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For other uses, see Dada (disambiguation). Dada_sentence_0

Dada (/ˈdɑːdɑː/) or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris. Dada_sentence_1

Developed in reaction to World War I, the Dada movement consisted of artists who rejected the logic, reason, and aestheticism of modern capitalist society, instead expressing nonsense, irrationality, and anti-bourgeois protest in their works. Dada_sentence_2

The art of the movement spanned visual, literary, and sound media, including collage, sound poetry, cut-up writing, and sculpture. Dada_sentence_3

Dadaist artists expressed their discontent toward violence, war, and nationalism, and maintained political affinities with radical left-wing and far-left politics. Dada_sentence_4

There is no consensus on the origin of the movement's name; a common story is that the German artist Richard Huelsenbeck slid a paper knife (letter-opener) at random into a dictionary, where it landed on "dada", a colloquial French term for a hobby horse. Dada_sentence_5

Jean Arp wrote that Tristan Tzara invented the word at 6 pm on 6 February 1916, in the Café de la Terrasse in Zurich. Dada_sentence_6

Others note that it suggests the first words of a child, evoking a childishness and absurdity that appealed to the group. Dada_sentence_7

Still others speculate that the word might have been chosen to evoke a similar meaning (or no meaning at all) in any language, reflecting the movement's internationalism. Dada_sentence_8

The roots of Dada lie in pre-war avant-garde. Dada_sentence_9

The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 to characterize works that challenge accepted definitions of art. Dada_sentence_10

Cubism and the development of collage and abstract art would inform the movement's detachment from the constraints of reality and convention. Dada_sentence_11

The work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German Expressionists would influence Dada's rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning. Dada_sentence_12

Works such as Ubu Roi (1896) by Alfred Jarry, and the ballet Parade (1916–17) by Erik Satie would also be characterized as proto-Dadaist works. Dada_sentence_13

The Dada movement's principles were first collected in Hugo Ball's in 1916. Dada_sentence_14

The Dadaist movement included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Dada_sentence_15

Key figures in the movement included Jean Arp, Johannes Baader, Hugo Ball, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, George Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, John Heartfield, Emmy Hennings, Hannah Höch, Richard Huelsenbeck, Francis Picabia, Man Ray, Hans Richter, Kurt Schwitters, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Tristan Tzara, and Beatrice Wood, among others. Dada_sentence_16

The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including Surrealism, nouveau réalisme, pop art and Fluxus. Dada_sentence_17

Overview Dada_section_0

Dada was an informal international movement, with participants in Europe and North America. Dada_sentence_18

The beginnings of Dada correspond to the outbreak of World War I. Dada_sentence_19

For many participants, the movement was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist and colonialist interests, which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, and against the cultural and intellectual conformity—in art and more broadly in society—that corresponded to the war. Dada_sentence_20

Avant-garde circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian developments. Dada_sentence_21

They had seen (or participated in) Cubist exhibitions held at Galeries Dalmau, Barcelona (1912), Galerie Der Sturm in Berlin (1912), the Armory Show in New York (1913), SVU Mánes in Prague (1914), several Jack of Diamonds exhibitions in Moscow and at De Moderne Kunstkring, Amsterdam (between 1911 and 1915). Dada_sentence_22

Futurism developed in response to the work of various artists. Dada_sentence_23

Dada subsequently combined these approaches. Dada_sentence_24

Many Dadaists believed that the 'reason' and 'logic' of bourgeois capitalist society had led people into war. Dada_sentence_25

They expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality. Dada_sentence_26

For example, George Grosz later recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest "against this world of mutual destruction." Dada_sentence_27

According to Hans Richter Dada was not art: it was "anti-art." Dada_sentence_28

Dada represented the opposite of everything which art stood for. Dada_sentence_29

Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. Dada_sentence_30

If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend. Dada_sentence_31

As Hugo Ball expressed it, "For us, art is not an end in itself ... but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism of the times we live in." Dada_sentence_32

A reviewer from the American Art News stated at the time that "Dada philosophy is the sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing that has ever originated from the brain of man." Dada_sentence_33

Art historians have described Dada as being, in large part, a "reaction to what many of these artists saw as nothing more than an insane spectacle of collective homicide." Dada_sentence_34

Years later, Dada artists described the movement as "a phenomenon bursting forth in the midst of the postwar economic and moral crisis, a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its path... [It was] a systematic work of destruction and demoralization... Dada_sentence_35

In the end it became nothing but an act of sacrilege." Dada_sentence_36

To quote Dona Budd's The Language of Art Knowledge, Dada_sentence_37

The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestos, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Dada_sentence_38

The creations of Duchamp, Picabia, Man Ray, and others between 1915 and 1917 eluded the term Dada at the time, and "New York Dada" came to be seen as a post facto invention of Duchamp. Dada_sentence_39

At the outset of the 1920s the term Dada flourished in Europe with the help of Duchamp and Picabia, who had both returned from New York. Dada_sentence_40

Notwithstanding, Dadaists such as Tzara and Richter claimed European precedence. Dada_sentence_41

Art historian David Hopkins notes: Dada_sentence_42

History Dada_section_1

Dada emerged from a period of artistic and literary movements like Futurism, Cubism and Expressionism; centered mainly in Italy, France and Germany respectively, in those years. Dada_sentence_43

However, unlike the earlier movements Dada was able to establish a broad base of support, giving rise to a movement that was international in scope. Dada_sentence_44

Its adherents were based in cities all over the world including New York, Zürich, Berlin, Paris and others. Dada_sentence_45

There were regional differences like an emphasis on literature in Zürich and political protest in Berlin. Dada_sentence_46

Prominent Dadaists published manifestos, but the movement was loosely organized and there was no central hierarchy. Dada_sentence_47

On 14 July 1916, Ball originated the seminal ; In 1917, Tzara wrote a second , considered important Dada reading, which was published in 1918. Dada_sentence_48

Tristan Tzara's manifesto articulated the concept of "Dadaist disgust"—the contradiction implicit in avant-garde works between the criticism and affirmation of modernist reality. Dada_sentence_49

In the Dadaist perspective modern art and culture are considered a type of fetishization where the objects of consumption (including organized systems of thought like philosophy and morality) are chosen, much like a preference for cake or cherries, to fill a void. Dada_sentence_50

The shock and scandal the movement inflamed was deliberate; Dadist magazines were banned and their exhibits closed. Dada_sentence_51

Some of the artists even faced imprisonment. Dada_sentence_52

These provocations were part of the entertainment but, over time, audiences' expectations eventually outpaced the movement's capacity to deliver. Dada_sentence_53

As the artists' well-known "sarcastic laugh" started to come from the audience, the provocations of Dadaists began to lose their impact. Dada_sentence_54

Dada was an active movement during years of political turmoil from 1916 when European countries were actively engaged in World War I, the conclusion of which, in 1918, set the stage for a new political order. Dada_sentence_55

Zürich Dada_section_2

There is some disagreement about where Dada originated. Dada_sentence_56

The movement is commonly accepted by most art historians and those who lived during this period to have identified with the Cabaret Voltaire (housed inside the Holländische Meierei bar in Zurich) co-founded by poet and cabaret singer Emmy Hennings and Hugo Ball. Dada_sentence_57

Some sources propose a Romanian origin, arguing that Dada was an offshoot of a vibrant artistic tradition that transposed to Switzerland when a group of Jewish modernist artists, including Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, and Arthur Segal settled in Zürich. Dada_sentence_58

Before World War I, similar art had already existed in Bucharest and other Eastern European cities; it is likely that Dada's catalyst was the arrival in Zürich of artists like Tzara and Janco. Dada_sentence_59

The name Cabaret Voltaire was a reference to the French philosopher Voltaire, whose novel Candide mocked the religious and philosophical dogmas of the day. Dada_sentence_60

Opening night was attended by Ball, Tzara, Jean Arp, and Janco. Dada_sentence_61

These artists along with others like Sophie Taeuber, Richard Huelsenbeck and Hans Richter started putting on performances at the Cabaret Voltaire and using art to express their disgust with the war and the interests that inspired it. Dada_sentence_62

Having left Germany and Romania during World War I, the artists arrived in politically neutral Switzerland. Dada_sentence_63

They used abstraction to fight against the social, political, and cultural ideas of that time. Dada_sentence_64

They used techniques of shock, provocation and "vaudevilleian excess" were all tools to subvert the conventions they believed had caused the Great War. Dada_sentence_65

The Dadaists believed those ideas to be a byproduct of bourgeois society that was so apathetic it would wage war against itself rather than challenge the status quo: Dada_sentence_66

Ball said that Janco's mask and costume designs, inspired by Romanian folk art, made "the horror of our time, the paralyzing background of events" visible. Dada_sentence_67

According to Ball, performances were accompanied by a "balalaika orchestra playing delightful folk-songs." Dada_sentence_68

Influenced by African music, arrhythmic drumming and jazz were common at Dada gatherings. Dada_sentence_69

After the cabaret closed down, Dada activities moved on to a new gallery, and Hugo Ball left for Bern. Dada_sentence_70

Tzara began a relentless campaign to spread Dada ideas. Dada_sentence_71

He bombarded French and Italian artists and writers with letters, and soon emerged as the Dada leader and master strategist. Dada_sentence_72

The Cabaret Voltaire re-opened, and is still in the same place at the Spiegelgasse 1 in the Niederdorf. Dada_sentence_73

Zürich Dada, with Tzara at the helm, published the art and literature review Dada beginning in July 1917, with five editions from Zürich and the final two from Paris. Dada_sentence_74

Other artists, such as André Breton and Philippe Soupault, created "literature groups to help extend the influence of Dada". Dada_sentence_75

After the fighting of the First World War had ended in the armistice of November 1918, most of the Zürich Dadaists returned to their home countries, and some began Dada activities in other cities. Dada_sentence_76

Others, such as the Swiss native Sophie Taeuber, would remain in Zürich into the 1920s. Dada_sentence_77

Berlin Dada_section_3

"Berlin was a city of tightened stomachers, of mounting, thundering hunger, where hidden rage was transformed into a boundless money lust, and men's minds were concentrating more and more on questions of naked existence... Dada_sentence_78

Fear was in everybody's bones" – Richard Hülsenbeck Dada_sentence_79

Raoul Hausmann, who helped establish Dada in Berlin, published his manifesto Synthethic Cino of Painting in 1918 where he attacked Expressionism and the art critics who promoted it. Dada_sentence_80

Dada is envisioned in contrast to art forms, such as Expressionism, that appeal to viewers' emotional states: "the exploitation of so-called echoes of the soul". Dada_sentence_81

In Hausmann's conception of Dada, new techniques of creating art would open doors to explore new artistic impulses. Dada_sentence_82

Fragmented use of real world stimuli allowed an expression of reality that was radically different from other forms of art: Dada_sentence_83

The groups in Germany were not as strongly anti-art as other groups. Dada_sentence_84

Their activity and art were more political and social, with corrosive manifestos and propaganda, satire, public demonstrations and overt political activities. Dada_sentence_85

The intensely political and war-torn environment of Berlin had a dramatic impact on the ideas of Berlin Dadaists. Dada_sentence_86

Conversely, New York's geographic distance from the war spawned its more theoretically-driven, less political nature. Dada_sentence_87

According to Hans Richter, a Dadaist who was in Berlin yet “aloof from active participation in Berlin Dada”, several distinguishing characteristics of the Dada movement there included: “its political element and its technical discoveries in painting and literature”; “inexhaustible energy”; “mental freedom which included the abolition of everything”; and “members intoxicated with their own power in a way that had no relation to the real world”, who would “turn their rebelliousness even against each other”. Dada_sentence_88

In February 1918, while the Great War was approaching its climax, Huelsenbeck gave his first Dada speech in Berlin, and he produced a Dada manifesto later in the year. Dada_sentence_89

Following the October Revolution in Russia, by then out of the war, Hannah Höch and George Grosz used Dada to express communist sympathies. Dada_sentence_90

Grosz, together with John Heartfield, Höch and Hausmann developed the of photomontage during this period. Dada_sentence_91

Johannes Baader, the uninhibited Oberdada, was the “crowbar” of the Berlin movement's direct action according to Hans Richter and is credited with creating the first giant collages, according to Raoul Hausmann. Dada_sentence_92

After the war, the artists published a series of short-lived political magazines and held the First International Dada Fair, 'the greatest project yet conceived by the Berlin Dadaists', in the summer of 1920. Dada_sentence_93

As well as work by the main members of Berlin Dada – Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Huelsenbeck and Heartfield – the exhibition also included the work of Otto Dix, Francis Picabia, Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Rudolf Schlichter, Johannes Baargeld and others. Dada_sentence_94

In all, over 200 works were exhibited, surrounded by incendiary slogans, some of which also ended up written on the walls of the Nazi's Entartete Kunst exhibition in 1937. Dada_sentence_95

Despite high ticket prices, the exhibition lost money, with only one recorded sale. Dada_sentence_96

The Berlin group published periodicals such as Club Dada, Der Dada, Everyman His Own Football, and Dada Almanach. Dada_sentence_97

They also established a political party, the Central Council of Dada for the World Revolution. Dada_sentence_98

Cologne Dada_section_4

In Cologne, Ernst, Baargeld, and Arp launched a controversial Dada exhibition in 1920 which focused on nonsense and anti-bourgeois sentiments. Dada_sentence_99

Cologne's Early Spring Exhibition was set up in a pub, and required that participants walk past urinals while being read lewd poetry by a woman in a communion dress. Dada_sentence_100

The police closed the exhibition on grounds of obscenity, but it was re-opened when the charges were dropped. Dada_sentence_101

New York Dada_section_5

Main article: New York Dada Dada_sentence_102

Like Zürich, New York City was a refuge for writers and artists from the First World War. Dada_sentence_103

Soon after arriving from France in 1915, Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia met American artist Man Ray. Dada_sentence_104

By 1916 the three of them became the center of radical anti-art activities in the United States. Dada_sentence_105

American Beatrice Wood, who had been studying in France, soon joined them, along with Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven. Dada_sentence_106

Arthur Cravan, fleeing conscription in France, was also in New York for a time. Dada_sentence_107

Much of their activity centered in Alfred Stieglitz's gallery, 291, and the home of Walter and Louise Arensberg. Dada_sentence_108

The New Yorkers, though not particularly organized, called their activities Dada, but they did not issue manifestos. Dada_sentence_109

They issued challenges to art and culture through publications such as The Blind Man, Rongwrong, and New York Dada in which they criticized the traditionalist basis for museum art. Dada_sentence_110

New York Dada lacked the disillusionment of European Dada and was instead driven by a sense of irony and humor. Dada_sentence_111

In his book Adventures in the arts: informal chapters on painters, vaudeville and poets Marsden Hartley included an essay on "". Dada_sentence_112

During this time Duchamp began exhibiting "readymades" (everyday objects found or purchased and declared art) such as a bottle rack, and was active in the Society of Independent Artists. Dada_sentence_113

In 1917 he submitted the now famous Fountain, a urinal signed R. Mutt, to the Society of Independent Artists exhibition but they rejected the piece. Dada_sentence_114

First an object of scorn within the arts community, the Fountain has since become almost canonized by some as one of the most recognizable modernist works of sculpture. Dada_sentence_115

Art world experts polled by the sponsors of the 2004 Turner Prize, Gordon's gin, voted it "the most influential work of modern art". Dada_sentence_116

As recent scholarship documents, the work is still controversial. Dada_sentence_117

Duchamp indicated in a 1917 letter to his sister that a female friend was centrally involved in the conception of this work: "One of my female friends who had adopted the pseudonym Richard Mutt sent me a porcelain urinal as a sculpture." Dada_sentence_118

The piece is in line with the scatological aesthetics of Duchamp's neighbour, the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven. Dada_sentence_119

In an attempt to "pay homage to the spirit of Dada" a performance artist named Pierre Pinoncelli made a crack in a replica of The Fountain with a hammer in January 2006; he also urinated on it in 1993. Dada_sentence_120

Picabia's travels tied New York, Zürich and Paris groups together during the Dadaist period. Dada_sentence_121

For seven years he also published the Dada periodical 391 in Barcelona, New York City, Zürich, and Paris from 1917 through 1924. Dada_sentence_122

By 1921, most of the original players moved to Paris where Dada had experienced its last major incarnation. Dada_sentence_123

Paris Dada_section_6

The French avant-garde kept abreast of Dada activities in Zürich with regular communications from Tristan Tzara (whose pseudonym means "sad in country," a name chosen to protest the treatment of Jews in his native Romania), who exchanged letters, poems, and magazines with Guillaume Apollinaire, André Breton, Max Jacob, Clément Pansaers, and other French writers, critics and artists. Dada_sentence_124

Paris had arguably been the classical music capital of the world since the advent of musical Impressionism in the late 19th century. Dada_sentence_125

One of its practitioners, Erik Satie, collaborated with Picasso and Cocteau in a mad, scandalous ballet called Parade. Dada_sentence_126

First performed by the Ballets Russes in 1917, it succeeded in creating a scandal but in a different way than Stravinsky's Le Sacre du printemps had done almost five years earlier. Dada_sentence_127

This was a ballet that was clearly parodying itself, something traditional ballet patrons would obviously have serious issues with. Dada_sentence_128

Dada in Paris surged in 1920 when many of the originators converged there. Dada_sentence_129

Inspired by Tzara, Paris Dada soon issued manifestos, organized demonstrations, staged performances and produced a number of journals (the final two editions of Dada, Le Cannibale, and Littérature featured Dada in several editions.) Dada_sentence_130

The first introduction of Dada artwork to the Parisian public was at the Salon des Indépendants in 1921. Dada_sentence_131

Jean Crotti exhibited works associated with Dada including a work entitled, Explicatif bearing the word Tabu. Dada_sentence_132

In the same year Tzara staged his Dadaist play The Gas Heart to howls of derision from the audience. Dada_sentence_133

When it was re-staged in 1923 in a more professional production, the play provoked a theatre riot (initiated by André Breton) that heralded the split within the movement that was to produce Surrealism. Dada_sentence_134

Tzara's last attempt at a Dadaist drama was his "ironic tragedy" Handkerchief of Clouds in 1924. Dada_sentence_135

Netherlands Dada_section_7

In the Netherlands the Dada movement centered mainly around Theo van Doesburg, best known for establishing the De Stijl movement and magazine of the same name. Dada_sentence_136

Van Doesburg mainly focused on poetry, and included poems from many well-known Dada writers in De Stijl such as Hugo Ball, Hans Arp and Kurt Schwitters. Dada_sentence_137

Van Doesburg and Thijs Rinsema [] (a cordwainer and artist in Drachten) became friends of Schwitters, and together they organized the so-called Dutch Dada campaign in 1923, where van Doesburg promoted a leaflet about Dada (entitled What is Dada? Dada_sentence_138

), Schwitters read his poems, Vilmos Huszár demonstrated a mechanical dancing doll and Nelly van Doesburg (Theo's wife), played avant-garde compositions on piano. Dada_sentence_139

Van Doesburg wrote Dada poetry himself in De Stijl, although under a pseudonym, I.K. Dada_sentence_140

Bonset, which was only revealed after his death in 1931. Dada_sentence_141

'Together' with I.K. Dada_sentence_142

Bonset, he also published a short-lived Dutch Dada magazine called Mécano (1922–3). Dada_sentence_143

Another Dutchman identified by K. Dada_sentence_144 Schippers in his study of the movement in the Netherlands was the Groningen typographer H. Dada_sentence_145 N. Werkman, who was in touch with van Doesburg and Schwitters while editing his own magazine, The Next Call (1923–6). Dada_sentence_146

Two more artists mentioned by Schippers were German-born and eventually settled in the Netherlands. Dada_sentence_147

These were Otto van Rees, who had taken part in the liminal exhibitions at the Café Voltaire in Zürich, and Paul Citroen. Dada_sentence_148

Georgia Dada_section_8

Yugoslavia Dada_section_9

In Yugoslavia, alongside the new art movement Zenitism, there was significant Dada activity between 1920 and 1922, run mainly by Dragan Aleksić and including work by Mihailo S. Petrov, Ljubomir Micić and Branko Ve Poljanski. Dada_sentence_149

Aleksić used the term "Yougo-Dada" and is known to have been in contact with Raoul Hausmann, Kurt Schwitters, and Tristan Tzara. Dada_sentence_150

Italy Dada_section_10

The Dada movement in Italy, based in Mantua, was met with distaste and failed to make a significant impact in the world of art. Dada_sentence_151

It published a magazine for a short time and held an exhibition in Rome, featuring paintings, quotations from Tristan Tzara, and original epigrams such as "True Dada is against Dada". Dada_sentence_152

The most notable member of this group was Julius Evola, who went on to become an eminent scholar of occultism, as well as a right-wing philosopher. Dada_sentence_153

Japan Dada_section_11

A prominent Dada group in Japan was Mavo, founded in July 1923 by Tomoyoshi Murayama, and Yanase Masamu [; ] later joined by Tatsuo Okada. Dada_sentence_154

Other prominent artists were Jun Tsuji, Eisuke Yoshiyuki, Shinkichi Takahashi and Katué Kitasono. Dada_sentence_155

In the Tsuburaya Productions's Ultra Series, an alien named Dada was inspired by Dadaism movement, with said character first appearing in episode 28 of the 1966 tokusatsu series, Ultraman, its design by character artist Toru Narita. Dada_sentence_156

Dada's design is primarily monochromatic, and features numerous sharp lines and alternating black and white stripes, in reference to the movement and, in particular, to chessboard and Go patterns. Dada_sentence_157

On May 19, 2016, in celebration to the 100 year anniversary of Dadaism in Tokyo, the Ultra Monster was invited to meet the Swiss Ambassador Urs Bucher. Dada_sentence_158

Butoh, the Japanese dance-form originating in 1959, can be considered to have direct connections to the spirit of the Dada movement, as Tatsumi Hijikata, one of Butoh's founders, "was influenced early in his career by Dadaism". Dada_sentence_159

Russia Dada_section_12

Dada in itself was relatively unknown in Russia, however, avant-garde art was widespread due to the Bolshevik's revolutionary agenda. Dada_sentence_160

The Nichevoki [], a literary group sharing Dadaist ideals achieved infamy after one of its members suggested that Vladimir Mayakovsky should go to the "Pampushka" (Pameatnik Pushkina – Pushkin monument) on the "Tverbul" (Tverskoy Boulevard) to clean the shoes of anyone who desired it, after Mayakovsky declared that he was going to cleanse Russian literature. Dada_sentence_161

For more information on Dadaism's influence upon Russian avant-garde art, see the book Russian Dada 1914–1924. Dada_sentence_162

Poetry Dada_section_13

Dadists used shock, nihilism, negativity, paradox, randomness, subconscious forces and antinomianism to subvert established traditions in the aftermath of the Great War. Dada_sentence_163

Tzara's 1920 manifesto proposed cutting words from a newspaper and randomly selecting fragments to write poetry, a process in which the synchronous universe itself becomes an active agent in creating the art. Dada_sentence_164

A poem written using this technique would be a "fruit" of the words that were clipped from the article. Dada_sentence_165

In literary arts Dadaists focused on poetry, particularly the so-called sound poetry invented by Hugo Ball. Dada_sentence_166

Dadaist poems attacked traditional conceptions of poetry, including structure, order, as well as the interplay of sound and the meaning of language. Dada_sentence_167

For Dadaists, the existing system by which information is articulated robs language of its dignity. Dada_sentence_168

The dismantling of language and poetic conventions are Dadaist attempts to restore language to its purest and most innocent form: "With these sound poem, we wanted to dispense with a language which journalism had made desolate and impossible." Dada_sentence_169

Simultaneous poems (or poèmes simultanés) were recited by a group of speakers who, collectively, produced a chaotic and confusing set of voices. Dada_sentence_170

These poems are considered manifestations of modernity including advertising, technology, and conflict. Dada_sentence_171

Unlike movements such as Expressionism, Dadaism did not take a negative view of modernity and the urban life. Dada_sentence_172

The chaotic urban and futuristic world is considered natural terrain that opens up new ideas for life and art. Dada_sentence_173

Music Dada_section_14

Legacy Dada_section_15

While broadly based, the movement was unstable. Dada_sentence_174

By 1924 in Paris, Dada was melding into Surrealism, and artists had gone on to other ideas and movements, including Surrealism, social realism and other forms of modernism. Dada_sentence_175

Some theorists argue that Dada was actually the beginning of postmodern art. Dada_sentence_176

By the dawn of the Second World War, many of the European Dadaists had emigrated to the United States. Dada_sentence_177

Some (Otto Freundlich, Walter Serner) died in death camps under Adolf Hitler, who actively persecuted the kind of "degenerate art" that he considered Dada to represent. Dada_sentence_178

The movement became less active as post-war optimism led to the development of new movements in art and literature. Dada_sentence_179

Dada is a named influence and reference of various anti-art and political and cultural movements, including the Situationist International and culture jamming groups like the Cacophony Society. Dada_sentence_180

Upon breaking up in July 2012, anarchist pop band Chumbawamba issued a statement which compared their own legacy with that of the Dada art movement. Dada_sentence_181

At the same time that the Zürich Dadaists were making noise and spectacle at the Cabaret Voltaire, Lenin was planning his revolutionary plans for Russia in a nearby apartment. Dada_sentence_182

Tom Stoppard used this coincidence as a premise for his play Travesties (1974), which includes Tzara, Lenin, and James Joyce as characters. Dada_sentence_183

French writer Dominique Noguez imagined Lenin as a member of the Dada group in his tongue-in-cheek Lénine Dada (1989). Dada_sentence_184

The former building of the Cabaret Voltaire fell into disrepair until it was occupied from January to March 2002, by a group proclaiming themselves Neo-Dadaists, led by Mark Divo. Dada_sentence_185

The group included Jan Thieler, Ingo Giezendanner, Aiana Calugar, Lennie Lee, and Dan Jones. Dada_sentence_186

After their eviction, the space was turned into a museum dedicated to the history of Dada. Dada_sentence_187

The work of Lee and Jones remained on the walls of the new museum. Dada_sentence_188

Several notable retrospectives have examined the influence of Dada upon art and society. Dada_sentence_189

In 1967, a large Dada retrospective was held in Paris. Dada_sentence_190

In 2006, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City mounted a Dada exhibition in partnership with the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. and the Centre Pompidou in Paris. Dada_sentence_191

The LTM label has released a large number of Dada-related sound recordings, including interviews with artists such as Tzara, Picabia, Schwitters, Arp, and Huelsenbeck, and musical repertoire including Satie, Ribemont-Dessaignes, Picabia, and Nelly van Doesburg. Dada_sentence_192

Musician Frank Zappa was a self-proclaimed Dadaist after learning of the movement: Dada_sentence_193

Art techniques developed Dada_section_16

Dadaism also blurred the line between literary and visual arts: Dada_sentence_194

Collage Dada_section_17

The Dadaists imitated the techniques developed during the cubist movement through the pasting of cut pieces of paper items, but extended their art to encompass items such as transportation tickets, maps, plastic wrappers, etc. to portray aspects of life, rather than representing objects viewed as still life. Dada_sentence_195

They also invented the “chance collage" technique, involving dropping torn scraps of paper onto a larger sheet and then pasting the pieces wherever they landed. Dada_sentence_196

Cut-up technique Dada_section_18

Cut-up technique is an extension of collage to words themselves, Tristan Tzara describes this in the Dada Manifesto: Dada_sentence_197

Photomontage Dada_section_19

The Dadaists – the "monteurs" (mechanics) – used scissors and glue rather than paintbrushes and paints to express their views of modern life through images presented by the media. Dada_sentence_198

A variation on the collage technique, photomontage utilized actual or reproductions of real photographs printed in the press. Dada_sentence_199

In Cologne, Max Ernst used images from the First World War to illustrate messages of the destruction of war. Dada_sentence_200

Assemblage Dada_section_20

The assemblages were three-dimensional variations of the collage – the assembly of everyday objects to produce meaningful or meaningless (relative to the war) pieces of work including war objects and trash. Dada_sentence_201

Objects were nailed, screwed or fastened together in different fashions. Dada_sentence_202

Assemblages could be seen in the round or could be hung on a wall. Dada_sentence_203

Readymades Dada_section_21

Marcel Duchamp began to view the manufactured objects of his collection as objects of art, which he called "readymades". Dada_sentence_204

He would add signatures and titles to some, converting them into artwork that he called "readymade aided" or "rectified readymades". Dada_sentence_205

Duchamp wrote: "One important characteristic was the short sentence which I occasionally inscribed on the 'readymade.' Dada_sentence_206

That sentence, instead of describing the object like a title, was meant to carry the mind of the spectator towards other regions more verbal. Dada_sentence_207

Sometimes I would add a graphic detail of presentation which in order to satisfy my craving for alliterations, would be called 'readymade aided.'" Dada_sentence_208

One such example of Duchamp's readymade works is the urinal that was turned onto its back, signed "R. Mutt", titled Fountain, and submitted to the Society of Independent Artists exhibition that year, though it was not displayed. Dada_sentence_209

Artists Dada_section_22

See also Dada_section_23


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