sentence_250

Fidel Castro restated his position that he was not interested in joining after the OAS resolution had been announced. Cuba_sentence_251

Effective 14 January 2013, Cuba ended the requirement established in 1961, that any citizens who wish to travel abroad were required to obtain an expensive government permit and a letter of invitation. Cuba_sentence_252

In 1961 the Cuban government had imposed broad restrictions on travel to prevent the mass emigration of people after the 1959 revolution; it approved exit visas only on rare occasions. Cuba_sentence_253

Requirements were simplified: Cubans need only a passport and a national ID card to leave; and they are allowed to take their young children with them for the first time. Cuba_sentence_254

However, a passport costs on average five months' salary. Cuba_sentence_255

Observers expect that Cubans with paying relatives abroad are most likely to be able to take advantage of the new policy. Cuba_sentence_256

In the first year of the program, over 180,000 left Cuba and returned. Cuba_sentence_257

As of December 2014, talks with Cuban officials and American officials, including President Barack Obama, resulted in the release of Alan Gross, fifty-two political prisoners, and an unnamed non-citizen agent of the United States in return for the release of three Cuban agents currently imprisoned in the United States. Cuba_sentence_258

Additionally, while the embargo between the United States and Cuba was not immediately lifted, it was relaxed to allow import, export, and certain limited commerce. Cuba_sentence_259

Government and politics Cuba_section_10

Main article: Politics of Cuba Cuba_sentence_260

The Republic of Cuba is one of the world's last remaining socialist countries following the Marxist–Leninist ideology. Cuba_sentence_261

The Constitution of 1976, which defined Cuba as a socialist republic, was replaced by the Constitution of 1992, which is "guided by the ideas of José Martí and the political and social ideas of Marx, Engels and Lenin." Cuba_sentence_262

The constitution describes the Communist Party of Cuba as the "leading force of society and of the state". Cuba_sentence_263

The First Secretary of the Communist Party is concurrently President of the Council of State (President of Cuba) and President of the Council of Ministers (sometimes referred to as Prime Minister of Cuba). Cuba_sentence_264

Members of both councils are elected by the National Assembly of People's Power. Cuba_sentence_265

The President of Cuba, who is also elected by the Assembly, serves for five years and there is no limit to the number of terms of office. Cuba_sentence_266

The People's Supreme Court serves as Cuba's highest judicial branch of government. Cuba_sentence_267

It is also the court of last resort for all appeals against the decisions of provincial courts. Cuba_sentence_268

Cuba's national legislature, the National Assembly of People's Power (Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular), is the supreme organ of power; 609 members serve five-year terms. Cuba_sentence_269

The assembly meets twice a year; between sessions legislative power is held by the 31 member Council of Ministers. Cuba_sentence_270

Candidates for the Assembly are approved by public referendum. Cuba_sentence_271

All Cuban citizens over 16 who have not been convicted of a criminal offense can vote. Cuba_sentence_272

Article 131 of the Constitution states that voting shall be "through free, equal and secret vote". Cuba_sentence_273

Article 136 states: "In order for deputies or delegates to be considered elected they must get more than half the number of valid votes cast in the electoral districts". Cuba_sentence_274

No political party is permitted to nominate candidates or campaign on the island, including the Communist Party. Cuba_sentence_275

The Communist Party of Cuba has held six party congress meetings since 1975. Cuba_sentence_276

In 2011, the party stated that there were 800,000 members, and representatives generally constitute at least half of the Councils of state and the National Assembly. Cuba_sentence_277

The remaining positions are filled by candidates nominally without party affiliation. Cuba_sentence_278

Other political parties campaign and raise finances internationally, while activity within Cuba by opposition groups is minimal. Cuba_sentence_279

Cuba is considered an authoritarian regime according to the 2016 Democracy Index and 2017 Freedom in the World survey. Cuba_sentence_280

In February 2013, Cuban president Raúl Castro announced he would resign in 2018, ending his five-year term, and that he hopes to implement permanent term limits for future Cuban Presidents, including age limits. Cuba_sentence_281

After Fidel Castro died on 25 November 2016, the Cuban government declared a nine-day mourning period. Cuba_sentence_282

During the mourning period Cuban citizens were prohibited from playing loud music, partying, and drinking alcohol. Cuba_sentence_283

Administrative divisions Cuba_section_11

Main articles: Provinces of Cuba and Municipalities of Cuba Cuba_sentence_284

The country is subdivided into 15 provinces and one special municipality (Isla de la Juventud). Cuba_sentence_285

These were formerly part of six larger historical provinces: Pinar del Río, Habana, Matanzas, Las Villas, Camagüey and Oriente. Cuba_sentence_286

The present subdivisions closely resemble those of the Spanish military provinces during the Cuban Wars of Independence, when the most troublesome areas were subdivided. Cuba_sentence_287

The provinces are divided into municipalities. Cuba_sentence_288

Human rights Cuba_section_12

Main articles: Human rights in Cuba, Censorship in Cuba, and Cuban dissidents Cuba_sentence_289

The Cuban government has been accused of numerous human rights abuses including torture, arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial executions (also known as "El Paredón"). Cuba_sentence_290

Human Rights Watch has stated that the government "represses nearly all forms of political dissent" and that "Cubans are systematically denied basic rights to free expression, association, assembly, privacy, movement, and due process of law". Cuba_sentence_291

In 2003, the European Union (EU) accused the Cuban government of "continuing flagrant violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms". Cuba_sentence_292

It has continued to call regularly for social and economic reform in Cuba, along with the unconditional release of all political prisoners. Cuba_sentence_293

The United States continues an embargo against Cuba "so long as it continues to refuse to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights", though the UN General Assembly has, since 1992, passed a resolution every year condemning the ongoing impact of the embargo and claiming it violates the Charter of the United Nations and international law. Cuba_sentence_294

Cuba considers the embargo itself a violation of human rights. Cuba_sentence_295

On 17 December 2014, United States President Barack Obama announced the re-establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba, pushing for Congress to put an end to the embargo. Cuba_sentence_296

Cuba had the second-highest number of imprisoned journalists of any nation in 2008 (China had the highest) according to various sources, including the Committee to Protect Journalists and Human Rights Watch. Cuba_sentence_297

Cuban dissidents face arrest and imprisonment. Cuba_sentence_298

In the 1990s, Human Rights Watch reported that Cuba's extensive prison system, one of the largest in Latin America, consists of 40 maximum-security prisons, 30 minimum-security prisons, and over 200 work camps. Cuba_sentence_299

According to Human Rights Watch, Cuba's prison population is confined in "substandard and unhealthy conditions, where prisoners face physical and sexual abuse". Cuba_sentence_300

In July 2010, the unofficial Cuban Human Rights Commission said there were 167 political prisoners in Cuba, a fall from 201 at the start of the year. Cuba_sentence_301

The head of the commission stated that long prison sentences were being replaced by harassment and intimidation. Cuba_sentence_302

During the entire period of Castro's rule over the island, an estimated 200,000 people had been imprisoned or deprived of their freedoms for political reasons. Cuba_sentence_303

Foreign relations Cuba_section_13

Main article: Foreign relations of Cuba Cuba_sentence_304

See also: Cuban medical internationalism Cuba_sentence_305

Cuba has conducted a foreign policy that is uncharacteristic of such a minor, developing country. Cuba_sentence_306

Under Castro, Cuba was heavily involved in wars in Africa, Central America and Asia. Cuba_sentence_307

Cuba supported Algeria in 1961–1965, and sent tens of thousands of troops to Angola during the Angolan Civil War. Cuba_sentence_308

Other countries that featured Cuban involvement include Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Yemen. Cuba_sentence_309

Lesser known actions include the 1959 missions to the Dominican Republic. Cuba_sentence_310

The expedition failed, but a prominent monument to its members was erected in their memory in Santo Domingo by the Dominican government, and they feature prominently at the country's Memorial Museum of the Resistance. Cuba_sentence_311

In 2008, the European Union (EU) and Cuba agreed to resume full relations and cooperation activities. Cuba_sentence_312

Cuba is a founding member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas. Cuba_sentence_313

At the end of 2012, tens of thousands of Cuban medical personnel worked abroad, with as many as 30,000 doctors in Venezuela alone via the two countries' oil-for-doctors programme. Cuba_sentence_314

In 1996, the United States, then under President Bill Clinton, brought in the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act, better known as the Helms–Burton Act. Cuba_sentence_315

In 2009, United States President Barack Obama stated on 17 April, in Trinidad and Tobago that "the United States seeks a new beginning with Cuba", and reversed the Bush Administration's prohibition on travel and remittances by Cuban-Americans from the United States to Cuba. Cuba_sentence_316

Five years later, an agreement between the United States and Cuba, popularly called "The Cuban Thaw", brokered in part by Canada and Pope Francis, began the process of restoring international relations between the two countries. Cuba_sentence_317

They agreed to release political prisoners and the United States began the process of creating an embassy in Havana. Cuba_sentence_318

This was realized on 30 June 2015, when Cuba and the U.S. reached a deal to reopen embassies in their respective capitals on 20 July 2015 and reestablish diplomatic relations. Cuba_sentence_319

Earlier in the same year, the White House announced that President Obama would remove Cuba from the American government's list of nations that sponsor terrorism, which Cuba reportedly welcomed as "fair". Cuba_sentence_320

On 17 September 2017, the United States considered closing its Cuban embassy following mysterious sonic attacks on its staff. Cuba_sentence_321

Crime and law enforcement Cuba_section_14

See also: Law enforcement in Cuba and Crime in Cuba Cuba_sentence_322

All law enforcement agencies are maintained under Cuba's Ministry of the Interior, which is supervised by the Revolutionary Armed Forces. Cuba_sentence_323

In Cuba, citizens can receive police assistance by dialing "106" on their telephones. Cuba_sentence_324

The police force, which is referred to as "Policía Nacional Revolucionaria" or PNR is then expected to provide help. Cuba_sentence_325

The Cuban government also has an agency called the Intelligence Directorate that conducts intelligence operations and maintains close ties with the Russian Federal Security Service. Cuba_sentence_326

Military Cuba_section_15

Main article: Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuba_sentence_327

As of 2009, Cuba spent about US$91.8 million on its armed forces. Cuba_sentence_328

In 1985, Cuba devoted more than 10% of its GDP to military expenditures. Cuba_sentence_329

In response to American aggression, such as the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuba built up one of the largest armed forces in Latin America, second only to that of Brazil. Cuba_sentence_330

From 1975 until the late 1980s, Soviet military assistance enabled Cuba to upgrade its military capabilities. Cuba_sentence_331

After the loss of Soviet subsidies, Cuba scaled down the numbers of military personnel, from 235,000 in 1994 to about 60,000 in 2003. Cuba_sentence_332

In 2017, Cuba signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Cuba_sentence_333

Economy Cuba_section_16

Main articles: Economy of Cuba, Rationing in Cuba, Sociolismo, and United States embargo against Cuba Cuba_sentence_334

The Cuban state claims to adhere to socialist principles in organizing its largely state-controlled planned economy. Cuba_sentence_335

Most of the means of production are owned and run by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state. Cuba_sentence_336

Recent years have seen a trend toward more private sector employment. Cuba_sentence_337

By 2006, public sector employment was 78% and private sector 22%, compared to 91.8% to 8.2% in 1981. Cuba_sentence_338

Government spending is 78.1% of GDP. Cuba_sentence_339

Any firm that hires a Cuban must pay the Cuban government, which in turn pays the employee in Cuban pesos. Cuba_sentence_340

The average monthly wage as of July 2013 is 466 Cuban pesos—about US$19. Cuba_sentence_341

Cuba has a dual currency system, whereby most wages and prices are set in Cuban pesos (CUP), while the tourist economy operates with Convertible pesos (CUC), set at par with the US dollar. Cuba_sentence_342

Every Cuban household has a ration book (known as libreta) entitling it to a monthly supply of food and other staples, which are provided at nominal cost. Cuba_sentence_343

Before Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution, Cuba was one of the most advanced and successful countries in Latin America. Cuba_sentence_344

Cuba's capital, Havana, was a "glittering and dynamic city". Cuba_sentence_345

The country's economy in the early part of the century, fuelled by the sale of sugar to the United States, had grown wealthy. Cuba_sentence_346

Cuba ranked 5th in the hemisphere in per capita income, 3rd in life expectancy, 2nd in per capita ownership of automobiles and telephones, and 1st in the number of television sets per inhabitant. Cuba_sentence_347

Cuba's literacy rate, 76%, was the fourth highest in Latin America. Cuba_sentence_348

Cuba also ranked 11th in the world in the number of doctors per capita. Cuba_sentence_349

Several private clinics and hospitals provided services for the poor. Cuba_sentence_350

Cuba's income distribution compared favorably with that of other Latin American societies. Cuba_sentence_351

However, income inequality was profound between city and countryside, especially between whites and blacks. Cuba_sentence_352

Cubans lived in abysmal poverty in the countryside. Cuba_sentence_353

According to PBS, a thriving middle class held the promise of prosperity and social mobility. Cuba_sentence_354

According to Cuba historian Louis Perez of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, "Havana was then what Las Vegas has become." Cuba_sentence_355

In 2016, the Miami Herald wrote, "... about 27 percent of Cubans earn under $50 per month; 34 percent earn the equivalent of $50 to $100 per month; and 20 percent earn $101 to $200. Cuba_sentence_356

Twelve percent reported earning $201 to $500 a month; and almost 4 percent said their monthly earnings topped $500, including 1.5 percent who said they earned more than $1,000." Cuba_sentence_357

After the Cuban revolution and before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba depended on Moscow for substantial aid and sheltered markets for its exports. Cuba_sentence_358

The loss of these subsidies sent the Cuban economy into a rapid depression known in Cuba as the Special Period. Cuba_sentence_359

Cuba took limited free market-oriented measures to alleviate severe shortages of food, consumer goods, and services. Cuba_sentence_360

These steps included allowing some self-employment in certain retail and light manufacturing sectors, the legalization of the use of the US dollar in business, and the encouragement of tourism. Cuba_sentence_361

Cuba has developed a unique urban farm system called organopónicos to compensate for the end of food imports from the Soviet Union. Cuba_sentence_362

The U.S. Cuba_sentence_363 embargo against Cuba was instituted in response to nationalization of U.S.-citizen-held property and was maintained at the premise of perceived human rights violations. Cuba_sentence_364

It is widely viewed that the embargo hurt the Cuban economy. Cuba_sentence_365

In 2009, the Cuban Government estimated this loss at $685 million annually. Cuba_sentence_366

Cuba's leadership has called for reforms in the country's agricultural system. Cuba_sentence_367

In 2008, Raúl Castro began enacting agrarian reforms to boost food production, as at that time 80% of food was imported. Cuba_sentence_368

The reforms aim to expand land use and increase efficiency. Cuba_sentence_369

Venezuela supplies Cuba with an estimated 110,000 barrels (17,000 m) of oil per day in exchange for money and the services of some 44,000 Cubans, most of them medical personnel, in Venezuela. Cuba_sentence_370

In 2005, Cuba had exports of US$2.4 billion, ranking 114 of 226 world countries, and imports of US$6.9 billion, ranking 87 of 226 countries. Cuba_sentence_371

Its major export partners are Canada 17.7%, China 16.9%, Venezuela 12.5%, Netherlands 9%, and Spain 5.9% (2012). Cuba_sentence_372

Cuba's major exports are sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus fruits, and coffee; imports include food, fuel, clothing, and machinery. Cuba_sentence_373

Cuba presently holds debt in an amount estimated at $13 billion, approximately 38% of GDP. Cuba_sentence_374

According to the Heritage Foundation, Cuba is dependent on credit accounts that rotate from country to country. Cuba_sentence_375

Cuba's prior 35% supply of the world's export market for sugar has declined to 10% due to a variety of factors, including a global sugar commodity price drop that made Cuba less competitive on world markets. Cuba_sentence_376

It was announced in 2008 that wage caps would be abandoned to improve the nation's productivity. Cuba_sentence_377

In 2010, Cubans were allowed to build their own houses. Cuba_sentence_378

According to Raúl Castro, they could now improve their houses, but the government would not endorse these new houses or improvements. Cuba_sentence_379

There is virtually no homelessness in Cuba, and 85% of Cubans own their homes and pay no property taxes or mortgage interest. Cuba_sentence_380

Mortgage payments may not exceed 10% of a household's combined income.. Cuba_sentence_381

On 2 August 2011, The New York Times reported that Cuba reaffirmed its intent to legalize "buying and selling" of private property before the year's end. Cuba_sentence_382

According to experts, the private sale of property could "transform Cuba more than any of the economic reforms announced by President Raúl Castro's government". Cuba_sentence_383

It would cut more than one million state jobs, including party bureaucrats who resist the changes. Cuba_sentence_384

The reforms created what some call "New Cuban Economy". Cuba_sentence_385

In October 2013, Raúl said he intended to merge the two currencies, but as of August 2016, the dual currency system remains in force. Cuba_sentence_386

In August 2012, a specialist of the "Cubaenergia Company" announced the opening of Cuba's first Solar Power Plant. Cuba_sentence_387

As a member of the Cubasolar Group, there was also a mention of ten additional plants in 2013. Cuba_sentence_388

In May 2019, Cuba imposed rationing of staples such as chicken, eggs, rice, beans, soap and other basics. Cuba_sentence_389

(Some two-thirds of food in the country is imported.) Cuba_sentence_390

A spokesperson blamed the increased U.S. trade embargo although economists believe that an equally important problem is the massive decline of aid from Venezuela and the failure of Cuba's state-run oil company which had subsidized fuel costs. Cuba_sentence_391

Resources Cuba_section_17

Cuba's natural resources include sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus fruits, coffee, beans, rice, potatoes, and livestock. Cuba_sentence_392

Cuba's most important mineral resource is nickel, with 21% of total exports in 2011. Cuba_sentence_393

The output of Cuba's nickel mines that year was 71,000 tons, approaching 4% of world production. Cuba_sentence_394

As of 2013 its reserves were estimated at 5.5 million tons, over 7% of the world total. Cuba_sentence_395

Sherritt International of Canada operates a large nickel mining facility in Moa. Cuba_sentence_396

Cuba is also a major producer of refined cobalt, a by-product of nickel mining. Cuba_sentence_397

Oil exploration in 2005 by the US Geological Survey revealed that the North Cuba Basin could produce about 4.6 billion barrels (730,000,000 m) to 9.3 billion barrels (1.48×10 m) of oil. Cuba_sentence_398

In 2006, Cuba started to test-drill these locations for possible exploitation. Cuba_sentence_399

Tourism Cuba_section_18

Main article: Tourism in Cuba Cuba_sentence_400

Tourism was initially restricted to enclave resorts where tourists would be segregated from Cuban society, referred to as "enclave tourism" and "tourism apartheid". Cuba_sentence_401

Contact between foreign visitors and ordinary Cubans were de facto illegal between 1992 and 1997. Cuba_sentence_402

The rapid growth of tourism during the Special Period had widespread social and economic repercussions in Cuba, and led to speculation about the emergence of a two-tier economy. Cuba_sentence_403

1.9 million tourists visited Cuba in 2003, predominantly from Canada and the European Union, generating revenue of US$2.1 billion. Cuba_sentence_404

Cuba recorded 2,688,000 international tourists in 2011, the third-highest figure in the Caribbean (behind the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico). Cuba_sentence_405

The medical tourism sector caters to thousands of European, Latin American, Canadian, and American consumers every year. Cuba_sentence_406

A recent study indicates that Cuba has a potential for mountaineering activity, and that mountaineering could be a key contributor to tourism, along with other activities, e.g. biking, diving, caving. Cuba_sentence_407

Promoting these resources could contribute to regional development, prosperity, and well-being. Cuba_sentence_408

The Cuban Justice minister downplays allegations of widespread sex tourism. Cuba_sentence_409

According to a Government of Canada travel advice website, "Cuba is actively working to prevent child sex tourism, and a number of tourists, including Canadians, have been convicted of offences related to the corruption of minors aged 16 and under. Cuba_sentence_410

Prison sentences range from 7 to 25 years." Cuba_sentence_411

Some tourist facilities were extensively damaged on 8 September 2017 when Hurricane Irma hit the island. Cuba_sentence_412

The storm made landfall in the Camagüey Archipelago; the worst damage was in the keys north of the main island, however, and not in the most significant tourist areas. Cuba_sentence_413

Geography Cuba_section_19

Main article: Geography of Cuba Cuba_sentence_414

Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the northern Caribbean Sea at the confluence with the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Cuba_sentence_415

It lies between latitudes 19° and 24°N, and longitudes 74° and 85°W. Cuba_sentence_416

The United States lies 150 kilometers (93 miles) across the Straits of Florida to the north and northwest (to the closest tip of Key West, Florida), and The Bahamas (Cay Lobos) 21 km (13 mi) to the north. Cuba_sentence_417

Mexico lies 210 kilometers (130 miles) across the Yucatán Channel to the west (to the closest tip of Cabo Catoche in the State of Quintana Roo). Cuba_sentence_418

Haiti is 77 km (48 mi) to the east, Jamaica (140 km/87 mi) and the Cayman Islands to the south. Cuba_sentence_419

Cuba is the principal island, surrounded by four smaller groups of islands: the Colorados Archipelago on the northwestern coast, the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago on the north-central Atlantic coast, the Jardines de la Reina on the south-central coast and the Canarreos Archipelago on the southwestern coast. Cuba_sentence_420

The main island, named Cuba, is 1,250 km (780 mi) long, constituting most of the nation's land area (104,556 km (40,369 sq mi)) and is the largest island in the Caribbean and 17th-largest island in the world by land area. Cuba_sentence_421

The main island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains apart from the Sierra Maestra mountains in the southeast, whose highest point is Pico Turquino (1,974 m (6,476 ft)). Cuba_sentence_422

The second-largest island is Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the Canarreos archipelago, with an area of 2,200 km (849 sq mi). Cuba_sentence_423

Cuba has an official area (land area) of 109,884 km (42,426 sq mi). Cuba_sentence_424

Its area is 110,860 km (42,803 sq mi) including coastal and territorial waters. Cuba_sentence_425

Climate Cuba_section_20

Main article: Climate of Cuba Cuba_sentence_426

With the entire island south of the Tropic of Cancer, the local climate is tropical, moderated by northeasterly trade winds that blow year-round. Cuba_sentence_427

The temperature is also shaped by the Caribbean current, which brings in warm water from the equator. Cuba_sentence_428

This makes the climate of Cuba warmer than that of Hong Kong, which is at around the same latitude as Cuba but has a subtropical rather than a tropical climate. Cuba_sentence_429

In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. Cuba_sentence_430

The average temperature is 21 °C (69.8 °F) in January and 27 °C (80.6 °F) in July. Cuba_sentence_431

The warm temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the fact that Cuba sits across the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico combine to make the country prone to frequent hurricanes. Cuba_sentence_432

These are most common in September and October. Cuba_sentence_433

Hurricane Irma hit the island on 8 September 2017, with winds of 260 kilometres per hour, at the Camagüey Archipelago; the storm reached Ciego de Avila province around midnight and continued to pound Cuba the next day. Cuba_sentence_434

The worst damage was in the keys north of the main island. Cuba_sentence_435

Hospitals, warehouses and factories were damaged; much of the north coast was without electricity. Cuba_sentence_436

By that time, nearly a million people, including tourists, had been evacuated. Cuba_sentence_437

The Varadero resort area also reported widespread damage; the government believed that repairs could be completed before the start of the main tourist season. Cuba_sentence_438

Subsequent reports indicated that ten people had been killed during the storm, including seven in Havana, most during building collapses. Cuba_sentence_439

Sections of the capital had been flooded. Cuba_sentence_440

Hurricane Jose was not expected to strike Cuba. Cuba_sentence_441

Biodiversity Cuba_section_21

Cuba signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 8 March 1994. Cuba_sentence_442

It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision, that the convention received on 24 January 2008. Cuba_sentence_443

The country's fourth national report to the CBD contains a detailed breakdown of the numbers of species of each kingdom of life recorded from Cuba, the main groups being: animals (17,801 species), bacteria (270), chromista (707), fungi, including lichen-forming species (5844), plants (9107) and protozoa (1440). Cuba_sentence_444

The bee hummingbird or zunzuncito is the world's smallest bird (2.2 - 2.4 in), and it is native to Cuba. Cuba_sentence_445

The tocororo or Cuban trogon is the national bird of Cuba. Cuba_sentence_446

It is endemic of this country. Cuba_sentence_447

Hedychium coronarium, named Mariposa in Cuba, is the national flower. Cuba_sentence_448

Demographics Cuba_section_22

Main articles: Cuban people and Demographics of Cuba Cuba_sentence_449

According to the official census of 2010, Cuba's population was 11,241,161, comprising 5,628,996 men and 5,612,165 women. Cuba_sentence_450

Its birth rate (9.88 births per thousand population in 2006) is one of the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Cuba_sentence_451

Although the country's population has grown by about four million people since 1961, the rate of growth slowed during that period, and the population began to decline in 2006, due to the country's low fertility rate (1.43 children per woman) coupled with emigration. Cuba_sentence_452

Indeed, this drop in fertility is among the largest in the Western Hemisphere and is attributed largely to unrestricted access to legal abortion: Cuba's abortion rate was 58.6 per 1000 pregnancies in 1996, compared to an average of 35 in the Caribbean, 27 in Latin America overall, and 48 in Europe. Cuba_sentence_453

Similarly, the use of contraceptives is also widespread, estimated at 79% of the female population (in the upper third of countries in the Western Hemisphere). Cuba_sentence_454

Ethnoracial groups Cuba_section_23

Cuba's population is multiethnic, reflecting its complex colonial origins. Cuba_sentence_455

Intermarriage between diverse groups is widespread, and consequently there is some discrepancy in reports of the country's racial composition: whereas the Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies at the University of Miami determined that 62% of Cubans are black, the 2002 Cuban census found that a similar proportion of the population, 65.05%, was white. Cuba_sentence_456

In fact, the Minority Rights Group International determined that "An objective assessment of the situation of Afro-Cubans remains problematic due to scant records and a paucity of systematic studies both pre- and post-revolution. Cuba_sentence_457

Estimates of the percentage of people of African descent in the Cuban population vary enormously, ranging from 34% to 62%". Cuba_sentence_458

A 2014 study found that, based on ancestry informative markers (AIM), autosomal genetic ancestry in Cuba is 72% European, 20% African, and 8% Indigenous. Cuba_sentence_459

Around 35% of maternal lineages derive from Cuban Indigenous People, compared to 39% from Africa and 26% from Europe, but male lineages were European (82%) and African (18%), indicating a historical bias towards mating between foreign men and native women rather than the inverse. Cuba_sentence_460

Asians make up about 1% of the population, and are largely of Chinese ancestry, followed by Japanese. Cuba_sentence_461

Many are descendants of farm laborers brought to the island by Spanish and American contractors during the 19th and early 20th century. Cuba_sentence_462

The current recorded number of Cubans with Chinese ancestry is 114,240. Cuba_sentence_463

Afro-Cubans are descended primarily from the Yoruba people, Bantu people from the Congo basin, Kalabari tribe and Arará from the Dahomey as well as several thousand North African refugees, most notably the Sahrawi Arabs of Western Sahara. Cuba_sentence_464

Migration Cuba_section_24

Immigration Cuba_section_25

Main articles: French immigration to Cuba and Spanish immigration to Cuba Cuba_sentence_465

Immigration and emigration have played a prominent part in Cuba's demographic profile. Cuba_sentence_466

Between the 18th and early 20th century, large waves of Canarian, Catalan, Andalusian, Galician, and other Spanish people immigrated to Cuba. Cuba_sentence_467

Between 1899–1930 alone, close to a million Spaniards entered the country, though many would eventually return to Spain. Cuba_sentence_468

Other prominent immigrant groups included French, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Greek, British, and Irish, as well as small number of descendants of U.S. citizens who arrived in Cuba in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Cuba_sentence_469

As of 2019, the foreign-born population in Cuba was 4,886 inhabitants in UN data. Cuba_sentence_470

* Cuba_sentence_471

Emigration Cuba_section_26

Main articles: Cuban exile and Cuban immigration to the United States Cuba_sentence_472

Post-revolution Cuba has been characterized by significant levels of emigration, which has led to a large and influential diaspora community. Cuba_sentence_473

During the three decades after January 1959, more than one million Cubans of all social classes — constituting 10% of the total population — emigrated to the United States, a proportion that matches the extent of emigration to the U.S. from the Caribbean as a whole during that period. Cuba_sentence_474

Prior to 13 January 2013, Cuban citizens could not travel abroad, leave or return to Cuba without first obtaining official permission along with applying for a government issued passport and travel visa, which was often denied. Cuba_sentence_475

Those who left the country typically did so by sea, in small boats and fragile rafts. Cuba_sentence_476

On 9 September 1994, the U.S. and Cuban governments agreed that the U.S. would grant at least 20,000 visas annually in exchange for Cuba's pledge to prevent further unlawful departures on boats. Cuba_sentence_477

As of 2013 the top emigration destinations were the United States, Spain, Italy, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. Cuba_sentence_478

Religion Cuba_section_27

Main article: Religion in Cuba Cuba_sentence_479

In 2010, the Pew Forum estimated that religious affiliation in Cuba is 59.2% Christian, 23% unaffiliated, 17.4% folk religion (such as santería), and the remaining 0.4% consisting of other religions. Cuba_sentence_480

Cuba is officially a secular state. Cuba_sentence_481

Religious freedom increased through the 1980s, with the government amending the constitution in 1992 to drop the state's characterization as atheistic. Cuba_sentence_482

Roman Catholicism is the largest religion, with its origins in Spanish colonization. Cuba_sentence_483

Despite less than half of the population identifying as Catholics in 2006, it nonetheless remains the dominant faith. Cuba_sentence_484

Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI visited Cuba in 1998 and 2011, respectively, and Pope Francis visited Cuba in September 2015. Cuba_sentence_485

Prior to each papal visit, the Cuban government pardoned prisoners as a humanitarian gesture. Cuba_sentence_486

The government's relaxation of restrictions on house churches in the 1990s led to an explosion of Pentecostalism, with some groups claiming as many as 100,000 members. Cuba_sentence_487

However, Evangelical Protestant denominations, organized into the umbrella Cuban Council of Churches, remain much more vibrant and powerful. Cuba_sentence_488

The religious landscape of Cuba is also strongly defined by syncretisms of various kinds. Cuba_sentence_489

Christianity is often practiced in tandem with Santería, a mixture of Catholicism and mostly African faiths, which include a number of cults. Cuba_sentence_490

La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre (the Virgin of Cobre) is the Catholic patroness of Cuba, and a symbol of Cuban culture. Cuba_sentence_491

In Santería, she has been syncretized with the goddess Oshun. Cuba_sentence_492

Cuba also hosts small communities of Jews (500 in 2012), Muslims, and members of the Baháʼí Faith. Cuba_sentence_493

Several well-known Cuban religious figures have operated outside the island, including the humanitarian and author Jorge Armando Pérez. Cuba_sentence_494

Languages Cuba_section_28

Main articles: Cuban Spanish and Lucumí language Cuba_sentence_495

The official language of Cuba is Spanish and the vast majority of Cubans speak it. Cuba_sentence_496

Spanish as spoken in Cuba is known as Cuban Spanish and is a form of Caribbean Spanish. Cuba_sentence_497

Lucumí, a dialect of the West African language Yoruba, is also used as a liturgical language by practitioners of Santería, and so only as a second language. Cuba_sentence_498

Haitian Creole is the second most spoken language in Cuba, and is spoken by Haitian immigrants and their descendants. Cuba_sentence_499

Other languages spoken by immigrants include Galician and Corsican. Cuba_sentence_500

Education Cuba_section_29

Main article: Education in Cuba Cuba_sentence_501

The University of Havana was founded in 1728 and there are a number of other well-established colleges and universities. Cuba_sentence_502

In 1957, just before Castro came to power, the literacy rate was fourth in the region at almost 80% according to the United Nations, higher than in Spain. Cuba_sentence_503

Castro created an entirely state-operated system and banned private institutions. Cuba_sentence_504

School attendance is compulsory from ages six to the end of basic secondary education (normally at age 15), and all students, regardless of age or gender, wear school uniforms with the color denoting grade level. Cuba_sentence_505

Primary education lasts for six years, secondary education is divided into basic and pre-university education. Cuba_sentence_506

Cuba's literacy rate of 99.8 percent is the tenth-highest globally, due largely to the provision of free education at every level. Cuba_sentence_507

Cuba's high school graduation rate is 94 percent. Cuba_sentence_508

Higher education is provided by universities, higher institutes, higher pedagogical institutes, and higher polytechnic institutes. Cuba_sentence_509

The Cuban Ministry of Higher Education operates a distance education program that provides regular afternoon and evening courses in rural areas for agricultural workers. Cuba_sentence_510

Education has a strong political and ideological emphasis, and students progressing to higher education are expected to have a commitment to the goals of Cuba. Cuba_sentence_511

Cuba has provided state subsidized education to a limited number of foreign nationals at the Latin American School of Medicine. Cuba_sentence_512

According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are Universidad de la Habana (1680th worldwide), Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría (2893rd) and the University of Santiago de Cuba (3831st). Cuba_sentence_513

Health Cuba_section_30

Main article: Healthcare in Cuba Cuba_sentence_514

Cuba's life expectancy at birth is 79.2 years (76.8 for males and 81.7 for females). Cuba_sentence_515

This ranks Cuba 59th in the world and 5th in the Americas, behind Canada, Chile, Costa Rica and the United States. Cuba_sentence_516

Infant mortality declined from 32 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 1957, to 10 in 1990–95, 6.1 in 2000–2005 and 5.13 in 2009. Cuba_sentence_517

Historically, Cuba has ranked high in numbers of medical personnel and has made significant contributions to world health since the 19th century. Cuba_sentence_518

Today, Cuba has universal health care and despite persistent shortages of medical supplies, there is no shortage of medical personnel. Cuba_sentence_519

Primary care is available throughout the island and infant and maternal mortality rates compare favorably with those in developed nations. Cuba_sentence_520

That a developing nation like Cuba has health outcomes rivaling the developed world is referred to by researchers as the Cuban Health Paradox. Cuba_sentence_521

Cuba ranks 30th on the 2019 Bloomberg Healthiest Country Index, which is the only developing country to rank that high. Cuba_sentence_522

Disease and infant mortality increased in the 1960s immediately after the revolution, when half of Cuba's 6,000 doctors left the country. Cuba_sentence_523

Recovery occurred by the 1980s, and the country's health care has been widely praised. Cuba_sentence_524

The Communist government asserted that universal health care was a priority of state planning and progress was made in rural areas. Cuba_sentence_525

Like the rest of the Cuban economy, medical care suffered from severe material shortages following the end of Soviet subsidies in 1991, and a tightening of the U.S. embargo in 1992. Cuba_sentence_526

Challenges include low salaries for doctors, poor facilities, poor provision of equipment, and the frequent absence of essential drugs. Cuba_sentence_527

Cuba has the highest doctor-to-population ratio in the world and has sent thousands of doctors to more than 40 countries around the world. Cuba_sentence_528

According to the World Health Organization, Cuba is "known the world over for its ability to train excellent doctors and nurses who can then go out to help other countries in need". Cuba_sentence_529

As of September 2014, there are around 50,000 Cuban-trained health care workers aiding 66 nations. Cuba_sentence_530

Cuban physicians have played a leading role in combating the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. Cuba_sentence_531

Import and export of pharmaceutical drugs is done by the Quimefa Pharmaceutical Business Group (FARMACUBA) under the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS). Cuba_sentence_532

This group also provides technical information for the production of these drugs. Cuba_sentence_533

Isolated from the West by the US embargo, Cuba developed the successful lung cancer vaccine, Cimavax, which is now available to US researchers for the first time, along with other novel Cuban cancer treatments. Cuba_sentence_534

The vaccine has been available for free to the Cuban population since 2011. Cuba_sentence_535

According to Roswell Park Cancer Institute CEO Candace Johnson: "They've had to do more with less, so they've had to be even more innovative with how they approach things. Cuba_sentence_536

For over 40 years, they have had a preeminent immunology community." Cuba_sentence_537

During the thaw in Cuba–U.S. Cuba_sentence_538 relations starting in December 2014 under the Obama administration, a growing number of U.S. lung cancer patients traveled to Cuba to receive vaccine treatment. Cuba_sentence_539

The end of the thaw under the Trump Administration has resulted in a tightening of travel restrictions, making it harder for U.S. citizens to travel to Cuba for treatment. Cuba_sentence_540

In 2015, Cuba became the first country to eradicate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis, a milestone hailed by the World Health Organization as "one of the greatest public health achievements possible". Cuba_sentence_541

Largest cities Cuba_section_31

See also: List of cities in Cuba Cuba_sentence_542

Media Cuba_section_32

Main article: Mass media in Cuba Cuba_sentence_543

The mass media in Cuba consist of several different types: television, radio, newspapers, and internet. Cuba_sentence_544

The Cuban media are tightly controlled by the Cuban government led by the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) in the past five decades. Cuba_sentence_545

The PCC strictly censors news, information and commentary, and restricts dissemination of foreign publications to tourist hotels. Cuba_sentence_546

Journalists must operate within the confines of laws against anti-government propaganda and the insulting of officials, which carry penalties of up to three years in prison. Cuba_sentence_547

Private ownership of broadcast media is prohibited, and the government owns all mainstream media outlets. Cuba_sentence_548

Internet in Cuba has some of the lowest penetration rates in the Western hemisphere, and all content is subject to review by the Department of Revolutionary Orientation. Cuba_sentence_549

ETECSA operates 118 cybercafes in the country. Cuba_sentence_550

The government of Cuba provides an online encyclopedia website called EcuRed that operates in a "wiki" format. Cuba_sentence_551

Internet access is limited. Cuba_sentence_552

The sale of computer equipment is strictly regulated. Cuba_sentence_553

Internet access is controlled, and e-mail is closely monitored. Cuba_sentence_554

Culture Cuba_section_33

Main article: Culture of Cuba Cuba_sentence_555

Cuban culture is influenced by its melting pot of cultures, primarily those of Spain and Africa. Cuba_sentence_556

After the 1959 revolution, the government started a national literacy campaign, offered free education to all and established rigorous sports, ballet, and music programs. Cuba_sentence_557

Music Cuba_section_34

Main article: Music of Cuba Cuba_sentence_558

Cuban music is very rich and is the most commonly known expression of Cuban culture. Cuba_sentence_559

The central form of this music is son, which has been the basis of many other musical styles like "Danzón de nuevo ritmo", mambo, cha-cha-chá and salsa music. Cuba_sentence_560

Rumba ("de cajón o de solar") music originated in the early Afro-Cuban culture, mixed with Hispanic elements of style. Cuba_sentence_561

The Tres was invented in Cuba from Hispanic cordophone instruments models (the instrument is actually a fusion of elements from the Spanish guitar and lute). Cuba_sentence_562

Other traditional Cuban instruments are of African origin, Taíno origin, or both, such as the maracas, güiro, marímbula and various wooden drums including the mayohuacán. Cuba_sentence_563

Popular Cuban music of all styles has been enjoyed and praised widely across the world. Cuba_sentence_564

Cuban classical music, which includes music with strong African and European influences, and features symphonic works as well as music for soloists, has received international acclaim thanks to composers like Ernesto Lecuona. Cuba_sentence_565

Havana was the heart of the rap scene in Cuba when it began in the 1990s. Cuba_sentence_566

During that time, reggaetón grew in popularity. Cuba_sentence_567

In 2011, the Cuban state denounced reggaeton as degenerate, directed reduced "low-profile" airplay of the genre (but did not ban it entirely) and banned the megahit Chupi Chupi by Osmani García, characterizing its description of sex as "the sort which a prostitute would carry out." Cuba_sentence_568

In December 2012, the Cuban government officially banned sexually explicit reggaeton songs and music videos from radio and television. Cuba_sentence_569

As well as pop, classical and rock are very popular in Cuba. Cuba_sentence_570

Cuisine Cuba_section_35

Main article: Cuban cuisine Cuba_sentence_571

Cuban cuisine is a fusion of Spanish and Caribbean cuisines. Cuba_sentence_572

Cuban recipes share spices and techniques with Spanish cooking, with some Caribbean influence in spice and flavor. Cuba_sentence_573

Food rationing, which has been the norm in Cuba for the last four decades, restricts the common availability of these dishes. Cuba_sentence_574

The traditional Cuban meal is not served in courses; all food items are served at the same time. Cuba_sentence_575

The typical meal could consist of plantains, black beans and rice, ropa vieja (shredded beef), Cuban bread, pork with onions, and tropical fruits. Cuba_sentence_576

Black beans and rice, referred to as moros y cristianos (or moros for short), and plantains are staples of the Cuban diet. Cuba_sentence_577

Many of the meat dishes are cooked slowly with light sauces. Cuba_sentence_578

Garlic, cumin, oregano, and bay leaves are the dominant spices. Cuba_sentence_579

Literature Cuba_section_36

Main article: Cuban literature Cuba_sentence_580

Cuban literature began to find its voice in the early 19th century. Cuba_sentence_581

Dominant themes of independence and freedom were exemplified by José Martí, who led the Modernist movement in Cuban literature. Cuba_sentence_582

Writers such as Nicolás Guillén and José Z. Tallet focused on literature as social protest. Cuba_sentence_583

The poetry and novels of Dulce María Loynaz and José Lezama Lima have been influential. Cuba_sentence_584

Romanticist Miguel Barnet, who wrote Everyone Dreamed of Cuba, reflects a more melancholy Cuba. Cuba_sentence_585

Alejo Carpentier was important in the Magic realism movement. Cuba_sentence_586

Writers such as Reinaldo Arenas, Guillermo Cabrera Infante, and more recently Daína Chaviano, Pedro Juan Gutiérrez, Zoé Valdés, Guillermo Rosales and Leonardo Padura have earned international recognition in the post-revolutionary era, though many of these writers have felt compelled to continue their work in exile due to ideological control of media by the Cuban authorities. Cuba_sentence_587

Dance Cuba_section_37

Dance holds a privileged position in Cuban culture. Cuba_sentence_588

Popular dance is considered an essential part of life, and concert dance is supported by the government and includes internationally renowned companies such as the Ballet Nacional de Cuba. Cuba_sentence_589

Sports Cuba_section_38

Main article: Sport in Cuba Cuba_sentence_590

Due to historical associations with the United States, many Cubans participate in sports that are popular in North America, rather than sports traditionally played in other Latin American nations. Cuba_sentence_591

Baseball is the most popular. Cuba_sentence_592

Other sports and pastimes include football, basketball, volleyball, cricket, and athletics. Cuba_sentence_593

Cuba is a dominant force in amateur boxing, consistently achieving high medal tallies in major international competitions. Cuba_sentence_594

Cuban boxers are not permitted to turn professional by their government. Cuba_sentence_595

However, many boxers defect to the U.S. and other countries. Cuba_sentence_596

Cuba also provides a national team that competes in the Olympic Games. Cuba_sentence_597

Jose R. Capablanca was a Cuban world chess champion from 1921 to 1927. Cuba_sentence_598

See also Cuba_section_39

Cuba_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuba.