Dalhousie University

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Dalhousie University_table_infobox_0

Dalhousie UniversityDalhousie University_table_caption_0
Former namesDalhousie University_header_cell_0_0_0 Dalhousie College

(1818–1863) The Governors of Dalhousie College and University (1863–1996)Dalhousie University_cell_0_0_1

MottoDalhousie University_header_cell_0_1_0 Ora et Labora  (Latin)Dalhousie University_cell_0_1_1
Motto in EnglishDalhousie University_header_cell_0_2_0 Pray and workDalhousie University_cell_0_2_1
TypeDalhousie University_header_cell_0_3_0 Public universityDalhousie University_cell_0_3_1
EstablishedDalhousie University_header_cell_0_4_0 1818; 202 years ago (1818)Dalhousie University_cell_0_4_1
EndowmentDalhousie University_header_cell_0_5_0 $481.4 millionDalhousie University_cell_0_5_1
ChancellorDalhousie University_header_cell_0_6_0 Anne McLellanDalhousie University_cell_0_6_1
PresidentDalhousie University_header_cell_0_7_0 Deep SainiDalhousie University_cell_0_7_1
Academic staffDalhousie University_header_cell_0_8_0 Dalhousie University_cell_0_8_1
StudentsDalhousie University_header_cell_0_9_0 20,380Dalhousie University_cell_0_9_1
UndergraduatesDalhousie University_header_cell_0_10_0 15,865Dalhousie University_cell_0_10_1
PostgraduatesDalhousie University_header_cell_0_11_0 4,515Dalhousie University_cell_0_11_1
LocationDalhousie University_header_cell_0_12_0 Halifax, Nova Scotia, CanadaDalhousie University_cell_0_12_1
CampusDalhousie University_header_cell_0_13_0 Dalhousie University_cell_0_13_1
ColoursDalhousie University_header_cell_0_14_0 Gold, slate grey, blackDalhousie University_cell_0_14_1
NicknameDalhousie University_header_cell_0_15_0 Dalhousie University_cell_0_15_1
AffiliationsDalhousie University_header_cell_0_16_0 Dalhousie University_cell_0_16_1
SportsDalhousie University_header_cell_0_17_0 Dalhousie University_cell_0_17_1
WebsiteDalhousie University_header_cell_0_18_0 Dalhousie University_cell_0_18_1

Dalhousie University (commonly known as Dal) is a public research university in Nova Scotia, Canada, with three campuses in Halifax, a fourth in Bible Hill, and medical teaching facilities in Saint John, New Brunswick. Dalhousie University_sentence_0

Dalhousie offers more than 4,000 courses, and 180 degree programs in twelve undergraduate, graduate, and professional faculties. Dalhousie University_sentence_1

The university is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_2

Dalhousie was established as a nonsectarian college in 1818 by the eponymous Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie. Dalhousie University_sentence_3

The college did not hold its first class until 1838, until then operating sporadically due to financial difficulties. Dalhousie University_sentence_4

It reopened for a third time in 1863 following a reorganization that brought a change of name to "The Governors of Dalhousie College and University". Dalhousie University_sentence_5

The university formally changed its name to "Dalhousie University" in 1997 through the same provincial legislation that merged the institution with the Technical University of Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University_sentence_6

There are currently two student unions that represent student interests at the university: the Dalhousie Student Union and the Dalhousie Association for Graduate Students. Dalhousie University_sentence_7

Dalhousie's varsity teams, the Tigers, compete in the Atlantic University Sport conference of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Dalhousie University_sentence_8

Dalhousie's Faculty of Agriculture varsity teams are called the Dalhousie Rams, and compete in the ACAA and CCAA. Dalhousie University_sentence_9

Dalhousie is a coeducational university with more than 18,000 students and 130,000 alumni around the world. Dalhousie University_sentence_10

The university's notable alumni include a Nobel Prize winner, 91 Rhodes Scholars, and a range of senior government officials, academics, and business leaders. Dalhousie University_sentence_11

History Dalhousie University_section_0

Dalhousie was founded as the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie desired a non-denominational college in Halifax. Dalhousie University_sentence_12

Financing largely came from customs duties collected by a previous Lieutenant Governor, John Coape Sherbrooke, during the War of 1812 occupation of Castine, Maine; Sherbrooke invested GBP£7,000 as an initial endowment and reserved £3,000 for the physical construction of the college. Dalhousie University_sentence_13

The college was established in 1818, though it faltered shortly after as Ramsay left Halifax to serve as the Governor General of British North America. Dalhousie University_sentence_14

The school was structured upon the principles of the University of Edinburgh, where lectures were open to all, regardless of religion or nationality. Dalhousie University_sentence_15

The University of Edinburgh was located near Ramsay's home in Scotland. Dalhousie University_sentence_16

In 1821 Dalhousie College was officially incorporated by the Nova Scotia House of Assembly under the 1821 Act of Incorporation. Dalhousie University_sentence_17

The college did not hold its first class until 1838; operation of the college was intermittent and no degrees were awarded. Dalhousie University_sentence_18

In 1841 an Act of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly conferred university powers on Dalhousie. Dalhousie University_sentence_19

In 1863 the college opened for a third time and was reorganized by another legislative act, which added "University" to the school's name: "The Governors of Dalhousie College and University". Dalhousie University_sentence_20

Dalhousie reopened with six professors and one tutor. Dalhousie University_sentence_21

When it awarded its first degrees in 1866 the student body consisted of 28 students working toward degrees and 28 occasional students. Dalhousie University_sentence_22

Despite the reorganization and an increase in students, money continued to be a problem for the institution. Dalhousie University_sentence_23

In 1879, amid talks of closure due to the university's dire financial situation, George Munro, a wealthy New York publisher with Nova Scotian roots, began to donate to the university; Munro was brother-in-law to Dalhousie's Board of Governors member John Forrest. Dalhousie University_sentence_24

As such, Munro is credited with rescuing Dalhousie from closure. Dalhousie University_sentence_25

In honour of his contributions, Dalhousie observes a university holiday called George Munro Day on the first Friday of each February. Dalhousie University_sentence_26

The first female graduate was Margaret Florence Newcome from Grafton, Nova Scotia, who earned her degree in 1885. Dalhousie University_sentence_27

Originally located at the space now occupied by Halifax City Hall, the college moved in 1886 to Carleton Campus and spread gradually to Studley Campus. Dalhousie University_sentence_28

Dalhousie grew steadily during the 20th century. Dalhousie University_sentence_29

From 1889 to 1962 the Halifax Conservatory was affiliated with and awarded degrees through Dalhousie. Dalhousie University_sentence_30

In 1920 several buildings were destroyed by fire on the campus of the University of King's College in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University_sentence_31

Through a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, King's College relocated to Halifax and entered into a partnership with Dalhousie that continues to this day. Dalhousie University_sentence_32

Dalhousie expanded on 1 April 1997 when provincial legislation mandated an amalgamation with the nearby Technical University of Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University_sentence_33

This merger saw reorganization of faculties and departments to create the Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and the Faculty of Architecture and Planning. Dalhousie University_sentence_34

From 1997 to 2000, the Technical University of Nova Scotia operated as a constituent college of Dalhousie called Dalhousie Polytechnic of Nova Scotia (DalTech) until the collegiate system was dissolved. Dalhousie University_sentence_35

The legislation that merged the two schools also formally changed the name of the institution to its present form, Dalhousie University. Dalhousie University_sentence_36

On 1 September 2012 the Nova Scotia Agricultural College merged into Dalhousie to form a new Faculty of Agriculture, located in Bible Hill, Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University_sentence_37

Campuses Dalhousie University_section_1

Dalhousie has three campuses within the Halifax Peninsula and a fourth, the Agricultural Campus, in Bible Hill, Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University_sentence_38

Studley Campus in Halifax serves as the primary campus; it houses the majority of the university's academic buildings such as faculties, athletic facilities, and the university's Student Union Building. Dalhousie University_sentence_39

The campus is largely surrounded by residential neighbourhoods. Dalhousie University_sentence_40

Robie Street divides it from the adjacent Carleton Campus, which houses the faculties of dentistry, medicine, and other health profession departments. Dalhousie University_sentence_41

The campus is adjacent to two large teaching hospitals affiliated with the school: the IWK Health Centre and the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre. Dalhousie University_sentence_42

Sexton Campus in Downtown Halifax hosts the engineering, architecture and planning faculties. Dalhousie University_sentence_43

Sexton Campus served as the campus of the Technical University of Nova Scotia prior to amalgamation. Dalhousie University_sentence_44

The Agricultural Campus in Bible Hill, a suburban community of Truro, served as the campus for the Nova Scotia Agricultural College prior to its merger with Dalhousie in 2011. Dalhousie University_sentence_45

The university presently operates the largest academic library system in Atlantic Canada, and hosts the headquarters for the Ocean Tracking Network. Dalhousie University_sentence_46

The buildings at Dalhousie vary in age from Hart House, which was completed in 1864, to the Collaborative Health Education Building, completed in 2015. Dalhousie University_sentence_47

The original building of Dalhousie University was completed in 1824 on Halifax's Grand Parade. Dalhousie University_sentence_48

It was demolished in 1885 when the university outgrew the premises, and the City of Halifax sought possession of the entire Grand Parade. Dalhousie University_sentence_49

Halifax City Hall presently occupies the site of the original Dalhousie College. Dalhousie University_sentence_50

Libraries and museums Dalhousie University_section_2

The university has five libraries. Dalhousie University_sentence_51

The largest, Killam Memorial Library, opened in 1971. Dalhousie University_sentence_52

It is the largest academic library in Atlantic Canada with over one million books and 40,000 journals. Dalhousie University_sentence_53

The library's collection largely serves the faculties of arts and social sciences, sciences, management, and computer science. Dalhousie University_sentence_54

The W. K. Kellogg Health Science Library provides services largely for the faculties of dentistry, medicine, and other health professions. Dalhousie University_sentence_55

The Sexton Design & Technology Library is located within Sexton Campus. Dalhousie University_sentence_56

Its collection largely serves those in the faculties of engineering, architecture and planning, and houses the university's rare books collection. Dalhousie University_sentence_57

The Sir James Dunn Law Library holds the university's collection of common law materials, legal periodicals, as well as books on international law, health law, and environmental law. Dalhousie University_sentence_58

MacRae Library is located at the university's Agricultural Campus, and has the largest collection of agricultural resource material in Atlantic Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_59

The Dalhousie University Archives houses official records of, or relating to, or people/activities connected with Dalhousie University and its founding institutions. Dalhousie University_sentence_60

The archives also houses material related to theatre, business and labour in Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University_sentence_61

The collection consists of manuscripts, texts, photographs, audio-visual material, microfilm, music, and artifacts. Dalhousie University_sentence_62

The university's first library, Macdonald Memorial Library, was built after alumni raised funds on the death of professor Charles Macdonald, who had left the university $2,000 to buy books in English literature on his death in 1901. Dalhousie University_sentence_63

The biology department operates the Thomas McCulloch Museum in Pictou, Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University_sentence_64

The most notable of the museum's exhibits include its preserved birds collection. Dalhousie University_sentence_65

Other collections include its Lorenzen ceramic mushrooms, its coral and shell collection, and its butterfly and insect collection. Dalhousie University_sentence_66

The museum's namesake Thomas McCulloch was a Scottish Presbyterian minister who served as Dalhousie's first president and created the Audubon mounted bird collection which is now housed at the museum. Dalhousie University_sentence_67

The Dalhousie Art Gallery is both a public gallery and an academic support unit housed since 1971 on the lowest level of the Dalhousie Arts Centre. Dalhousie University_sentence_68

Admission is free of charge. Dalhousie University_sentence_69

It is host to a permanent collection of over 1000 works. Dalhousie University_sentence_70

Some of the outdoor sculptures around the campus are part of this collection, such as the distinctive Marine Venus which has sat in the median of University Avenue since 1969. Dalhousie University_sentence_71

A notable exhibition from the Dalhousie Art Gallery includes "Archives of the Future" (March – April 2016) exploring the relationship between art creation and commerce with work by artists Zachary Gough, Dawn Georg, Sharlene Bamboat, Katie Vida and Dana Claxton. Dalhousie University_sentence_72

Housing and student facilities Dalhousie University_section_3

The university has ten student residences throughout its Halifax campuses: Gerard Hall, Howe Hall, LeMarchant Place, Mini Rez, O'Brien Hall, Residence Houses, Risley Hall, Shirreff Hall, Glengary Apartments, and Graduate House. Dalhousie University_sentence_73

The largest, Howe Hall in Studley Campus, houses 716 students during the academic year. Dalhousie University_sentence_74

Howe Hall's most recent addition to the residence is called Fountain. Dalhousie University_sentence_75

It is the only residence in Howe Hall to have a sink in every room. Dalhousie University_sentence_76

The university also operates three residences in its Agricultural Campus: Chapman House, Fraser House, and Truman House. Dalhousie University_sentence_77

The largest residence in the Agricultural Campus is Chapman House, housing 125 students during the academic year. Dalhousie University_sentence_78

The residences are represented by a Residence Council responsible for resident concerns, providing entertainment services, organizing events, and upholding rules and regulations. Dalhousie University_sentence_79

The Student Union Building serves as the main student activity centre. Dalhousie University_sentence_80

Completed in 1968, it is located in the Studley Campus. Dalhousie University_sentence_81

The Student Union building hosts a number of student societies and organization offices, most notably the Dalhousie Student Union. Dalhousie University_sentence_82

The building houses five restaurants, both independently owned and international franchises such as Tim Hortons. Dalhousie University_sentence_83

Sustainability Dalhousie University_section_4

Dalhousie University is actively involved in sustainability issues and has received a number of sustainability awards and recognition for academic programs, university operations, and research. Dalhousie University_sentence_84

In 2018, Dalhousie received a GOLD rating from AASHE STARS (Version 2.1). Dalhousie University_sentence_85

In 2009, the university signed the University and College Presidents' Climate Change Statement of Action for Canada to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Dalhousie University_sentence_86

Dalhousie is also a signatory of UNEP's International Declaration on Cleaner Production. Dalhousie University_sentence_87

In 1999, the university signed the Talloires Declaration, which committed Dalhousie and other higher education institutions to developing, creating, supporting, and maintaining sustainability. Dalhousie University_sentence_88

In 2008, the College of Sustainability, the Office of Sustainability, and the Dalhousie Student Union Sustainability Office were formed. Dalhousie University_sentence_89

During 2008, the President's Advisory Council on Sustainability was also created. Dalhousie University_sentence_90

The council meets quarterly to discuss pan-university sustainability issues. Dalhousie University_sentence_91

Dalhousie's international award-winning College of Sustainability offers an undergraduate Major in Environment, Sustainability and Society (ESS) integrating with seven bachelor's degrees and forty subjects across five faculties. Dalhousie University_sentence_92

The College of Sustainability offers a virtual and a physical space for the intersection of interdisciplinary collaboration, conversation, and teaching with a core of cross-appointed Dalhousie faculty members joined by visiting fellows, distinguished guest lecturers, community leaders, and environmental advocates. Dalhousie University_sentence_93

In addition, the Sustainability Leadership Certificate program offers students the opportunity to participate in an engaged exploration of personal and group leadership and empowers their sense of personal agency to address environmental and social change. Dalhousie University_sentence_94

The Office of Sustainability spearheads a number of campus sustainability plans and policies including the Climate Change Plan, Natural Environment Plan, and Green Building policy. Dalhousie University_sentence_95

A number of initiatives have been developed and implemented with campus partners including numerous energy and water retrofits, residence Eco-Olympics competition, an Employee Sustainability Leadership Program, and an Employee Bus Pass. Dalhousie University_sentence_96

The Dalhousie Student Union Sustainability Office promotes awareness and behaviour change. Dalhousie University_sentence_97

DSUSO hosts "Green Week," the "Green Gala" and the "Greenie Awards" to celebrate campus accomplishments on sustainability. Dalhousie University_sentence_98

A number of student societies are also active in sustainability issues from on-campus gardening and food security to environmental law. Dalhousie University_sentence_99

Administration Dalhousie University_section_5

University governance is conducted through the Board of Governors and the Senate, both of which were given much of their present power in the Unofficial Consolidation of an Act for the Regulation and Support of Dalhousie College in Chapter 24 of the Acts of 1863. Dalhousie University_sentence_100

This statute replaced ones from 1820, 1823, 1838, 1841 and 1848, and has since been supplemented 11 times, most recently in 1995. Dalhousie University_sentence_101

The Board is responsible for conduct, management, and control of the university and of its property, revenues, business, and affairs. Dalhousie University_sentence_102

Board members, known as Governors of the Board, include the university's chancellor, president, and 25 other members. Dalhousie University_sentence_103

Members include people from within the university community such as four approved representatives from Dalhousie Student Union, and those in the surrounding community, such as the Mayor of Halifax. Dalhousie University_sentence_104

The Senate is responsible for the university's academics, including standards for admission and qualifications for degrees, diplomas, and certificates. Dalhousie University_sentence_105

The Senate consists of 73 positions granted to the various faculty representatives, academic administrators, and student representatives. Dalhousie University_sentence_106

The president acts as the chief executive officer and is responsible to the Board of Governors and to the Senate for the supervision of administrative and academic works. Dalhousie University_sentence_107

Richard Florizone is the 11th president of the university, and has served since 2013. Dalhousie University_sentence_108

Thomas McCulloch served as the first president when the office was created in 1838. Dalhousie University_sentence_109

John Forrest was the longest-serving president, holding the office from 1885 to 1911. Dalhousie University_sentence_110

Affiliated institutions Dalhousie University_section_6

University of King's College is a post-secondary institution in Halifax affiliated with Dalhousie. Dalhousie University_sentence_111

The institution's campus is located adjacent to Dalhousie's Studley campus. Dalhousie University_sentence_112

Established in 1789, it was the first post-secondary institution in English Canada and the oldest English-speaking Commonwealth university outside the United Kingdom. Dalhousie University_sentence_113

The University of King's College was formerly an independent institution located in Windsor, Nova Scotia, until 1920, when a fire ravaged its campus. Dalhousie University_sentence_114

To continue operation, the University of King's College accepted a generous grant from the Carnegie Foundation, although the terms of the grant required that it move to Halifax and enter into association with Dalhousie. Dalhousie University_sentence_115

Under the agreement, King's agreed to pay the salaries of a number of Dalhousie professors, who in turn were to help in the management and academic life of the college. Dalhousie University_sentence_116

Students at King's have access to all of the amenities at Dalhousie, and academic programs at King's would fold into the College of Arts and Sciences at Dalhousie according to the agreement. Dalhousie University_sentence_117

Presently, students of both institutions are allowed to switch between the two throughout their enrolment. Dalhousie University_sentence_118

In spite of the shared academic programs and facilities, the University of King's College maintains its own scholarships, bursaries, athletics programs, and student residences. Dalhousie University_sentence_119

Finances Dalhousie University_section_7

The university completed the 2017–18 year with revenues of $697.354 million and expenses of $664.274 million, yielding a surplus of $33.08 million. Dalhousie University_sentence_120

The largest source of revenue for the university was provincial operational grants, followed by tuition fees. Dalhousie University_sentence_121

The total endowment revenue reported in fiscal 2017-2018 was $481.372 million. Dalhousie University_sentence_122

Academics Dalhousie University_section_8

Dalhousie is a publicly funded research university, and a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, as well as the U15, a group of Canadian research-intensive universities. Dalhousie University_sentence_123

As of 2011, there were 18,220 students enrolled at the university and 3,700 courses in over 190-degree programs. Dalhousie University_sentence_124

Dalhousie offers more than 3,700 courses and 190-degree programs in twelve undergraduate, graduate, and professional faculties. Dalhousie University_sentence_125

The requirements for admission differ between students from Nova Scotia, students from other provinces in Canada, and international students due to lack of uniformity in marking schemes. Dalhousie University_sentence_126

The requirements for admission also differ depending on the program. Dalhousie University_sentence_127

In 2011, the secondary school average for incoming first-year undergraduate students was 85 percent. Dalhousie University_sentence_128

Canadian students may apply for financial aid such as the Nova Scotia Student Assistance Program and Canada Student Loans and Grants through the federal and provincial governments. Dalhousie University_sentence_129

Financial aid may also be provided in the form of loans, grants, bursaries, scholarships, fellowships, debt reduction, interest relief, and work programs. Dalhousie University_sentence_130

Reputation Dalhousie University_section_9

Dalhousie University_table_infobox_1

University rankingsDalhousie University_header_cell_1_0_0
Global rankingsDalhousie University_header_cell_1_1_0
ARWU WorldDalhousie University_header_cell_1_2_0 201–300Dalhousie University_cell_1_2_1
QS WorldDalhousie University_header_cell_1_3_0 291Dalhousie University_cell_1_3_1
Times WorldDalhousie University_header_cell_1_4_0 251–300Dalhousie University_cell_1_4_1
Times EmployabilityDalhousie University_header_cell_1_5_0 200–250Dalhousie University_cell_1_5_1
U.S News & World Report GlobalDalhousie University_header_cell_1_6_0 325Dalhousie University_cell_1_6_1
Canadian rankingsDalhousie University_header_cell_1_7_0
ARWU NationalDalhousie University_header_cell_1_8_0 10–12Dalhousie University_cell_1_8_1
QS NationalDalhousie University_header_cell_1_9_0 12Dalhousie University_cell_1_9_1
Times NationalDalhousie University_header_cell_1_10_0 11–14Dalhousie University_cell_1_10_1
U.S News & World Report NationalDalhousie University_header_cell_1_11_0 13Dalhousie University_cell_1_11_1
Maclean's Medical/DoctoralDalhousie University_header_cell_1_12_0 7Dalhousie University_cell_1_12_1

The 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Dalhousie University 201–300 in the world and 10–12 in Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_131

The 2021 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 291 in the world, and twelfth in Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_132

The 2021 Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed Dalhousie 251–300 in the world. Dalhousie University_sentence_133

In the 2021 U.S. Dalhousie University_sentence_134 News & World Report Best Global University Ranking, the university placed 322nd in the world, and 14th in Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_135

In terms of national rankings, Maclean's ranked Dalhousie seventh in their 2021 Medical Doctoral university rankings. Dalhousie University_sentence_136

Dalhousie was ranked in spite of having opted out – along with several other universities in Canada – of participating in Maclean's graduate survey since 2006. Dalhousie University_sentence_137

Dalhousie also placed in a number of rankings that evaluated the employment prospects of its graduates. Dalhousie University_sentence_138

In the Times Higher Education's 2018 global employability ranking, Dalhousie placed 200-250 in the world, tied for eighth in Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_139

In QS's 2019 graduate employability ranking, the university ranked 301-500 in the world, or 9–17 in Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_140

Research Dalhousie University_section_10

Dalhousie University is a member of the U15, a group that represents 15 Canadian research universities. Dalhousie University_sentence_141

In 2018, Research Infosource ranked Dalhousie as 15th on their list for top 50 research universities in Canada, with a sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of $150.038 million in 2017. Dalhousie University_sentence_142

In the same year, Dalhousie's faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $130,000, while its graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of $44,600. Dalhousie University_sentence_143

In 2003 and 2004, The Scientist placed Dalhousie among the top five places in the world outside the United States for postdoctoral work and conducting scientific research. Dalhousie University_sentence_144

In 2007 Dalhousie topped the list of The Scientist's "Best Places to Work in Academia". Dalhousie University_sentence_145

The annual list divides research and academic institutions into American and international lists; Dalhousie University ranked first in the international category. Dalhousie University_sentence_146

According to a survey conducted by The Scientist, Dalhousie was the best non-commercial scientific institute in which to work in Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_147

Dalhousie's research performance has been noted several bibliometric university rankings, which uses citation analysis to evaluates the impact a university has on academic publications. Dalhousie University_sentence_148

In 2019, the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities ranked Dalhousie 301st in the world, tied for 12th in Canada with the University of Manitoba; whereas the University Ranking by Academic Performance 2018–19 rankings placed the university 302nd in the world, and 13th in Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_149

Marine research at Dalhousie has become a large focus of the university, with many of the university's faculty members involved in some form of marine research. Dalhousie University_sentence_150

Notably, Dalhousie is the headquarters of the Ocean Tracking Network, a research effort using implanted acoustic transmitters to study fish migration patterns. Dalhousie University_sentence_151

Dalhousie houses a number of marine research pools, a wet laboratory, and a benthic flume, which are collectively known as the Aquatron laboratory. Dalhousie University_sentence_152

Dalhousie is one of the founding members of the Halifax Marine Research Institute, founded on 2 June 2011. Dalhousie University_sentence_153

The institute, which is a partnership between a number of private industries, government, and post-secondary institutions, was designed to help increase the scale, quality, internationalization and impact of marine research in the region. Dalhousie University_sentence_154

In 2011, the university, along with WWF-Canada, created the Conservation Legacy For Oceans, which aimed at providing scholarships, funding, curriculum development, and work placements for students and academics dedicated to marine research, law, management, and policy making. Dalhousie University_sentence_155

Many of Dalhousie's faculties and departments focus on marine research. Dalhousie University_sentence_156

The Faculty of Engineering operates the Ocean Research Centre Atlantic, which is dedicated to research and tests in naval and off-shore engineering. Dalhousie University_sentence_157

Schulich School of Law also operates the Marine & Environmental Law Institute, which carries out research and conducts consultancy activities for governmental and non-governmental organizations. Dalhousie University_sentence_158

The school's Department of Political Science similarly operates the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, which is primarily concerned with the fields of Canadian and American foreign, security, and defence policy, including maritime security policy. Dalhousie University_sentence_159

Student life Dalhousie University_section_11

The student body of Dalhousie is currently represented by two student unions; the Dalhousie Student Union, which represents the general student population, and the Dalhousie Association for Graduate Students, which represents the interests of graduate students specifically. Dalhousie University_sentence_160

Dalhousie Student Union began as the Dalhousie Student Government in 1863, and was renamed the University Student Council before taking its present name. Dalhousie University_sentence_161

The student union recognizes more than 100 student organizations and societies. Dalhousie University_sentence_162

The organizations and clubs accredited at Dalhousie cover a wide range of interests including academics, culture, religion, social issues, and recreation. Dalhousie University_sentence_163

Accredited extracurricular organizations at the university fall under the jurisdiction of the Dalhousie Student Union, and must conform to its by-laws. Dalhousie University_sentence_164

As of 2011, there were three sororities (Omega Pi, Iota Beta Chi, and Alpha Gamma Delta) and three fraternities (Phi Delta Theta, Sigma Chi, and Phi Kappa Pi). Dalhousie University_sentence_165

They operate as non-accredited organizations and are not recognized by the Dalhousie Student Union. Dalhousie University_sentence_166

The university's student population operates a number of media outlets. Dalhousie University_sentence_167

The main student newspaper, The Dalhousie Gazette, claims to be the oldest student-run newspaper in North America. Dalhousie University_sentence_168

It is published Thursdays, and is distributed to over 100 locations around the Halifax area. Dalhousie University_sentence_169

The newspaper's offices are in the Student Union building. Dalhousie University_sentence_170

Dalhousie's student population runs a radio station which began as a radio club in 1964, and began to broadcast and operate as CKDU in 1975; it began FM frequency broadcasting in 1985. Dalhousie University_sentence_171

CKDU acquired its present frequency 88.1 in 2006 alongside an upgrading of its transmitting power. Dalhousie University_sentence_172

Clubs and societies Dalhousie University_section_12

In addition to the efforts made by the Dalhousie Student Union (DSU) Council, Dalhousie students have created and participated in over 320 clubs/societies. Dalhousie University_sentence_173

The Management Society, for example, is a group of students in the Faculty of Management who group together to enhance the experience of students in that faculty by hosting events, providing assistance and giving back. Dalhousie University_sentence_174

Until 25 July 2016, Dalhousie offered a website named "Tiger Society" which listed all current clubs and societies that were available for students to join. Dalhousie University_sentence_175

Through this website, students could request to join a society. Dalhousie University_sentence_176

Dalhousie also holds a Society Fair at the beginning of each fall and winter semester, in which all societies are given the opportunity to display their purpose/efforts and recruit new members. Dalhousie University_sentence_177

Student societies partake in a range of activities from simple gatherings, study groups, bake sales, intramural sports teams, to organizing larger scale fundraising events. Dalhousie University_sentence_178

Athletics Dalhousie University_section_13

Dalhousie's sports teams are called the Tigers. Dalhousie University_sentence_179

The Tigers varsity teams participate primarily in the Atlantic University Sport (AUS) of U Sports. Dalhousie University_sentence_180

There are teams for basketball, hockey, soccer, swimming, track and field, cross country running, and volleyball. Dalhousie University_sentence_181

The Tigers garnered a number of championships in the first decade of the 20th century, winning 63 AUS championships and two U Sports championships. Dalhousie University_sentence_182

More than 2,500 students participate in competitive clubs, intramural sport leagues, and tournaments. Dalhousie University_sentence_183

Opportunities are offered at multiple skill levels across a variety of sports. Dalhousie University_sentence_184

Dalhousie has six competitive sports clubs and 17 recreational clubs. Dalhousie University_sentence_185

Dalhousie's Agricultural Campus operates its own varsity team, called the Dalhousie Rams. Dalhousie University_sentence_186

The Rams varsity team participates in the Atlantic Collegiate Athletic Association, a member of the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association. Dalhousie University_sentence_187

The Rams varsity teams include badminton, basketball, rugby, soccer, volleyball, and woodsmen. Dalhousie University_sentence_188

Dalhousie has a number of athletic facilities open to varsity teams and students. Dalhousie University_sentence_189

Dalplex is the largest main fitness and recreational facility. Dalhousie University_sentence_190

It houses a large fieldhouse, an Olympic-sized swimming pool, an indoor running track, weight rooms, courts and other facilities. Dalhousie University_sentence_191

Wickwire Field, with a seating capacity of up to 1,200, is the university's main outdoor field and is host to the varsity football, soccer, field hockey, lacrosse and rugby teams. Dalhousie University_sentence_192

Other sporting facilities include the Studley Gymnasium, and the Sexton Gymnasium and field. Dalhousie University_sentence_193

The Memorial Arena, home to the varsity hockey team, was demolished in 2012. Dalhousie University_sentence_194

The school is working to build a new arena jointly with nearby Saint Mary's University, whose facility is also aging. Dalhousie University_sentence_195

The Agricultural Campus has one athletic facility, the Langille Athletic Centre. Dalhousie University_sentence_196

As of 2010, through the efforts of alumni and devoted volunteers, the Dalhousie Football Club was reinstated. Dalhousie University_sentence_197

Playing in the Atlantic Football League (AFL), the team operates on donations and registration from its players. Dalhousie University_sentence_198

The team plays its home games at Wickwire Field. Dalhousie University_sentence_199

Additionally, the university boasts the first quidditch team in Atlantic Canada. Dalhousie University_sentence_200

As of 2014, the Dalhousie Tigers Quidditch varsity club is the top-ranked team in the area and, though still developing, is showing great promise for regional and national bids in the future. Dalhousie University_sentence_201

Insignia and other representations Dalhousie University_section_14

Seal Dalhousie University_section_15

The Dalhousie seal is based on the heraldic achievement of the Clan Ramsay of Scotland, of which founder George Ramsay was clan head. Dalhousie University_sentence_202

The heraldic achievement consists of five parts: shield, coronet, crest, supporters, and motto. Dalhousie University_sentence_203

One major difference between the Ramsay coat of arms and the university seal is that the Ramsay seal features a griffin and greyhound, and the Dalhousie seal has two dragons supporting the eagle-adorned shield. Dalhousie University_sentence_204

Initially, the Ramsay coat of arms was used to identify Dalhousie, but the seal has evolved with the amalgamations the university has undergone. Dalhousie University_sentence_205

The seal was originally silver-coloured, but in 1950, the university's Board of Governors changed it to gold to match the university's colours, gold and black. Dalhousie University_sentence_206

These colours were adopted in 1887, after the rugby team led the debate about college colours for football jerseys. Dalhousie University_sentence_207

The shield and eagle of Dalhousie's seal have been used as the logo since 1987, with the present incarnation in use since 2003, which includes the tagline "inspiring minds". Dalhousie University_sentence_208

Motto and song Dalhousie University_section_16

The university motto Ora et Labora translates from Latin as "pray and work"; it adopted in 1870 from the Earl of Dalhousie's motto to replace the university's original one, which the administration believed did not convey confidence. Dalhousie University_sentence_209

The original motto was Forsan, which translates as Perhaps, and first appeared in the first Dalhousie Gazette of 1869. Dalhousie University_sentence_210

It was from Virgil's epic poem Aeneid, Book 1, line 203, Forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit, which translates as "Perhaps the time may come when these difficulties will be sweet to remember". Dalhousie University_sentence_211

A number of songs are commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement, convocation, and athletic contests, including "Carmina Dalhousiana", written in Halifax in 1882. Dalhousie University_sentence_212

The Dalhousie University songbook was compiled by Charles B. Weikel in 1904. Dalhousie University_sentence_213

Notable alumni Dalhousie University_section_17

Further information: List of Dalhousie University people Dalhousie University_sentence_214

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Dalhousie graduates have found success in a variety of fields, serving as heads of a diverse array of public and private institutions. Dalhousie University_sentence_215

Dalhousie University has over 130,000 alumni. Dalhousie University_sentence_216

Throughout Dalhousie's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in many fields, and include 91 Rhodes Scholars. Dalhousie University_sentence_217

Dalhousie has also educated Nobel laureates. Dalhousie University_sentence_218

Astrophysicist and Dalhousie alumni Arthur B. McDonald (BSc 1964, MSc 1965) received the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics for identifying neutrino change identities and mass. Dalhousie University_sentence_219

McDonald was also previously awarded the Herzberg Prize and the Benjamin Franklin Prize in physics. Dalhousie University_sentence_220

Other notable graduates of Dalhousie includes Donald O. Hebb, who helped advance the field of neuropsychology, Kathryn D. Sullivan, the first American woman to walk in space and Jeff Dahn, one of the world's foremost researchers in lithium battery chemistry and aging. Dalhousie University_sentence_221

Notable politicians who have attended Dalhousie include three Prime Ministers of Canada, R. Dalhousie University_sentence_222 B. Bennett, Joe Clark, and Brian Mulroney. Dalhousie University_sentence_223

Eight graduates have served as Lieutenant Governors: John Crosbie, Myra Freeman, Clarence Gosse, John Keiller MacKay, Henry Poole MacKeen, John Robert Nicholson, Fabian O'Dea, and Albert Walsh. Dalhousie University_sentence_224

Twelve graduates have served as provincial premiers: Allan Blakeney, John Buchanan, Alex Campbell, Amor De Cosmos, Darrell Dexter, Joe Ghiz, John Hamm, Angus Lewis Macdonald, Russell MacLellan, Gerald Regan, Robert Stanfield, Clyde Wells, and Danny Williams. Dalhousie University_sentence_225

The first woman appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada, Bertha Wilson, was a graduate from Dalhousie Law School. Dalhousie University_sentence_226

Other notable alumni from the Dalhousie include Lucy Maud Montgomery, an author that wrote a series of novels, including Anne of Green Gables. Dalhousie University_sentence_227

Prominent business leaders who studied at Dalhousie include Jamie Baillie, former CEO of Credit Union Atlantic, Graham Day, former CEO of British Shipbuilders, Sean Durfy, former CEO of WestJet, and Charles Peter McColough, former president and CEO of Xerox. Dalhousie University_sentence_228

See also Dalhousie University_section_18

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalhousie University.