D (programming language)

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For other programming languages named D, see D (disambiguation) § Computing. D (programming language)_sentence_0

For other uses, see D (disambiguation). D (programming language)_sentence_1

D (programming language)_table_infobox_0

D programming languageD (programming language)_table_caption_0
ParadigmD (programming language)_header_cell_0_0_0 Multi-paradigm: functional, imperative, object-orientedD (programming language)_cell_0_0_1
Designed byD (programming language)_header_cell_0_1_0 Walter Bright, Andrei Alexandrescu (since 2007)D (programming language)_cell_0_1_1
DeveloperD (programming language)_header_cell_0_2_0 D Language FoundationD (programming language)_cell_0_2_1
First appearedD (programming language)_header_cell_0_3_0 December 8, 2001; 19 years ago (2001-12-08)D (programming language)_cell_0_3_1
Stable releaseD (programming language)_header_cell_0_4_0 2.094.2
  /    November 20, 2020; 24 days ago (2020-11-20)D (programming language)_cell_0_4_1
Typing disciplineD (programming language)_header_cell_0_5_0 Inferred, static, strongD (programming language)_cell_0_5_1
OSD (programming language)_header_cell_0_6_0 FreeBSD, Linux, macOS, WindowsD (programming language)_cell_0_6_1
LicenseD (programming language)_header_cell_0_7_0 BoostD (programming language)_cell_0_7_1
D (programming language)_header_cell_0_8_0 .dD (programming language)_cell_0_8_1
WebsiteD (programming language)_header_cell_0_9_0 D (programming language)_cell_0_9_1
Major implementationsD (programming language)_header_cell_0_10_0
Influenced byD (programming language)_header_cell_0_11_0
InfluencedD (programming language)_header_cell_0_12_0

D, also known as Dlang, is a multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright at Digital Mars and released in 2001. D (programming language)_sentence_2

Andrei Alexandrescu joined the design and development effort in 2007. D (programming language)_sentence_3

Though it originated as a re-engineering of C++, D is a distinct language. D (programming language)_sentence_4

It has redesigned some core C++ features, while also sharing characteristics of other languages, notably Java, Python, Ruby, C#, and Eiffel. D (programming language)_sentence_5

The design goals of the language attempted to combine the performance and safety of compiled languages with the expressive power of modern dynamic languages. D (programming language)_sentence_6

Idiomatic D code is commonly as fast as equivalent C++ code, while also being shorter. D (programming language)_sentence_7

The language as a whole is not memory-safe but does include optional attributes designed to check memory safety. D (programming language)_sentence_8

Type inference, automatic memory management and syntactic sugar for common types allow faster development, while bounds checking, design by contract features and a concurrency-aware type system help reduce the occurrence of bugs. D (programming language)_sentence_9

Features D (programming language)_section_0

D was designed with lessons learned from practical C++ usage, rather than from a purely theoretical perspective. D (programming language)_sentence_10

Although the language uses many C and C++ concepts, it also discards some, or uses different approaches (and syntax) to achieve some goals. D (programming language)_sentence_11

As such it is not source compatible (and doesn't aim to be) with C and C++ source code in general (some simpler code bases from these languages might by luck work with D, or require some porting). D (programming language)_sentence_12

D has, however, been constrained in its design by the rule that any code that was legal in both C and D should behave in the same way. D (programming language)_sentence_13

D gained some features before C++, such as closures, anonymous functions, compile-time function execution, ranges, built-in container iteration concepts and type inference. D (programming language)_sentence_14

D adds to the functionality of C++ by also implementing design by contract, unit testing, true modules, garbage collection, first class arrays, associative arrays, dynamic arrays, array slicing, nested functions, lazy evaluation, scoped (deferred) code execution, and a re-engineered template syntax. D (programming language)_sentence_15

D retains C++'s ability to perform low-level programming and to add inline assembler. D (programming language)_sentence_16

C++ multiple inheritance was replaced by Java-style single inheritance with interfaces and mixins. D (programming language)_sentence_17

On the other hand, D's declaration, statement and expression syntax closely matches that of C++. D (programming language)_sentence_18

The inline assembler typifies the differences between D and application languages like Java and C#. D (programming language)_sentence_19

An inline assembler lets programmers enter machine-specific assembly code within standard D code, a method used by system programmers to access the low-level features of the processor needed to run programs that interface directly with the underlying hardware, such as operating systems and device drivers, as well as writing high-performance code (i.e. using vector extensions, SIMD) that is hard to generate by the compiler automatically. D (programming language)_sentence_20

D has built-in support for documentation comments, allowing automatic documentation generation. D (programming language)_sentence_21

Programming paradigms D (programming language)_section_1

D supports five main programming paradigms: imperative, object-oriented, metaprogramming, functional and concurrent (actor model). D (programming language)_sentence_22

Imperative D (programming language)_section_2

Imperative programming in D is almost identical to that in C. Functions, data, statements, declarations and expressions work just as they do in C, and the C runtime library may be accessed directly. D (programming language)_sentence_23

On the other hand, some notable differences between D and C in the area of imperative programming include D's foreach loop construct, which allows looping over a collection, and nested functions, which are functions that are declared inside another and may access the enclosing function's local variables. D (programming language)_sentence_24

D also includes dynamic arrays and associative arrays by default in the language. D (programming language)_sentence_25

Symbols (functions, variables, classes) can be declared in any order - forward declarations are not required. D (programming language)_sentence_26

Similarly imports can be done almost in any order, and even be scoped (i.e. import some module or part of it inside a function, class or unittest only). D (programming language)_sentence_27

D supports function overloading. D (programming language)_sentence_28

Object-oriented D (programming language)_section_3

Object-oriented programming in D is based on a single inheritance hierarchy, with all classes derived from class Object. D (programming language)_sentence_29

D does not support multiple inheritance; instead, it uses Java-style interfaces, which are comparable to C++'s pure abstract classes, and mixins, which separates common functionality from the inheritance hierarchy. D (programming language)_sentence_30

D also allows the defining of static and final (non-virtual) methods in interfaces. D (programming language)_sentence_31

Interfaces and inheritance in D support covariant types for return types of overridden methods. D (programming language)_sentence_32

D supports operator overloading, type forwarding, as well optional custom dynamic dispatch. D (programming language)_sentence_33

Classes (and interfaces) in D can contain invariants which are automatically checked before and after entry to public methods. D (programming language)_sentence_34

It is part of the design by contract methodology. D (programming language)_sentence_35

Many aspects of classes (and structs) can be introspected automatically at compile time (a form of reflection using type traits) and at run time (RTII / TypeInfo), to facilitate generic code or automatic code generation (usually using compile-time techniques). D (programming language)_sentence_36

Metaprogramming D (programming language)_section_4

Metaprogramming is supported by a combination of templates, compile-time function execution, tuples, and string mixins. D (programming language)_sentence_37

The following examples demonstrate some of D's compile-time features. D (programming language)_sentence_38

Templates in D can be written in a more imperative style compared to the C++ functional style for templates. D (programming language)_sentence_39

This is a regular function that calculates the factorial of a number: D (programming language)_sentence_40

Here, the use of static if, D's compile-time conditional construct, is demonstrated to construct a template that performs the same calculation using code that is similar to that of the function above: D (programming language)_sentence_41

In the following two examples, the template and function defined above are used to compute factorials. D (programming language)_sentence_42

The types of constants need not be specified explicitly as the compiler infers their types from the right-hand sides of assignments: D (programming language)_sentence_43

This is an example of compile time function execution. D (programming language)_sentence_44

Ordinary functions may be used in constant, compile-time expressions provided they meet certain criteria: D (programming language)_sentence_45

The std.string.format function performs printf-like data formatting (also at compile-time, through CTFE), and the "msg" pragma displays the result at compile time: D (programming language)_sentence_46

String mixins, combined with compile-time function execution, allow generating D code using string operations at compile time. D (programming language)_sentence_47

This can be used to parse domain-specific languages to D code, which will be compiled as part of the program: D (programming language)_sentence_48

Functional D (programming language)_section_5

D supports functional programming features such as function literals, closures, recursively-immutable objects and the use of higher-order functions. D (programming language)_sentence_49

There are two syntaxes for anonymous functions, including a multiple-statement form and a "shorthand" single-expression notation: D (programming language)_sentence_50

There are two built-in types for function literals, function, which is simply a pointer to a stack-allocated function, and delegate, which also includes a pointer to the surrounding environment. D (programming language)_sentence_51

Type inference may be used with an anonymous function, in which case the compiler creates a delegate unless it can prove that an environment pointer is not necessary. D (programming language)_sentence_52

Likewise, to implement a closure, the compiler places enclosed local variables on the heap only if necessary (for example, if a closure is returned by another function, and exits that function's scope). D (programming language)_sentence_53

When using type inference, the compiler will also add attributes such as pure and nothrow to a function's type, if it can prove that they apply. D (programming language)_sentence_54

Other functional features such as currying and common higher-order functions such as map, filter, and reduce are available through the standard library modules std.functional and std.algorithm. D (programming language)_sentence_55

Alternatively, the above function compositions can be expressed using Uniform Function Call Syntax (UFCS) for more natural left-to-right reading: D (programming language)_sentence_56

Parallel D (programming language)_section_6

Parallel programming concepts are implemented in the library, and don't require extra support from the compiler. D (programming language)_sentence_57

However the D type system and compiler ensure that data sharing can be detected and managed transparently. D (programming language)_sentence_58

iota(11).parallel is equivalent to std.parallelism.parallel(iota(11)) by using UFCS. D (programming language)_sentence_59

The same module also supports taskPool that can be used for dynamic creation of parallel tasks, as well map-filter-reduce and fold style operations on ranges (and arrays), which is useful when combined with functional operations: D (programming language)_sentence_60

This code uses fact that the std.algorithm.map doesn't actually return an array, but a lazily evaluate range, this way the actual elements of the map are computed by each worker task in parallel automatically. D (programming language)_sentence_61

Concurrent D (programming language)_section_7

Concurrent programming is fully implemented in the library, and does not require any special support from the compiler. D (programming language)_sentence_62

Alternative implementations and methodologies of writing concurrent code are possible. D (programming language)_sentence_63

The use of D typing system does help ensure memory safety. D (programming language)_sentence_64

Memory management D (programming language)_section_8

Memory is usually managed with garbage collection, but specific objects may be finalized immediately when they go out of scope. D (programming language)_sentence_65

This is what majority of programs and libraries written in D use. D (programming language)_sentence_66

In case more control about memory layout and better performance is needed, explicit memory management is possible using the overloaded operators new and delete, by calling C's malloc and free directly, or implementing custom allocator schemes (i.e. on stack with fallback, RAII style allocation, reference counting, shared reference counting). D (programming language)_sentence_67

Garbage collection can be controlled: programmers may add and exclude memory ranges from being observed by the collector, can disable and enable the collector and force either a generational or full collection cycle. D (programming language)_sentence_68

The manual gives many examples of how to implement different highly optimized memory management schemes for when garbage collection is inadequate in a program. D (programming language)_sentence_69

In functions, structs are by default allocated on the stack, while classes by default allocated on the heap (with only reference to the class instance being on the stack). D (programming language)_sentence_70

However this can be changed for classes, for example using standard library template std.typecons.scoped, or by using new for structs and assigning to pointer instead to value-based variable. D (programming language)_sentence_71

In function, static arrays (of known size) are allocated on stack. D (programming language)_sentence_72

For dynamic arrays one can use core.stdc.stdlib.alloca function (similar to C function alloca, to allocate memory on stack. D (programming language)_sentence_73

The returned pointer can be used (recast) into a (typed) dynamic array, by means of a slice (however resizing array, including appending must be avoided; and for obvious reasons they must not be returned from the function). D (programming language)_sentence_74

A scope keyword can be used both to annotate parts of code, but also variables and classes/structs, to indicate they should be destroyed (destructor called) immediately on scope exit. D (programming language)_sentence_75

Whatever the memory is deallocated also depends on implementation and class-vs-struct differences. D (programming language)_sentence_76

std.experimental.allocator contains a modular and composable allocator templates, to create custom high performance allocators for special use cases. D (programming language)_sentence_77

SafeD D (programming language)_section_9

SafeD is the name given to the subset of D that can be guaranteed to be memory safe (no writes to memory that has not been allocated or that has been recycled). D (programming language)_sentence_78

Functions marked @safe are checked at compile time to ensure that they do not use any features that could result in corruption of memory, such as pointer arithmetic and unchecked casts, and any other functions called must also be marked as @safe or @trusted. D (programming language)_sentence_79

Functions can be marked @trusted for the cases where the compiler cannot distinguish between safe use of a feature that is disabled in SafeD and a potential case of memory corruption. D (programming language)_sentence_80

Scope Lifetime Safety D (programming language)_section_10

Initially under the banners of DIP1000 and DIP25 (now part of the language specification), D provides protections against certain ill-formed constructions involving the lifetimes of data. D (programming language)_sentence_81

The current mechanisms in place primarily deal with function parameters and stack memory however it is a stated ambition of the leadership of the programming language to provide a more thorough treatment of lifetimes within the D programming language. D (programming language)_sentence_82

(Influenced by ideas from Rust programming language). D (programming language)_sentence_83

Lifetime Safety of Assignments D (programming language)_section_11

Within @safe code, the lifetime of an assignment involving a reference type is checked to ensure that the lifetime of the assignee is longer than that of the assigned. D (programming language)_sentence_84

For example: D (programming language)_sentence_85

Function Parameter Lifetime Annotations within @safe code D (programming language)_section_12

When applied to function parameter which are either of pointer type or references, the keywords return and scope constrain the lifetime and use of that parameter. D (programming language)_sentence_86

The Standard Dictates the following behaviour: D (programming language)_sentence_87

D (programming language)_table_general_1

Storage ClassD (programming language)_header_cell_1_0_0 Behaviour (and constraints to) of a Parameter with the storage classD (programming language)_header_cell_1_0_1
scopeD (programming language)_cell_1_1_0 references in the parameter cannot be escaped. Ignored for parameters with no referencesD (programming language)_cell_1_1_1
returnD (programming language)_cell_1_2_0 Parameter may be returned or copied to the first parameter, but otherwise does not escape from the function. Such copies are required not to outlive the argument(s) they were derived from. Ignored for parameters with no referencesD (programming language)_cell_1_2_1

An Annotated Example is given below. D (programming language)_sentence_88

Interaction with other systems D (programming language)_section_13

C's application binary interface (ABI) is supported, as well as all of C's fundamental and derived types, enabling direct access to existing C code and libraries. D (programming language)_sentence_89

D bindings are available for many popular C libraries. D (programming language)_sentence_90

Additionally, C's standard library is part of standard D. D (programming language)_sentence_91

On Microsoft Windows, D can access Component Object Model (COM) code. D (programming language)_sentence_92

As long as memory management is properly taken care of, many other languages can be mixed with D in a single binary. D (programming language)_sentence_93

For example GDC compiler allow to link C, C++, and other supported language codes to be intermixed. D (programming language)_sentence_94

D code (functions) can also be marked as using C, C++, Pascal ABIs, and thus be passed to the libraries written in these languages as callbacks. D (programming language)_sentence_95

Similarly data can be interchanged between the codes written in these languages in both ways. D (programming language)_sentence_96

This usually restricts use to primitive types, pointers, some forms of arrays, unions, structs, and only some types of function pointers. D (programming language)_sentence_97

Because many other programming languages often provide the C API for writing extensions or running the interpreter of the languages, D can interface directly with these languages as well, using standard C bindings (with a thin D interface file). D (programming language)_sentence_98

For example, there are bi-directional bindings for languages like Python, Lua and other languages, often using compile-time code generation and compile-time type reflection methods. D (programming language)_sentence_99

Interaction with C++ code D (programming language)_section_14

D takes a permissive but realistic approach to interoperation with C++ code. D (programming language)_sentence_100

For D code marked as extern(C++), the following features are specified: D (programming language)_sentence_101

D (programming language)_unordered_list_0

  • The name mangling conventions shall match those of C++ on the target.D (programming language)_item_0_0
  • For Function Calls, the ABI shall be equivalent.D (programming language)_item_0_1
  • The vtable shall be matched up to single inheritance (The only level supported by the D language specification).D (programming language)_item_0_2

C++ namespaces are used via the syntax extern(C++, namespace) where namespace is the name of the C++ namespace. D (programming language)_sentence_102

An Example of C++ interoperation D (programming language)_section_15

The C++ side D (programming language)_sentence_103

The D side D (programming language)_sentence_104

Better C D (programming language)_section_16

The D programming language has an official subset known as "Better C". D (programming language)_sentence_105

This subset forbids access to D features requiring use of runtime libraries other than that of C. D (programming language)_sentence_106

Enabled via the compiler flags "-betterC" on DMD and LDC, and "-fno-druntime" on GDC, Better C may only call into D code compiled under the same flag (and linked code other than D) but code compiled without the Better C option may call into code compiled with it: This will, however, lead to slightly different behaviours due to differences in how C and D handle asserts. D (programming language)_sentence_107

Features available in the Better C subset D (programming language)_section_17

D (programming language)_unordered_list_1

  • Unrestricted use of compile-time features (for example, D's dynamic allocation features can be used at compile time to pre-allocate D data)D (programming language)_item_1_3
  • Full metaprogramming facilitiesD (programming language)_item_1_4
  • Nested functions, nested structs, delegates and lambdasD (programming language)_item_1_5
  • Member functions, constructors, destructors, operating overloading, etc.D (programming language)_item_1_6
  • The full module systemD (programming language)_item_1_7
  • Array slicing, and array bounds checkingD (programming language)_item_1_8
  • RAIID (programming language)_item_1_9
  • scope(exit)D (programming language)_item_1_10
  • Memory safety protectionsD (programming language)_item_1_11
  • Interfacing with C++D (programming language)_item_1_12
  • COM classes and C++ classesD (programming language)_item_1_13
  • assert failures are directed to the C runtime libraryD (programming language)_item_1_14
  • switch with stringsD (programming language)_item_1_15
  • final switchD (programming language)_item_1_16
  • unittest blocksD (programming language)_item_1_17

Features unavailable in the Better C subset D (programming language)_section_18

D (programming language)_unordered_list_2

  • Garbage CollectionD (programming language)_item_2_18
  • TypeInfo and ModuleInfoD (programming language)_item_2_19
  • Built-in threading (e.g. core.thread)D (programming language)_item_2_20
  • Dynamic arrays (though slices of static arrays work) and associative arraysD (programming language)_item_2_21
  • ExceptionsD (programming language)_item_2_22
  • synchronized and core.syncD (programming language)_item_2_23
  • Static module constructors or destructorsD (programming language)_item_2_24

History D (programming language)_section_19

Walter Bright started working on a new language in 1999. D (programming language)_sentence_108

D was first released in December 2001 and reached version 1.0 in January 2007. D (programming language)_sentence_109

The first version of the language (D1) concentrated on the imperative, object oriented and metaprogramming paradigms, similar to C++. D (programming language)_sentence_110

Some members of the D community dissatisfied with Phobos, D's official runtime and standard library, created an alternative runtime and standard library named Tango. D (programming language)_sentence_111

The first public Tango announcement came within days of D 1.0's release. D (programming language)_sentence_112

Tango adopted a different programming style, embracing OOP and high modularity. D (programming language)_sentence_113

Being a community-led project, Tango was more open to contributions, which allowed it to progress faster than the official standard library. D (programming language)_sentence_114

At that time, Tango and Phobos were incompatible due to different runtime support APIs (the garbage collector, threading support, etc.). D (programming language)_sentence_115

This made it impossible to use both libraries in the same project. D (programming language)_sentence_116

The existence of two libraries, both widely in use, has led to significant dispute due to some packages using Phobos and others using Tango. D (programming language)_sentence_117

In June 2007, the first version of D2 was released. D (programming language)_sentence_118

The beginning of D2's development signaled D1's stabilization. D (programming language)_sentence_119

The first version of the language has been placed in maintenance, only receiving corrections and implementation bugfixes. D (programming language)_sentence_120

D2 introduced breaking changes to the language, beginning with its first experimental const system. D (programming language)_sentence_121

D2 later added numerous other language features, such as closures, purity, and support for the functional and concurrent programming paradigms. D (programming language)_sentence_122

D2 also solved standard library problems by separating the runtime from the standard library. D (programming language)_sentence_123

The completion of a D2 Tango port was announced in February 2012. D (programming language)_sentence_124

The release of Andrei Alexandrescu's book The D Programming Language on June 12, 2010, marked the stabilization of D2, which today is commonly referred to as just "D". D (programming language)_sentence_125

In January 2011, D development moved from a bugtracker / patch-submission basis to GitHub. D (programming language)_sentence_126

This has led to a significant increase in contributions to the compiler, runtime and standard library. D (programming language)_sentence_127

In December 2011, Andrei Alexandrescu announced that D1, the first version of the language, would be discontinued on December 31, 2012. D (programming language)_sentence_128

The final D1 release, D v1.076, was on December 31, 2012. D (programming language)_sentence_129

Code for the official D compiler, the Digital Mars D compiler by Walter Bright, was originally released under a custom license, qualifying as source available but not conforming to the open source definition. D (programming language)_sentence_130

In 2014 the compiler front-end was re-licensed as open source under the Boost Software License. D (programming language)_sentence_131

This re-licensed code excluded the back-end, which had been partially developed at Symantec. D (programming language)_sentence_132

On April 7, 2017, the entire compiler was made available under the Boost license after Symantec gave permission to re-license the back-end, too. D (programming language)_sentence_133

On June 21, 2017, the D Language was accepted for inclusion in GCC. D (programming language)_sentence_134

As of GCC 9, GDC (short for GNU D Compiler, or GCC D Compiler), a D language frontend based on DMD open source frontend was merged into GCC. D (programming language)_sentence_135

Implementations D (programming language)_section_20

Most current D implementations compile directly into machine code for efficient execution. D (programming language)_sentence_136

Production ready compilers: D (programming language)_sentence_137

D (programming language)_unordered_list_3

  • DMD – The Digital Mars D compiler by Walter Bright is the official D compiler; open sourced under the Boost Software License. The DMD frontend is shared by GDC (now in GCC) and LDC, to improve compatibility between compilers. Initially the frontend was written in C++, but now most of it is now written in D itself (self-hosting). The backend and machine code optimizers are based on the Symantec compiler. At first it supported only 32-bit x86, with support added for 64-bit amd64 and PowerPC by Walter Bright. Later the backend and almost the entire compiler was ported from C++ to D for full self-hosting.D (programming language)_item_3_25
  • GCC – The GNU Compiler Collection, merged GDC into GCC 9 on 2018-10-29. The first working versions of GDC with GCC, based on GCC 3.3 and GCC 3.4 on 32-bit x86 on Linux and MacOS X was released on 2004-03-22. Since then GDC was gaining support for more platforms, and improving performance and fixing bugs, while tracking upstream DMD code for the frontend and language specification.D (programming language)_item_3_26
  • LDC – A compiler based on the DMD front-end that uses LLVM as its compiler back-end. The first release-quality version was published on 9 January 2009. It supports version 2.0.D (programming language)_item_3_27

Toy and proof-of-concept compilers: D (programming language)_sentence_138

D (programming language)_unordered_list_4

  • D Compiler for .NET – A back-end for the D programming language 2.0 compiler. It compiles the code to Common Intermediate Language (CIL) bytecode rather than to machine code. The CIL can then be run via a Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) virtual machine. The project has not been updated in years and the author indicated the project is not active anymore.D (programming language)_item_4_28
  • SDC – The Stupid D Compiler uses a custom front-end and LLVM as its compiler back-end. It is written in D and uses a scheduler to handle symbol resolution in order to elegantly handle the compile-time features of D. This compiler currently supports a limited subset of the language.D (programming language)_item_4_29

Using above compilers and toolchains, it is possible to compile D programs to target many different architectures, including x86, amd64, AArch64, PowerPC, MIPS64, DEC Alpha, Motorola m68k, Sparc, s390, WebAssembly. D (programming language)_sentence_139

The primary supported operating system are Windows and Linux, but various compiler supports also Mac OS X, FreeBSD, NetBSD, AIX, Solaris/OpenSolaris and Android, either as a host or target, or both. D (programming language)_sentence_140

WebAssembly target (supported via LDC and LLVM) can operate in any WebAssembly environment, like modern web browser (Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Apple Safari), or dedicated Wasm virtual machines. D (programming language)_sentence_141

Development tools D (programming language)_section_21

Editors and integrated development environments (IDEs) supporting D include Eclipse, Microsoft Visual Studio, SlickEdit, Emacs, vim, , Smultron, TextMate, MonoDevelop, Zeus, and Geany among others. D (programming language)_sentence_142

D (programming language)_unordered_list_5

  • Dexed (formely Coedit) a D focused graphical IDE written in Object PascalD (programming language)_item_5_30
  • Mono-D is a feature rich cross-platform D focused graphical IDE based on MonoDevelop / Xamarin Studio, primarily written in C#.D (programming language)_item_5_31
  • Eclipse plug-ins for D include: DDT and Descent (dead project).D (programming language)_item_5_32
  • Visual Studio integration is provided by VisualD.D (programming language)_item_5_33
  • Visual Studio Code integration with extensions as Dlang-Vscode or Code-D.D (programming language)_item_5_34
  • Vim supports both syntax highlighting and code completionD (programming language)_item_5_35
  • A bundle is available for TextMate, and the Code::Blocks IDE includes partial support for the language. However, standard IDE features such as code completion or refactoring are not yet available, though they do work partially in Code::Blocks (due to D's similarity to C).D (programming language)_item_5_36
  • A plugin for Xcode 3 is available, D for Xcode, to enable D-based projects and development.D (programming language)_item_5_37
  • An AddIn for MonoDevelop is available, named Mono-D.D (programming language)_item_5_38
  • KDevelop (as well as its text editor backend, Kate) autocompletion plugin is available.D (programming language)_item_5_39

Additionally many other editors and IDE support syntax highlighting and partial code / identifier completion for D. D (programming language)_sentence_143

Open source D IDEs for Windows exist, some written in D, such as Poseidon, D-IDE, and Entice Designer. D (programming language)_sentence_144

D applications can be debugged using any C/C++ debugger, like GDB or WinDbg, although support for various D-specific language features is extremely limited. D (programming language)_sentence_145

On Windows, D programs can be debugged using , or Microsoft debugging tools (WinDBG and Visual Studio), after having converted the debug information using . D (programming language)_sentence_146

The debugger for Linux has experimental support for the D language. D (programming language)_sentence_147

Ddbg can be used with various IDEs or from the command line; ZeroBUGS has its own graphical user interface (GUI). D (programming language)_sentence_148

A DustMite is a powerful tool for minimize D source code, useful when finding compiler or tests issues. D (programming language)_sentence_149

dub is a popular package and build manager for D applications and libraries, and is often integrated into IDE support. D (programming language)_sentence_150

Examples D (programming language)_section_22

Uses D (programming language)_section_23

Notable organisations that use the D programming language for projects include Facebook, eBay, and Netflix. D (programming language)_sentence_151

D has been successfully used for AAA games, language interpreters, virtual machines, an operating system kernel, GPU programming, web development, numerical analysis, GUI applications, a passenger information system, machine learning, text processing, web and application servers and research. D (programming language)_sentence_152

See also D (programming language)_section_24

D (programming language)_unordered_list_6


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D (programming language).