Czech language

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Czech language_table_infobox_0

CzechCzech language_header_cell_0_0_0
Native toCzech language_header_cell_0_1_0 Czech RepublicCzech language_cell_0_1_1
EthnicityCzech language_header_cell_0_2_0 CzechsCzech language_cell_0_2_1
Native speakersCzech language_header_cell_0_3_0 10.7 million (2015)Czech language_cell_0_3_1
Language familyCzech language_header_cell_0_4_0 Indo-EuropeanCzech language_cell_0_4_1
Writing systemCzech language_header_cell_0_5_0 Latin script (Czech alphabet)

Czech BrailleCzech language_cell_0_5_1

Official statusCzech language_header_cell_0_6_0
Official language inCzech language_header_cell_0_7_0 Czech Republic

 European UnionCzech language_cell_0_7_1

Recognised minority

language inCzech language_header_cell_0_8_0


 Bosnia and Herzegovina  Croatia  Poland  Romania  SlovakiaCzech language_cell_0_8_1

Regulated byCzech language_header_cell_0_9_0 Institute of the Czech Language

(of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic)Czech language_cell_0_9_1

Language codesCzech language_header_cell_0_10_0
ISO 639-1Czech language_header_cell_0_11_0 Czech language_cell_0_11_1
ISO 639-2Czech language_header_cell_0_12_0 (B)

 (T)Czech language_cell_0_12_1

ISO 639-3Czech language_header_cell_0_13_0 Czech language_cell_0_13_1
GlottologCzech language_header_cell_0_14_0 Czech language_cell_0_14_1
LinguasphereCzech language_header_cell_0_15_0 53-AAA-da < 53-AAA-b...-d

(varieties: 53-AAA-daa to 53-AAA-dam)Czech language_cell_0_15_1

IETFCzech language_header_cell_0_16_0 csCzech language_cell_0_16_1

Czech (/tʃɛk/; Czech čeština [ˈtʃɛʃcɪna), historically also Bohemian (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/; lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Czech language_sentence_0

Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech language_sentence_1

Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree, as well as Polish. Czech language_sentence_2

Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Czech language_sentence_3

Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German. Czech language_sentence_4

The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic in the high medieval period, and the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period. Czech language_sentence_5

In the later 18th to mid-19th century, the modern written standard became codified in the context of the Czech National Revival. Czech language_sentence_6

The main non-standard variety, known as Common Czech, is based on the vernacular of Prague, but is now spoken as an interdialect throughout most of the Czech Republic. Czech language_sentence_7

The Moravian dialects spoken in the eastern part of the country are also classified as Czech, although some of their eastern variants are closer to Slovak. Czech language_sentence_8

Czech has a moderately-sized phoneme inventory, comprising ten monophthongs, three diphthongs and 25 consonants (divided into "hard", "neutral" and "soft" categories). Czech language_sentence_9

Words may contain complicated consonant clusters or lack vowels altogether. Czech language_sentence_10

Czech has a raised alveolar trill, which is known to occur as a phoneme in only a few other languages, represented by the grapheme ř. Czech language_sentence_11

Czech uses a simple orthography which phonologists have used as a model. Czech language_sentence_12

Classification Czech language_section_0

Further information: Czech-Slovak languages and West Slavic languages Czech language_sentence_13

Czech is a member of the West Slavic sub-branch of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. Czech language_sentence_14

This branch includes Polish, Kashubian, Upper and Lower Sorbian and Slovak. Czech language_sentence_15

Slovak is the most closely related language to Czech, followed by Polish and Silesian. Czech language_sentence_16

The West Slavic languages are spoken in Central Europe. Czech language_sentence_17

Czech is distinguished from other West Slavic languages by a more-restricted distinction between "hard" and "soft" consonants (see Phonology below). Czech language_sentence_18

History Czech language_section_1

Main article: History of the Czech language Czech language_sentence_19

See also: History of the Czech lands Czech language_sentence_20

Medieval/Old Czech Czech language_section_2

The term "Old Czech" is applied to the period predating the 16th century, with the earliest records of the high medieval period also classified as "early Old Czech", but the term "Medieval Czech" is also used. Czech language_sentence_21

Around the 7th century, the Slavic expansion reached Central Europe, settling on the eastern fringes of the Frankish Empire. Czech language_sentence_22

The West Slavic polity of Great Moravia formed by the 9th century. Czech language_sentence_23

The Christianization of Bohemia took place during the 9th and 10th centuries. Czech language_sentence_24

The diversification of the Czech-Slovak group within West Slavic began around that time, marked among other things by its use of the voiced velar fricative consonant (/ɣ/) and consistent stress on the first syllable. Czech language_sentence_25

The Bohemian (Czech) language is first recorded in writing in glosses and short notes during the 12th to 13th centuries. Czech language_sentence_26

Literary works written in Czech appear in the late 13th and early 14th century and administrative documents first appear towards the late 14th century. Czech language_sentence_27

The first complete Bible translation also dates to this period. Czech language_sentence_28

Old Czech texts, including poetry and cookbooks, were produced outside the university as well. Czech language_sentence_29

Literary activity becomes widespread in the early 15th century in the context of the Bohemian Reformation. Czech language_sentence_30

Jan Hus contributed significantly to the standardization of Czech orthography, advocated for widespread literacy among Czech commoners (particularly in religion) and made early efforts to model written Czech after the spoken language. Czech language_sentence_31

Early Modern Czech Czech language_section_3

There was no standardization distinguishing between Czech and Slovak prior to the 15th century. Czech language_sentence_32

In the 16th century, the division between Czech and Slovak becomes apparent, marking the confessional division between Lutheran Protestants in Slovakia using Czech orthography and Catholics, especially Slovak Jesuits, beginning to use a separate Slovak orthography based on the language of the Trnava region. Czech language_sentence_33

The publication of the Kralice Bible between 1579 and 1593 (the first complete Czech translation of the Bible from the original languages) became very important for standardization of the Czech language in the following centuries. Czech language_sentence_34

In 1615, the Bohemian diet tried to declare Czech to be the only official language of the kingdom. Czech language_sentence_35

After the Bohemian Revolt (of predominantly Protestant aristocracy) which was defeated by the Habsburgs in 1620, the Protestant intellectuals had to leave the country. Czech language_sentence_36

This emigration together with other consequences of the Thirty Years' War had a negative impact on the further use of the Czech language. Czech language_sentence_37

In 1627, Czech and German became official languages of the Kingdom of Bohemia and in the 18th century German became dominant in Bohemia and Moravia, especially among the upper classes. Czech language_sentence_38

Modern Czech Czech language_section_4

See also: Czech National Revival Czech language_sentence_39

The modern standard Czech language originates in standardization efforts of the 18th century. Czech language_sentence_40

By then the language had developed a literary tradition, and since then it has changed little; journals from that period have no substantial differences from modern standard Czech, and contemporary Czechs can understand them with little difficulty. Czech language_sentence_41

Sometime before the 18th century, the Czech language abandoned a distinction between phonemic /l/ and /ʎ/ which survives in Slovak. Czech language_sentence_42

With the beginning of the national revival of the mid-18th century, Czech historians began to emphasize their people's accomplishments from the 15th through the 17th centuries, rebelling against the Counter-Reformation (the Habsburg re-catholization efforts which had denigrated Czech and other non-Latin languages). Czech language_sentence_43

Czech philologists studied sixteenth-century texts, advocating the return of the language to high culture. Czech language_sentence_44

This period is known as the Czech National Revival (or Renaissance). Czech language_sentence_45

During the national revival, in 1809 linguist and historian Josef Dobrovský released a German-language grammar of Old Czech entitled Ausführliches Lehrgebäude der böhmischen Sprache (Comprehensive Doctrine of the Bohemian Language). Czech language_sentence_46

Dobrovský had intended his book to be descriptive, and did not think Czech had a realistic chance of returning as a major language. Czech language_sentence_47

However, Josef Jungmann and other revivalists used Dobrovský's book to advocate for a Czech linguistic revival. Czech language_sentence_48

Changes during this time included spelling reform (notably, í in place of the former j and j in place of g), the use of t (rather than ti) to end infinitive verbs and the non-capitalization of nouns (which had been a late borrowing from German). Czech language_sentence_49

These changes differentiated Czech from Slovak. Czech language_sentence_50

Modern scholars disagree about whether the conservative revivalists were motivated by nationalism or considered contemporary spoken Czech unsuitable for formal, widespread use. Czech language_sentence_51

Adherence to historical patterns was later relaxed and standard Czech adopted a number of features from Common Czech (a widespread, informally used interdialectal variety), such as leaving some proper nouns undeclined. Czech language_sentence_52

This has resulted in a relatively high level of homogeneity among all varieties of the language. Czech language_sentence_53

Geographic distribution Czech language_section_5

Czech is spoken by about 10 million residents of the Czech Republic. Czech language_sentence_54

A Eurobarometer survey conducted from January to March 2012 found that the first language of 98 percent of Czech citizens was Czech, the third-highest proportion of a population in the European Union (behind Greece and Hungary). Czech language_sentence_55

As the official language of the Czech Republic (a member of the European Union since 2004), Czech is one of the EU's official languages and the 2012 Eurobarometer survey found that Czech was the foreign language most often used in Slovakia. Czech language_sentence_56

Economist Jonathan van Parys collected data on language knowledge in Europe for the 2012 European Day of Languages. Czech language_sentence_57

The five countries with the greatest use of Czech were the Czech Republic (98.77 percent), Slovakia (24.86 percent), Portugal (1.93 percent), Poland (0.98 percent) and Germany (0.47 percent). Czech language_sentence_58

Czech speakers in Slovakia primarily live in cities. Czech language_sentence_59

Since it is a recognised minority language in Slovakia, Slovak citizens who speak only Czech may communicate with the government in their language to the extent that Slovak speakers in the Czech Republic may do so. Czech language_sentence_60

United States Czech language_section_6

See also: Czech American and Czech Texan Czech language_sentence_61

Immigration of Czechs from Europe to the United States occurred primarily from 1848 to 1914. Czech language_sentence_62

Czech is a Less Commonly Taught Language in U.S. schools, and is taught at Czech heritage centers. Czech language_sentence_63

Large communities of Czech Americans live in the states of Texas, Nebraska and Wisconsin. Czech language_sentence_64

In the 2000 United States Census, Czech was reported as the commonest language spoken at home (besides English) in Valley, Butler and Saunders Counties, Nebraska and Republic County, Kansas. Czech language_sentence_65

With the exception of Spanish (the non-English language most commonly spoken at home nationwide), Czech was the commonest home language in more than a dozen additional counties in Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, North Dakota and Minnesota. Czech language_sentence_66

As of 2009, 70,500 Americans spoke Czech as their first language (49th place nationwide, after Turkish and before Swedish). Czech language_sentence_67

Phonology Czech language_section_7

Main article: Czech phonology Czech language_sentence_68

Standard Czech contains ten basic vowel phonemes, and three diphthongs. Czech language_sentence_69

The vowels are /a/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /o/, and /u/, and their long counterparts /aː/, /ɛː/, /iː/, /oː/ and /uː/. Czech language_sentence_70

The diphthongs are /ou̯/, /au̯/ and /ɛu̯/; the last two are found only in loanwords such as auto "car" and euro "euro". Czech language_sentence_71

In Czech orthography, the vowels are spelled as follows: Czech language_sentence_72

Czech language_unordered_list_0

  • Short: a, e/ě, i/y, o, uCzech language_item_0_0
  • Long: á, é, í/ý, ó, ú/ůCzech language_item_0_1
  • Diphthongs: ou, au, euCzech language_item_0_2

The letter ⟨ě⟩ indicates that the previous consonant is palatalised (e.g. něco /ɲɛt͡so/). Czech language_sentence_73

After a labial it represents /jɛ/ (e.g. běs /bjɛs/); but ⟨mě⟩ is pronounced /mɲɛ/, cf. Czech language_sentence_74

měkký (/mɲɛkiː/). Czech language_sentence_75

Each word usually has primary stress on its first syllable, except for enclitics (minor, monosyllabic, unstressed syllables). Czech language_sentence_76

In all words of more than two syllables, every odd-numbered syllable receives secondary stress. Czech language_sentence_77

Stress is unrelated to vowel length; both long and short vowels can be stressed or unstressed. Czech language_sentence_78

Vowels are never reduced in tone (e.g. to schwa sounds) when unstressed. Czech language_sentence_79

When a noun is preceded by a monosyllabic preposition, the stress moves to the preposition, e.g. do Prahy "to Prague". Czech language_sentence_80

Voiced consonants with unvoiced counterparts are unvoiced at the end of a word before a pause, and in consonant clusters voicing assimilation occurs, which matches voicing to the following consonant. Czech language_sentence_81

The unvoiced counterpart of /ɦ/ is /x/. Czech language_sentence_82

Czech consonants are categorized as "hard", "neutral", or "soft": Czech language_sentence_83

Czech language_unordered_list_1

  • Hard: /d/, /ɡ/, /ɦ/, /k/, /n/, /r/, /t/, /x/Czech language_item_1_3
  • Neutral: /b/, /f/, /l/, /m/, /p/, /s/, /v/, /z/Czech language_item_1_4
  • Soft: /c/, /ɟ/, /j/, /ɲ/, /r̝/, /ʃ/, /t͡s/, /t͡ʃ/, /ʒ/Czech language_item_1_5

In Czech orthography, the consonants are spelled as follows: Czech language_sentence_84

Czech language_unordered_list_2

  • Hard: d, g, h, k, n, r, t, chCzech language_item_2_6
  • Neutral: b, f, l, m, p, s, v, zCzech language_item_2_7
  • Soft: ť/Ť, ď/Ď, j, ň, ř, š, c, č, žCzech language_item_2_8

Hard consonants may not be followed by i or í in writing, or soft ones by y or ý (except in loanwords such as kilogram). Czech language_sentence_85

Neutral consonants may take either character. Czech language_sentence_86

Hard consonants are sometimes known as "strong", and soft ones as "weak". Czech language_sentence_87

This distinction is also found in the declension patterns of nouns, which vary according to whether the final consonant of the noun is hard or soft. Czech language_sentence_88

The phoneme represented by the letter ř (capital Ř) is often considered unique to Czech. Czech language_sentence_89

It represents the raised alveolar non-sonorant trill (IPA: [r̝]), a sound somewhere between Czech's r and ž (example: "řeka" (river) (help·)), and is present in Dvořák. Czech language_sentence_90

In unvoiced environments, /r̝/ is realized as its voiceless allophone [r̝̊]. Czech language_sentence_91

The consonants /r/, /l/, and /m/ can be syllabic, acting as syllable nuclei in place of a vowel. Czech language_sentence_92

Strč prst skrz krk ("Stick [your] finger through [your] throat") is a well-known Czech tongue twister using only syllabic consonants. Czech language_sentence_93

Grammar Czech language_section_8

Czech grammar, like that of other Slavic languages, is fusional; its nouns, verbs, and adjectives are inflected by phonological processes to modify their meanings and grammatical functions, and the easily separable affixes characteristic of agglutinative languages are limited. Czech language_sentence_94

Czech inflects for case, gender and number in nouns and tense, aspect, mood, person and subject number and gender in verbs. Czech language_sentence_95

Parts of speech include adjectives, adverbs, numbers, interrogative words, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Czech language_sentence_96

Adverbs are primarily formed from adjectives by taking the final ý or í of the base form and replacing it with e, ě, or o. Czech language_sentence_97

Negative statements are formed by adding the affix to the main verb of a clause, with one exception: je (he, she or it is) becomes není. Czech language_sentence_98

Sentence and clause structure Czech language_section_9

See also: Czech word order Czech language_sentence_99

Czech language_table_general_1

Czech pronouns, nominative caseCzech language_table_caption_1
PersonCzech language_header_cell_1_0_0 SingularCzech language_header_cell_1_0_1 PluralCzech language_header_cell_1_0_2
1.Czech language_header_cell_1_1_0 Czech language_cell_1_1_1 myCzech language_cell_1_1_2
2.Czech language_header_cell_1_2_0 ty

vy (formal)Czech language_cell_1_2_1

vyCzech language_cell_1_2_2
3.Czech language_header_cell_1_3_0 on (masculine)

ona (feminine) ono (neuter)Czech language_cell_1_3_1

oni (masculine)

ony (feminine) ona (neuter)Czech language_cell_1_3_2

Because Czech uses grammatical case to convey word function in a sentence (instead of relying on word order, as English does), its word order is flexible. Czech language_sentence_100

As a pro-drop language, in Czech an intransitive sentence can consist of only a verb; information about its subject is encoded in the verb. Czech language_sentence_101

Enclitics (primarily auxiliary verbs and pronouns) appear in the second syntactic slot of a sentence, after the first stressed unit. Czech language_sentence_102

The first slot must contain a subject or object, a main form of a verb, an adverb, or a conjunction (except for the light conjunctions a, "and", i, "and even" or ale, "but"). Czech language_sentence_103

Czech syntax has a subject–verb–object sentence structure. Czech language_sentence_104

In practice, however, word order is flexible and used for topicalization and focus. Czech language_sentence_105

Although Czech has a periphrastic passive construction (like English), in colloquial style, word-order changes frequently replace the passive voice. Czech language_sentence_106

For example, to change "Peter killed Paul" to "Paul was killed by Peter" the order of subject and object is inverted: Petr zabil Pavla ("Peter killed Paul") becomes "Paul, Peter killed" (Pavla zabil Petr). Czech language_sentence_107

Pavla is in the accusative case, the grammatical object of the verb. Czech language_sentence_108

A word at the end of a clause is typically emphasized, unless an upward intonation indicates that the sentence is a question: Czech language_sentence_109

Czech language_unordered_list_3

  • Pes jí bagetu. – The dog eats the baguette (rather than eating something else).Czech language_item_3_9
  • Bagetu jí pes. – The dog eats the baguette (rather than someone else doing so).Czech language_item_3_10
  • Pes bagetu jí. – The dog eats the baguette (rather than doing something else to it).Czech language_item_3_11
  • Jí pes bagetu? – Does the dog eat the baguette? (emphasis ambiguous)Czech language_item_3_12

In parts of Bohemia (including Prague), questions such as Jí pes bagetu? Czech language_sentence_110

without an interrogative word (such as co, "what" or kdo, "who") are intoned in a slow rise from low to high, quickly dropping to low on the last word or phrase. Czech language_sentence_111

In modern Czech syntax, adjectives precede nouns, with few exceptions. Czech language_sentence_112

Relative clauses are introduced by relativizers such as the adjective který, analogous to the English relative pronouns "which", "that" and "who"/"whom". Czech language_sentence_113

As with other adjectives, it agrees with its associated noun in gender, number and case. Czech language_sentence_114

Relative clauses follow the noun they modify. Czech language_sentence_115

The following is a glossed example: Czech language_sentence_116

English: I want to visit the university that John attends. Czech language_sentence_117

Declension Czech language_section_10

Main article: Czech declension Czech language_sentence_118

In Czech, nouns and adjectives are declined into one of seven grammatical cases which indicate their function in a sentence, two numbers (singular and plural) and three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). Czech language_sentence_119

The masculine gender is further divided into animate and inanimate classes. Czech language_sentence_120

Case Czech language_section_11

A nominative–accusative language, Czech marks subject nouns of transitive and intransitive verbs in the nominative case, which is the form found in dictionaries, and direct objects of transitive verbs are declined in the accusative case. Czech language_sentence_121

The vocative case is used to address people. Czech language_sentence_122

The remaining cases (genitive, dative, locative and instrumental) indicate semantic relationships, such as noun adjuncts (genitive), indirect objects (dative), or agents in passive constructions (instrumental). Czech language_sentence_123

Additionally prepositions and some verbs require their complements to be declined in a certain case. Czech language_sentence_124

The locative case is only used after prepositions. Czech language_sentence_125

An adjective's case agrees with that of the noun it modifies. Czech language_sentence_126

When Czech children learn their language's declension patterns, the cases are referred to by number: Czech language_sentence_127

Czech language_table_general_2

Cases in CzechCzech language_table_caption_2
No.Czech language_header_cell_2_0_0 Ordinal name (Czech)Czech language_header_cell_2_0_1 Full name (Czech)Czech language_header_cell_2_0_2 CaseCzech language_header_cell_2_0_3 Main usageCzech language_header_cell_2_0_4
1.Czech language_cell_2_1_0 první pádCzech language_cell_2_1_1 nominativCzech language_cell_2_1_2 nominativeCzech language_header_cell_2_1_3 SubjectsCzech language_cell_2_1_4
2.Czech language_cell_2_2_0 druhý pádCzech language_cell_2_2_1 genitivCzech language_cell_2_2_2 genitiveCzech language_header_cell_2_2_3 Noun adjuncts, possession, prepositions of motion, time and locationCzech language_cell_2_2_4
3.Czech language_cell_2_3_0 třetí pádCzech language_cell_2_3_1 dativCzech language_cell_2_3_2 dativeCzech language_header_cell_2_3_3 Indirect objects, prepositions of motionCzech language_cell_2_3_4
4.Czech language_cell_2_4_0 čtvrtý pádCzech language_cell_2_4_1 akuzativCzech language_cell_2_4_2 accusativeCzech language_header_cell_2_4_3 Direct objects, prepositions of motion and timeCzech language_cell_2_4_4
5.Czech language_cell_2_5_0 pátý pádCzech language_cell_2_5_1 vokativCzech language_cell_2_5_2 vocativeCzech language_header_cell_2_5_3 Addressing someoneCzech language_cell_2_5_4
6.Czech language_cell_2_6_0 šestý pádCzech language_cell_2_6_1 lokálCzech language_cell_2_6_2 locativeCzech language_header_cell_2_6_3 Prepositions of location, time and topicCzech language_cell_2_6_4
7.Czech language_cell_2_7_0 sedmý pádCzech language_cell_2_7_1 instrumentálCzech language_cell_2_7_2 instrumentalCzech language_header_cell_2_7_3 Passive agents, instruments, prepositions of locationCzech language_cell_2_7_4

Some Czech grammatical texts order the cases differently, grouping the nominative and accusative (and the dative and locative) together because those declension patterns are often identical; this order accommodates learners with experience in other inflected languages, such as Latin or Russian. Czech language_sentence_128

This order is nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental and vocative. Czech language_sentence_129

Some prepositions require the nouns they modify to take a particular case. Czech language_sentence_130

The cases assigned by each preposition are based on the physical (or metaphorical) direction, or location, conveyed by it. Czech language_sentence_131

For example, (from, away from) and (out of, off) assign the genitive case. Czech language_sentence_132

Other prepositions take one of several cases, with their meaning dependent on the case; means "onto" or "for" with the accusative case, but "on" with the locative. Czech language_sentence_133

This is a glossed example of a sentence using several cases: Czech language_sentence_134

English: I carried the box into the house with my friend. Czech language_sentence_135

Gender Czech language_section_12

Czech distinguishes three genders—masculine, feminine, and neuter—and the masculine gender is subdivided into animate and inanimate. Czech language_sentence_136

With few exceptions, feminine nouns in the nominative case end in -a, -e, or a consonant; neuter nouns in -o, -e, or -í, and masculine nouns in a consonant. Czech language_sentence_137

Adjectives agree in gender and animacy with the nouns they modify. Czech language_sentence_138

The main effect of gender in Czech morphology is the difference in noun and adjective declension, as well as in endings of verbal participles and past-tense verbs, which are also marked for gender, e.g. dělal (he did, or made); dělala (she did, or made) and dělalo (it did, or made). Czech language_sentence_139

Gender also plays a semantic role; most nouns that describe people and animals, including personal names, have separate masculine and feminine forms which are normally formed by adding a suffix to the stem, for example Čech (Czech man) has the feminine form Češka (Czech woman). Czech language_sentence_140

Examples of declension patterns for noun phrases of various genders follow: Czech language_sentence_141

Czech language_table_general_3

CaseCzech language_header_cell_3_0_0 Noun/adjectiveCzech language_header_cell_3_0_1
Big dog (m. anim. sg.)Czech language_cell_3_1_0 Black backpack (m. inanim. sg.)Czech language_cell_3_1_1 Small cat (f. sg.)Czech language_cell_3_1_2 Hard wood (n. sg.)Czech language_cell_3_1_3
Nom.Czech language_header_cell_3_2_0 velký pes

(big dog)Czech language_cell_3_2_1

černý batoh

(black backpack)Czech language_cell_3_2_2

malá kočka

(small cat)Czech language_cell_3_2_3

tvrdé dřevo

(hard wood)Czech language_cell_3_2_4

Gen.Czech language_header_cell_3_3_0 bez velkého psa

(without the big dog)Czech language_cell_3_3_1

bez černého batohu

(without the black backpack)Czech language_cell_3_3_2

bez malé kočky

(without the small cat)Czech language_cell_3_3_3

bez tvrdého dřeva

(without the hard wood)Czech language_cell_3_3_4

Dat.Czech language_header_cell_3_4_0 k velkému psovi

(to the big dog)Czech language_cell_3_4_1

ke černému batohu

(to the black backpack)Czech language_cell_3_4_2

k malé kočce

(to the small cat)Czech language_cell_3_4_3

ke tvrdému dřevu

(to the hard wood)Czech language_cell_3_4_4

Acc.Czech language_header_cell_3_5_0 vidím velkého psa

(I see the big dog)Czech language_cell_3_5_1

vidím černý batoh

(I see the black backpack)Czech language_cell_3_5_2

vidím malou kočku

(I see the small cat)Czech language_cell_3_5_3

vidím tvrdé dřevo

(I see the hard wood)Czech language_cell_3_5_4

Voc.Czech language_header_cell_3_6_0 velký pse!

(big dog!)Czech language_cell_3_6_1

černý batohu!

(black backpack!)Czech language_cell_3_6_2

malá kočko!

(small cat!)Czech language_cell_3_6_3

tvrdé dřevo!

(hard wood!)Czech language_cell_3_6_4

Loc.Czech language_header_cell_3_7_0 o velkém psovi

(about the big dog)Czech language_cell_3_7_1

o černém batohu

(about the black backpack)Czech language_cell_3_7_2

o malé kočce

(about the small cat)Czech language_cell_3_7_3

o tvrdém dřevě

(about the hard wood)Czech language_cell_3_7_4

Inst.Czech language_header_cell_3_8_0 s velkým psem

(with the big dog)Czech language_cell_3_8_1

s černým batohem

(with the black backpack)Czech language_cell_3_8_2

s malou kočkou

(with the small cat)Czech language_cell_3_8_3

s tvrdým dřevem

(with the hard wood)Czech language_cell_3_8_4

Number Czech language_section_13

Nouns are also inflected for number, distinguishing between singular and plural. Czech language_sentence_142

Typical of a Slavic language, Czech cardinal numbers one through four allow the nouns and adjectives they modify to take any case, but numbers over five require subject and direct object noun phrases to be declined in the genitive plural instead of the nominative or accusative, and when used as subjects these phrases take singular verbs. Czech language_sentence_143

For example: Czech language_sentence_144

Czech language_table_general_4

EnglishCzech language_header_cell_4_0_0 CzechCzech language_header_cell_4_0_1
one Czech crown was...Czech language_cell_4_1_0 jedna koruna česká byla...Czech language_cell_4_1_1
two Czech crowns were...Czech language_cell_4_2_0 dvě koruny české byly...Czech language_cell_4_2_1
three Czech crowns were...Czech language_cell_4_3_0 tři koruny české byly...Czech language_cell_4_3_1
four Czech crowns were...Czech language_cell_4_4_0 čtyři koruny české byly...Czech language_cell_4_4_1
five Czech crowns were...Czech language_cell_4_5_0 pět korun českých bylo...Czech language_cell_4_5_1

Numbers decline for case, and the numbers one and two are also inflected for gender. Czech language_sentence_145

Numbers one through five are shown below as examples. Czech language_sentence_146

The number one has declension patterns identical to those of the demonstrative pronoun . Czech language_sentence_147

Czech language_table_general_5

Czech language_header_cell_5_0_0 1Czech language_header_cell_5_0_1 2Czech language_header_cell_5_0_2 3Czech language_header_cell_5_0_3 4Czech language_header_cell_5_0_4 5Czech language_header_cell_5_0_5
NominativeCzech language_header_cell_5_1_0 jeden (masc)

jedna (fem) jedno (neut)Czech language_cell_5_1_1

dva (masc)

dvě (fem, neut)Czech language_cell_5_1_2

třiCzech language_cell_5_1_3 čtyřiCzech language_cell_5_1_4 pětCzech language_cell_5_1_5
GenitiveCzech language_header_cell_5_2_0 jednoho (masc)

jedné (fem) jednoho (neut)Czech language_cell_5_2_1

dvouCzech language_cell_5_2_2 tří or třechCzech language_cell_5_2_3 čtyř or čtyřechCzech language_cell_5_2_4 pětiCzech language_cell_5_2_5
DativeCzech language_header_cell_5_3_0 jednomu (masc)

jedné (fem) jednomu (neut)Czech language_cell_5_3_1

dvěmaCzech language_cell_5_3_2 třemCzech language_cell_5_3_3 čtyřemCzech language_cell_5_3_4 pětiCzech language_cell_5_3_5
AccusativeCzech language_header_cell_5_4_0 jednoho (masc an.)

jeden (masc in.) jednu (fem) jedno (neut)Czech language_cell_5_4_1

dva (masc)

dvě (fem, neut)Czech language_cell_5_4_2

třiCzech language_cell_5_4_3 čtyřiCzech language_cell_5_4_4 pětCzech language_cell_5_4_5
LocativeCzech language_header_cell_5_5_0 jednom (masc)

jedné (fem) jednom (neut)Czech language_cell_5_5_1

dvouCzech language_cell_5_5_2 třechCzech language_cell_5_5_3 čtyřechCzech language_cell_5_5_4 pětiCzech language_cell_5_5_5
InstrumentalCzech language_header_cell_5_6_0 jedním (masc)

jednou (fem) jedním (neut)Czech language_cell_5_6_1

dvěmaCzech language_cell_5_6_2 třemiCzech language_cell_5_6_3 čtyřmiCzech language_cell_5_6_4 pětiCzech language_cell_5_6_5

Although Czech's grammatical numbers are singular and plural, several residuals of dual forms remain, such as the words dva ("two") and oba ("both"), which decline the same way. Czech language_sentence_148

Some nouns for paired body parts use a historical dual form to express plural in some cases: (hand)—ruce (nominative); (leg)—nohama (instrumental), nohou (genitive/locative); (eye)—oči, and (ear)—uši. Czech language_sentence_149

While two of these nouns are neuter in their singular forms, all plural forms are considered feminine; their gender is relevant to their associated adjectives and verbs. Czech language_sentence_150

These forms are plural semantically, used for any non-singular count, as in mezi čtyřma očima (face to face, lit. Czech language_sentence_151

among four eyes). Czech language_sentence_152

The plural number paradigms of these nouns are a mixture of historical dual and plural forms. Czech language_sentence_153

For example, nohy (legs; nominative/accusative) is a standard plural form of this type of noun. Czech language_sentence_154

Verb conjugation Czech language_section_14

Main article: Czech conjugation Czech language_sentence_155

Czech verbs agree with their subjects in person (first, second or third), number (singular or plural), and in constructions involving participles also in gender. Czech language_sentence_156

They are conjugated for tense (past, present or future) and mood (indicative, imperative or conditional). Czech language_sentence_157

For example, the conjugated verb (we speak) is in the present tense and first-person plural; it is distinguished from other conjugations of the infinitive mluvit by its ending, -íme. Czech language_sentence_158

The infinitive form of Czech verbs ends in -t (archaically, -ti). Czech language_sentence_159

It is the form found in dictionaries and the form that follows auxiliary verbs (for example, můžu tě slyšet—"I can hear you"). Czech language_sentence_160

Aspect Czech language_section_15

See also: Grammatical aspect in Slavic languages Czech language_sentence_161

Typical of Slavic languages, Czech marks its verbs for one of two grammatical aspects: perfective and imperfective. Czech language_sentence_162

Most verbs are part of inflected aspect pairs—for example, (perfective) and (imperfective). Czech language_sentence_163

Although the verbs' meaning is similar, in perfective verbs the action is completed and in imperfective verbs it is ongoing or repeated. Czech language_sentence_164

This is distinct from past and present tense. Czech language_sentence_165

Any verb of either aspect can be conjugated into either the past or present tense, but the future tense is only used with imperfective verbs. Czech language_sentence_166

Aspect describes the state of the action at the time specified by the tense. Czech language_sentence_167

The verbs of most aspect pairs differ in one of two ways: by prefix or by suffix. Czech language_sentence_168

In prefix pairs, the perfective verb has an added prefix—for example, the imperfective psát (to write, to be writing) compared with the perfective napsat (to write down). Czech language_sentence_169

The most common prefixes are na-, o-, po-, s-, u-, vy-, z- and za-. Czech language_sentence_170

In suffix pairs, a different infinitive ending is added to the perfective stem; for example, the perfective verbs koupit (to buy) and prodat (to sell) have the imperfective forms kupovat and prodávat. Czech language_sentence_171

Imperfective verbs may undergo further morphology to make other imperfective verbs (iterative and frequentative forms), denoting repeated or regular action. Czech language_sentence_172

The verb jít (to go) has the iterative form chodit (to go repeatedly) and the frequentative form chodívat (to go occasionally). Czech language_sentence_173

Many verbs have only one aspect, and verbs describing continual states of being— (to be), (to want), (to be able to), (to lie down, to be lying down)—have no perfective form. Czech language_sentence_174

Conversely, verbs describing immediate states of change—for example, (to become pregnant) and (to become enthusiastic)—have no imperfective aspect. Czech language_sentence_175

Tense Czech language_section_16

Czech language_table_general_6

Conjugation of být in future tenseCzech language_table_caption_6
PersonCzech language_header_cell_6_0_0 SingularCzech language_header_cell_6_0_1 PluralCzech language_header_cell_6_0_2
1.Czech language_header_cell_6_1_0 buduCzech language_cell_6_1_1 budemeCzech language_cell_6_1_2
2.Czech language_header_cell_6_2_0 budešCzech language_cell_6_2_1 budeteCzech language_cell_6_2_2
3.Czech language_header_cell_6_3_0 budeCzech language_cell_6_3_1 budouCzech language_cell_6_3_2

The present tense in Czech is formed by adding an ending which agrees with the person and number of the subject at the end of the verb stem. Czech language_sentence_176

As Czech is a null-subject language, the subject pronoun can be omitted unless it is needed for clarity. Czech language_sentence_177

The past tense is formed using a participle which ends in -l and a further ending which agrees with the gender and number of the subject. Czech language_sentence_178

For the first and second persons, the auxiliary verb být conjugated in the present tense is added. Czech language_sentence_179

In some contexts, the present tense of perfective verbs (which differs from the English present perfect) implies future action; in others, it connotes habitual action. Czech language_sentence_180

The perfective present is used to refer to completion of actions in the future and is distinguished from the imperfective future tense, which refers to actions that will be ongoing in the future. Czech language_sentence_181

The future tense is regularly formed using the future conjugation of být (as shown in the table on the left) and the infinitive of an imperfective verb, for example, budu jíst—"I will eat" or "I will be eating". Czech language_sentence_182

Where budu has a noun or adjective complement it means "I will be", for example, budu šťastný (I will be happy). Czech language_sentence_183

Some verbs of movement form their future tense by adding the prefix po- to the present tense forms instead, e.g. jedu ("I go") > pojedu ("I will go"). Czech language_sentence_184

Mood Czech language_section_17

Czech language_table_general_7

Conditional form of (to buy)Czech language_table_caption_7
PersonCzech language_header_cell_7_0_0 SingularCzech language_header_cell_7_0_1 PluralCzech language_header_cell_7_0_2
1.Czech language_header_cell_7_1_0 koupil/a bychCzech language_cell_7_1_1 koupili/y bychomCzech language_cell_7_1_2
2.Czech language_header_cell_7_2_0 koupil/a bysCzech language_cell_7_2_1 koupili/y bysteCzech language_cell_7_2_2
3.Czech language_header_cell_7_3_0 koupil/a/o byCzech language_cell_7_3_1 koupili/y/a byCzech language_cell_7_3_2

Czech verbs have three grammatical moods: indicative, imperative and conditional. Czech language_sentence_185

The imperative mood is formed by adding specific endings for each of three person–number categories: -Ø/-i/-ej for second-person singular, -te/-ete/-ejte for second-person plural and -me/-eme/-ejme for first-person plural. Czech language_sentence_186

Imperatives are usually expressed using perfective verbs if positive and imperfective verbs if negative. Czech language_sentence_187

The conditional mood is formed with a particle after the participle ending in -l which is used to form the past tense. Czech language_sentence_188

This mood indicates hypothetical events and can also be used to express wishes. Czech language_sentence_189

Verb classes Czech language_section_18

Main article: Morphological classification of Czech verbs Czech language_sentence_190

Most Czech verbs fall into one of five classes, which determine their conjugation patterns. Czech language_sentence_191

The future tense of být would be classified as a Class I verb because of its endings. Czech language_sentence_192

Examples of the present tense of each class and some common irregular verbs follow in the tables below: Czech language_sentence_193

Orthography Czech language_section_19

Main article: Czech orthography Czech language_sentence_194

See also: Czech Braille Czech language_sentence_195

Czech has one of the most phonemic orthographies of all European languages. Czech language_sentence_196

Its thirty-one graphemes represent thirty sounds (in most dialects, i and y have the same sound), and it contains only one digraph: ch, which follows h in the alphabet. Czech language_sentence_197

As a result, some of its characters have been used by phonologists to denote corresponding sounds in other languages. Czech language_sentence_198

The characters q, w and x appear only in foreign words. Czech language_sentence_199

The háček (ˇ) is used with certain letters to form new characters: š, ž, and č, as well as ň, ě, ř, ť, and ď (the latter five uncommon outside Czech). Czech language_sentence_200

The last two letters are sometimes written with a comma above (ʼ, an abbreviated háček) because of their height. Czech language_sentence_201

Unlike most European languages, Czech distinguishes vowel length; long vowels are indicated by an acute accent or, occasionally with ů, a ring. Czech language_sentence_202

Long u is usually written ú at the beginning of a word or morpheme (úroda, neúrodný) and ů elsewhere, except for loanwords (skútr) or onomatopoeia (bú). Czech language_sentence_203

Long vowels and ě are not considered separate letters in the alphabetical order. Czech language_sentence_204

The character ó exists only in loanwords and onomatopoeia. Czech language_sentence_205

Czech typographical features not associated with phonetics generally resemble those of most European languages that use the Latin script, including English. Czech language_sentence_206

Proper nouns, honorifics, and the first letters of quotations are capitalized, and punctuation is typical of other Latin European languages. Czech language_sentence_207

Writing of ordinal numerals is similar to most European languages. Czech language_sentence_208

The Czech language uses a decimal comma instead of a decimal point. Czech language_sentence_209

When writing a long number, spaces between every three digits, including those in decimal places, may be used for better orientation in handwritten texts. Czech language_sentence_210

The number 1,234,567.89101 may be written as 1234567,89101 or 1 234 567,891 01. Czech language_sentence_211

Ordinal numbers (1st) use a point as in German (1.). Czech language_sentence_212

In proper noun phrases (except personal and settlement names), only the first word is capitalized (Pražský hrad, Prague Castle) (included proper nouns are also capitalized). Czech language_sentence_213

Varieties Czech language_section_20

Further information: Czech–Slovak languages Czech language_sentence_214

The modern literary standard and prestige variety, known as "Standard Czech" (spisovná čeština) is based on the standardization during the Czech National Revival in the 1830s, significantly influenced by Josef Jungmann's Czech–German dictionary published during 1834–1839. Czech language_sentence_215

Jungmann used vocabulary of the Bible of Kralice (1579–1613) period and of the language used by his contemporaries. Czech language_sentence_216

He borrowed words not present in Czech from other Slavic languages or created neologisms. Czech language_sentence_217

Standard Czech is the formal register of the language which is used in official documents, formal literature, newspaper articles, education and occasionally public speeches. Czech language_sentence_218

It is codified by the Czech Language Institute, who publish occasional reforms to the codification. Czech language_sentence_219

The most recent reform took place in 1993. Czech language_sentence_220

The term hovorová čeština (lit. Czech language_sentence_221

"Colloquial Czech") is sometimes used to refer to the spoken variety of standard Czech. Czech language_sentence_222

The most widely spoken vernacular form of the language is called "Common Czech" (obecná čeština), an interdialect influenced by spoken Standard Czech and the Central Bohemian dialects of the Prague region. Czech language_sentence_223

Other Bohemian regional dialects have become marginalized, while Moravian dialects remain more widespread and diverse, with a political movement for Moravian linguistic revival active since the 1990s. Czech language_sentence_224

These varieties of the language (Standard Czech, spoken/colloquial Standard Czech, Common Czech, and regional dialects) form a stylistic continuum, in which contact between varieties of a similar prestige influences change within them. Czech language_sentence_225

Common Czech Czech language_section_21

The main Czech vernacular, spoken primarily in and around Prague but also throughout the country, is known as Common Czech (obecná čeština). Czech language_sentence_226

This is an academic distinction; most Czechs are unaware of the term or associate it with deformed or "incorrect" Czech. Czech language_sentence_227

Compared to Standard Czech, Common Czech is characterized by simpler inflection patterns and differences in sound distribution. Czech language_sentence_228

Common Czech is distinguished from spoken/colloquial Standard Czech (hovorová čeština), which is a stylistic variety within standard Czech. Czech language_sentence_229

Tomasz Kamusella defines the spoken variety of Standard Czech as a compromise between Common Czech and the written standard, while Miroslav Komárek calls Common Czech an intersection of spoken Standard Czech and regional dialects. Czech language_sentence_230

Common Czech has become ubiquitous in most parts of the Czech Republic since the later 20th century. Czech language_sentence_231

It is usually defined as an interdialect used in common speech in Bohemia and western parts of Moravia (by about two thirds of all inhabitants of the Czech Republic). Czech language_sentence_232

Common Czech is not codified, but some of its elements have become adopted in the written standard. Czech language_sentence_233

Since the second half of the 20th century, Common Czech elements have also been spreading to regions previously unaffected, as a consequence of media influence. Czech language_sentence_234

Standard Czech is still the norm for politicians, businesspeople and other Czechs in formal situations, but Common Czech is gaining ground in journalism and the mass media. Czech language_sentence_235

The colloquial form of Standard Czech finds limited use in daily communication due to the expansion of the Common Czech interdialect. Czech language_sentence_236

It is sometimes defined as a theoretical construct rather than an actual tool of colloquial communication, since in casual contexts, the non-standard interdialect is preferred. Czech language_sentence_237

Common Czech phonology is based on that of the Central Bohemian dialect group, which has a slightly different set of vowel phonemes to Standard Czech. Czech language_sentence_238

The phoneme /ɛː/ is peripheral and usually merges with /iː/, e.g. in malý město (small town), plamínek (little flame) and lítat (to fly), and a second native diphthong /ɛɪ̯/ occurs, usually in places where Standard Czech has /iː/, e.g. malej dům (small house), mlejn (mill), plejtvat (to waste), bejt (to be). Czech language_sentence_239

In addition, a prothetic v- is added to most words beginning o-, such as votevřít vokno (to open the window). Czech language_sentence_240

Non-standard morphological features that are more or less common among all Common Czech speakers include: Czech language_sentence_241

Czech language_unordered_list_4

  • unified plural endings of adjectives: malý lidi (small people), malý ženy (small women), malý města (small towns) – standard: malí lidé, malé ženy, malá města;Czech language_item_4_13
  • unified instrumental ending -ma in plural: s těma dobrejma lidma, ženama, chlapama, městama (with the good people, women, guys, towns) – standard: s těmi dobrými lidmi, ženami, chlapy, městy. In essence, this form resembles the form of the dual, which was once a productive form, but now is almost extinct and retained in a lexically specific set of words. In Common Czech the ending became productive again around the 17th century, but used as a substitute for a regular plural form.Czech language_item_4_14
  • omission of the syllabic -l in the masculine ending of past tense verbs: řek (he said), moh (he could), pích (he pricked) – standard: řekl, mohl, píchl.Czech language_item_4_15
  • tendency of merging the locative singular masculine/neuter for adjectives with the instrumental by changing the locative ending -ém to -ým and then shortening the vowel: mladém (standard locative), mladým (standard instrumental) > mladým (Common Czech locative), mladym (Common Czech instrumental) > mladym (Common Czech locative/instrumental with shortening)Czech language_item_4_16

Examples of declension (Standard Czech is added in italics for comparison): Czech language_sentence_242

Czech language_table_general_8

Czech language_header_cell_8_0_0 Czech language_header_cell_8_0_1 Masculine

animateCzech language_header_cell_8_0_2


inanimateCzech language_header_cell_8_0_3

FeminineCzech language_header_cell_8_0_4 NeuterCzech language_header_cell_8_0_5
Sg.Czech language_header_cell_8_1_0 NominativeCzech language_header_cell_8_1_1 mladej člověk

mladý člověkCzech language_cell_8_1_2

mladej stát

mladý státCzech language_cell_8_1_3

mladá žena

mladá ženaCzech language_cell_8_1_4

mladý zvíře

mladé zvířeCzech language_cell_8_1_5

GenitiveCzech language_header_cell_8_2_0 mladýho člověka

mladého člověkaCzech language_cell_8_2_1

mladýho státu

mladého státuCzech language_cell_8_2_2

mladý ženy

mladé ženyCzech language_cell_8_2_3

mladýho zvířete

mladého zvířeteCzech language_cell_8_2_4

DativeCzech language_header_cell_8_3_0 mladýmu člověkovi

mladému člověkuCzech language_cell_8_3_1

mladýmu státu

mladému státuCzech language_cell_8_3_2

mladý ženě

mladé ženěCzech language_cell_8_3_3

mladýmu zvířeti

mladému zvířetiCzech language_cell_8_3_4

AccusativeCzech language_header_cell_8_4_0 mladýho člověka

mladého člověkaCzech language_cell_8_4_1

mladej stát

mladý státCzech language_cell_8_4_2

mladou ženu

mladou ženuCzech language_cell_8_4_3

mladý zvíře

mladé zvířeCzech language_cell_8_4_4

VocativeCzech language_header_cell_8_5_0 mladej člověče!

mladý člověče!Czech language_cell_8_5_1

mladej státe!

mladý státe!Czech language_cell_8_5_2

mladá ženo!

mladá ženo!Czech language_cell_8_5_3

mladý zvíře!

mladé zvíře!Czech language_cell_8_5_4

LocativeCzech language_header_cell_8_6_0 mladým člověkovi

mladém člověkoviCzech language_cell_8_6_1

mladým státě

mladém státěCzech language_cell_8_6_2

mladý ženě

mladé ženěCzech language_cell_8_6_3

mladým zvířeti

mladém zvířetiCzech language_cell_8_6_4

InstrumentalCzech language_header_cell_8_7_0 mladym člověkem

mladým člověkemCzech language_cell_8_7_1

mladym státem

mladým státemCzech language_cell_8_7_2

mladou ženou

mladou ženouCzech language_cell_8_7_3

mladym zvířetem

mladým zvířetemCzech language_cell_8_7_4

Pl.Czech language_header_cell_8_8_0 NominativeCzech language_header_cell_8_8_1 mladý lidi

mladí lidéCzech language_cell_8_8_2

mladý státy

mladé státyCzech language_cell_8_8_3

mladý ženy

mladé ženyCzech language_cell_8_8_4

mladý zvířata

mladá zvířataCzech language_cell_8_8_5

GenitiveCzech language_header_cell_8_9_0 mladejch lidí

mladých lidíCzech language_cell_8_9_1

mladejch států

mladých státůCzech language_cell_8_9_2

mladejch žen

mladých ženCzech language_cell_8_9_3

mladejch zvířat

mladých zvířatCzech language_cell_8_9_4

DativeCzech language_header_cell_8_10_0 mladejm lidem

mladým lidemCzech language_cell_8_10_1

mladejm státům

mladým státůmCzech language_cell_8_10_2

mladejm ženám

mladým ženámCzech language_cell_8_10_3

mladejm zvířatům

mladým zvířatůmCzech language_cell_8_10_4

AccusativeCzech language_header_cell_8_11_0 mladý lidi

mladé lidiCzech language_cell_8_11_1

mladý státy

mladé státyCzech language_cell_8_11_2

mladý ženy

mladé ženyCzech language_cell_8_11_3

mladý zvířata

mladá zvířataCzech language_cell_8_11_4

VocativeCzech language_header_cell_8_12_0 mladý lidi!

mladí lidé!Czech language_cell_8_12_1

mladý státy!

mladé státy!Czech language_cell_8_12_2

mladý ženy!

mladé ženy!Czech language_cell_8_12_3

mladý zvířata!

mladá zvířata!Czech language_cell_8_12_4

LocativeCzech language_header_cell_8_13_0 mladejch lidech

mladých lidechCzech language_cell_8_13_1

mladejch státech

mladých státechCzech language_cell_8_13_2

mladejch ženách

mladých ženáchCzech language_cell_8_13_3

mladejch zvířatech

mladých zvířatechCzech language_cell_8_13_4

InstrumentalCzech language_header_cell_8_14_0 mladejma lidma

mladými lidmiCzech language_cell_8_14_1

mladejma státama

mladými státyCzech language_cell_8_14_2

mladejma ženama

mladými ženamiCzech language_cell_8_14_3

mladejma zvířatama

mladými zvířatyCzech language_cell_8_14_4

mladý člověk – young man/person, mladí lidé – young people, mladý stát – young state, mladá žena – young woman, mladé zvíře – young animal Czech language_sentence_243

Bohemian dialects Czech language_section_22

Further information: Chod dialect Czech language_sentence_244

Apart from the Common Czech vernacular, there remain a variety of other Bohemian dialects, mostly in marginal rural areas. Czech language_sentence_245

Dialect use began to weaken in the second half of the 20th century, and by the early 1990s regional dialect use was stigmatized, associated with the shrinking lower class and used in literature or other media for comedic effect. Czech language_sentence_246

Increased travel and media availability to dialect-speaking populations has encouraged them to shift to (or add to their own dialect) Standard Czech. Czech language_sentence_247

The Czech Statistical Office in 2003 recognized the following Bohemian dialects: Czech language_sentence_248

Czech language_unordered_list_5

  • Nářečí středočeská (Central Bohemian dialects)Czech language_item_5_17
  • Nářečí jihozápadočeská (Southwestern Bohemian dialects)Czech language_item_5_18

Czech language_description_list_6

  • Czech language_item_6_19
    • Podskupina chodská (Chod subgroup)Czech language_item_6_20
    • Podskupina doudlebská (Doudleby subgroup)Czech language_item_6_21

Czech language_unordered_list_7

  • Nářečí severovýchodočeská (Northeastern Bohemian dialects)Czech language_item_7_22

Czech language_description_list_8

  • Czech language_item_8_23
    • Podskupina podkrknošská (Krkonoše subgroup)Czech language_item_8_24

Moravian dialects Czech language_section_23

Main article: Moravian dialects Czech language_sentence_249

Further information: Lach dialects Czech language_sentence_250

The Czech dialects spoken in Moravia and Silesia are known as Moravian (moravština). Czech language_sentence_251

In the Austro-Hungarian Empire, "Bohemian-Moravian-Slovak" was a language citizens could register as speaking (with German, Polish and several others). Czech language_sentence_252

Of the Czech dialects, only Moravian is distinguished in nationwide surveys by the Czech Statistical Office. Czech language_sentence_253

As of 2011, 62,908 Czech citizens spoke Moravian as their first language and 45,561 were diglossic (speaking Moravian and standard Czech as first languages). Czech language_sentence_254

Beginning in the sixteenth century, some varieties of Czech resembled Slovak; the southeastern Moravian dialects, in particular, are sometimes considered dialects of Slovak rather than Czech. Czech language_sentence_255

These dialects form a continuum between the Czech and Slovak languages, using the same declension patterns for nouns and pronouns and the same verb conjugations as Slovak. Czech language_sentence_256

The Czech Statistical Office in 2003 recognized the following Moravian dialects: Czech language_sentence_257

Czech language_unordered_list_9

  • Nářečí českomoravská (Bohemian–Moravian dialects)Czech language_item_9_25
  • Nářečí středomoravská (Central Moravian dialects)Czech language_item_9_26

Czech language_description_list_10

  • Czech language_item_10_27
    • Podskupina tišnovská (Tišnov subgroup)Czech language_item_10_28

Czech language_unordered_list_11

  • Nářečí východomoravská (Eastern Moravian dialects)Czech language_item_11_29

Czech language_description_list_12

  • Czech language_item_12_30

Czech language_unordered_list_13

  • Nářečí slezská (Silesian dialects)Czech language_item_13_33

Sample Czech language_section_24

In a 1964 textbook on Czech dialectology, Břetislav Koudela used the following sentence to highlight phonetic differences between dialects: Czech language_sentence_258

Mutual intelligibility Czech language_section_25

Czech and Slovak have been considered mutually intelligible; speakers of either language can communicate with greater ease than those of any other pair of West Slavic languages. Czech language_sentence_259

Since the 1993 dissolution of Czechoslovakia, mutual intelligibility has declined for younger speakers, probably because Czech speakers now experience less exposure to Slovak and vice versa. Czech language_sentence_260

In phonetic differences, Czech is characterized by a glottal stop before initial vowels and Slovak by its less-frequent use of long vowels than Czech; however, Slovak has long forms of the consonants r and l when they function as vowels. Czech language_sentence_261

Slovak phonotactics employs a "rhythmic law", which forbids two syllables with long vowels from following one another in a word, unlike in Czech. Czech language_sentence_262

Grammatically, although Czech (unlike Slovak) has a fully productive vocative case, both languages share a common syntax. Czech language_sentence_263

One study showed that Czech and Slovak lexicons differed by 80 percent, but this high percentage was found to stem primarily from differing orthographies and slight inconsistencies in morphological formation; Slovak morphology is more regular (when changing from the nominative to the locative case, Praha becomes Praze in Czech and Prahe in Slovak). Czech language_sentence_264

The two lexicons are generally considered similar, with most differences found in colloquial vocabulary and some scientific terminology. Czech language_sentence_265

Slovak has slightly more borrowed words than Czech. Czech language_sentence_266

The similarities between Czech and Slovak led to the languages being considered a single language by a group of 19th-century scholars who called themselves "Czechoslavs" (Čechoslované), believing that the peoples were connected in a way which excluded German Bohemians and (to a lesser extent) Hungarians and other Slavs. Czech language_sentence_267

During the First Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938), although "Czechoslovak" was designated as the republic's official language, both Czech and Slovak written standards were used. Czech language_sentence_268

Standard written Slovak was partially modeled on literary Czech, and Czech was preferred for some official functions in the Slovak half of the republic. Czech language_sentence_269

Czech influence on Slovak was protested by Slovak scholars, and when Slovakia broke off from Czechoslovakia in 1938 as the Slovak State (which then aligned with Nazi Germany in World War II), literary Slovak was deliberately distanced from Czech. Czech language_sentence_270

When the Axis powers lost the war and Czechoslovakia reformed, Slovak developed somewhat on its own (with Czech influence); during the Prague Spring of 1968, Slovak gained independence from (and equality with) Czech, due to the transformation of Czechoslovakia from a unitary state to a federation. Czech language_sentence_271

Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, "Czechoslovak" has referred to improvised pidgins of the languages which have arisen from the decrease in mutual intelligibility. Czech language_sentence_272

Vocabulary Czech language_section_26

See also: List of English words of Czech origin Czech language_sentence_273

Czech vocabulary derives primarily from Slavic, Baltic and other Indo-European roots. Czech language_sentence_274

Although most verbs have Balto-Slavic origins, pronouns, prepositions and some verbs have wider, Indo-European roots. Czech language_sentence_275

Some loanwords have been restructured by folk etymology to resemble native Czech words (e.g. , "graveyard" and , "list"). Czech language_sentence_276

Most Czech loanwords originated in one of two time periods. Czech language_sentence_277

Earlier loanwords, primarily from German, Greek and Latin, arrived before the Czech National Revival. Czech language_sentence_278

More recent loanwords derive primarily from English and French, and also from Hebrew, Arabic and Persian. Czech language_sentence_279

Many Russian loanwords, principally animal names and naval terms, also exist in Czech. Czech language_sentence_280

Although older German loanwords were colloquial, recent borrowings from other languages are associated with high culture. Czech language_sentence_281

During the nineteenth century, words with Greek and Latin roots were rejected in favor of those based on older Czech words and common Slavic roots; "music" is in Polish and музыка (muzyka) in Russian, but in Czech it is . Czech language_sentence_282

Some Czech words have been borrowed as loanwords into English and other languages—for example, robot (from , "labor") and polka (from , "Polish woman" or from "půlka" "half"). Czech language_sentence_283

Sample text Czech language_section_27

According to Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Czech language_sentence_284

Czech: Všichni lidé se rodí svobodní a sobě rovní co do důstojnosti a práv. Czech language_sentence_285

Jsou nadáni rozumem a svědomím a mají spolu jednat v duchu bratrství. Czech language_sentence_286

English: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Czech language_sentence_287

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." Czech language_sentence_288

See also Czech language_section_28

Czech language_unordered_list_14

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: language.