Czech Republic

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"Czechia" redirects here. Czech Republic_sentence_0

For other uses, see Czechia (disambiguation) and Czech Republic (disambiguation). Czech Republic_sentence_1

Czech Republic_table_infobox_0

Czech Republic

Česká republika  (Czech)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityCzech Republic_header_cell_0_1_0

PragueCzech Republic_cell_0_1_1
Official languageCzech Republic_header_cell_0_2_0 CzechCzech Republic_cell_0_2_1
Officially recognized languagesCzech Republic_header_cell_0_3_0 ListCzech Republic_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2016)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_4_0 Czech Republic_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2011)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_5_0 Czech Republic_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_6_0 CzechCzech Republic_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentCzech Republic_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary parliamentary

constitutional republicCzech Republic_cell_0_7_1

PresidentCzech Republic_header_cell_0_8_0 Miloš ZemanCzech Republic_cell_0_8_1
Prime MinisterCzech Republic_header_cell_0_9_0 Andrej BabišCzech Republic_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureCzech Republic_header_cell_0_10_0 ParliamentCzech Republic_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseCzech Republic_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateCzech Republic_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseCzech Republic_header_cell_0_12_0 Chamber of DeputiesCzech Republic_cell_0_12_1
Establishment historyCzech Republic_header_cell_0_13_0
Duchy of BohemiaCzech Republic_header_cell_0_14_0 c. 870Czech Republic_cell_0_14_1
Kingdom of BohemiaCzech Republic_header_cell_0_15_0 1198Czech Republic_cell_0_15_1
CzechoslovakiaCzech Republic_header_cell_0_16_0 28 October 1918Czech Republic_cell_0_16_1
Czech RepublicCzech Republic_header_cell_0_17_0 1 January 1993Czech Republic_cell_0_17_1
Area Czech Republic_header_cell_0_18_0
TotalCzech Republic_header_cell_0_19_0 78,866 km (30,450 sq mi) (115th)Czech Republic_cell_0_19_1
Water (%)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_20_0 0.87 (as of 2015)Czech Republic_cell_0_20_1
PopulationCzech Republic_header_cell_0_21_0
2020 estimateCzech Republic_header_cell_0_22_0 10,693,939 (86th)Czech Republic_cell_0_22_1
2011 censusCzech Republic_header_cell_0_23_0 10,436,560Czech Republic_cell_0_23_1
DensityCzech Republic_header_cell_0_24_0 134/km (347.1/sq mi) (87th)Czech Republic_cell_0_24_1
GDP (PPP)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_25_0 2020 estimateCzech Republic_cell_0_25_1
TotalCzech Republic_header_cell_0_26_0 $432.346 billion (36th)Czech Republic_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaCzech Republic_header_cell_0_27_0 $40,585 (34th)Czech Republic_cell_0_27_1
GDP (nominal)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_28_0 2020 estimateCzech Republic_cell_0_28_1
TotalCzech Republic_header_cell_0_29_0 $261.732 billion (36th)Czech Republic_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaCzech Republic_header_cell_0_30_0 $24,569 (37th)Czech Republic_cell_0_30_1
Gini (2019)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_31_0 24.0

low · 5thCzech Republic_cell_0_31_1

HDI (2018)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_32_0 0.891

very high · 26thCzech Republic_cell_0_32_1

CurrencyCzech Republic_header_cell_0_33_0 Czech koruna (CZK)Czech Republic_cell_0_33_1
Time zoneCzech Republic_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC+1 (CET)Czech Republic_cell_0_34_1
Summer (DST)Czech Republic_header_cell_0_35_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Czech Republic_cell_0_35_1
Driving sideCzech Republic_header_cell_0_36_0 rightCzech Republic_cell_0_36_1
Calling codeCzech Republic_header_cell_0_37_0 +420Czech Republic_cell_0_37_1
ISO 3166 codeCzech Republic_header_cell_0_38_0 CZCzech Republic_cell_0_38_1
Internet TLDCzech Republic_header_cell_0_39_0 .czCzech Republic_cell_0_39_1

The Czech Republic (/ˈtʃɛk -/ (listen); Czech: Česká republika [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpublɪka (listen)), also called by its short-form name, Czechia (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ (listen); Czech: Česko [ˈtʃɛsko (listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Austria, Germany, Poland and Slovakia. Czech Republic_sentence_2

The Czech Republic has hilly landscape that covers an area of 78,866 square kilometers (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. Czech Republic_sentence_3

It is a unitary parliamentary republic. Czech Republic_sentence_4

The Duchy of Bohemia under Great Moravia in 1002 was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire and became a kingdom in 1198. Czech Republic_sentence_5

Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy. Czech Republic_sentence_6

The Protestant Bohemian Revolt led to the Thirty Years' War. Czech Republic_sentence_7

After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule. Czech Republic_sentence_8

With the dissolution of the Holy Empire in 1806, the Crown lands became part of the Austrian Empire. Czech Republic_sentence_9

In the 19th century, the Czech lands became more industrialized and were part of the First Czechoslovak Republic following the collapse of the Austria-Hungary after World War I. Czech Republic_sentence_10

After the Munich Agreement in 1938, Nazi Germany systematically took control over the Czech lands. Czech Republic_sentence_11

Czechoslovakia was restored in 1945 until 1 January 1993 when it dissolved with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Czech Republic_sentence_12

The Czech Republic is a member of NATO, EU, OECD, OSCE and CoE. Czech Republic_sentence_13

The Czech Republic is a developed country with an advanced, high income social market economy. Czech Republic_sentence_14

It is a welfare state with a European social model, universal health care and tuition-free university education. Czech Republic_sentence_15

It ranks 13th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 14th in the World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Czech Republic_sentence_16

It ranks as the 11th safest and most peaceful country and 32nd in democratic governance. Czech Republic_sentence_17

Name Czech Republic_section_0

Main article: Name of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_18

The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii" (Gallic tribe). Czech Republic_sentence_19

The current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which ultimately comes from the Czech word Čech. Czech Republic_sentence_20

The name comes from the Slavic tribe (Czech: Češi, Čechové) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain. Czech Republic_sentence_21

The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it cognate to the Czech word (a person). Czech Republic_sentence_22

The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia (Čechy) in the west, Moravia (Morava) in the east, and Czech Silesia (Slezsko; the smaller, south-eastern part of historical Silesia, most of which is located within modern Poland) in the northeast. Czech Republic_sentence_23

Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown, Czechia and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas. Czech Republic_sentence_24

When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within one country. Czech Republic_sentence_25

After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommended the English name Czechia in 1993, and the Czech government approved Czechia as the official short name in 2016. Czech Republic_sentence_26

Geography Czech Republic_section_1

Main article: Geography of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_27

The Czech Republic lies mostly between latitudes 48° and 51° N and longitudes 12° and 19° E. Czech Republic_sentence_28

Bohemia, to the west, consists of a basin drained by the Elbe (Czech: Labe) and the Vltava rivers, surrounded by mostly low mountains, such as the Krkonoše range of the Sudetes. Czech Republic_sentence_29

The highest point in the country, Sněžka at 1,603 m (5,259 ft), is located here. Czech Republic_sentence_30

Moravia, the eastern part of the country, is also hilly. Czech Republic_sentence_31

It is drained mainly by the Morava River, but it also contains the source of the Oder River (Czech: Odra). Czech Republic_sentence_32

Water from the Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea. Czech Republic_sentence_33

The Czech Republic also leases the Moldauhafen, a 30,000-square-meter (7.4-acre) lot in the middle of the Hamburg Docks, which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the Treaty of Versailles, to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported down river could be transferred to seagoing ships. Czech Republic_sentence_34

The territory reverts to Germany in 2028. Czech Republic_sentence_35

Phytogeographically, the Czech Republic belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region, within the Boreal Kingdom. Czech Republic_sentence_36

According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of the Czech Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Western European broadleaf forests, Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, and Carpathian montane conifer forests. Czech Republic_sentence_37

There are four national parks in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_38

The oldest is Krkonoše National Park (Biosphere Reserve), and the others are Šumava National Park (Biosphere Reserve), Podyjí National Park, Bohemian Switzerland. Czech Republic_sentence_39

The three historical lands of the Czech Republic (formerly some countries of the Bohemian Crown) correspond with the river basins of the Elbe (Czech: Labe) and the Vltava basin for Bohemia, the Morava one for Moravia, and the Oder river basin for Czech Silesia (in terms of the Czech territory). Czech Republic_sentence_40

Climate Czech Republic_section_2

The Czech Republic mostly has a temperate oceanic climate, with warm summers and cold, cloudy and snowy winters. Czech Republic_sentence_41

The temperature difference between summer and winter is due to the landlocked geographical position. Czech Republic_sentence_42

Temperatures vary depending on the elevation. Czech Republic_sentence_43

In general, at higher altitudes, the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases. Czech Republic_sentence_44

The wettest area in the Czech Republic is found around Bílý Potok in Jizera Mountains and the driest region is the Louny District to the northwest of Prague. Czech Republic_sentence_45

Another factor is the distribution of the mountains. Czech Republic_sentence_46

At the highest peak of Sněžka (1,603 m or 5,259 ft), the average temperature is −0.4 °C (31 °F), whereas in the lowlands of the South Moravian Region, the average temperature is as high as 10 °C (50 °F). Czech Republic_sentence_47

The country's capital, Prague, has a similar average temperature, although this is influenced by urban factors. Czech Republic_sentence_48

The coldest month is usually January, followed by February and December. Czech Republic_sentence_49

During these months, there is snow in the mountains and sometimes in the cities and lowlands. Czech Republic_sentence_50

During March, April, and May, the temperature usually increases, especially during April, when the temperature and weather tends to vary during the day. Czech Republic_sentence_51

Spring is also characterized by higher water levels in the rivers, due to melting snow with occasional flooding. Czech Republic_sentence_52

The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June. Czech Republic_sentence_53

On average, summer temperatures are about 20–30 °C (36–54 °F) higher than during winter. Czech Republic_sentence_54

Summer is also characterized by rain and storms. Czech Republic_sentence_55

Autumn generally begins in September, which is still warm and dry. Czech Republic_sentence_56

During October, temperatures usually fall below 15 °C (59 °F) or 10 °C (50 °F) and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves. Czech Republic_sentence_57

By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point. Czech Republic_sentence_58

The coldest temperature ever measured was in Litvínovice near České Budějovice in 1929, at −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) and the hottest measured, was at 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) in Dobřichovice in 2012. Czech Republic_sentence_59

Most rain falls during the summer. Czech Republic_sentence_60

Sporadic rainfall is throughout the year (in Prague, the average number of days per month experiencing at least 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) of rain varies from 12 in September and October to 16 in November) but concentrated rainfall (days with more than 10 mm (0.39 in) per day) are more frequent in the months of May to August (average around two such days per month). Czech Republic_sentence_61

Severe thunderstorms, producing damaging straight-line winds, hail, and occasional tornadoes occur, especially during the summer period. Czech Republic_sentence_62

Environment Czech Republic_section_3

See also: Protected areas of the Czech Republic and Fauna of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_63

The Czech Republic ranks as the 27th most environmentally conscious country in the world in Environmental Performance Index. Czech Republic_sentence_64

The Czech Republic has four National Parks (Šumava National Park, Krkonoše National Park, České Švýcarsko National Park, Podyjí National Park) and 25 Protected Landscape Areas. Czech Republic_sentence_65

History Czech Republic_section_4

Main article: History of the Czech lands Czech Republic_sentence_66

Prehistory Czech Republic_section_5

Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the area, dating back to the Paleolithic era. Czech Republic_sentence_67

In the classical era, as a result of the 3rd century BC Celtic migrations, Bohemia became associated with the Boii. Czech Republic_sentence_68

The Boii founded an oppidum near the site of modern Prague. Czech Republic_sentence_69

Later in the 1st century, the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi settled there. Czech Republic_sentence_70

Slavs from the Black SeaCarpathian region settled in the area (their migration was pushed by an invasion of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe into their area: Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars). Czech Republic_sentence_71

In the sixth century, the Huns had moved westwards into Bohemia, Moravia, and some of present-day Austria and Germany. Czech Republic_sentence_72

During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first documented Slavic state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. Czech Republic_sentence_73

The principality of Great Moravia, controlled by Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century. Czech Republic_sentence_74

It reached its zenith in the 9th (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia), holding off the influence of the Franks. Czech Republic_sentence_75

Great Moravia was Christianized, with a role being played by the Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. Czech Republic_sentence_76

They codified the Old Church Slavonic language, the first literary and liturgical language of the Slavs, and the Glagolitic alphabet. Czech Republic_sentence_77

Bohemia Czech Republic_section_6

Main article: Bohemia Czech Republic_sentence_78

The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century when it was unified by the Přemyslid dynasty. Czech Republic_sentence_79

Bohemia was from 1002 until 1806 an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire. Czech Republic_sentence_80

In 1212, Přemysl Ottokar I extracted the Golden Bull of Sicily from the emperor, confirming Ottokar and his descendants' royal status; the Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a Kingdom. Czech Republic_sentence_81

German immigrants settled in the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century. Czech Republic_sentence_82

The Mongols in the invasion of Europe carried their raids into Moravia but were defensively defeated at Olomouc. Czech Republic_sentence_83

After a series of dynastic wars, the House of Luxembourg gained the Bohemian throne. Czech Republic_sentence_84

Efforts for a reform of the church in Bohemia started already in the late 14th century. Czech Republic_sentence_85

Jan Hus's followers seceded from some practices of the Roman Church and in the Hussite Wars (1419–1434) defeated five crusades organized against them by Sigismund. Czech Republic_sentence_86

During the next two centuries, 90% of the population in Bohemian and Moravian lands were considered Hussites. Czech Republic_sentence_87

Petr Chelčický inspired the movement of the Bohemian Brethren that completely separated from the Catholic Church. Czech Republic_sentence_88

After 1526 Bohemia came increasingly under Habsburg control as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then in 1627 the hereditary rulers of Bohemia. Czech Republic_sentence_89

Between 1583 and 1611 Prague was the official seat of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II and his court. Czech Republic_sentence_90

The Defenestration of Prague and subsequent revolt against the Habsburgs in 1618 marked the start of the Thirty Years' War. Czech Republic_sentence_91

In 1620, the rebellion in Bohemia was crushed at the Battle of White Mountain and the ties between Bohemia and the Habsburgs' hereditary lands in Austria were strengthened. Czech Republic_sentence_92

The leaders of the Bohemian Revolt were executed in 1621. Czech Republic_sentence_93

The nobility and the middle class Protestants had to either convert to Catholicism or leave the country. Czech Republic_sentence_94

In the "Dark Age" of 1620 to the late 18th century, the population of the Czech lands declined by a third through the expulsion of Czech Protestants as well as due to the war, disease and famine. Czech Republic_sentence_95

The Habsburgs prohibited all Christian confessions other than Catholicism. Czech Republic_sentence_96

The flowering of Baroque culture shows the ambiguity of this historical period. Czech Republic_sentence_97

Ottoman Turks and Tatars invaded Moravia in 1663. Czech Republic_sentence_98

In 1679–1680 the Czech lands faced the Great Plague of Vienna and an uprising of serfs. Czech Republic_sentence_99

There were peasant uprisings influenced by famine. Czech Republic_sentence_100

Serfdom was abolished between 1781 and 1848. Czech Republic_sentence_101

Several battles of the Napoleonic Wars took place on the current territory of the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_102

The end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 led to degradation of the political status of Bohemia which lost its position of an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire as well as its own political representation in the Imperial Diet. Czech Republic_sentence_103

Bohemian lands became part of the Austrian Empire. Czech Republic_sentence_104

During the 18th and 19th century the Czech National Revival began its rise, with the purpose to revive Czech language, culture and national identity. Czech Republic_sentence_105

The Revolution of 1848 in Prague, striving for liberal reforms and autonomy of the Bohemian Crown within the Austrian Empire, was suppressed. Czech Republic_sentence_106

It seemed that some concessions would be made also to Bohemia, but in the end the Emperor Franz Joseph I effected a compromise with Hungary only. Czech Republic_sentence_107

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the never realized coronation of Franz Joseph as King of Bohemia led to a disappointment of some Czech politicians. Czech Republic_sentence_108

The Bohemian Crown lands became part of the so-called Cisleithania. Czech Republic_sentence_109

The Czech Social Democratic and progressive politicians started the fight for universal suffrage. Czech Republic_sentence_110

The first elections under universal male suffrage were held in 1907. Czech Republic_sentence_111

Czechoslovakia Czech Republic_section_7

Main article: History of Czechoslovakia Czech Republic_sentence_112

In 1918, during the collapse of the Habsburg Empire at the end of World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia, which joined the winning Allied powers, was created, with Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk in the lead. Czech Republic_sentence_113

This new country incorporated the Bohemian Crown. Czech Republic_sentence_114

The First Czechoslovak Republic comprised only 27% of the population of the former Austria-Hungary, but nearly 80% of the industry, which enabled it to compete with Western industrial states. Czech Republic_sentence_115

In 1929 compared to 1913, the gross domestic product increased by 52% and industrial production by 41%. Czech Republic_sentence_116

In 1938 Czechoslovakia held 10th place in the world industrial production. Czech Republic_sentence_117

Czechoslovakia was the only democracy in Central Europe during the interwar period. Czech Republic_sentence_118

Although the First Czechoslovak Republic was a unitary state, it provided certain rights to its minorities. Czech Republic_sentence_119

The Czech territory was occupied by Germany, which transformed it into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Czech Republic_sentence_120

The protectorate was proclaimed part of the Third Reich, and the president and prime minister were subordinated to the Nazi Germany's Reichsprotektor. Czech Republic_sentence_121

One Nazi concentration camp was located within the Czech territory at Terezín, north of Prague. Czech Republic_sentence_122

The Nazi Generalplan Ost called for the extermination, expulsion, Germanization or enslavement of most or all Czechs for the purpose of providing more living space for the German people. Czech Republic_sentence_123

There was Czechoslovak resistance to Nazi occupation as well as reprisals against the Czechoslovaks for their anti-Nazi resistance. Czech Republic_sentence_124

The German occupation ended on 9 May 1945, with the arrival of the Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising. Czech Republic_sentence_125

In the 1946 elections, the Communist Party gained 38% of the votes and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament, formed a coalition with other parties and consolidated power. Czech Republic_sentence_126

A coup d'état came in 1948 and a single party government was formed. Czech Republic_sentence_127

For the next 41 years, the Czechoslovak Communist state is characterized by certain Eastern Bloc's economic and political features. Czech Republic_sentence_128

Czech Republic Czech Republic_section_8

Main articles: Velvet Revolution and Dissolution of Czechoslovakia Czech Republic_sentence_129

In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the Velvet Revolution. Czech Republic_sentence_130

However, Slovak national aspirations strengthened (Hyphen War) and on 1 January 1993, the country peacefully split into the independent countries of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Czech Republic_sentence_131

Both countries went through economic reforms and privatisations, with the intention of creating a market economy. Czech Republic_sentence_132

This process was largely successful; in 2006 the Czech Republic was recognized by the World Bank as a "developed country", and in 2009 the Human Development Index ranked it as a nation of "Very High Human Development". Czech Republic_sentence_133

From 1991, the Czech Republic, originally as part of Czechoslovakia and since 1993 in its own right, has been a member of the Visegrád Group and from 1995, the OECD. Czech Republic_sentence_134

The Czech Republic joined NATO on 12 March 1999 and the European Union on 1 May 2004. Czech Republic_sentence_135

On 21 December 2007 the Czech Republic joined the Schengen Area. Czech Republic_sentence_136

Until 2017, either the Social Democrats or liberal-conservatives led the government of the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_137

Governance Czech Republic_section_9

Main articles: Government of the Czech Republic and Politics of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_138

The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy. Czech Republic_sentence_139

The Parliament (Parlament České republiky) is bicameral, with the Chamber of Deputies (Czech: Poslanecká sněmovna) (200 members) and the Senate (Czech: Senát) (81 members). Czech Republic_sentence_140

The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a four-year term by proportional representation, with a 5% election threshold. Czech Republic_sentence_141

There are 14 voting districts, identical to the country's administrative regions. Czech Republic_sentence_142

The Chamber of Deputies, the successor to the Czech National Council, has the powers and responsibilities of the now defunct federal parliament of the former Czechoslovakia. Czech Republic_sentence_143

The members of the Senate are elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round runoff voting for a six-year term, with one-third elected every even year in the autumn. Czech Republic_sentence_144

This arrangement is modeled on the U.S. Czech Republic_sentence_145 Senate, but each constituency is roughly the same size and the voting system used is a two-round runoff. Czech Republic_sentence_146

The president is a formal head of state with limited and specific powers, who appoints the prime minister, as well the other members of the cabinet on a proposal by the prime minister. Czech Republic_sentence_147

From 1993 until 2012, the President of the Czech Republic was selected by a joint session of the parliament for a five-year term, with no more than two consecutive terms (2x Václav Havel, 2x Václav Klaus). Czech Republic_sentence_148

Since 2013 the presidential election is direct. Czech Republic_sentence_149

The Government's exercise of executive power derives from the Constitution. Czech Republic_sentence_150

The members of the government are the Prime Minister, Deputy prime ministers and other ministers. Czech Republic_sentence_151

The Government is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies. Czech Republic_sentence_152

The Prime Minister is the head of government and wields powers such as the right to set the agenda for most foreign and domestic policy and choose government ministers. Czech Republic_sentence_153

Czech Republic_table_general_1

Main office holdersCzech Republic_table_caption_1
OfficeCzech Republic_header_cell_1_0_0 NameCzech Republic_header_cell_1_0_1 PartyCzech Republic_header_cell_1_0_2 SinceCzech Republic_header_cell_1_0_3
PresidentCzech Republic_cell_1_1_0 Miloš ZemanCzech Republic_cell_1_1_1 SPOZCzech Republic_cell_1_1_2 8 March 2013Czech Republic_cell_1_1_3
President of the SenateCzech Republic_cell_1_2_0 Miloš VystrčilCzech Republic_cell_1_2_1 ODSCzech Republic_cell_1_2_2 19 February 2020Czech Republic_cell_1_2_3
Speaker of the Chamber of DeputiesCzech Republic_cell_1_3_0 Radek VondráčekCzech Republic_cell_1_3_1 ANOCzech Republic_cell_1_3_2 22 November 2017Czech Republic_cell_1_3_3
Prime MinisterCzech Republic_cell_1_4_0 Andrej BabišCzech Republic_cell_1_4_1 ANOCzech Republic_cell_1_4_2 6 December 2017Czech Republic_cell_1_4_3

Law Czech Republic_section_10

Main articles: Law of the Czech Republic, Judiciary of the Czech Republic, and Law enforcement in the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_154

The Czech Republic is a unitary state, with a civil law system based on the continental type, rooted in Germanic legal culture. Czech Republic_sentence_155

The basis of the legal system is the Constitution of the Czech Republic adopted in 1993. Czech Republic_sentence_156

The Penal Code is effective from 2010. Czech Republic_sentence_157

A new Civil code became effective in 2014. Czech Republic_sentence_158

The court system includes district, county and supreme courts and is divided into civil, criminal, and administrative branches. Czech Republic_sentence_159

The Czech judiciary has a triumvirate of supreme courts. Czech Republic_sentence_160

The Constitutional Court consists of 15 constitutional judges and oversees violations of the Constitution by either the legislature or by the government. Czech Republic_sentence_161

The Supreme Court is formed of 67 judges and is the court of highest appeal for most legal cases heard in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_162

The Supreme Administrative Court decides on issues of procedural and administrative propriety. Czech Republic_sentence_163

It also has jurisdiction over certain political matters, such as the formation and closure of political parties, jurisdictional boundaries between government entities, and the eligibility of persons to stand for public office. Czech Republic_sentence_164

The Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court are both based in Brno, as is the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office. Czech Republic_sentence_165

Foreign relations Czech Republic_section_11

Main article: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_166

See also: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_167

The Czech Republic has ranked as one of the safest or most peaceful countries for the past few decades. Czech Republic_sentence_168

It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, OECD, Council of Europe and is an observer to the Organization of American States. Czech Republic_sentence_169

The embassies of most countries with diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic are located in Prague, while consulates are located across the country. Czech Republic_sentence_170

The Czech passport is restricted by visas. Czech Republic_sentence_171

According to the 2018 Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index, Czech citizens have visa-free access to 173 countries, which ranks them 7th along with Malta and New Zealand. Czech Republic_sentence_172

The World Tourism Organization ranks the Czech passport 24th. Czech Republic_sentence_173

The US Visa Waiver Program applies to Czech nationals. Czech Republic_sentence_174

The Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs have primary roles in setting foreign policy, although the President also has influence and represents the country abroad. Czech Republic_sentence_175

Membership in the European Union and NATO is central to the Czech Republic's foreign policy. Czech Republic_sentence_176

The Office for Foreign Relations and Information (ÚZSI) serves as the foreign intelligence agency responsible for espionage and foreign policy briefings, as well as protection of Czech Republic's embassies abroad. Czech Republic_sentence_177

The Czech Republic has ties with Slovakia, Poland and Hungary as a member of the Visegrad Group, as well as with Germany, Israel, the United States and the European Union and its members. Czech Republic_sentence_178

Czech officials have supported dissenters in Belarus, Moldova, Myanmar and Cuba. Czech Republic_sentence_179

Military Czech Republic_section_12

Main article: Army of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_180

The Czech armed forces consist of the Czech Land Forces, the Czech Air Force and of specialized support units. Czech Republic_sentence_181

The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence. Czech Republic_sentence_182

The President of the Czech Republic is Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Czech Republic_sentence_183

In 2004 the army transformed itself into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished. Czech Republic_sentence_184

The country has been a member of NATO since 12 March 1999. Czech Republic_sentence_185

Defence spending is approximately 1.19% of the GDP (2019). Czech Republic_sentence_186

The armed forces are charged with protecting the Czech Republic and its allies, promoting global security interests, and contributing to NATO. Czech Republic_sentence_187

Currently, as a member of NATO, the Czech military are participating in the Resolute Support and KFOR operations and have soldiers in Afghanistan, Mali, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Egypt, Israel and Somalia. Czech Republic_sentence_188

The Czech Air Force also served in the Baltic states and Iceland. Czech Republic_sentence_189

The main equipment of the Czech military includes JAS 39 Gripen multi-role fighters, Aero L-159 Alca combat aircraft, Mi-35 attack helicopters, armored vehicles (Pandur II, OT-64, OT-90, BVP-2) and tanks (T-72 and T-72M4CZ). Czech Republic_sentence_190

Administrative divisions Czech Republic_section_13

See also: Regions of the Czech Republic and List of districts of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_191

Since 2000, the Czech Republic has been divided into thirteen regions (Czech: ) and the capital city of Prague. Czech Republic_sentence_192

Every region has its own elected regional assembly and a regional governor. Czech Republic_sentence_193

In Prague, the assembly and presidential powers are executed by the city council and the mayor. Czech Republic_sentence_194

The older seventy-six districts (okresy, singular okres) including three "statutory cities" (without Prague, which had special status) lost most of their importance in 1999 in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration. Czech Republic_sentence_195

Czech Republic_table_general_2

Licence plate letterCzech Republic_header_cell_2_0_0 Region name

in EnglishCzech Republic_header_cell_2_0_1

Region name

in CzechCzech Republic_header_cell_2_0_2


seatCzech Republic_header_cell_2_0_3


(2004 estimate)Czech Republic_header_cell_2_0_4


(2011 estimate)Czech Republic_header_cell_2_0_5

ACzech Republic_cell_2_1_0 PragueCzech Republic_cell_2_1_1 Hlavní město PrahaCzech Republic_cell_2_1_2 n/aCzech Republic_cell_2_1_3 1,170,571Czech Republic_cell_2_1_4 1,268,796Czech Republic_cell_2_1_5
SCzech Republic_cell_2_2_0 Central Bohemian RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_2_1 Středočeský krajCzech Republic_cell_2_2_2 PragueCzech Republic_cell_2_2_3 1,144,071Czech Republic_cell_2_2_4 1,289,211Czech Republic_cell_2_2_5
CCzech Republic_cell_2_3_0 South Bohemian RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_3_1 Jihočeský krajCzech Republic_cell_2_3_2 České BudějoviceCzech Republic_cell_2_3_3 625,712Czech Republic_cell_2_3_4 628,336Czech Republic_cell_2_3_5
PCzech Republic_cell_2_4_0 Plzeň RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_4_1 Plzeňský krajCzech Republic_cell_2_4_2 PlzeňCzech Republic_cell_2_4_3 549,618Czech Republic_cell_2_4_4 570,401Czech Republic_cell_2_4_5
KCzech Republic_cell_2_5_0 Karlovy Vary RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_5_1 Karlovarský krajCzech Republic_cell_2_5_2 Karlovy VaryCzech Republic_cell_2_5_3 304,588Czech Republic_cell_2_5_4 295,595Czech Republic_cell_2_5_5
UCzech Republic_cell_2_6_0 Ústí nad Labem RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_6_1 Ústecký krajCzech Republic_cell_2_6_2 Ústí nad LabemCzech Republic_cell_2_6_3 822,133Czech Republic_cell_2_6_4 835,814Czech Republic_cell_2_6_5
LCzech Republic_cell_2_7_0 Liberec RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_7_1 Liberecký krajCzech Republic_cell_2_7_2 LiberecCzech Republic_cell_2_7_3 427,563Czech Republic_cell_2_7_4 432,439Czech Republic_cell_2_7_5
HCzech Republic_cell_2_8_0 Hradec Králové RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_8_1 Královéhradecký krajCzech Republic_cell_2_8_2 Hradec KrálovéCzech Republic_cell_2_8_3 547,296Czech Republic_cell_2_8_4 547,916Czech Republic_cell_2_8_5
ECzech Republic_cell_2_9_0 Pardubice RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_9_1 Pardubický krajCzech Republic_cell_2_9_2 PardubiceCzech Republic_cell_2_9_3 505,285Czech Republic_cell_2_9_4 511,627Czech Republic_cell_2_9_5
MCzech Republic_cell_2_10_0 Olomouc RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_10_1 Olomoucký krajCzech Republic_cell_2_10_2 OlomoucCzech Republic_cell_2_10_3 635,126Czech Republic_cell_2_10_4 628,427Czech Republic_cell_2_10_5
TCzech Republic_cell_2_11_0 Moravian-Silesian RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_11_1 Moravskoslezský krajCzech Republic_cell_2_11_2 OstravaCzech Republic_cell_2_11_3 1,257,554Czech Republic_cell_2_11_4 1,205,834Czech Republic_cell_2_11_5
BCzech Republic_cell_2_12_0 South Moravian RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_12_1 Jihomoravský krajCzech Republic_cell_2_12_2 BrnoCzech Republic_cell_2_12_3 1,123,201Czech Republic_cell_2_12_4 1,163,508Czech Republic_cell_2_12_5
ZCzech Republic_cell_2_13_0 Zlín RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_13_1 Zlínský krajCzech Republic_cell_2_13_2 ZlínCzech Republic_cell_2_13_3 590,706Czech Republic_cell_2_13_4 579,944Czech Republic_cell_2_13_5
JCzech Republic_cell_2_14_0 Vysočina RegionCzech Republic_cell_2_14_1 Kraj VysočinaCzech Republic_cell_2_14_2 JihlavaCzech Republic_cell_2_14_3 517,153Czech Republic_cell_2_14_4 505,565Czech Republic_cell_2_14_5

Capital city. Czech Republic_sentence_196

Office location. Czech Republic_sentence_197

Economy Czech Republic_section_14

Main article: Economy of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_198

The Czech Republic has a developed, high-income export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a welfare state and the European social model. Czech Republic_sentence_199

The Czech Republic participates in the European Single Market as a member of the European Union and is therefore a part of the economy of the European Union, but uses its own currency, the Czech koruna, instead of the euro. Czech Republic_sentence_200

It has a per capita GDP rate that is 91% of the EU average and is a member of the OECD. Czech Republic_sentence_201

Monetary policy is conducted by the Czech National Bank, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution. Czech Republic_sentence_202

The Czech Republic ranks 13th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 14th in World Bank Human Capital Index. Czech Republic_sentence_203

It was described by The Guardian as "one of Europe’s most flourishing economies". Czech Republic_sentence_204

As of 2018, the country's GDP per capita at purchasing power parity is $37,370 and $22,850 at nominal value. Czech Republic_sentence_205

According to Allianz A.G., in 2018 the country was an MWC (mean wealth country), ranking 26th in net financial assets. Czech Republic_sentence_206

The country experienced a 4.5% GDP growth in 2017. Czech Republic_sentence_207

The 2016 unemployment rate was the lowest in the EU at 2.4%, and the 2016 poverty rate was the second lowest of OECD members. Czech Republic_sentence_208

Czech Republic ranks 24th in both the Index of Economic Freedom and the Global Innovation Index as of 2016, 29th in the Global Competitiveness Report, 30th in the ease of doing business index and 25th in the Global Enabling Trade Report. Czech Republic_sentence_209

The Czech Republic has a diverse economy that ranks 7th in the 2016 Economic Complexity Index. Czech Republic_sentence_210

The industrial sector accounts for 37.5% of the economy, while services account for 60% and agriculture for 2.5%. Czech Republic_sentence_211

The largest trading partner for both export and import is Germany and the EU in general. Czech Republic_sentence_212

Dividends worth CZK 270 billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies in 2017, which has become a political issue. Czech Republic_sentence_213

The country has been a member of the Schengen Area since 1 May 2004, having abolished border controls, completely opening its borders with all of its neighbors on 21 December 2007. Czech Republic_sentence_214

Industry Czech Republic_section_15

In 2018 the largest companies by revenue in the Czech Republic were: one of the car automobile manufacturers in Central Europe Škoda Auto, utility company ČEZ Group, conglomerate Agrofert, energy trading company EPH, oil processing company Unipetrol, electronics manufacturer Foxconn CZ and steel producer Moravia Steel. Czech Republic_sentence_215

Other Czech transportation companies include: Škoda Transportation (tramways, trolleybuses, metro), Tatra (heavy trucks, the second oldest car maker in the world), Avia (medium trucks), Karosa and SOR Libchavy (buses), Aero Vodochody (military aircraft), Let Kunovice (civil aircraft), Zetor (tractors), Jawa Moto (motorcycles) and Čezeta (electric scooters). Czech Republic_sentence_216

Škoda Transportation is the fourth largest tramway producer in the world; nearly one third of all trams in the world come from Czech factories. Czech Republic_sentence_217

The Czech Republic is also the world's largest vinyl records manufacturer, with GZ Media producing about 6 million pieces annually in Loděnice. Czech Republic_sentence_218

Česká zbrojovka is among the ten largest firearms producers in the world and five who produce automatic weapons. Czech Republic_sentence_219

In the food industry succeeded companies Agrofert, Kofola and Hamé. Czech Republic_sentence_220

Energy Czech Republic_section_16

Main article: Energy in the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_221

Production of Czech electricity exceeds consumption by about 10 TWh per year, which are exported. Czech Republic_sentence_222

Nuclear power presently provides about 30 percent of the total power needs, its share is projected to increase to 40 percent. Czech Republic_sentence_223

In 2005, 65.4 percent of electricity was produced by steam and combustion power plants (mostly coal); 30 percent by nuclear plants; and 4.6 percent from renewable sources, including hydropower. Czech Republic_sentence_224

The largest Czech power resource is Temelín Nuclear Power Station, another nuclear power plant is in Dukovany. Czech Republic_sentence_225

The Czech Republic is reducing its dependence on highly polluting low-grade brown coal as a source of energy. Czech Republic_sentence_226

Natural gas is procured from Russian Gazprom, roughly three-fourths of domestic consumption and from Norwegian companies, which make up most of the remaining one-fourth. Czech Republic_sentence_227

Russian gas is imported via Ukraine, Norwegian gas is transported through Germany. Czech Republic_sentence_228

Gas consumption (approx. Czech Republic_sentence_229

100 TWh in 2003–2005) is almost double electricity consumption. Czech Republic_sentence_230

South Moravia has small oil and gas deposits. Czech Republic_sentence_231

Transportation infrastructure Czech Republic_section_17

Main article: Transport in the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_232

The road network in the Czech Republic is 55,653 km (34,581.17 mi) long. Czech Republic_sentence_233

There are 1,232 km of motorways as of 2017. Czech Republic_sentence_234

The speed limit is 50 km/h within towns, 90 km/h outside of towns and 130 km/h on motorways. Czech Republic_sentence_235

The Czech Republic has the densest rail network in the world with 9,505 km (5,906.13 mi) of tracks. Czech Republic_sentence_236

Of that number, 2,926 km (1,818.13 mi) is electrified, 7,617 km (4,732.98 mi) are single-line tracks and 1,866 km (1,159.48 mi) are double and multiple-line tracks. Czech Republic_sentence_237

České dráhy (the Czech Railways) is the main railway operator in the Czech Republic, with about 180 million passengers carried yearly. Czech Republic_sentence_238

Maximum speed is limited to 160 km/h. Czech Republic_sentence_239

In 2006 seven Italian tilting trainsets Pendolino ČD Class 680 entered service. Czech Republic_sentence_240

Václav Havel Airport in Prague is the main international airport in the country. Czech Republic_sentence_241

In 2017, it handled 15 million passengers. Czech Republic_sentence_242

In total, the Czech Republic has 46 airports with paved runways, six of which provide international air services in Brno, Karlovy Vary, Mošnov (near Ostrava), Pardubice, Prague and Kunovice (near Uherské Hradiště). Czech Republic_sentence_243

Russia, via pipelines through Ukraine and to a lesser extent, Norway, via pipelines through Germany, supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas. Czech Republic_sentence_244

Communications and IT Czech Republic_section_18

Main article: Internet in the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_245

The Czech Republic ranks in the top 10 countries worldwide with the fastest average internet speed. Czech Republic_sentence_246

By the beginning of 2008, there were over 800 mostly local WISPs, with about 350,000 subscribers in 2007. Czech Republic_sentence_247

Plans based on either GPRS, EDGE, UMTS or CDMA2000 are being offered by all three mobile phone operators (T-Mobile, O2, Vodafone) and internet provider U:fon. Czech Republic_sentence_248

Government-owned Český Telecom slowed down broadband penetration. Czech Republic_sentence_249

At the beginning of 2004, local-loop unbundling began and alternative operators started to offer ADSL and also SDSL. Czech Republic_sentence_250

This and later privatisation of Český Telecom helped drive down prices. Czech Republic_sentence_251

On 1 July 2006, Český Telecom was acquired by globalized company (Spain-owned) Telefónica group and adopted the new name Telefónica O2 Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_252

As of 2017, VDSL and ADSL2+ are offered in variants, with download speeds of up to 50 Mbit/s and upload speeds of up to 5 Mbit/s. Czech Republic_sentence_253

Cable internet is gaining more popularity with its higher download speeds ranging from 50 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s. Czech Republic_sentence_254

Two computer security companies, Avast and AVG, were founded in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_255

In 2016, Avast led by Pavel Baudiš bought rival AVG for US$1.3 billion, together at the time, these companies had a user base of about 400 million people and 40% of the consumer market outside of China. Czech Republic_sentence_256

Avast is the leading provider of antivirus software, with a 20.5% market share. Czech Republic_sentence_257

Tourism Czech Republic_section_19

Main article: Tourism in the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_258

Prague is the fifth most visited city in Europe after London, Paris, Istanbul and Rome. Czech Republic_sentence_259

In 2001, the total earnings from tourism reached 118 billion CZK, making up 5.5% of GNP and 9% of overall export earnings. Czech Republic_sentence_260

The industry employs more than 110,000 people – over 1% of the population. Czech Republic_sentence_261

Guidebooks and tourists reporting overcharging by taxi drivers and pickpocketing problems are mainly in Prague, though the situation has improved recently. Czech Republic_sentence_262

Since 2005, Prague's mayor, Pavel Bém, has worked to improve this reputation by cracking down on petty crime and, aside from these problems, Prague is a "safe" city. Czech Republic_sentence_263

The Czech Republic's crime rate is described as "low". Czech Republic_sentence_264

One of the tourist attractions in the Czech Republic is the Nether district Vítkovice in Ostrava. Czech Republic_sentence_265

The Czech Republic boasts 14 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Czech Republic_sentence_266

All of them are in the cultural category. Czech Republic_sentence_267

As of 2018, further 18 sites are on the tentative list. Czech Republic_sentence_268

Architectural heritage is an object of interest to visitors – it includes castles and châteaux from different historical epoques, namely Karlštejn Castle, Český Krumlov and the Lednice–Valtice area. Czech Republic_sentence_269

There are 12 cathedrals and 15 churches elevated to the rank of basilica by the Pope, calm monasteries. Czech Republic_sentence_270

Away from the towns, areas such as Český ráj, Šumava and the Krkonoše mountains attract visitors seeking outdoor pursuits. Czech Republic_sentence_271

There is a number of beer festivals. Czech Republic_sentence_272

The country is also known for its various museums. Czech Republic_sentence_273

Puppetry and marionette exhibitions are with a number of puppet festivals throughout the country. Czech Republic_sentence_274

Aquapalace Praha in Čestlice near Prague, is the biggest water park in central Europe. Czech Republic_sentence_275

Demographics Czech Republic_section_20

Main article: Demographics of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_276

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2015 was estimated at 1.57 children born/woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. Czech Republic_sentence_277

The Czech Republic's population subsequently has an average age of 42.5 years. Czech Republic_sentence_278

The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 77.56 years (74.29 years male, 81.01 years female). Czech Republic_sentence_279

Immigration increased the population by almost 1% in 2007. Czech Republic_sentence_280

About 77,000 people immigrate to the Czech Republic annually. Czech Republic_sentence_281

Vietnamese immigrants began settling in the Czech Republic during the Communist period, when they were invited as guest workers by the Czechoslovak government. Czech Republic_sentence_282

In 2009, there were about 70,000 Vietnamese in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_283

Most decide to stay in the country permanently. Czech Republic_sentence_284

According to preliminary results of the 2011 census, the majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs (63.7%), followed by Moravians (4.9%), Slovaks (1.4%), Poles (0.4%), Germans (0.2%) and Silesians (0.1%). Czech Republic_sentence_285

As the 'nationality' was an optional item, a number of people left this field blank (26.0%). Czech Republic_sentence_286

According to some estimates, there are about 250,000 Romani people in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_287

The Polish minority resides mainly in the Zaolzie region. Czech Republic_sentence_288

There were 496,413 (4.5% of population) foreigners residing in the country in 2016, according to the Czech Statistical Office, with the largest groups being Ukrainian (22%), Slovak (22%), Vietnamese (12%), Russian (7%) and German (4%). Czech Republic_sentence_289

Most of the foreign population lives in Prague (37.3%) and Central Bohemia Region (13.2%). Czech Republic_sentence_290

The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia, 118,000 according to the 1930 census, was annihilated by the Nazi Germans during the Holocaust. Czech Republic_sentence_291

There were approximately 4,000 Jews in the Czech Republic in 2005. Czech Republic_sentence_292

The former Czech prime minister, Jan Fischer, is of Jewish faith. Czech Republic_sentence_293

At the turn of the 20th century, Chicago was the city with the third largest Czech population, after Prague and Vienna. Czech Republic_sentence_294

At the 2010 US census, there were 1,533,826 Americans of full or partial Czech descent. Czech Republic_sentence_295

Religion Czech Republic_section_21

Main articles: Religion in the Czech Republic and Religion in the European Union Czech Republic_sentence_296

The Czech Republic has 75% to 79% of people not declaring any religion or faith in polls and the percentage of convinced atheists being third highest (30%) behind China (47%) and Japan (31%). Czech Republic_sentence_297

The Czech people have been historically characterized as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion". Czech Republic_sentence_298

Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries introduced Catholicism. Czech Republic_sentence_299

After the Bohemian Reformation, most Czechs became followers of Jan Hus, Petr Chelčický and other regional Protestant Reformers. Czech Republic_sentence_300

Taborites and Utraquists were Hussite groups. Czech Republic_sentence_301

During the Hussite Wars, Utraquists sided with the Catholic Church. Czech Republic_sentence_302

Following the joint Utraquist—Catholic victory, Utraquism was accepted as a distinct form of Christianity to be practiced in Bohemia by the Catholic Church while all remaining Hussite groups were prohibited. Czech Republic_sentence_303

After the Reformation, some Bohemians went with the teachings of Martin Luther, especially Sudeten Germans. Czech Republic_sentence_304

In the wake of the Reformation, Utraquist Hussites took a renewed increasingly anti-Catholic stance, while some of the defeated Hussite factions were revived. Czech Republic_sentence_305

After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, the whole population was forcibly converted to Catholicism—even the Utraquist Hussites. Czech Republic_sentence_306

Going forward, Czechs have become more wary and pessimistic of religion as such. Czech Republic_sentence_307

A history of resistance to the Catholic Church followed. Czech Republic_sentence_308

It suffered a schism with the neo-Hussite Czechoslovak Hussite Church in 1920, lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern, ongoing secularization. Czech Republic_sentence_309

Protestantism never recovered after the Counter-Reformation was introduced by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1620. Czech Republic_sentence_310

According to the 2011 census, 34% of the population stated they had no religion, 10.3% was Catholic, 0.8% was Protestant (0.5% Czech Brethren and 0.4% Hussite), and 9% followed other forms of religion both denominational or not (of which 863 people answered they are Pagan). Czech Republic_sentence_311

45% of the population did not answer the question about religion. Czech Republic_sentence_312

From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Catholicism decreased from 39% to 27% and then to 10%; Protestantism similarly declined from 3.7% to 2% and then to 0.8%. Czech Republic_sentence_313

The Muslim population is estimated to be 20,000 representing 0.2% of the population. Czech Republic_sentence_314

Welfare Czech Republic_section_22

Main articles: Education in the Czech Republic and Healthcare in the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_315

Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for 9 years and citizens have access to a tuition-free university education, while the average number of years of education is 13.1. Czech Republic_sentence_316

Additionally, the Czech Republic has a "relatively equal" educational system in comparison with other countries in Europe. Czech Republic_sentence_317

Founded in 1348, Charles University was the first university in Central Europe. Czech Republic_sentence_318

Other major universities in the country are Masaryk University, Czech Technical University, Palacký University, Academy of Performing Arts and University of Economics. Czech Republic_sentence_319

The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks the Czech education system as the 15th most successful in the world, higher than the OECD average. Czech Republic_sentence_320

The UN Education Index ranks the Czech Republic 10th as of 2013 (positioned behind Denmark and ahead of South Korea). Czech Republic_sentence_321

Healthcare in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to other developed nations. Czech Republic_sentence_322

The Czech universal health care system is based on a compulsory insurance model, with fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans. Czech Republic_sentence_323

According to the 2016 Euro health consumer index, a comparison of healthcare in Europe, the Czech healthcare is 13th, ranked behind Sweden and two positions ahead of the United Kingdom. Czech Republic_sentence_324

Culture Czech Republic_section_23

Main article: Culture of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_325

Art Czech Republic_section_24

Venus of Dolní Věstonice is the treasure of prehistoric art. Czech Republic_sentence_326

Theodoric of Prague was a painter in the Gothic era who decorated the castle Karlstejn. Czech Republic_sentence_327

In the Baroque era, there were Wenceslaus Hollar, Jan Kupecký, Karel Škréta, Anton Raphael Mengs or Petr Brandl, sculptors Matthias Braun and Ferdinand Brokoff. Czech Republic_sentence_328

In the first half of the 19th century, Josef Mánes joined the romantic movement. Czech Republic_sentence_329

In the second half of the 19th century had the main say the so-called "National Theatre generation": sculptor Josef Václav Myslbek and painters Mikoláš Aleš, Václav Brožík, Vojtěch Hynais or Julius Mařák. Czech Republic_sentence_330

At the end of the century came a wave of Art Nouveau. Czech Republic_sentence_331

Alfons Mucha became the main representative. Czech Republic_sentence_332

He is known for Art Nouveau posters and his cycle of 20 large canvases named the Slav Epic, which depicts the history of Czechs and other Slavs. Czech Republic_sentence_333

As of 2012, the Slav Epic can be seen in the Veletržní Palace of the National Gallery in Prague, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_334

Max Švabinský was another Art nouveau painter. Czech Republic_sentence_335

The 20th century brought avant-garde revolution. Czech Republic_sentence_336

In the Czech lands mainly expressionist and cubist: Josef Čapek, Emil Filla, Bohumil Kubišta, Jan Zrzavý. Czech Republic_sentence_337

Surrealism emerged particularly in the work of Toyen, Josef Šíma and Karel Teige. Czech Republic_sentence_338

In the world, however, he pushed mainly František Kupka, a pioneer of abstract painting. Czech Republic_sentence_339

As illustrators and cartoonists in the first half of the 20th century gained fame Josef Lada, Zdeněk Burian or Emil Orlík. Czech Republic_sentence_340

Art photography has become a new field (František Drtikol, Josef Sudek, later Jan Saudek or Josef Koudelka). Czech Republic_sentence_341

The Czech Republic is known for its individually made, mouth blown and decorated Bohemian glass. Czech Republic_sentence_342

Architecture Czech Republic_section_25

Main article: Czech architecture Czech Republic_sentence_343

The earliest preserved stone buildings in Bohemia and Moravia date back to the time of the Christianization in the 9th and 10th century. Czech Republic_sentence_344

Since the Middle Ages, the Czech lands have been using the same architectural styles as most of Western and Central Europe. Czech Republic_sentence_345

The oldest still standing churches were built in the Romanesque style. Czech Republic_sentence_346

During the 13th century it was replaced by the Gothic style. Czech Republic_sentence_347

In the 14th century Emperor Charles IV invited to his court in Prague architects from France and Germany, Matthias of Arras and Peter Parler. Czech Republic_sentence_348

During the Middle Ages, some fortified castles were built by the king and aristocracy, as well as some monasteries. Czech Republic_sentence_349

The Renaissance style penetrated the Bohemian Crown in the late 15th century when the older Gothic style started to be mixed with Renaissance elements. Czech Republic_sentence_350

An example of the pure Renaissance architecture in Bohemia is the Queen Anne's Summer Palace, which was situated in the garden of Prague Castle. Czech Republic_sentence_351

Evidence of the general reception of the Renaissance in Bohemia, involving an influx of Italian architects, can be found in spacious châteaux with arcade courtyards and geometrically arranged gardens. Czech Republic_sentence_352

Emphasis was placed on comfort, and buildings that were built for entertainment purposes also appeared. Czech Republic_sentence_353

In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread throughout the Crown of Bohemia. Czech Republic_sentence_354

In the 18th century Bohemia produced an architectural peculiarity – the Baroque Gothic style, a synthesis of the Gothic and Baroque styles. Czech Republic_sentence_355

During the 19th century stands the revival architectural styles. Czech Republic_sentence_356

Some churches were restored to their presumed medieval appearance and there were constructed buildings in the Neo-Romanesque, Neo-Gothic and Neo-Renaissance styles. Czech Republic_sentence_357

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries the new art style appeared in the Czech lands – Art Nouveau. Czech Republic_sentence_358

Bohemia contributed an unusual style to the world's architectural heritage when Czech architects attempted to transpose the Cubism of painting and sculpture into architecture. Czech Republic_sentence_359

Between World Wars I and II, Functionalism, with its sober, progressive forms, took over as the main architectural style. Czech Republic_sentence_360

After World War II and the Communist coup in 1948, art in Czechoslovakia became Soviet influenced. Czech Republic_sentence_361

The Czechoslovak avant-garde artistic movement known as the Brussels style came up in the time of political liberalization of Czechoslovakia in the 1960s. Czech Republic_sentence_362

Brutalism dominated in the 1970s and 1980s. Czech Republic_sentence_363

The Czech Republic is not shying away from the more modern trends of international architecture. Czech Republic_sentence_364

Literature Czech Republic_section_26

Main article: Czech literature Czech Republic_sentence_365

The literature from the area of today's Czech Republic was mostly written in Czech, but also in Latin and German or even Old Church Slavonic. Czech Republic_sentence_366

Franz Kafka, who—while bilingual in Czech and German—wrote his works (The Trial, The Castle) in German. Czech Republic_sentence_367

In the second half of the 13th century, the royal court in Prague became one of the centers of the German Minnesang and courtly literature. Czech Republic_sentence_368

The Czech German-language literature can be seen in the first half of the 20th century. Czech Republic_sentence_369

Bible translations played a role in the development of Czech literature. Czech Republic_sentence_370

The oldest Czech translation of the Psalms originated in the late 13th century and the first complete Czech translation of the Bible was finished around 1360. Czech Republic_sentence_371

The first complete printed Czech Bible was published in 1488. Czech Republic_sentence_372

The first complete Czech Bible translation from the original languages was published between 1579 and 1593. Czech Republic_sentence_373

The Codex Gigas from the 12th century is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world. Czech Republic_sentence_374

Czech-language literature can be divided into several periods: the Middle Ages; the Hussite period; the Renaissance humanism; the Baroque period ; the Enlightenment and Czech reawakening in the first half of the 19th century, modern literature in second half of the 19th century; the avant-garde of the interwar period; the years under Communism; and the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_375

The antiwar comedy novel The Good Soldier Švejk is the most translated Czech book in history. Czech Republic_sentence_376

The international literary award the Franz Kafka Prize is awarded in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_377

The Czech Republic has the densest network of libraries in Europe. Czech Republic_sentence_378

Czech literature and culture played a role on at least two occasions when Czechs lived under oppression and political activity was suppressed. Czech Republic_sentence_379

On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the 1960s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to strive for political freedom, establishing a confident, politically aware nation. Czech Republic_sentence_380

Music Czech Republic_section_27

Main articles: Music of the Czech Lands and Moravian traditional music Czech Republic_sentence_381

The musical tradition of the Czech lands arose from first church hymns, whose first evidence is suggested at the break of 10th and 11th century. Czech Republic_sentence_382

Some pieces of Czech music include two chorales, which in their time performed the function of anthems: "Lord, Have Mercy on Us" and the hymn "Saint Wenceslas" or "Saint Wenceslas Chorale". Czech Republic_sentence_383

The authorship of the anthem "Lord, Have Mercy on Us" is ascribed by some historians to Saint Adalbert of Prague (sv.Vojtěch), bishop of Prague, living between 956 and 997. Czech Republic_sentence_384

The wealth of musical culture lies in the classical music tradition during all historical periods, especially in the Baroque, Classicism, Romantic, modern classical music and in the traditional folk music of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. Czech Republic_sentence_385

Since the early era of artificial music, Czech musicians and composers have been influenced the folk music of the region and dance. Czech Republic_sentence_386

Czech music can be considered to have been "beneficial" in both the European and worldwide context, several times co-determined or even determined a newly arriving era in musical art, above all of Classical era, as well as by original attitudes in Baroque, Romantic and modern classical music. Czech Republic_sentence_387

Some Czech musical works are The Bartered Bride, New World Symphony, Sinfonietta and Jenůfa. Czech Republic_sentence_388

A music festival in the country is Prague Spring International Music Festival of classical music, a permanent showcase for performing artists, symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world. Czech Republic_sentence_389

Theatre Czech Republic_section_28

Main article: Theatre of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_390

The roots of Czech theatre can be found in the Middle Ages, especially in cultural life of gothic period. Czech Republic_sentence_391

In the 19th century, the theatre played a role in the national awakening movement and later, in the 20th century it became a part of the modern European theatre art. Czech Republic_sentence_392

Original Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the 1950s. Czech Republic_sentence_393

This project called Laterna magika, resulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context. Czech Republic_sentence_394

A drama is Karel Čapek's play R.U.R. Czech Republic_sentence_395 , which introduced the word "robot". Czech Republic_sentence_396

Film Czech Republic_section_29

Main article: Cinema of the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_397

The tradition of Czech cinematography started in the second half of the 1890s. Czech Republic_sentence_398

Peaks of the production in the era of silent movies include the historical drama The Builder of the Temple and the social and erotic drama Erotikon directed by Gustav Machatý. Czech Republic_sentence_399

The early Czech sound film era was productive, above all in mainstream genres, with the comedies of Martin Frič or Karel Lamač. Czech Republic_sentence_400

There were dramatic movies sought internationally. Czech Republic_sentence_401

After the period of Nazi occupation and early communist official dramaturgy of socialist realism in movies at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s with a fewer exceptions such as Krakatit or Men without wings (awarded by Palme d'Or in 1946), an era of the Czech film began with animated films, performed in anglophone countries under the name "The Fabulous World of Jules Verne" from 1958, which combined acted drama with animation, and Jiří Trnka, the founder of the modern puppet film. Czech Republic_sentence_402

This began a tradition of animated films (Mole etc.). Czech Republic_sentence_403

In the 1960s, the hallmark of Czechoslovak New Wave's films were improvised dialogues, black and absurd humor and the occupation of non-actors. Czech Republic_sentence_404

Directors are trying to preserve natural atmosphere without refinement and artificial arrangement of scenes. Czech Republic_sentence_405

A personality of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s with original manuscript and psychological impact is František Vláčil. Czech Republic_sentence_406

Another international author is Jan Švankmajer, a filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media. Czech Republic_sentence_407

He is a self-labeled surrealist known for animations and features. Czech Republic_sentence_408

The Barrandov Studios in Prague are the largest film studios with film locations in the country. Czech Republic_sentence_409

Filmmakers have come to Prague to shoot scenery no longer found in Berlin, Paris and Vienna. Czech Republic_sentence_410

The city of Karlovy Vary was used as a location for the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale. Czech Republic_sentence_411

The Czech Lion is the highest Czech award for film achievement. Czech Republic_sentence_412

Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is one of the film festivals that have been given competitive status by the FIAPF. Czech Republic_sentence_413

Other film festivals held in the country include Febiofest, Jihlava International Documentary Film Festival, One World Film Festival, Zlín Film Festival and Fresh Film Festival. Czech Republic_sentence_414

Media Czech Republic_section_30

Journalists and media enjoy a degree of freedom. Czech Republic_sentence_415

There are restrictions against writing in support of Nazism, racism or violating Czech law. Czech Republic_sentence_416

The Czech press was ranked as the 23rd most free press in the World Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders in 2017. Czech Republic_sentence_417

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty has its headquarters in Prague. Czech Republic_sentence_418

The most watched main news program is TV Nova. Czech Republic_sentence_419

A news webpage in the Czech Republic is, which is owned by Czech Television – the only national public television service – and its 24-hour news channel ČT24. Czech Republic_sentence_420

Other public services include the Czech Radio and the Czech News Agency (ČTK). Czech Republic_sentence_421

For privately owned television services, there is TV Nova, the most popular channel in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic_sentence_422

The best-selling daily national newspapers are Blesk (average 1.15M daily readers), Mladá fronta DNES (average 752,000 daily readers), Právo (average 260,00 daily readers) and Deník (average 72,000 daily readers). Czech Republic_sentence_423

Cuisine Czech Republic_section_31

Main article: Czech cuisine Czech Republic_sentence_424

Czech cuisine is marked by an emphasis on meat dishes with pork, beef and chicken. Czech Republic_sentence_425

Goose, duck, rabbit and venison are served. Czech Republic_sentence_426

Fish is less common, with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carp, which is served at Christmas. Czech Republic_sentence_427

Czech beer with the first brewery is known to have existed in 993 and the Czech Republic has the highest beer consumption per capita in the world. Czech Republic_sentence_428

The "pilsner style beer" (pils) originated in Plzeň, where the world's first-ever blond lager Pilsner Urquell is still being produced, making it the inspiration for more than two-thirds of the beer produced in the world today. Czech Republic_sentence_429

Further south the town of České Budějovice, lent its name to its beer, known as Budweiser Budvar. Czech Republic_sentence_430

Tourism around the Southern Moravian region has been producing wine since the Middle Ages; about 94% of vineyards in the Czech Republic are Moravian. Czech Republic_sentence_431

Aside from slivovitz, Czech beer and wine, the Czechs also produce two liquors, Fernet Stock and Becherovka. Czech Republic_sentence_432

Kofola is a non-alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Czech Republic_sentence_433

There is also a variety of local sausages, wurst, pâtés, and smoked and cured meats. Czech Republic_sentence_434

Czech desserts include a variety of whipped cream, chocolate, and fruit pastries and tarts, crêpes, creme desserts and cheese, poppy-seed-filled and other types of traditional cakes such as buchty, koláče and štrúdl. Czech Republic_sentence_435

Sports Czech Republic_section_32

Main article: Sport in the Czech Republic Czech Republic_sentence_436

The most watched events in Czechia are Olympic Ice hockey tournaments and Ice Hockey Championships. Czech Republic_sentence_437

The two leading sports are association football and ice hockey. Czech Republic_sentence_438

Other most popular sports according to the size of the membership base of sports clubs include tennis, volleyball, floorball, golf, ball hockey, athletics, basketball and skiing. Czech Republic_sentence_439

The country has won 14 gold medals in summer and five gold medals in winter Olympic history. Czech Republic_sentence_440

The Czech ice hockey team won the gold medal at the 1998 Winter Olympics and has won twelve gold medals at the World Championships, including three straight from 1999 to 2001. Czech Republic_sentence_441

The Škoda Motorsport is engaged in competition racing since 1901, and has gained a number of titles with various vehicles around the world. Czech Republic_sentence_442

MTX automobile company was formerly engaged in the manufacture of racing and formula cars since 1969. Czech Republic_sentence_443

A sport done here is hiking. Czech Republic_sentence_444

The word for "tourist" in the Czech language, turista, also means "trekker" or "hiker". Czech Republic_sentence_445

For hikers, thanks to the more than 120-year-old tradition, there is a Czech Hiking Markers System of trail blazing, that has been adopted by countries worldwide. Czech Republic_sentence_446

There is a network of around 40,000 km of marked short- and long-distance trails crossing the whole country and all the Czech mountains. Czech Republic_sentence_447

See also Czech Republic_section_33

Czech Republic_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Republic.