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Not to be confused with Cypress. Cyprus_sentence_0

This article is about the country. Cyprus_sentence_1

For other uses, see Cyprus (disambiguation). Cyprus_sentence_2


Republic of CyprusCyprus_header_cell_0_0_0

and largest cityCyprus_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesCyprus_header_cell_0_2_0 Cyprus_cell_0_2_1
Minority languagesCyprus_header_cell_0_3_0 Cyprus_cell_0_3_1
VernacularsCyprus_header_cell_0_4_0 Cyprus_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groupsCyprus_header_cell_0_5_0 Cyprus_cell_0_5_1
ReligionCyprus_header_cell_0_6_0 Orthodox Christianity (~89.1% Church of Cyprus)Cyprus_cell_0_6_1
Demonym(s)Cyprus_header_cell_0_7_0 CypriotCyprus_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentCyprus_header_cell_0_8_0 Unitary presidential constitutional republicCyprus_cell_0_8_1
PresidentCyprus_header_cell_0_9_0 Nicos AnastasiadesCyprus_cell_0_9_1
Vice-PresidentCyprus_header_cell_0_10_0 VacantCyprus_cell_0_10_1
President of the House of RepresentativesCyprus_header_cell_0_11_0 Demetris SyllourisCyprus_cell_0_11_1
LegislatureCyprus_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesCyprus_cell_0_12_1
Independence from the United KingdomCyprus_header_cell_0_13_0
London-Zürich AgreementsCyprus_header_cell_0_14_0 19 February 1959Cyprus_cell_0_14_1
Independence proclaimedCyprus_header_cell_0_15_0 16 August 1960Cyprus_cell_0_15_1
Independence DayCyprus_header_cell_0_16_0 1 October 1960Cyprus_cell_0_16_1
Joined the EUCyprus_header_cell_0_17_0 1 May 2004Cyprus_cell_0_17_1
Area Cyprus_header_cell_0_18_0
TotalCyprus_header_cell_0_19_0 9,251 km (3,572 sq mi) (162nd)Cyprus_cell_0_19_1
Water (%)Cyprus_header_cell_0_20_0 9Cyprus_cell_0_20_1
2018 estimateCyprus_header_cell_0_22_0 1,189,265 (158th)Cyprus_cell_0_22_1
2011 censusCyprus_header_cell_0_23_0 838,897Cyprus_cell_0_23_1
DensityCyprus_header_cell_0_24_0 123.4/km (319.6/sq mi) (82nd)Cyprus_cell_0_24_1
GDP (PPP)Cyprus_header_cell_0_25_0 2019 estimateCyprus_cell_0_25_1
TotalCyprus_header_cell_0_26_0 $35.970 billion (126th)Cyprus_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaCyprus_header_cell_0_27_0 $41,572 (35th)Cyprus_cell_0_27_1
GDP (nominal)Cyprus_header_cell_0_28_0 2019 estimateCyprus_cell_0_28_1
TotalCyprus_header_cell_0_29_0 $24.996 billion (114th)Cyprus_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaCyprus_header_cell_0_30_0 $28,888 (33rd)Cyprus_cell_0_30_1
Gini (2018)Cyprus_header_cell_0_31_0 29.1


HDI (2018)Cyprus_header_cell_0_32_0 0.873

very high · 31stCyprus_cell_0_32_1

CurrencyCyprus_header_cell_0_33_0 Euro (EUR)Cyprus_cell_0_33_1
Time zoneCyprus_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC+2 (EET)Cyprus_cell_0_34_1
Summer (DST)Cyprus_header_cell_0_35_0 UTC+3 (EEST)Cyprus_cell_0_35_1
Driving sideCyprus_header_cell_0_36_0 leftCyprus_cell_0_36_1
Calling codeCyprus_header_cell_0_37_0 +357Cyprus_cell_0_37_1
ISO 3166 codeCyprus_header_cell_0_38_0 CYCyprus_cell_0_38_1
Internet TLDCyprus_header_cell_0_39_0 .cyCyprus_cell_0_39_1

Cyprus (/ˈsaɪprəs/ (listen)), officially called the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean. Cyprus_sentence_3

It is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is located north of Egypt; northwest of Lebanon, Palestine, and Israel; west of Syria; southeast of Greece; and south of Turkey. Cyprus_sentence_4

The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Cyprus_sentence_5

Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus_sentence_6

Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. Cyprus_sentence_7

As a strategic location in the Eastern Mediterranean, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Cyprus_sentence_8

Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878 (de jure until 1914). Cyprus_sentence_9

Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by the UK in 1914. Cyprus_sentence_10

While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Cyprus_sentence_11

Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them; while, since the 19th century, the majority Greek Cypriot population and its Orthodox church had been pursuing union with Greece, which became a Greek national policy in the 1950s. Cyprus_sentence_12

Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960. Cyprus_sentence_13

The crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. Cyprus_sentence_14

On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece. Cyprus_sentence_15

This action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, and the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots. Cyprus_sentence_16

A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983; the move was widely condemned by the international community, with Turkey alone recognising the new state. Cyprus_sentence_17

These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute. Cyprus_sentence_18

The Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. Cyprus_sentence_19

However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west and comprising about 59% of the island's area, and the north, administered by the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, covering about 36% of the island's area. Cyprus_sentence_20

Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone. Cyprus_sentence_21

The international community considers the northern part of the island to be territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. Cyprus_sentence_22

The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law and amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union. Cyprus_sentence_23

Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. Cyprus_sentence_24

With an advanced, high-income economy and a very high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. Cyprus_sentence_25

On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone. Cyprus_sentence_26

Etymology Cyprus_section_0

The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek 𐀓𐀠𐀪𐀍, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot" (Greek: Κύπριος), written in Linear B syllabic script. Cyprus_sentence_27

The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος (Kýpros). Cyprus_sentence_28

The etymology of the name is unknown. Cyprus_sentence_29

Suggestions include: Cyprus_sentence_30


Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum. Cyprus_sentence_31

The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. Cyprus_sentence_32

The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are also used, though less frequently. Cyprus_sentence_33

The state's official name in Greek literally translates to "Cypriot Republic" in English, but this translation is not used officially; "Republic of Cyprus" is used instead. Cyprus_sentence_34

History Cyprus_section_1

Main articles: History of Cyprus and Timeline of Cypriot history Cyprus_sentence_35

Prehistoric and Ancient Cyprus Cyprus_section_2

Main articles: Prehistoric Cyprus and Ancient history of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_36

The earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. Cyprus_sentence_37

The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Cyprus_sentence_38

Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Cyprus_sentence_39

Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_40

The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old (7500 BC), predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the earliest known feline-human association significantly. Cyprus_sentence_41

The remarkably well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site dating to approximately 6800 BC. Cyprus_sentence_42

During the late Bronze Age the island experienced two waves of Greek settlement. Cyprus_sentence_43

The first wave consisted of Mycenaean Greek traders who started visiting Cyprus around 1400 BC. Cyprus_sentence_44

A major wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place following the Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece from 1100 to 1050 BC, with the island's predominantly Greek character dating from this period. Cyprus_sentence_45

The first recorded name of a Cypriote king is "Kushmeshusha" as appears on letters sent to Ugarit in the 13th c. BCE. Cyprus_sentence_46

Cyprus occupies an important role in Greek mythology being the birthplace of Aphrodite and Adonis, and home to King Cinyras, Teucer and Pygmalion. Cyprus_sentence_47

Literary evidence suggests an early Phoenician presence at Kition which was under Tyrian rule at the beginning of the 10th century BC. Cyprus_sentence_48

Some Phoenician merchants who were believed to come from Tyre colonised the area and expanded the political influence of Kition. Cyprus_sentence_49

After c. 850 BC the sanctuaries [at the Kathari site] were rebuilt and reused by the Phoenicians." Cyprus_sentence_50

Cyprus is at a strategic location in the Middle East. Cyprus_sentence_51

It was ruled by Assyria for a century starting in 708 BC, before a brief spell under Egyptian rule and eventually Persian rule in 545 BC. Cyprus_sentence_52

The Cypriots, led by Onesilus, king of Salamis, joined their fellow Greeks in the Ionian cities during the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt in 499 BC against the Achaemenid Empire. Cyprus_sentence_53

The revolt was suppressed, but Cyprus managed to maintain a high degree of autonomy and remained inclined towards the Greek world. Cyprus_sentence_54

The island was conquered by Alexander the Great in 333 BC. Cyprus_sentence_55

Following his death and the subsequent division of his empire and wars among his successors, Cyprus became part of the Hellenistic empire of Ptolemaic Egypt. Cyprus_sentence_56

It was during this period that the island was fully Hellenized. Cyprus_sentence_57

In 58 BC Cyprus was acquired by the Roman Republic. Cyprus_sentence_58

Middle Ages Cyprus_section_3

Main articles: Cyprus in the Middle Ages and Kingdom of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_59

When the Roman Empire was divided into Eastern and Western parts in 395, Cyprus became part of the East Roman, or Byzantine Empire, and would remain so until the Crusades some 800 years later. Cyprus_sentence_60

Under Byzantine rule, the Greek orientation that had been prominent since antiquity developed the strong Hellenistic-Christian character that continues to be a hallmark of the Greek Cypriot community. Cyprus_sentence_61

Beginning in 649, Cyprus endured several attacks launched by raiders from the Levant, which continued for the next 300 years. Cyprus_sentence_62

Many were quick piratical raids, but others were large-scale attacks in which many Cypriots were slaughtered and great wealth carried off or destroyed. Cyprus_sentence_63

There are no Byzantine churches which survive from this period; thousands of people were killed, and many cities – such as Salamis – were destroyed and never rebuilt. Cyprus_sentence_64

Byzantine rule was restored in 965, when Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas scored decisive victories on land and sea. Cyprus_sentence_65

In 1191, during the Third Crusade, Richard I of England captured the island from Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus He used it as a major supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens. Cyprus_sentence_66

A year later Richard sold the island to the Knights Templar, who, following a bloody revolt, in turn sold it to Guy of Lusignan. Cyprus_sentence_67

His brother and successor Aimery was recognised as King of Cyprus by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. Cyprus_sentence_68

Following the death in 1473 of James II, the last Lusignan king, the Republic of Venice assumed control of the island, while the late king's Venetian widow, Queen Catherine Cornaro, reigned as figurehead. Cyprus_sentence_69

Venice formally annexed the Kingdom of Cyprus in 1489, following the abdication of Catherine. Cyprus_sentence_70

The Venetians fortified Nicosia by building the Walls of Nicosia, and used it as an important commercial hub. Cyprus_sentence_71

Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire frequently raided Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_72

In 1539 the Ottomans destroyed Limassol and so fearing the worst, the Venetians also fortified Famagusta and Kyrenia. Cyprus_sentence_73

Although the Lusignan French aristocracy remained the dominant social class in Cyprus throughout the medieval period, the former assumption that Greeks were treated only as serfs on the island is no longer considered by academics to be accurate. Cyprus_sentence_74

It is now accepted that the medieval period saw increasing numbers of Greek Cypriots elevated to the upper classes, a growing Greek middle ranks, and the Lusignan royal household even marrying Greeks. Cyprus_sentence_75

This included King John II of Cyprus who married Helena Palaiologina. Cyprus_sentence_76

Cyprus under the Ottoman Empire Cyprus_section_4

Main article: Ottoman Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_77

In 1570, a full-scale Ottoman assault with 60,000 troops brought the island under Ottoman control, despite stiff resistance by the inhabitants of Nicosia and Famagusta. Cyprus_sentence_78

Ottoman forces capturing Cyprus massacred many Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants. Cyprus_sentence_79

The previous Latin elite were destroyed and the first significant demographic change since antiquity took place with the formation of a Muslim community. Cyprus_sentence_80

Soldiers who fought in the conquest settled on the island and Turkish peasants and craftsmen were brought to the island from Anatolia. Cyprus_sentence_81

This new community also included banished Anatolian tribes, "undesirable" persons and members of various "troublesome" Muslim sects, as well as a number of new converts on the island. Cyprus_sentence_82

The Ottomans abolished the feudal system previously in place and applied the millet system to Cyprus, under which non-Muslim peoples were governed by their own religious authorities. Cyprus_sentence_83

In a reversal from the days of Latin rule, the head of the Church of Cyprus was invested as leader of the Greek Cypriot population and acted as mediator between Christian Greek Cypriots and the Ottoman authorities. Cyprus_sentence_84

This status ensured that the Church of Cyprus was in a position to end the constant encroachments of the Roman Catholic Church. Cyprus_sentence_85

Ottoman rule of Cyprus was at times indifferent, at times oppressive, depending on the temperaments of the sultans and local officials, and the island began over 250 years of economic decline. Cyprus_sentence_86

The ratio of Muslims to Christians fluctuated throughout the period of Ottoman domination. Cyprus_sentence_87

In 1777–78, 47,000 Muslims constituted a majority over the island's 37,000 Christians. Cyprus_sentence_88

By 1872, the population of the island had risen to 144,000, comprising 44,000 Muslims and 100,000 Christians. Cyprus_sentence_89

The Muslim population included numerous crypto-Christians, including the Linobambaki, a crypto-Catholic community that arose due to religious persecution of the Catholic community by the Ottoman authorities; this community would assimilate into the Turkish Cypriot community during British rule. Cyprus_sentence_90

As soon as the Greek War of Independence broke out in 1821, several Greek Cypriots left for Greece to join the Greek forces. Cyprus_sentence_91

In response, the Ottoman governor of Cyprus arrested and executed 486 prominent Greek Cypriots, including the Archbishop of Cyprus, Kyprianos, and four other bishops. Cyprus_sentence_92

In 1828, modern Greece's first president Ioannis Kapodistrias called for union of Cyprus with Greece, and numerous minor uprisings took place. Cyprus_sentence_93

Reaction to Ottoman misrule led to uprisings by both Greek and Turkish Cypriots, although none were successful. Cyprus_sentence_94

After centuries of neglect by the Turks, the unrelenting poverty of most of the people, and the ever-present tax collectors fuelled Greek nationalism, and by the 20th century idea of enosis, or union, with newly independent Greece was firmly rooted among Greek Cypriots. Cyprus_sentence_95

Under the Ottoman rule, numeracy, school enrolment and literacy rates were all low. Cyprus_sentence_96

They persisted sometime after Ottoman rule ended and then increased rapidly during the twentieth century. Cyprus_sentence_97

Cyprus under the British Empire Cyprus_section_5

Main articles: British Cyprus, Modern history of Cyprus, and Cyprus Emergency Cyprus_sentence_98

In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) and the Congress of Berlin, Cyprus was leased to the British Empire which de facto took over its administration in 1878 (though, in terms of sovereignty, Cyprus remained a de jure Ottoman territory until 5 November 1914, together with Egypt and Sudan) in exchange for guarantees that Britain would use the island as a base to protect the Ottoman Empire against possible Russian aggression. Cyprus_sentence_99

The island would serve Britain as a key military base for its colonial routes. Cyprus_sentence_100

By 1906, when the Famagusta harbour was completed, Cyprus was a strategic naval outpost overlooking the Suez Canal, the crucial main route to India which was then Britain's most important overseas possession. Cyprus_sentence_101

Following the outbreak of the First World War and the decision of the Ottoman Empire to join the war on the side of the Central Powers, on 5 November 1914 the British Empire formally annexed Cyprus and declared the Ottoman Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan a Sultanate and British protectorate. Cyprus_sentence_102

In 1915, Britain offered Cyprus to Greece, ruled by King Constantine I of Greece, on condition that Greece join the war on the side of the British. Cyprus_sentence_103

The offer was declined. Cyprus_sentence_104

In 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne, the nascent Turkish republic relinquished any claim to Cyprus, and in 1925 it was declared a British crown colony. Cyprus_sentence_105

Many Greek and Turkish Cypriots fought in the British Army during both world wars. Cyprus_sentence_106

During the Second World War, many enlisted in the Cyprus Regiment. Cyprus_sentence_107

The Greek Cypriot population, meanwhile, had become hopeful that the British administration would lead to enosis. Cyprus_sentence_108

The idea of enosis was historically part of the Megali Idea, a greater political ambition of a Greek state encompassing the territories with Greek inhabitants in the former Ottoman Empire, including Cyprus and Asia Minor with a capital in Constantinople, and was actively pursued by the Cypriot Orthodox Church, which had its members educated in Greece. Cyprus_sentence_109

These religious officials, together with Greek military officers and professionals, some of whom still pursued the Megali Idea, would later found the guerrilla organisation Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston or National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA). Cyprus_sentence_110

The Greek Cypriots viewed the island as historically Greek and believed that union with Greece was a natural right. Cyprus_sentence_111

In the 1950s, the pursuit of enosis became a part of the Greek national policy. Cyprus_sentence_112

Initially, the Turkish Cypriots favoured the continuation of the British rule. Cyprus_sentence_113

However, they were alarmed by the Greek Cypriot calls for enosis as they saw the union of Crete with Greece, which led to the exodus of Cretan Turks, as a precedent to be avoided, and they took a pro-partition stance in response to the militant activity of EOKA. Cyprus_sentence_114

The Turkish Cypriots also viewed themselves as a distinct ethnic group of the island and believed in their having a separate right to self-determination from Greek Cypriots. Cyprus_sentence_115

Meanwhile, in the 1950s, Turkish leader Menderes considered Cyprus an "extension of Anatolia", rejected the partition of Cyprus along ethnic lines and favoured the annexation of the whole island to Turkey. Cyprus_sentence_116

Nationalistic slogans centred on the idea that "Cyprus is Turkish" and the ruling party declared Cyprus to be a part of the Turkish homeland that was vital to its security. Cyprus_sentence_117

Upon realising the fact that the Turkish Cypriot population was only 20% of the islanders made annexation unfeasible, the national policy was changed to favour partition. Cyprus_sentence_118

The slogan "Partition or Death" was frequently used in Turkish Cypriot and Turkish protests starting in the late 1950s and continuing throughout the 1960s. Cyprus_sentence_119

Although after the Zürich and London conferences Turkey seemed to accept the existence of the Cypriot state and to distance itself from its policy of favouring the partition of the island, the goal of the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot leaders remained that of creating an independent Turkish state in the northern part of the island. Cyprus_sentence_120

In January 1950, the Church of Cyprus organised a referendum under the supervision of clerics and with no Turkish Cypriot participation, where 96% of the participating Greek Cypriots voted in favour of enosis, The Greeks were 80.2% of the total island' s population at the time (census 1946). Cyprus_sentence_121

Restricted autonomy under a constitution was proposed by the British administration but eventually rejected. Cyprus_sentence_122

In 1955 the EOKA organisation was founded, seeking union with Greece through armed struggle. Cyprus_sentence_123

At the same time the Turkish Resistance Organisation (TMT), calling for Taksim, or partition, was established by the Turkish Cypriots as a counterweight. Cyprus_sentence_124

British officials also tolerated the creation of the Turkish underground organisation T.M.T. Cyprus_sentence_125

The Secretary of State for the Colonies in a letter dated 15 July 1958 had advised the Governor of Cyprus not to act against T.M.T despite its illegal actions so as not to harm British relations with the Turkish government. Cyprus_sentence_126

Independence and inter-communal violence Cyprus_section_6

Main article: Cyprus crisis of 1963–64 Cyprus_sentence_127

On 16 August 1960, Cyprus attained independence after the Zürich and London Agreement between the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey. Cyprus_sentence_128

Cyprus had a total population of 573,566; of whom 442,138 (77.1%) were Greeks, 104,320 (18.2%) Turks, and 27,108 (4.7%) others. Cyprus_sentence_129

The UK retained the two Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, while government posts and public offices were allocated by ethnic quotas, giving the minority Turkish Cypriots a permanent veto, 30% in parliament and administration, and granting the three mother-states guarantor rights. Cyprus_sentence_130

However, the division of power as foreseen by the constitution soon resulted in legal impasses and discontent on both sides, and nationalist militants started training again, with the military support of Greece and Turkey respectively. Cyprus_sentence_131

The Greek Cypriot leadership believed that the rights given to Turkish Cypriots under the 1960 constitution were too extensive and designed the Akritas plan, which was aimed at reforming the constitution in favour of Greek Cypriots, persuading the international community about the correctness of the changes and violently subjugating Turkish Cypriots in a few days should they not accept the plan. Cyprus_sentence_132

Tensions were heightened when Cypriot President Archbishop Makarios III called for constitutional changes, which were rejected by Turkey and opposed by Turkish Cypriots. Cyprus_sentence_133

Intercommunal violence erupted on 21 December 1963, when two Turkish Cypriots were killed at an incident involving the Greek Cypriot police. Cyprus_sentence_134

The violence resulted in the death of 364 Turkish and 174 Greek Cypriots, destruction of 109 Turkish Cypriot or mixed villages and displacement of 25,000–30,000 Turkish Cypriots. Cyprus_sentence_135

The crisis resulted in the end of the Turkish Cypriot involvement in the administration and their claiming that it had lost its legitimacy; the nature of this event is still controversial. Cyprus_sentence_136

In some areas, Greek Cypriots prevented Turkish Cypriots from travelling and entering government buildings, while some Turkish Cypriots willingly withdrew due to the calls of the Turkish Cypriot administration. Cyprus_sentence_137

Turkish Cypriots started living in enclaves. Cyprus_sentence_138

The republic's structure was changed, unilaterally, by Makarios when Nicosia was divided by the Green Line, with the deployment of UNFICYP troops. Cyprus_sentence_139

In 1964, Turkey threatened to invade Cyprus in response to the continuing Cypriot intercommunal violence, but this was stopped by a strongly worded telegram from the US President Lyndon B. Johnson on 5 June, warning that the US would not stand beside Turkey in case of a consequential Soviet invasion of Turkish territory. Cyprus_sentence_140

Meanwhile, by 1964, enosis was a Greek policy that could not be abandoned; Makarios and the Greek prime minister Georgios Papandreou agreed that enosis should be the ultimate aim and King Constantine wished Cyprus "a speedy union with the mother country". Cyprus_sentence_141

Greece dispatched 10,000 troops to Cyprus to counter a possible Turkish invasion. Cyprus_sentence_142

1974 coup, Turkish invasion, and division Cyprus_section_7

Main articles: 1974 Cypriot coup d'état and Turkish invasion of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_143

On 15 July 1974, the Greek military junta under Dimitrios Ioannides carried out a coup d'état in Cyprus, to unite the island with Greece. Cyprus_sentence_144

The coup ousted president Makarios III and replaced him with pro-enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson. Cyprus_sentence_145

In response to the coup, five days later, on 20 July 1974, the Turkish army invaded the island, citing a right to intervene to restore the constitutional order from the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee. Cyprus_sentence_146

This justification has been rejected by the United Nations and the international community. Cyprus_sentence_147

The Turkish air force began bombing Greek positions in Cyprus, and hundreds of paratroopers were dropped in the area between Nicosia and Kyrenia, where well-armed Turkish Cypriot enclaves had been long-established; while off the Kyrenia coast, Turkish troop ships landed 6,000 men as well as tanks, trucks and armoured vehicles. Cyprus_sentence_148

Three days later, when a ceasefire had been agreed, Turkey had landed 30,000 troops on the island and captured Kyrenia, the corridor linking Kyrenia to Nicosia, and the Turkish Cypriot quarter of Nicosia itself. Cyprus_sentence_149

The junta in Athens, and then the Sampson regime in Cyprus fell from power. Cyprus_sentence_150

In Nicosia, Glafkos Clerides assumed the presidency and constitutional order was restored, removing the pretext for the Turkish invasion. Cyprus_sentence_151

But after the peace negotiations in Geneva, the Turkish government reinforced their Kyrenia bridgehead and started a second invasion on 14 August. Cyprus_sentence_152

The invasion resulted in the seizure of Morphou, Karpass, Famagusta and the Mesaoria. Cyprus_sentence_153

International pressure led to a ceasefire, and by then 36% of the island had been taken over by the Turks and 180,000 Greek Cypriots had been evicted from their homes in the north. Cyprus_sentence_154

At the same time, around 50,000 Turkish Cypriots were displaced to the north and settled in the properties of the displaced Greek Cypriots. Cyprus_sentence_155

Among a variety of sanctions against Turkey, in mid-1975 the US Congress imposed an arms embargo on Turkey for using US-supplied equipment during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. Cyprus_sentence_156

There were 1,534 Greek Cypriots and 502 Turkish Cypriots missing as a result of the fighting. Cyprus_sentence_157

Post-division Cyprus_section_8

After the restoration of constitutional order and the return of Archbishop Makarios III to Cyprus in December 1974, Turkish troops remained, occupying the northeastern portion of the island. Cyprus_sentence_158

In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot leader proclaimed the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which is recognised only by Turkey. Cyprus_sentence_159

The events of the summer of 1974 dominate the politics on the island, as well as Greco-Turkish relations. Cyprus_sentence_160

Around 150,000 settlers from Turkey are believed to be living in the north—many of whom were forced from Turkey by the Turkish government—in violation of the Geneva Convention and various UN resolutions. Cyprus_sentence_161

The Turkish invasion, the ensuing occupation and the declaration of independence by the TRNC have been condemned by United Nations resolutions, which are reaffirmed by the Security Council every year. Cyprus_sentence_162

The last major effort to settle the Cyprus dispute was the Annan Plan in 2004, drafted by the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan. Cyprus_sentence_163

The plan was put to a referendum in both Northern Cyprus and the Cypriot Republic. Cyprus_sentence_164

65% of Turkish Cypriots voted in support of the plan and 74% Greek Cypriots voted against the plan, claiming that it disproportionately favoured the Turkish side. Cyprus_sentence_165

In total, 66.7% of the voters rejected the Annan Plan. Cyprus_sentence_166

On 1 May 2004 Cyprus joined the European Union, together with nine other countries. Cyprus_sentence_167

Cyprus was accepted into the EU as a whole, although the EU legislation is suspended in Northern Cyprus until a final settlement of the Cyprus problem. Cyprus_sentence_168

In July 2006, the island served as a haven for people fleeing Lebanon, due to the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah (also called "The July War"). Cyprus_sentence_169

Efforts have been made to enhance freedom of movement between the two sides. Cyprus_sentence_170

In April 2003, Northern Cyprus unilaterally eased border restrictions, permitting Cypriots to cross between the two sides for the first time in 30 years. Cyprus_sentence_171

In March 2008, a wall that had stood for decades at the boundary between the Republic of Cyprus and the UN buffer zone was demolished. Cyprus_sentence_172

The wall had cut across Ledra Street in the heart of Nicosia and was seen as a strong symbol of the island's 32-year division. Cyprus_sentence_173

On 3 April 2008, Ledra Street was reopened in the presence of Greek and Turkish Cypriot officials. Cyprus_sentence_174

North and South relaunched reunification talks on 15 May 2015. Cyprus_sentence_175

The European Union issued a warning in February 2019 that Cyprus, an EU member, was selling EU passports to Russian oligarchs, saying it would allow organised crime syndicates to infiltrate the EU. Cyprus_sentence_176

In 2020 leaked documents revealed a wider range of former and current officials from Afghanistan, China, Dubai, Lebanon, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine and Vietnam who bought a Cypriot citizenship prior to a change of the law in July 2019. Cyprus_sentence_177

Cyprus and Turkey have been engaged in a dispute over the extent of their exclusive economic zones, ostensibly sparked by oil and gas exploration in the area. Cyprus_sentence_178

Geography Cyprus_section_9

Main article: Geography of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_179

Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia (both in terms of area and population). Cyprus_sentence_180

It is also the world's 80th largest by area and world's 51st largest by population. Cyprus_sentence_181

It measures 240 kilometres (149 mi) long from end to end and 100 kilometres (62 mi) wide at its widest point, with Turkey 75 kilometres (47 mi) to the north. Cyprus_sentence_182

It lies between latitudes 34° and 36° N, and longitudes 32° and 35° E. Cyprus_sentence_183

Other neighbouring territories include Syria and Lebanon to the east (105 and 108 kilometres (65 and 67 mi), respectively), Israel 200 kilometres (124 mi) to the southeast, Egypt 380 kilometres (236 mi) to the south, and Greece to the northwest: 280 kilometres (174 mi) to the small Dodecanesian island of Kastellorizo (Megisti), 400 kilometres (249 mi) to Rhodes and 800 kilometres (497 mi) to the Greek mainland. Cyprus_sentence_184

Sources alternatively place Cyprus in Europe, or Western Asia and the Middle East. Cyprus_sentence_185

The physical relief of the island is dominated by two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the smaller Kyrenia Range, and the central plain they encompass, the Mesaoria. Cyprus_sentence_186

The Mesaoria plain is drained by the Pedieos River, the longest on the island. Cyprus_sentence_187

The Troodos Mountains cover most of the southern and western portions of the island and account for roughly half its area. Cyprus_sentence_188

The highest point on Cyprus is Mount Olympus at 1,952 m (6,404 ft), located in the centre of the Troodos range. Cyprus_sentence_189

The narrow Kyrenia Range, extending along the northern coastline, occupies substantially less area, and elevations are lower, reaching a maximum of 1,024 m (3,360 ft). Cyprus_sentence_190

The island lies within the Anatolian Plate. Cyprus_sentence_191

Geopolitically, the island is subdivided into four main segments. Cyprus_sentence_192

The Republic of Cyprus occupies the southern two-thirds of the island (59.74%). Cyprus_sentence_193

The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus occupies the northern third (34.85%), and the United Nations-controlled Green Line provides a buffer zone that separates the two and covers 2.67% of the island. Cyprus_sentence_194

Lastly, two bases under British sovereignty are located on the island: Akrotiri and Dhekelia, covering the remaining 2.74%. Cyprus_sentence_195

Climate Cyprus_section_10

Main article: Climate of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_196

Cyprus has a subtropical climateMediterranean and semi-arid type (in the north-eastern part of the island) – Köppen climate classifications Csa and BSh, with very mild winters (on the coast) and warm to hot summers. Cyprus_sentence_197

Snow is possible only in the Troodos Mountains in the central part of island. Cyprus_sentence_198

Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. Cyprus_sentence_199

Cyprus has one of the warmest climates in the Mediterranean part of the European Union. Cyprus_sentence_200

The average annual temperature on the coast is around 24 °C (75 °F) during the day and 14 °C (57 °F) at night. Cyprus_sentence_201

Generally, summers last about eight months, beginning in April with average temperatures of 21–23 °C (70–73 °F) during the day and 11–13 °C (52–55 °F) at night, and ending in November with average temperatures of 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) during the day and 12–14 °C (54–57 °F) at night, although in the remaining four months temperatures sometimes exceed 20 °C (68 °F). Cyprus_sentence_202

Among all cities in the Mediterranean part of the European Union, Limassol has one of the warmest winters, in the period January – February average temperature is 17–18 °C (63–64 °F) during the day and 7–8 °C (45–46 °F) at night, in other coastal locations in Cyprus is generally 16–17 °C (61–63 °F) during the day and 6–8 °C (43–46 °F) at night. Cyprus_sentence_203

During March, Limassol has average temperatures of 19–20 °C (66–68 °F) during the day and 9–11 °C (48–52 °F) at night, in other coastal locations in Cyprus is generally 17–19 °C (63–66 °F) during the day and 8–10 °C (46–50 °F) at night. Cyprus_sentence_204

The middle of summer is hot – in July and August on the coast the average temperature is usually around 33 °C (91 °F) during the day and around 22 °C (72 °F) at night (inland, in the highlands average temperature exceeds 35 °C (95 °F)) while in the June and September on the coast the average temperature is usually around 30 °C (86 °F) during the day and around 20 °C (68 °F) at night in Limassol, while is usually around 28 °C (82 °F) during the day and around 18 °C (64 °F) at night in Paphos. Cyprus_sentence_205

Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. Cyprus_sentence_206

Inland temperatures are more extreme, with colder winters and hotter summers compared with the coast of the island. Cyprus_sentence_207

Average annual temperature of sea is 21–22 °C (70–72 °F), from 17 °C (63 °F) in February to 27–28 °C (81–82 °F) in August (depending on the location). Cyprus_sentence_208

In total 7 months – from May to November – the average sea temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F). Cyprus_sentence_209

Sunshine hours on the coast are around 3,200 per year, from an average of 5–6 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12–13 hours in July. Cyprus_sentence_210

This is about double that of cities in the northern half of Europe; for comparison, London receives about 1,540 per year. Cyprus_sentence_211

In December, London receives about 50 hours of sunshine while coastal locations in Cyprus about 180 hours (almost as much as in May in London). Cyprus_sentence_212

Water supply Cyprus_section_11

Cyprus suffers from a chronic shortage of water. Cyprus_sentence_213

The country relies heavily on rain to provide household water, but in the past 30 years average yearly precipitation has decreased. Cyprus_sentence_214

Between 2001 and 2004, exceptionally heavy annual rainfall pushed water reserves up, with supply exceeding demand, allowing total storage in the island's reservoirs to rise to an all-time high by the start of 2005. Cyprus_sentence_215

However, since then demand has increased annually – a result of local population growth, foreigners moving to Cyprus and the number of visiting tourists – while supply has fallen as a result of more frequent droughts. Cyprus_sentence_216

Dams remain the principal source of water both for domestic and agricultural use; Cyprus has a total of 107 dams (plus one currently under construction) and reservoirs, with a total water storage capacity of about 330,000,000 m (1.2×10 cu ft). Cyprus_sentence_217

Water desalination plants are gradually being constructed to deal with recent years of prolonged drought. Cyprus_sentence_218

The Government has invested heavily in the creation of water desalination plants which have supplied almost 50 per cent of domestic water since 2001. Cyprus_sentence_219

Efforts have also been made to raise public awareness of the situation and to encourage domestic water users to take more responsibility for the conservation of this increasingly scarce commodity. Cyprus_sentence_220

Turkey has built a water pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea from Anamur on its southern coast to the northern coast of Cyprus, to supply Northern Cyprus with potable and irrigation water (see Northern Cyprus Water Supply Project). Cyprus_sentence_221

Politics Cyprus_section_12

Main articles: Politics of Cyprus and House of Representatives (Cyprus) Cyprus_sentence_222

Cyprus is a presidential republic. Cyprus_sentence_223

The head of state and of the government is elected by a process of universal suffrage for a five-year term. Cyprus_sentence_224

Executive power is exercised by the government with legislative power vested in the House of Representatives whilst the Judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature. Cyprus_sentence_225

The 1960 Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive, legislative and judicial branches as well as a complex system of checks and balances including a weighted power-sharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots. Cyprus_sentence_226

The executive was led by a Greek Cypriot president and a Turkish Cypriot vice-president elected by their respective communities for five-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions. Cyprus_sentence_227

Legislative power rested on the House of Representatives who were also elected on the basis of separate voters' rolls. Cyprus_sentence_228

Since 1965, following clashes between the two communities, the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remain vacant. Cyprus_sentence_229

In 1974 Cyprus was divided de facto when the Turkish army occupied the northern third of the island. Cyprus_sentence_230

The Turkish Cypriots subsequently declared independence in 1983 as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but were recognised only by Turkey. Cyprus_sentence_231

In 1985 the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections. Cyprus_sentence_232

The United Nations recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the entire island of Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_233

The House of Representatives currently has 59 members elected for a five-year term, 56 members by proportional representation and 3 observer members representing the Armenian, Latin and Maronite minorities. Cyprus_sentence_234

24 seats are allocated to the Turkish community but remain vacant since 1964. Cyprus_sentence_235

The political environment is dominated by the communist AKEL, the liberal conservative Democratic Rally, the centrist Democratic Party, the social-democratic EDEK and the centrist EURO.KO. Cyprus_sentence_236

In 2008, Dimitris Christofias became the country's first Communist head of state. Cyprus_sentence_237

Due to his involvement in the 2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis, Christofias did not run for re-election in 2013. Cyprus_sentence_238

The Presidential election in 2013 resulted in Democratic Rally candidate Nicos Anastasiades winning 57.48% of the vote. Cyprus_sentence_239

As a result, Anastasiades was sworn in on and has been president since 28 February 2013. Cyprus_sentence_240

Anastasiades was re-elected with 56% of the vote in the 2018 presidential election. Cyprus_sentence_241

Administrative divisions Cyprus_section_13

Main articles: Districts of Cyprus and List of cities, towns and villages in Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_242

The Republic of Cyprus is divided into six districts: Nicosia, Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol and Paphos. Cyprus_sentence_243

Exclaves and enclaves Cyprus_section_14

Cyprus has four exclaves, all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia. Cyprus_sentence_244

The first two are the villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou. Cyprus_sentence_245

The third is the Dhekelia Power Station, which is divided by a British road into two parts. Cyprus_sentence_246

The northern part is the EAC refugee settlement. Cyprus_sentence_247

The southern part, even though located by the sea, is also an exclave because it has no territorial waters of its own, those being UK waters. Cyprus_sentence_248

The UN buffer zone runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side off Ayios Nikolaos and is connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor. Cyprus_sentence_249

In that sense the buffer zone turns the Paralimni area on the southeast corner of the island into a de facto, though not de jure, exclave. Cyprus_sentence_250

Foreign relations Cyprus_section_15

Main article: Foreign relations of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_251

The Republic of Cyprus is a member of the following international groups: Australia Group, CN, CE, CFSP, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ITUC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO. Cyprus_sentence_252

Law, justice and human rights Cyprus_section_16

Main articles: Cyprus Police and Human rights in Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_253

The Cyprus Police (Greek: Αστυνομία Κύπρου, Turkish: Kıbrıs Polisi) is the only National Police Service of the Republic of Cyprus and is under the Ministry of Justice and Public Order since 1993. Cyprus_sentence_254

In "Freedom in the World 2011", Freedom House rated Cyprus as "free". Cyprus_sentence_255

In January 2011, the Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of Human Rights in Cyprus noted that the ongoing division of Cyprus continues to affect human rights throughout the island "... including freedom of movement, human rights pertaining to the question of missing persons, discrimination, the right to life, freedom of religion, and economic, social and cultural rights." Cyprus_sentence_256

The constant focus on the division of the island can sometimes mask other human rights issues. Cyprus_sentence_257

In 2014, Turkey was ordered by the European Court of Human Rights to pay well over $100m in compensation to Cyprus for the invasion; Ankara announced that it would ignore the judgment. Cyprus_sentence_258

In 2014, a group of Cypriot refugees and a European parliamentarian, later joined by the Cypriot government, filed a complaint to the International Court of Justice, accusing Turkey of violating the Geneva Conventions by directly or indirectly transferring its civilian population into occupied territory. Cyprus_sentence_259

Over the preceding ten years, civilian transfer by Turkey had "reached new heights", in the words of one US ambassador. Cyprus_sentence_260

Other violations of the Geneva and the Hague Conventions—both ratified by Turkey—amount to what archaeologist Sophocles Hadjisavvas called "the organized destruction of Greek and Christian heritage in the north". Cyprus_sentence_261

These violations include looting of cultural treasures, deliberate destruction of churches, neglect of works of art, and altering the names of important historical sites, which was condemned by the International Council on Monuments and Sites. Cyprus_sentence_262

Hadjisavvas has asserted that these actions are motivated by a Turkish policy of erasing the Greek presence in Northern Cyprus within a framework of ethnic cleansing, as well as by greed and profit-seeking on the part of the individuals involved. Cyprus_sentence_263

Armed forces Cyprus_section_17

Main article: Cypriot National Guard Cyprus_sentence_264

The Cypriot National Guard is the main military institution of the Republic of Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_265

It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements. Cyprus_sentence_266

Historically all men were required to spend 24 months serving in the National Guard after their 17th birthday, but in 2016 this period of compulsory service was reduced to 14 months. Cyprus_sentence_267

Annually, approximately 10,000 persons are trained in recruit centres. Cyprus_sentence_268

Depending on their awarded speciality the conscript recruits are then transferred to speciality training camps or to operational units. Cyprus_sentence_269

While until 2016 the armed forces were mainly conscript based, since then a large Professional Enlisted institution has been adopted (ΣΥΟΠ), which combined with the reduction of conscript service produces an approximate 3:1 ratio between conscript and professional enlisted. Cyprus_sentence_270

Economy Cyprus_section_18

Main article: Economy of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_271

In the early 21st century the Cypriot economy has diversified and become prosperous. Cyprus_sentence_272

However, in 2012 it became affected by the Eurozone financial and banking crisis. Cyprus_sentence_273

In June 2012, the Cypriot government announced it would need €1.8 billion in foreign aid to support the Cyprus Popular Bank, and this was followed by Fitch downgrading Cyprus's credit rating to junk status. Cyprus_sentence_274

Fitch said Cyprus would need an additional €4 billion to support its banks and the downgrade was mainly due to the exposure of Bank of Cyprus, Cyprus Popular Bank and Hellenic Bank, Cyprus's three largest banks, to the Greek financial crisis. Cyprus_sentence_275

The 2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis led to an agreement with the Eurogroup in March 2013 to split the country's second largest bank, the Cyprus Popular Bank (also known as Laiki Bank), into a "bad" bank which would be wound down over time and a "good" bank which would be absorbed by the Bank of Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_276

In return for a €10 billion bailout from the European Commission, the European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund, often referred to as the "troika", the Cypriot government was required to impose a significant haircut on uninsured deposits, a large proportion of which were held by wealthy Russians who used Cyprus as a tax haven. Cyprus_sentence_277

Insured deposits of €100,000 or less were not affected. Cyprus_sentence_278

According to the 2017 International Monetary Fund estimates, its per capita GDP (adjusted for purchasing power) at $36,442 is below the average of the European Union. Cyprus_sentence_279

Cyprus has been sought as a base for several offshore businesses for its low tax rates. Cyprus_sentence_280

Tourism, financial services and shipping are significant parts of the economy. Cyprus_sentence_281

Economic policy of the Cyprus government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union. Cyprus_sentence_282

The Cypriot government adopted the euro as the national currency on 1 January 2008. Cyprus_sentence_283

Cyprus is last EU member fully isolated from energy interconnections and it is expected that will be connected to European network via EuroAsia Interconnector, 2000 MW HVDC undersea power cable. Cyprus_sentence_284

EuroAsia Interconnector will connect Greek, Cypriot, and Israeli power grids. Cyprus_sentence_285

It is a leading Project of Common Interest of the European Union and also priority Electricity Highway Interconnector Project. Cyprus_sentence_286

In recent years significant quantities of offshore natural gas have been discovered in the area known as Aphrodite (at the exploratory drilling block 12) in Cyprus' exclusive economic zone (EEZ), about 175 kilometres (109 miles) south of Limassol at 33°5'40″N and 32°59'0″E. Cyprus_sentence_287

However, Turkey's offshore drilling companies have accessed both natural gas and oil resources since 2013. Cyprus_sentence_288

Cyprus demarcated its maritime border with Egypt in 2003, with Lebanon in 2007, and with Israel in 2010. Cyprus_sentence_289

In August 2011, the US-based firm Noble Energy entered into a production-sharing agreement with the Cypriot government regarding the block's commercial development. Cyprus_sentence_290

Turkey, which does not recognise the border agreements of Cyprus with its neighbours, threatened to mobilise its naval forces if Cyprus proceeded with plans to begin drilling at Block 12. Cyprus_sentence_291

Cyprus' drilling efforts have the support of the US, EU, and UN, and on 19 September 2011 drilling in Block 12 began without any incidents being reported. Cyprus_sentence_292

Because of the heavy influx of tourists and foreign investors, the property rental market in Cyprus has grown in recent years. Cyprus_sentence_293

In late 2013, the Cyprus Town Planning Department announced a series of incentives to stimulate the property market and increase the number of property developments in the country's town centres. Cyprus_sentence_294

This followed earlier measures to quickly give immigration permits to third country nationals investing in Cyprus property. Cyprus_sentence_295

Transport Cyprus_section_19

Main articles: Transport in Cyprus and Roads and motorways in Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_296

Available modes of transport are by road, sea and air. Cyprus_sentence_297

Of the 10,663 km (6,626 mi) of roads in the Republic of Cyprus in 1998, 6,249 km (3,883 mi) were paved, and 4,414 km (2,743 mi) were unpaved. Cyprus_sentence_298

In 1996 the Turkish-occupied area had a similar ratio of paved to unpaved, with approximately 1,370 km (850 mi) of paved road and 980 km (610 mi) unpaved. Cyprus_sentence_299

Cyprus is one of only three EU nations in which vehicles drive on the left-hand side of the road, a remnant of British colonisation (the others being Ireland and Malta). Cyprus_sentence_300

A series of motorways runs along the coast from Paphos east to Ayia Napa, with two motorways running inland to Nicosia, one from Limassol and one from Larnaca. Cyprus_sentence_301

Per capita private car ownership is the 29th-highest in the world. Cyprus_sentence_302

There were approximately 344,000 privately owned vehicles, and a total of 517,000 registered motor vehicles in the Republic of Cyprus in 2006. Cyprus_sentence_303

In 2006, plans were announced to improve and expand bus services and other public transport throughout Cyprus, with the financial backing of the European Union Development Bank. Cyprus_sentence_304

In 2010 the new bus network was implemented. Cyprus_sentence_305

Cyprus has several heliports and two international airports: Larnaca International Airport and Paphos International Airport. Cyprus_sentence_306

A third airport, Ercan International Airport, operates in the Turkish Cypriot administered area with direct flights only to Turkey (Turkish Cypriot ports are closed to international traffic apart from Turkey). Cyprus_sentence_307

Nicosia International Airport has been closed since 1974. Cyprus_sentence_308

The main harbours of the island are Limassol and Larnaca, which service cargo, passenger and cruise ships. Cyprus_sentence_309

Communications Cyprus_section_20

Main article: Communications in Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_310

Cyta, the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most telecommunications and Internet connections on the island. Cyprus_sentence_311

However, following deregulation of the sector, a few private telecommunications companies emerged, including epic, Cablenet, OTEnet Telecom, Omega Telecom and PrimeTel. Cyprus_sentence_312

In the Turkish-controlled area of Cyprus, three different companies are present: Turkcell, KKTC Telsim and Turk Telekom. Cyprus_sentence_313

Demographics Cyprus_section_21

Main article: Demographics of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_314

According to the CIA World Factbook, in 2001 Greek Cypriots comprised 77%, Turkish Cypriots 18%, and others 5% of the Cypriot population. Cyprus_sentence_315

At the time of the 2011 government census, there were 10,520 people of Russian origin living in Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_316

According to the first population census after the declaration of independence, carried out in December 1960 and covering the entire island, Cyprus had a total population of 573,566, of whom 442,138 (77.1%) were Greeks, 104,320 (18.2%) Turkish, and 27,108 (4.7%) others. Cyprus_sentence_317

Due to the inter-communal ethnic tensions between 1963 and 1974, an island-wide census was regarded as impossible. Cyprus_sentence_318

Nevertheless, the Cypriot government conducted one in 1973, without the Turkish Cypriot populace. Cyprus_sentence_319

According to this census, the Greek Cypriot population was 482,000. Cyprus_sentence_320

One year later, in 1974, the Cypriot government's Department of Statistics and Research estimated the total population of Cyprus at 641,000; of whom 506,000 (78.9%) were Greeks, and 118,000 (18.4%) Turkish. Cyprus_sentence_321

After the partition of the island in 1974, the government of Cyprus conducted four more censuses: in 1976, 1982, 1992 and 2001; these excluded the Turkish population which was resident in the northern part of the island. Cyprus_sentence_322

According to the Republic of Cyprus's latest estimate, in 2005, the number of Cypriot citizens currently living in the Republic of Cyprus is around 871,036. Cyprus_sentence_323

In addition to this, the Republic of Cyprus is home to 110,200 foreign permanent residents and an estimated 10,000–30,000 undocumented illegal immigrants currently living in the south of the island. Cyprus_sentence_324


NationalityCyprus_header_cell_1_0_0 Population (2011)Cyprus_header_cell_1_0_1
GreeceCyprus_cell_1_1_0 29,321Cyprus_cell_1_1_1
United KingdomCyprus_cell_1_2_0 24,046Cyprus_cell_1_2_1
RomaniaCyprus_cell_1_3_0 23,706Cyprus_cell_1_3_1
BulgariaCyprus_cell_1_4_0 18,536Cyprus_cell_1_4_1
PhilippinesCyprus_cell_1_5_0 9,413Cyprus_cell_1_5_1
RussiaCyprus_cell_1_6_0 8,164Cyprus_cell_1_6_1
Sri LankaCyprus_cell_1_7_0 7,269Cyprus_cell_1_7_1
VietnamCyprus_cell_1_8_0 7,028Cyprus_cell_1_8_1
SyriaCyprus_cell_1_9_0 3,054Cyprus_cell_1_9_1
IndiaCyprus_cell_1_10_0 2,933Cyprus_cell_1_10_1

According to the 2006 census carried out by Northern Cyprus, there were 256,644 (de jure) people living in Northern Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_325

178,031 were citizens of Northern Cyprus, of whom 147,405 were born in Cyprus (112,534 from the north; 32,538 from the south; 371 did not indicate what part of Cyprus they were from); 27,333 born in Turkey; 2,482 born in the UK and 913 born in Bulgaria. Cyprus_sentence_326

Of the 147,405 citizens born in Cyprus, 120,031 say both parents were born in Cyprus; 16,824 say both parents born in Turkey; 10,361 have one parent born in Turkey and one parent born in Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_327

In 2010, the International Crisis Group estimated that the total population of Cyprus was 1.1 million, of which there was an estimated 300,000 residents in the north, perhaps half of whom were either born in Turkey or are children of such settlers. Cyprus_sentence_328

The villages of Rizokarpaso (only one in the north), Potamia (Nicosia district) and Pyla (Larnaca District) are the only settlements remaining with a mixed Greek and Turkish Cypriot population. Cyprus_sentence_329

Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Cyprus: J (43.07% including 6.20% J1), E1b1b (20.00%), R1 (12.30% including 9.2% R1b), F (9.20%), I (7.70%), K (4.60%), A (3.10%). Cyprus_sentence_330

J, K, F and E1b1b haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe while R1 and I are typical in West European populations. Cyprus_sentence_331

Outside Cyprus there is a significant and thriving Greek Cypriot diaspora and Turkish Cypriot diaspora in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, the United States, Greece and Turkey. Cyprus_sentence_332

Functional urban areas Cyprus_section_22


Functional urban areasCyprus_cell_2_0_0 Population (2016)Cyprus_cell_2_0_1
NicosiaCyprus_cell_2_1_0 330,000Cyprus_cell_2_1_1
LimassolCyprus_cell_2_2_0 237,000Cyprus_cell_2_2_1

Religion Cyprus_section_23

Main article: Religion in Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_333

The majority of Greek Cypriots identify as Greek Orthodox, whereas most Turkish Cypriots are adherents of Sunni Islam. Cyprus_sentence_334

According to Eurobarometer 2005, Cyprus was the second most religious state in the European Union at that time, after Malta (although in 2005 Romania wasn't in the European Union; currently Romania is the most religious state in the EU) (see Religion in the European Union). Cyprus_sentence_335

The first President of Cyprus, Makarios III, was an archbishop. Cyprus_sentence_336

The current leader of the Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus is Archbishop Chrysostomos II. Cyprus_sentence_337

Hala Sultan Tekke, situated near the Larnaca Salt Lake is an object of pilgrimage for both Muslims and Christians. Cyprus_sentence_338

According to the 2001 census carried out in the Government-controlled area, 94.8% of the population were Eastern Orthodox, 0.9% Armenians and Maronites, 1.5% Roman Catholics, 1.0% Church of England, and 0.6% Muslims. Cyprus_sentence_339

There is also a Jewish community on Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_340

The remaining 1.3% adhered to other religious denominations or did not state their religion. Cyprus_sentence_341

Languages Cyprus_section_24

Main article: Languages of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_342

Cyprus has two official languages, Greek and Turkish. Cyprus_sentence_343

Armenian and Cypriot Maronite Arabic are recognised as minority languages. Cyprus_sentence_344

Although without official status, English is widely spoken and it features widely on road signs, public notices, and in advertisements, etc. English was the sole official language during British colonial rule and the lingua franca until 1960, and continued to be used (de facto) in courts of law until 1989 and in legislation until 1996. Cyprus_sentence_345

80.4% of Cypriots are proficient in the English language as a second language. Cyprus_sentence_346

Russian is widely spoken among the country's minorities, residents and citizens of post-Soviet countries, and Pontic Greeks. Cyprus_sentence_347

Russian, after English and Greek, is the third language used on many signs of shops and restaurants, particularly in Limassol and Paphos. Cyprus_sentence_348

In addition to these languages, 12% speak French and 5% speak German. Cyprus_sentence_349

The everyday spoken language of Greek Cypriots is Cypriot Greek and that of Turkish Cypriots is Cypriot Turkish. Cyprus_sentence_350

These vernaculars both differ from their standard registers significantly. Cyprus_sentence_351

Education Cyprus_section_25

Main article: Education in Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_352

Cyprus has a highly developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education. Cyprus_sentence_353

The high quality of instruction can be attributed in part to the fact that nearly 7% of the GDP is spent on education which makes Cyprus one of the top three spenders of education in the EU along with Denmark and Sweden. Cyprus_sentence_354

State schools are generally seen as equivalent in quality of education to private-sector institutions. Cyprus_sentence_355

However, the value of a state high-school diploma is limited by the fact that the grades obtained account for only around 25% of the final grade for each topic, with the remaining 75% assigned by the teacher during the semester, in a minimally transparent way. Cyprus_sentence_356

Cypriot universities (like universities in Greece) ignore high school grades almost entirely for admissions purposes. Cyprus_sentence_357

While a high-school diploma is mandatory for university attendance, admissions are decided almost exclusively on the basis of scores at centrally administered university entrance examinations that all university candidates are required to take. Cyprus_sentence_358

The majority of Cypriots receive their higher education at Greek, British, Turkish, other European and North American universities. Cyprus_sentence_359

Cyprus currently has the highest percentage of citizens of working age who have higher-level education in the EU at 30% which is ahead of Finland's 29.5%. Cyprus_sentence_360

In addition, 47% of its population aged 25–34 have tertiary education, which is the highest in the EU. Cyprus_sentence_361

The body of Cypriot students is highly mobile, with 78.7% studying in a university outside Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_362

Culture Cyprus_section_26

Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots share a lot in common in their culture due to cultural exchanges but also have differences. Cyprus_sentence_363

Several traditional food (such as souvla and halloumi) and beverages are similar, as well as expressions and ways of life. Cyprus_sentence_364

Hospitality and buying or offering food and drinks for guests or others are common among both. Cyprus_sentence_365

In both communities, music, dance and art are integral parts of social life and many artistic, verbal and nonverbal expressions, traditional dances such as tsifteteli, similarities in dance costumes and importance placed on social activities are shared between the communities. Cyprus_sentence_366

However, the two communities have distinct religions and religious cultures, with the Greek Cypriots traditionally being Greek Orthodox and Turkish Cypriots traditionally being Sunni Muslims, which has partly hindered cultural exchange. Cyprus_sentence_367

Greek Cypriots have influences from Greece and Christianity, while Turkish Cypriots have influences from Turkey and Islam. Cyprus_sentence_368

The Limassol Carnival Festival is an annual carnival which is held at Limassol, in Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_369

The event which is very popular in Cyprus was introduced in the 20th century. Cyprus_sentence_370

Arts Cyprus_section_27

The art history of Cyprus can be said to stretch back up to 10,000 years, following the discovery of a series of Chalcolithic period carved figures in the villages of Khoirokoitia and Lempa. Cyprus_sentence_371

The island is the home to numerous examples of high quality religious icon painting from the Middle Ages as well as many painted churches. Cyprus_sentence_372

Cypriot architecture was heavily influenced by French Gothic and Italian renaissance introduced in the island during the era of Latin domination (1191–1571). Cyprus_sentence_373

A well known traditional art that dates at least from the 14th century is the Lefkara Lace (also known as "Lefkaratika", which originates from the village Lefkara. Cyprus_sentence_374

Lefkara lace is recognised as an intangible cultural heritage (ICH) by Unesco, and it is characterised by distinct design patterns, and its intricate, time-consuming production process. Cyprus_sentence_375

A genuine Lefkara lace with full embroidery can take typically hundreds of hours to be made, and that is why it is usually priced quite high. Cyprus_sentence_376

Another local form of art the originated from Lefkara is the production of Cypriot Filigree (locally known as Trifourenio), a type of jewellery that is made with twisted threads of silver. Cyprus_sentence_377

In Lefkara village there is government funded center named Lefkara Handicraft Center the mission of which is to educate and teach the art of making the embroidery and silver jewellery. Cyprus_sentence_378

There's also the Museum of Traditional Embroidery and Silversmithing located in the village which has large collection of local handmade art. Cyprus_sentence_379

In modern times Cypriot art history begins with the painter Vassilis Vryonides (1883–1958) who studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice. Cyprus_sentence_380

Arguably the two founding fathers of modern Cypriot art were Adamantios Diamantis (1900–1994) who studied at London's Royal College of Art and Christopheros Savva (1924–1968) who also studied in London, at Saint Martin's School of Art. Cyprus_sentence_381

In many ways these two artists set the template for subsequent Cypriot art and both their artistic styles and the patterns of their education remain influential to this day. Cyprus_sentence_382

In particular the majority of Cypriot artists still train in England while others train at art schools in Greece and local art institutions such as the Cyprus College of Art, University of Nicosia and the Frederick Institute of Technology. Cyprus_sentence_383

One of the features of Cypriot art is a tendency towards figurative painting although conceptual art is being rigorously promoted by a number of art "institutions" and most notably the Nicosia Municipal Art Centre. Cyprus_sentence_384

Municipal art galleries exist in all the main towns and there is a large and lively commercial art scene. Cyprus_sentence_385

Cyprus was due to host the international art festival Manifesta in 2006 but this was cancelled at the last minute following a dispute between the Dutch organizers of Manifesta and the Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture over the location of some of the Manifesta events in the Turkish sector of the capital Nicosia. Cyprus_sentence_386

There were also complaints from some Cypriot artists that the Manifesta organisation was importing international artists to take part in the event while treating members of the local art community in Cyprus as 'ignorant' and 'uncivilized natives' who need to be taught 'how to make proper art'. Cyprus_sentence_387

Other notable Greek Cypriot artists include Helene Black, Kalopedis family, Panayiotis Kalorkoti, Nicos Nicolaides, Stass Paraskos, Arestís Stasí, Telemachos Kanthos, Konstantia Sofokleous and Chris Achilleos, and Turkish Cypriot artists include İsmet Güney, Ruzen Atakan and Mutlu Çerkez. Cyprus_sentence_388

Music Cyprus_section_28

Main article: Music of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_389

The traditional folk music of Cyprus has several common elements with Greek, Turkish, and Arabic Music, all of which have descended from Byzantine music, including Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot dances such as the sousta, syrtos, zeibekikos, tatsia, and karsilamas as well as the Middle Eastern-inspired tsifteteli and arapies. Cyprus_sentence_390

There is also a form of musical poetry known as chattista which is often performed at traditional feasts and celebrations. Cyprus_sentence_391

The instruments commonly associated with Cyprus folk music are the violin ("fkiolin"), lute ("laouto"), Cyprus flute (pithkiavlin), oud ("outi"), kanonaki and percussions (including the "tamboutsia"). Cyprus_sentence_392

Composers associated with traditional Cypriot music include Solon Michaelides, Marios Tokas, Evagoras Karageorgis and Savvas Salides. Cyprus_sentence_393

Among musicians is also the acclaimed pianist Cyprien Katsaris, composer Andreas G. Orphanides, and composer and artistic director of the European Capital of Culture initiative Marios Joannou Elia. Cyprus_sentence_394

Popular music in Cyprus is generally influenced by the Greek Laïka scene; artists who play in this genre include international platinum star Anna Vissi, Evridiki, and Sarbel. Cyprus_sentence_395

hip hop, R&B have been supported by the emergence of Cypriot rap and the urban music scene at Ayia Napa, while in the last years the reggae scene is growing, especially through the participation of many Cypriot artists at the annual Reggae Sunjam festival. Cyprus_sentence_396

Is also noted Cypriot rock music and Éntekhno rock is often associated with artists such as Michalis Hatzigiannis and Alkinoos Ioannidis. Cyprus_sentence_397

Metal also has a small following in Cyprus represented by bands such as Armageddon (rev.16:16), Blynd, Winter's Verge, Methysos and Quadraphonic. Cyprus_sentence_398

Literature Cyprus_section_29

Main article: Cypriot literature Cyprus_sentence_399

Literary production of the antiquity includes the Cypria, an epic poem, probably composed in the late 7th century BC and attributed to Stasinus. Cyprus_sentence_400

The Cypria is one of the first specimens of Greek and European poetry. Cyprus_sentence_401

The Cypriot Zeno of Citium was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. Cyprus_sentence_402

Epic poetry, notably the "acritic songs", flourished during Middle Ages. Cyprus_sentence_403

Two chronicles, one written by Leontios Machairas and the other by Georgios Boustronios, cover the entire Middle Ages until the end of Frankish rule (4th century–1489). Cyprus_sentence_404

Poèmes d'amour written in medieval Greek Cypriot date back from the 16th century. Cyprus_sentence_405

Some of them are actual translations of poems written by Petrarch, Bembo, Ariosto and G. Sannazzaro. Cyprus_sentence_406

Many Cypriot scholars fled Cyprus at troubled times such as Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) who migrated from Cyprus to Italy in the 17th century, several of his works have survived in books of other scholars. Cyprus_sentence_407

Hasan Hilmi Efendi, a Turkish Cypriot poet, was rewarded by the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II and said to be the "sultan of the poems". Cyprus_sentence_408

Modern Greek Cypriot literary figures include the poet and writer Kostas Montis, poet Kyriakos Charalambides, poet Michalis Pasiardis, writer Nicos Nicolaides, Stylianos Atteshlis, Altheides, Loukis Akritas and Demetris Th. Cyprus_sentence_409

Gotsis. Cyprus_sentence_410

Dimitris Lipertis, Vasilis Michaelides and Pavlos Liasides are folk poets who wrote poems mainly in the Cypriot-Greek dialect. Cyprus_sentence_411

Among leading Turkish Cypriot writers are Osman Türkay, twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature, Özker Yaşın, Neriman Cahit, Urkiye Mine Balman, Mehmet Yaşın and Neşe Yaşın. Cyprus_sentence_412

There is an increasingly strong presence of both temporary and permanent emigre Cypriot writers in world literature, as well as writings by second and third -generation Cypriot writers born or raised abroad, often writing in English. Cyprus_sentence_413

This includes writers such as Michael Paraskos and Stephanos Stephanides. Cyprus_sentence_414

Examples of Cyprus in foreign literature include the works of Shakespeare, with most of the play Othello by William Shakespeare set on the island of Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_415

British writer Lawrence Durrell lived in Cyprus from 1952 until 1956, during his time working for the British colonial government on the island, and wrote the book Bitter Lemons about his time in Cyprus which won the second Duff Cooper Prize in 1957. Cyprus_sentence_416

Mass media Cyprus_section_30

Main article: Media of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_417

Main articles: Television in Cyprus, Radio in Cyprus, and Cinema of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_418

In the 2015 Freedom of the Press report of Freedom House, the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus were ranked "free". Cyprus_sentence_419

The Republic of Cyprus scored 25/100 in press freedom, 5/30 in Legal Environment, 11/40 in Political Environment, and 9/30 in Economic Environment (the lower scores the better). Cyprus_sentence_420

Reporters Without Borders rank the Republic of Cyprus 24th out of 180 countries in the 2015 World Press Freedom Index, with a score of 15.62 Cyprus_sentence_421

The law provides for freedom of speech and press, and the government generally respects these rights in practice. Cyprus_sentence_422

An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of speech and of the press. Cyprus_sentence_423

The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice. Cyprus_sentence_424

Local television companies in Cyprus include the state owned Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation which runs two television channels. Cyprus_sentence_425

In addition on the Greek side of the island there are the private channels ANT1 Cyprus, Plus TV, Mega Channel, Sigma TV, Nimonia TV (NTV) and New Extra. Cyprus_sentence_426

In Northern Cyprus, the local channels are BRT, the Turkish Cypriot equivalent to the Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation, and a number of private channels. Cyprus_sentence_427

The majority of local arts and cultural programming is produced by the Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation and BRT, with local arts documentaries, review programmes and filmed drama series. Cyprus_sentence_428

Cinema Cyprus_section_31

Main article: Cinema of Cyprus Cyprus_sentence_429

The most worldwide known Cypriot director, to have worked abroad, is Michael Cacoyannis. Cyprus_sentence_430

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, George Filis produced and directed Gregoris Afxentiou, Etsi Prodothike i Kypros, and The Mega Document. Cyprus_sentence_431

In 1994, Cypriot film production received a boost with the establishment of the Cinema Advisory Committee. Cyprus_sentence_432

In 2000, the annual amount set aside for filmmaking in the national budget was CYP£500,000 (about €850,000). Cyprus_sentence_433

In addition to government grants, Cypriot co-productions are eligible for funding from the Council of Europe's Eurimages Fund, which finances European film co-productions. Cyprus_sentence_434

To date, four feature films on which a Cypriot was an executive producer have received funding from Eurimages. Cyprus_sentence_435

The first was I Sphagi tou Kokora (1996), followed by Hellados (unreleased), To Tama (1999), and O Dromos gia tin Ithaki (2000). Cyprus_sentence_436

Only a small number of foreign films have been made in Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_437

This includes Incense for the Damned (1970), The Beloved (1970), and Ghost in the Noonday Sun (1973). Cyprus_sentence_438

Parts of the John Wayne film The Longest Day (1962) were also filmed in Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_439

Cuisine Cyprus_section_32

Main article: Cypriot cuisine Cyprus_sentence_440

During the medieval period, under the French Lusignan monarchs of Cyprus an elaborate form of courtly cuisine developed, fusing French, Byzantine and Middle Eastern forms. Cyprus_sentence_441

The Lusignan kings were known for importing Syrian cooks to Cyprus, and it has been suggested that one of the key routes for the importation of Middle Eastern recipes into France and other Western European countries, such as blancmange, was via the Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus. Cyprus_sentence_442

These recipes became known in the West as Vyands de Chypre, or Foods of Cyprus, and the food historian William Woys Weaver has identified over one hundred of them in English, French, Italian and German recipe books of the Middle Ages. Cyprus_sentence_443

One that became particularly popular across Europe in the medieval and early modern periods was a stew made with chicken or fish called malmonia, which in English became mawmeny. Cyprus_sentence_444

Another example of a Cypriot food ingredient entering the Western European canon is the cauliflower, still popular and used in a variety of ways on the island today, which was associated with Cyprus from the early Middle Ages. Cyprus_sentence_445

Writing in the 12th and 13th centuries the Arab botanists Ibn al-'Awwam and Ibn al-Baitar claimed the vegetable had its origins in Cyprus, and this association with the island was echoed in Western Europe, where cauliflowers were originally known as Cyprus cabbage or Cyprus colewart. Cyprus_sentence_446

There was also a long and extensive trade in cauliflower seeds from Cyprus, until well into the sixteenth century. Cyprus_sentence_447

Although much of the Lusignan food culture was lost after the fall of Cyprus to the Ottomans in 1571, a number of dishes that would have been familiar to the Lusignans survive today, including various forms of tahini and houmous, zalatina, skordalia and pickled wild song birds called ambelopoulia. Cyprus_sentence_448

Ambelopoulia, which is today highly controversial, and illegal, was exported in vast quantities from Cyprus during the Lusignan and Venetian periods, particularly to Italy and France. Cyprus_sentence_449

In 1533 the English traveller to Cyprus, John Locke, claimed to have seen the pickled wild birds packed into large jars, or which 1200 jars were exported from Cyprus annually. Cyprus_sentence_450

Also familiar to the Lusignans would have been Halloumi cheese, which some food writers today claim originated in Cyprus during the Byzantine period although the name of the cheese itself is thought by academics to be of Arabic origin. Cyprus_sentence_451

There is no surviving written documentary evidence of the cheese being associated with Cyprus before the year 1554, when the Italian historian Florio Bustron wrote of a sheep-milk cheese from Cyprus he called calumi. Cyprus_sentence_452

Halloumi (Hellim) is commonly served sliced, grilled, fried and sometimes fresh, as an appetiser or meze dish. Cyprus_sentence_453

Seafood and fish dishes include squid, octopus, red mullet, and sea bass. Cyprus_sentence_454

Cucumber and tomato are used widely in salads. Cyprus_sentence_455

Common vegetable preparations include potatoes in olive oil and parsley, pickled cauliflower and beets, asparagus and taro. Cyprus_sentence_456

Other traditional delicacies are meat marinated in dried coriander seeds and wine, and eventually dried and smoked, such as lountza (smoked pork loin), charcoal-grilled lamb, souvlaki (pork and chicken cooked over charcoal), and sheftalia (minced meat wrapped in mesentery). Cyprus_sentence_457

Pourgouri (bulgur, cracked wheat) is the traditional source of carbohydrate other than bread, and is used to make the delicacy koubes. Cyprus_sentence_458

Fresh vegetables and fruits are common ingredients. Cyprus_sentence_459

Frequently used vegetables include courgettes, green peppers, okra, green beans, artichokes, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce and grape leaves, and pulses such as beans, broad beans, peas, black-eyed beans, chick-peas and lentils. Cyprus_sentence_460

The most common fruits and nuts are pears, apples, grapes, oranges, mandarines, nectarines, medlar, blackberries, cherry, strawberries, figs, watermelon, melon, avocado, lemon, pistachio, almond, chestnut, walnut, and hazelnut. Cyprus_sentence_461

Cyprus is also well known for its desserts, including lokum (also known as Turkish Delight) and Soutzoukos. Cyprus_sentence_462

This island has protected geographical indication (PGI) for its lokum produced in the village of Geroskipou. Cyprus_sentence_463

Sports Cyprus_section_33

Sport governing bodies include the Cyprus Football Association, Cyprus Basketball Federation, Cyprus Volleyball Federation, Cyprus Automobile Association, Cyprus Badminton Federation, Cyprus Cricket Association, Cyprus Rugby Federation and the Cyprus Pool Association. Cyprus_sentence_464

Notable sports teams in the Cyprus leagues include APOEL FC, Anorthosis Famagusta FC, AC Omonia, AEL Lemesos, Apollon FC, Nea Salamis Famagusta FC, AEK Larnaca FC, AEL Limassol B.C., Keravnos B.C. and Apollon Limassol B.C.. Cyprus_sentence_465

Stadiums or sports venues include the GSP Stadium (the largest in the Republic of Cyprus-controlled areas), Tsirion Stadium (second largest), Neo GSZ Stadium, Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium, Ammochostos Stadium and Makario Stadium. Cyprus_sentence_466

In the 2008–09 season, Anorthosis Famagusta FC was the first Cypriot team to qualify for the UEFA Champions League Group stage. Cyprus_sentence_467

Next season, APOEL FC qualified for the UEFA Champions League group stage, and reached the last 8 of the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League after finishing top of its group and beating French Olympique Lyonnais in the Round of 16. Cyprus_sentence_468

The Cyprus national rugby union team known as The Moufflons currently holds the record for most consecutive international wins, which is especially notable as the Cyprus Rugby Federation was only formed in 2006. Cyprus_sentence_469

Tennis player Marcos Baghdatis was ranked 8th in the world, was a finalist at the Australian Open, and reached the Wimbledon semi-final, all in 2006. Cyprus_sentence_470

High jumper Kyriakos Ioannou achieved a jump of 2.35 m at the 11th IAAF World Championships in Athletics in Osaka, Japan, in 2007, winning the bronze medal. Cyprus_sentence_471

He has been ranked third in the world. Cyprus_sentence_472

In motorsports, Tio Ellinas is a successful race car driver, currently racing in the GP3 Series for Marussia Manor Motorsport. Cyprus_sentence_473

There is also mixed martial artist Costas Philippou, who competes in the Ultimate Fighting Championship promotion's middleweight division. Cyprus_sentence_474

Costas holds a 6–3 record in UFC bouts, and recently defeated "The Monsoon" Lorenz Larkin by a knockout in the first round. Cyprus_sentence_475

Also notable for a Mediterranean island, the siblings Christopher and Sophia Papamichalopoulou qualified for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Cyprus_sentence_476

They were the only athletes who managed to qualify and thus represented Cyprus at the 2010 Winter Olympics. Cyprus_sentence_477

The country's first ever Olympic medal, a silver medal, was won by the sailor Pavlos Kontides, at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the Men's Laser class. Cyprus_sentence_478

See also Cyprus_section_34


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