Dalet

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This article is about the Semitic letter. Dalet_sentence_0

For the designation as "untouchable" in the Hindu caste system, see Dalit. Dalet_sentence_1

For other uses, see Dalet (disambiguation). Dalet_sentence_2

Dalet_table_infobox_0

← Gimel Dalet He →Dalet_header_cell_0_0_0
PhoenicianDalet_header_cell_0_1_0 Dalet_cell_0_1_1
HebrewDalet_header_cell_0_2_0 ד‎Dalet_cell_0_2_1
AramaicDalet_header_cell_0_3_0 Dalet_cell_0_3_1
SyriacDalet_header_cell_0_4_0 ܕDalet_cell_0_4_1
ArabicDalet_header_cell_0_5_0 دDalet_cell_0_5_1
Phonemic representationDalet_header_cell_0_6_0 d, ðDalet_cell_0_6_1
Position in alphabetDalet_header_cell_0_7_0 4Dalet_cell_0_7_1
Numerical valueDalet_header_cell_0_8_0 4Dalet_cell_0_8_1
Alphabetic derivatives of the PhoenicianDalet_header_cell_0_9_0
GreekDalet_header_cell_0_10_0 ΔDalet_cell_0_10_1
LatinDalet_header_cell_0_11_0 D, ÐDalet_cell_0_11_1
CyrillicDalet_header_cell_0_12_0 ДDalet_cell_0_12_1

Dalet (dāleth, also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet 𐤃, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath , Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic Dāl د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order). Dalet_sentence_3

Its sound value is a voiced alveolar plosive ([d]). Dalet_sentence_4

The letter is based on a glyph of the Middle Bronze Age alphabets, probably called dalt "door" (door in Modern Hebrew is delet), ultimately based on a hieroglyph depicting a door: Dalet_sentence_5

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek delta (Δ), Latin D, and the Cyrillic letter Д. Dalet_sentence_6

Hebrew dalet Dalet_section_0

Dalet_table_general_1

Orthographic variantsDalet_header_cell_1_0_0
Various print fontsDalet_header_cell_1_1_0 Cursive HebrewDalet_header_cell_1_1_3 Rashi scriptDalet_header_cell_1_1_4
SerifDalet_header_cell_1_2_0 Sans-serifDalet_header_cell_1_2_1 MonospacedDalet_header_cell_1_2_2
דDalet_cell_1_3_0 דDalet_cell_1_3_1 דDalet_cell_1_3_2 Dalet_cell_1_3_3 Dalet_cell_1_3_4

Hebrew spelling: דָּלֶת Dalet_sentence_7

The letter is dalet in the modern Israeli Hebrew pronunciation (see Tav (letter)). Dalet_sentence_8

Dales is still used by many Ashkenazi Jews and daleth by some Jews of Middle-Eastern background, especially in the diaspora. Dalet_sentence_9

In some academic circles, it is called daleth, following the Tiberian Hebrew pronunciation. Dalet_sentence_10

It is also called daled. Dalet_sentence_11

The ד like the English D represents a voiced alveolar stop. Dalet_sentence_12

Just as in English, there may be subtle varieties of the sound that are created when it is spoken. Dalet_sentence_13

Variations Dalet_section_1

Dalet can receive a dagesh, being one of the six letters that can receive Dagesh Kal (see Gimel). Dalet_sentence_14

There are minor variations to this letter's pronunciation, such as Dalet_sentence_15

Dalet_unordered_list_0

  • ד dhalet /d/ (/ð/ among Teimanim, Mizrachim and some Sephardim; /z/ among some Ashkenazim.) orDalet_item_0_0
  • דּ dalet /d/.Dalet_item_0_1

In addition, in modern Hebrew, the combination ד׳ (dalet followed by a geresh) is used when transcribing foreign names to denote /ð/. Dalet_sentence_16

Significance Dalet_section_2

In gematria, dalet symbolizes the number four. Dalet_sentence_17

The letter dalet, along with the He (and very rarely Gimel) is used to represent the Names of God in Judaism. Dalet_sentence_18

The letter He is used commonly, and the dalet is rarer. Dalet_sentence_19

A good example is the keter (crown) of a tallit, which has the blessing for donning the tallit, and has the name of God usually represented by a dalet. Dalet_sentence_20

A reason for this is that He is used as an abbreviation for HaShem "The Name" and the dalet is used as a non-sacred way of referring to God. Dalet_sentence_21

Dalet as a prefix in Aramaic (the language of the Talmud) is a preposition meaning "that", or "which", or also "from" or "of"; since many Talmudic terms have found their way into Hebrew, one can hear dalet as a prefix in many phrases (as in Mitzvah Doraitah; a mitzvah from the Torah.) Dalet_sentence_22

In modern Hebrew the frequency of the usage of dalet, out of all the letters, is 2.59%. Dalet_sentence_23

Syriac daled/dolath Dalet_section_3

Dalet_table_general_2

Daled/DolathDalet_header_cell_2_0_0
Madnḫaya daledDalet_cell_2_1_0
Serṭo dolathDalet_cell_2_2_0
Esṭrangela dalathDalet_cell_2_3_0

In the Syriac alphabet, the fourth letter is ܕ — dolath in western pronunciation, dalath and daled in eastern pronunciation (ܕܵܠܵܬ). Dalet_sentence_24

It is one of six letters that represents two associated sounds (the others are bet, gimel, kaph, pe and taw). Dalet_sentence_25

When daled/dolath has a hard pronunciation (qûššāyâ) it is a d. Dalet_sentence_26

When it has a soft pronunciation (rûkkāḵâ) it is traditionally pronounced as a ð. Dalet_sentence_27

The letter is very common in Syriac as it is often attached to the beginning of words as the relative pronoun. Dalet_sentence_28

Daled/dolath is always written with a point below it to distinguish it from the letter resh (ܪ), which is identical apart from having a point above. Dalet_sentence_29

As a numeral, dalad/dolath stands for the number four. Dalet_sentence_30

With various systems of dots and dashes, it can also stand for 4,000 and 40,000. Dalet_sentence_31

Arabic dāl Dalet_section_4

See also: Ḏāl Dalet_sentence_32

The letter is named dāl دَالْ, and is written in several ways depending on its position in the word: Dalet_sentence_33

Dalet_table_general_3

Position in word:Dalet_header_cell_3_0_0 IsolatedDalet_header_cell_3_0_1 FinalDalet_header_cell_3_0_2 MedialDalet_header_cell_3_0_3 InitialDalet_header_cell_3_0_4
Glyph form:

(Help)Dalet_header_cell_3_1_0

د‎Dalet_cell_3_1_1 ـد‎Dalet_cell_3_1_2 ـد‎Dalet_cell_3_1_3 د‎Dalet_cell_3_1_4

The letter represents a /d/ sound. Dalet_sentence_34

Character encodings Dalet_section_5

Dalet_table_general_4

Character informationDalet_table_caption_4
PreviewDalet_header_cell_4_0_0 דDalet_header_cell_4_0_1 دDalet_header_cell_4_0_3 ܕDalet_header_cell_4_0_5 Dalet_header_cell_4_0_7 Dalet_header_cell_4_0_9
Unicode nameDalet_cell_4_1_0 HEBREW LETTER DALETDalet_cell_4_1_1 ARABIC LETTER DALDalet_cell_4_1_3 SYRIAC LETTER DALATHDalet_cell_4_1_5 SAMARITAN LETTER DALATDalet_cell_4_1_7 DALET SYMBOLDalet_cell_4_1_9
EncodingsDalet_header_cell_4_2_0 decimalDalet_header_cell_4_2_1 hexDalet_header_cell_4_2_2 decimalDalet_header_cell_4_2_3 hexDalet_header_cell_4_2_4 decimalDalet_header_cell_4_2_5 hexDalet_header_cell_4_2_6 decimalDalet_header_cell_4_2_7 hexDalet_header_cell_4_2_8 decimalDalet_header_cell_4_2_9 hexDalet_header_cell_4_2_10
UnicodeDalet_cell_4_3_0 1491Dalet_cell_4_3_1 U+05D3Dalet_cell_4_3_2 1583Dalet_cell_4_3_3 U+062FDalet_cell_4_3_4 1813Dalet_cell_4_3_5 U+0715Dalet_cell_4_3_6 2051Dalet_cell_4_3_7 U+0803Dalet_cell_4_3_8 8504Dalet_cell_4_3_9 U+2138Dalet_cell_4_3_10
UTF-8Dalet_cell_4_4_0 215 147Dalet_cell_4_4_1 D7 93Dalet_cell_4_4_2 216 175Dalet_cell_4_4_3 D8 AFDalet_cell_4_4_4 220 149Dalet_cell_4_4_5 DC 95Dalet_cell_4_4_6 224 160 131Dalet_cell_4_4_7 E0 A0 83Dalet_cell_4_4_8 226 132 184Dalet_cell_4_4_9 E2 84 B8Dalet_cell_4_4_10
Numeric character referenceDalet_cell_4_5_0 דDalet_cell_4_5_1 דDalet_cell_4_5_2 دDalet_cell_4_5_3 دDalet_cell_4_5_4 ܕDalet_cell_4_5_5 ܕDalet_cell_4_5_6 Dalet_cell_4_5_7 Dalet_cell_4_5_8 Dalet_cell_4_5_9 Dalet_cell_4_5_10
Named character referenceDalet_cell_4_6_0 Dalet_cell_4_6_1 Dalet_cell_4_6_3 Dalet_cell_4_6_5 Dalet_cell_4_6_7 ℸDalet_cell_4_6_9

Dalet_table_general_5

Character informationDalet_table_caption_5
PreviewDalet_header_cell_5_0_0 𐎄Dalet_header_cell_5_0_1 𐡃Dalet_header_cell_5_0_3 𐤃Dalet_header_cell_5_0_5
Unicode nameDalet_cell_5_1_0 UGARITIC LETTER DELTADalet_cell_5_1_1 IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER DALETHDalet_cell_5_1_3 PHOENICIAN LETTER DELTDalet_cell_5_1_5
EncodingsDalet_header_cell_5_2_0 decimalDalet_header_cell_5_2_1 hexDalet_header_cell_5_2_2 decimalDalet_header_cell_5_2_3 hexDalet_header_cell_5_2_4 decimalDalet_header_cell_5_2_5 hexDalet_header_cell_5_2_6
UnicodeDalet_cell_5_3_0 66436Dalet_cell_5_3_1 U+10384Dalet_cell_5_3_2 67651Dalet_cell_5_3_3 U+10843Dalet_cell_5_3_4 67843Dalet_cell_5_3_5 U+10903Dalet_cell_5_3_6
UTF-8Dalet_cell_5_4_0 240 144 142 132Dalet_cell_5_4_1 F0 90 8E 84Dalet_cell_5_4_2 240 144 161 131Dalet_cell_5_4_3 F0 90 A1 83Dalet_cell_5_4_4 240 144 164 131Dalet_cell_5_4_5 F0 90 A4 83Dalet_cell_5_4_6
UTF-16Dalet_cell_5_5_0 55296 57220Dalet_cell_5_5_1 D800 DF84Dalet_cell_5_5_2 55298 56387Dalet_cell_5_5_3 D802 DC43Dalet_cell_5_5_4 55298 56579Dalet_cell_5_5_5 D802 DD03Dalet_cell_5_5_6
Numeric character referenceDalet_cell_5_6_0 𐎄Dalet_cell_5_6_1 𐎄Dalet_cell_5_6_2 𐡃Dalet_cell_5_6_3 𐡃Dalet_cell_5_6_4 𐤃Dalet_cell_5_6_5 𐤃Dalet_cell_5_6_6


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalet.