David Bowie

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For other uses, see David Bowie (disambiguation). David Bowie_sentence_0

David Bowie_table_infobox_0

David Bowie

OALDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_0_0

BornDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_1_0 David Robert Jones

(1947-01-08)8 January 1947 Brixton, London, EnglandDavid Bowie_cell_0_1_1

DiedDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_2_0 10 January 2016(2016-01-10) (aged 69)

New York City, U.S.David Bowie_cell_0_2_1

OccupationDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_3_0 David Bowie_cell_0_3_1
Years activeDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_4_0 1962–2016David Bowie_cell_0_4_1
Spouse(s)David Bowie_header_cell_0_5_0 David Bowie_cell_0_5_1
ChildrenDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_6_0 2, including Duncan JonesDavid Bowie_cell_0_6_1
GenresDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_7_0 David Bowie_cell_0_7_1
InstrumentsDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_8_0 David Bowie_cell_0_8_1
LabelsDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_9_0 David Bowie_cell_0_9_1
Associated actsDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_10_0 David Bowie_cell_0_10_1
WebsiteDavid Bowie_header_cell_0_11_0 David Bowie_cell_0_11_1

David Robert Jones (8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie (/ˈboʊi/, UK also /ˈbəʊi/ BOH-ee), was an English singer-songwriter and actor. David Bowie_sentence_1

He was a leading figure in the music industry and is regarded as one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. David Bowie_sentence_2

He was acclaimed by critics and musicians, particularly for his innovative work during the 1970s. David Bowie_sentence_3

His career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, with his music and stagecraft having a significant impact on popular music. David Bowie_sentence_4

During his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at over 100 million records worldwide, made him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. David Bowie_sentence_5

In the UK, he was awarded ten platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, and released eleven number-one albums. David Bowie_sentence_6

In the US, he received five platinum and nine gold certifications. David Bowie_sentence_7

He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. David Bowie_sentence_8

Rolling Stone placed him among its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time and named him the "Greatest Rock Star Ever" following his death in 2016. David Bowie_sentence_9

Born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child. David Bowie_sentence_10

He studied art, music and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. David Bowie_sentence_11

"Space Oddity", released in 1969, was his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart. David Bowie_sentence_12

After a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. David Bowie_sentence_13

The character was spearheaded by the success of Bowie's single "Starman" and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, which won him widespread popularity. David Bowie_sentence_14

In 1975, Bowie's style shifted towards a sound he characterised as "plastic soul", initially alienating many of his UK fans but garnering him his first major US crossover success with the number-one single "Fame" and the album Young Americans. David Bowie_sentence_15

In 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg, and released Station to Station. David Bowie_sentence_16

In 1977, he further confounded expectations with the electronic-inflected album Low, the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno that came to be known as the "Berlin Trilogy". David Bowie_sentence_17

"Heroes" (1977) and Lodger (1979) followed; each album reached the UK top five and received lasting critical praise. David Bowie_sentence_18

After uneven commercial success in the late 1970s, Bowie had UK number ones with the 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes", its album Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps), and "Under Pressure", a 1981 collaboration with Queen. David Bowie_sentence_19

He reached his commercial peak in 1983 with Let's Dance; its title track topped both UK and US charts. David Bowie_sentence_20

Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with musical styles, including industrial and jungle. David Bowie_sentence_21

He also continued acting; his roles included Major Jack Celliers in Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence (1983), Jareth the Goblin King in Labyrinth (1986), Pontius Pilate in The Last Temptation of Christ (1988), and Nikola Tesla in The Prestige (2006), among other film and television appearances and cameos. David Bowie_sentence_22

He stopped touring after 2004 and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006. David Bowie_sentence_23

In 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with The Next Day. David Bowie_sentence_24

He remained musically active until his death from liver cancer at his home in New York City, two days after his 69th birthday and the release of his final album, Blackstar (2016). David Bowie_sentence_25

Blackstar won British Album of the Year at the 2017 Brit Awards and five Grammy Awards at the 2017 Grammy Awards. David Bowie_sentence_26

Early life David Bowie_section_0

Bowie was born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 in Brixton, London. David Bowie_sentence_27

His mother, Margaret Mary "Peggy" (née Burns; 2 October 1913 – 2 April 2001), was born at Shorncliffe Army Camp near Cheriton, Kent. David Bowie_sentence_28

Her paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants who had settled in Manchester. David Bowie_sentence_29

She worked as a waitress at a cinema in Royal Tunbridge Wells. David Bowie_sentence_30

His father, Haywood Stenton "John" Jones (21 November 1912 – 5 August 1969), was from Doncaster, Yorkshire and worked as a promotions officer for the children's charity Barnardo's. David Bowie_sentence_31

The family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, on the boundary between Brixton and Stockwell in the south London borough of Lambeth. David Bowie_sentence_32

Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler. David Bowie_sentence_33

From 1953 Bowie moved with his family to Bickley and then Bromley Common, before settling in Sundridge Park in 1955 where he attended Burnt Ash Junior School. David Bowie_sentence_34

His voice was considered "adequate" by the school choir, and he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. David Bowie_sentence_35

At the age of nine, his dancing during the newly introduced music and movement classes was strikingly imaginative: teachers called his interpretations "vividly artistic" and his poise "astonishing" for a child. David Bowie_sentence_36

The same year, his interest in music was further stimulated when his father brought home a collection of American 45s by artists including the Teenagers, the Platters, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, and Little Richard. David Bowie_sentence_37

Upon listening to Little Richard's song "Tutti Frutti", Bowie would later say that he had "heard God". David Bowie_sentence_38

Bowie was first impressed with Presley when he saw his cousin dance to "Hound Dog". David Bowie_sentence_39

By the end of the following year, Bowie had taken up the ukulele and tea-chest bass, begun to participate in skiffle sessions with friends, and had started to play the piano; meanwhile, his stage presentation of numbers by both Presley and Chuck Berry—complete with gyrations in tribute to the original artists—to his local Wolf Cub group was described as "mesmerizing ... like someone from another planet". David Bowie_sentence_40

After taking his eleven-plus exam at the conclusion of his Burnt Ash Junior education, Bowie went to Bromley Technical High School. David Bowie_sentence_41

It was an unusual technical school, as biographer Christopher Sandford wrote: David Bowie_sentence_42

Bowie studied art, music, and design, including layout and typesetting. David Bowie_sentence_43

After his older half-brother Terry Burns introduced him to modern jazz, his enthusiasm for players like Charles Mingus and John Coltrane led his mother to give him a Grafton saxophone in 1961. David Bowie_sentence_44

He was soon receiving lessons from baritone saxophonist Ronnie Ross. David Bowie_sentence_45

He received a serious injury at school in 1962 when his friend George Underwood punched him in the left eye during a fight over a girl. David Bowie_sentence_46

After a series of operations during a four-month hospitalisation, his doctors determined that the damage could not be fully repaired and Bowie was left with faulty depth perception and anisocoria (a permanently dilated pupil), which gave a false impression of a change in the iris's colour, erroneously suggesting he had heterochromia iridum (one iris a different colour to the other); the eye later became one of Bowie's most recognisable features. David Bowie_sentence_47

Despite their altercation, Bowie remained on good terms with Underwood, who went on to create the artwork for Bowie's early albums. David Bowie_sentence_48

Music career David Bowie_section_1

1962–1967: Early career to debut album David Bowie_section_2

Bowie formed his first band, the Konrads, in 1962 at the age of 15. David Bowie_sentence_49

Playing guitar-based rock and roll at local youth gatherings and weddings, the Konrads had a varying line-up of between four and eight members, Underwood among them. David Bowie_sentence_50

When Bowie left the technical school the following year, he informed his parents of his intention to become a pop star. David Bowie_sentence_51

His mother arranged his employment as an electrician's mate. David Bowie_sentence_52

Frustrated by his bandmates' limited aspirations, Bowie left the Konrads and joined another band, the King Bees. David Bowie_sentence_53

He wrote to the newly successful washing-machine entrepreneur John Bloom inviting him to "do for us what Brian Epstein has done for the Beatles—and make another million." David Bowie_sentence_54

Bloom did not respond to the offer, but his referral to Dick James's partner Leslie Conn led to Bowie's first personal management contract. David Bowie_sentence_55

Conn quickly began to promote Bowie. David Bowie_sentence_56

The singer's debut single, "Liza Jane", credited to Davie Jones with the King Bees, was not commercially successful. David Bowie_sentence_57

Dissatisfied with the King Bees and their repertoire of Howlin' Wolf and Willie Dixon covers, Bowie quit the band less than a month later to join the Manish Boys, another blues outfit, who incorporated folk and soul—"I used to dream of being their Mick Jagger", Bowie was to recall. David Bowie_sentence_58

Their cover of Bobby Bland's "I Pity the Fool" was no more successful than "Liza Jane", and Bowie soon moved on again to join the Lower Third, a blues trio strongly influenced by The Who. David Bowie_sentence_59

"You've Got a Habit of Leaving" fared no better, signalling the end of Conn's contract. David Bowie_sentence_60

Declaring that he would exit the pop music world "to study mime at Sadler's Wells", Bowie nevertheless remained with the Lower Third. David Bowie_sentence_61

His new manager, Ralph Horton, later instrumental in his transition to solo artist, soon witnessed Bowie's move to yet another group, the Buzz, yielding the singer's fifth unsuccessful single release, "Do Anything You Say". David Bowie_sentence_62

While with the Buzz, Bowie also joined the Riot Squad; their recordings, which included one of Bowie's original songs and material by The Velvet Underground, went unreleased. David Bowie_sentence_63

Kenneth Pitt, introduced by Horton, took over as Bowie's manager. David Bowie_sentence_64

Dissatisfied with his stage name as Davy (and Davie) Jones, which in the mid-1960s invited confusion with Davy Jones of The Monkees, Bowie renamed himself after the 19th-century American pioneer James Bowie and the knife he had popularised. David Bowie_sentence_65

His April 1967 solo single, "The Laughing Gnome", using speeded-up thus high-pitched vocals, failed to chart. David Bowie_sentence_66

Released six weeks later, his album debut, David Bowie, an amalgam of pop, psychedelia, and music hall, met the same fate. David Bowie_sentence_67

It was his last release for two years. David Bowie_sentence_68

1968–1971: Space Oddity to Hunky Dory David Bowie_section_3

Studying the dramatic arts under Lindsay Kemp, from avant-garde theatre and mime to commedia dell'arte, Bowie became immersed in the creation of personae to present to the world. David Bowie_sentence_69

Satirising life in a British prison, the Bowie composition "Over the Wall We Go" became a 1967 single for Oscar; another Bowie song, "Silly Boy Blue", was released by Billy Fury the following year. David Bowie_sentence_70

Playing acoustic guitar, Hermione Farthingale formed a group with Bowie and guitarist John Hutchinson named Feathers; between September 1968 and early 1969 the trio gave a small number of concerts combining folk, Merseybeat, poetry, and mime. David Bowie_sentence_71

After the break-up with Farthingale, Bowie moved in with Mary Finnigan as her lodger. David Bowie_sentence_72

In February and March 1969, he undertook a short tour with Marc Bolan's duo Tyrannosaurus Rex, as third on the bill, performing a mime act. David Bowie_sentence_73

On 11 July 1969, "Space Oddity" was released five days ahead of the Apollo 11 launch, and reached the top five in the UK. David Bowie_sentence_74

Continuing the divergence from rock and roll and blues begun by his work with Farthingale, Bowie joined forces with Finnigan, Christina Ostrom and Barrie Jackson to run a folk club on Sunday nights at the Three Tuns pub in Beckenham High Street. David Bowie_sentence_75

The club was influenced by the Arts Lab movement, developing into the Beckenham Arts Lab and became extremely popular. David Bowie_sentence_76

The Arts Lab hosted a free festival in a local park, the subject of his song "Memory of a Free Festival". David Bowie_sentence_77

Bowie's second album followed in November; originally issued in the UK as David Bowie, it caused some confusion with its predecessor of the same name, and the early US release was instead titled Man of Words/Man of Music; it was reissued internationally in 1972 by RCA Records as Space Oddity. David Bowie_sentence_78

Featuring philosophical post-hippie lyrics on peace, love, and morality, its acoustic folk rock occasionally fortified by harder rock, the album was not a commercial success at the time of its release. David Bowie_sentence_79

Bowie met Angela Barnett in April 1969. David Bowie_sentence_80

They married within a year. David Bowie_sentence_81

Her impact on him was immediate, and her involvement in his career far-reaching, leaving manager Ken Pitt with limited influence which he found frustrating. David Bowie_sentence_82

Having established himself as a solo artist with "Space Oddity", Bowie began to sense a lacking: "a full-time band for gigs and recording—people he could relate to personally". David Bowie_sentence_83

The shortcoming was underlined by his artistic rivalry with Marc Bolan, who was at the time acting as his session guitarist. David Bowie_sentence_84

The band Bowie assembled comprised John Cambridge, a drummer Bowie met at the Arts Lab, Tony Visconti on bass and Mick Ronson on electric guitar. David Bowie_sentence_85

Known as Hype, the bandmates created characters for themselves and wore elaborate costumes that prefigured the glam style of the Spiders from Mars. David Bowie_sentence_86

After a disastrous opening gig at the London Roundhouse, they reverted to a configuration presenting Bowie as a solo artist. David Bowie_sentence_87

Their initial studio work was marred by a heated disagreement between Bowie and Cambridge over the latter's drumming style. David Bowie_sentence_88

Matters came to a head when an enraged Bowie accused the drummer of the disturbance, exclaiming "You're fucking up my album." David Bowie_sentence_89

Cambridge left and was replaced by Mick Woodmansey. David Bowie_sentence_90

Not long after, the singer fired his manager and replaced him with Tony Defries. David Bowie_sentence_91

This resulted in years of litigation that concluded with Bowie having to pay Pitt compensation. David Bowie_sentence_92

The studio sessions continued and resulted in Bowie's third album, The Man Who Sold the World (1970), which contained references to schizophrenia, paranoia, and delusion. David Bowie_sentence_93

Characterised by the heavy rock sound of his new backing band, it was a marked departure from the acoustic guitar and folk rock style established by Space Oddity. David Bowie_sentence_94

To promote it in the US, Mercury Records financed a coast-to-coast publicity tour across America in which Bowie, between January and February 1971, was interviewed by radio stations and the media. David Bowie_sentence_95

Exploiting his androgynous appearance, the original cover of the UK version unveiled two months later depicted the singer wearing a dress: taking the garment with him, he wore it during interviews—to the approval of critics, including Rolling Stone's John Mendelsohn who described him as "ravishing, almost disconcertingly reminiscent of Lauren Bacall" – and in the street, to mixed reaction including laughter and, in the case of one male pedestrian, producing a gun and telling Bowie to "kiss my ass". David Bowie_sentence_96

During the tour, Bowie's observation of two seminal American proto-punk artists led him to develop a concept that eventually found form in the Ziggy Stardust character: a melding of the persona of Iggy Pop with the music of Lou Reed, producing "the ultimate pop idol". David Bowie_sentence_97

A girlfriend recalled his "scrawling notes on a cocktail napkin about a crazy rock star named Iggy or Ziggy", and on his return to England he declared his intention to create a character "who looks like he's landed from Mars". David Bowie_sentence_98

The "Stardust" surname was a tribute to the "Legendary Stardust Cowboy", whose record he was given during the tour. David Bowie_sentence_99

Bowie would later cover "I Took a Trip on a Gemini Space Ship" on 2002's Heathen. David Bowie_sentence_100

Hunky Dory (1971) found Visconti, Bowie's producer and bassist, supplanted in both roles by Ken Scott and Trevor Bolder respectively. David Bowie_sentence_101

The album saw the partial return of the fey pop singer of "Space Oddity", with light fare such as "Kooks", a song written for his son, Duncan Zowie Haywood Jones, born on 30 May. David Bowie_sentence_102

(His parents chose "his kooky name"—he was known as Zowie for the next 12 years—after the Greek word zoe, life.) David Bowie_sentence_103

Elsewhere, the album explored more serious subjects, and found Bowie paying unusually direct homage to his influences with "Song for Bob Dylan", "Andy Warhol", and "Queen Bitch", the latter a Velvet Underground pastiche. David Bowie_sentence_104

It was not a significant commercial success at the time. David Bowie_sentence_105

1972–1974: Ziggy Stardust David Bowie_section_4

Dressed in a striking costume, his hair dyed reddish-brown, Bowie launched his Ziggy Stardust stage show with the Spiders from Mars—Ronson, Bolder, and Woodmansey—at the Toby Jug pub in Tolworth in Kingston upon Thames on 10 February 1972. David Bowie_sentence_106

The show was hugely popular, catapulting him to stardom as he toured the UK over the next six months and creating, as described by Buckley, a "cult of Bowie" that was "unique—its influence lasted longer and has been more creative than perhaps almost any other force within pop fandom." David Bowie_sentence_107

The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (1972), combining the hard rock elements of The Man Who Sold the World with the lighter experimental rock and pop of Hunky Dory, was released in June. David Bowie_sentence_108

"Starman", issued as an April single ahead of the album, was to cement Bowie's UK breakthrough: both single and album charted rapidly following his July Top of the Pops performance of the song. David Bowie_sentence_109

The album, which remained in the chart for two years, was soon joined there by the 6-month-old Hunky Dory. David Bowie_sentence_110

At the same time the non-album single "John, I'm Only Dancing", and "All the Young Dudes", a song he wrote and produced for Mott the Hoople, were successful in the UK. David Bowie_sentence_111

The Ziggy Stardust Tour continued to the United States. David Bowie_sentence_112

Bowie contributed backing vocals, keyboards, and guitar to Reed's 1972 solo breakthrough Transformer, co-producing the album with Mick Ronson. David Bowie_sentence_113

The following year, Bowie co-produced and mixed The Stooges album Raw Power alongside Iggy Pop. David Bowie_sentence_114

His own Aladdin Sane (1973) topped the UK chart, his first number-one album. David Bowie_sentence_115

Described by Bowie as "Ziggy goes to America", it contained songs he wrote while travelling to and across the US during the earlier part of the Ziggy tour, which now continued to Japan to promote the new album. David Bowie_sentence_116

Aladdin Sane spawned the UK top five singles "The Jean Genie" and "Drive-In Saturday". David Bowie_sentence_117

Bowie's love of acting led his total immersion in the characters he created for his music. David Bowie_sentence_118

"Offstage I'm a robot. David Bowie_sentence_119

Onstage I achieve emotion. David Bowie_sentence_120

It's probably why I prefer dressing up as Ziggy to being David." David Bowie_sentence_121

With satisfaction came severe personal difficulties: acting the same role over an extended period, it became impossible for him to separate Ziggy Stardust—and later, the Thin White Duke—from his own character offstage. David Bowie_sentence_122

Ziggy, Bowie said, "wouldn't leave me alone for years. David Bowie_sentence_123

That was when it all started to go sour ... My whole personality was affected. David Bowie_sentence_124

It became very dangerous. David Bowie_sentence_125

I really did have doubts about my sanity." David Bowie_sentence_126

His later Ziggy shows, which included songs from both Ziggy Stardust and Aladdin Sane, were ultra-theatrical affairs filled with shocking stage moments, such as Bowie stripping down to a sumo wrestling loincloth or simulating oral sex with Ronson's guitar. David Bowie_sentence_127

Bowie toured and gave press conferences as Ziggy before a dramatic and abrupt on-stage "retirement" at London's Hammersmith Odeon on 3 July 1973. David Bowie_sentence_128

Footage from the final show was released the same year for the film Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. David Bowie_sentence_129

After breaking up the Spiders from Mars, Bowie attempted to move on from his Ziggy persona. David Bowie_sentence_130

His back catalogue was now highly sought after: The Man Who Sold the World had been re-released in 1972 along with Space Oddity. David Bowie_sentence_131

"Life on Mars? David Bowie_sentence_132 ", from Hunky Dory, was released in June 1973 and peaked at No. David Bowie_sentence_133

3 on the UK Singles Chart. David Bowie_sentence_134

Entering the same chart in September, Bowie's novelty record from 1967, "The Laughing Gnome", reached No. David Bowie_sentence_135

6. David Bowie_sentence_136

Pin Ups, a collection of covers of his 1960s favourites, followed in October, producing a UK No. David Bowie_sentence_137

3 hit in his version of the McCoys's "Sorrow" and itself peaking at number one, making David Bowie the best-selling act of 1973 in the UK. David Bowie_sentence_138

It brought the total number of Bowie albums concurrently on the UK chart to six. David Bowie_sentence_139

1974–1976: "Plastic soul" and the Thin White Duke David Bowie_section_5

Bowie moved to the US in 1974, initially staying in New York City before settling in Los Angeles. David Bowie_sentence_140

Diamond Dogs (1974), parts of which found him heading towards soul and funk, was the product of two distinct ideas: a musical based on a wild future in a post-apocalyptic city, and setting George Orwell's 1984 to music. David Bowie_sentence_141

The album went to number one in the UK, spawning the hits "Rebel Rebel" and "Diamond Dogs", and No. David Bowie_sentence_142

5 in the US. David Bowie_sentence_143

To promote it, Bowie launched the Diamond Dogs Tour, visiting cities in North America between June and December 1974. David Bowie_sentence_144

Choreographed by Toni Basil, and lavishly produced with theatrical special effects, the high-budget stage production was filmed by Alan Yentob. David Bowie_sentence_145

The resulting documentary, Cracked Actor, featured a pasty and emaciated Bowie: the tour coincided with the singer's slide from heavy cocaine use into addiction, producing severe physical debilitation, paranoia, and emotional problems. David Bowie_sentence_146

He later commented that the accompanying live album, David Live, ought to have been titled "David Bowie Is Alive and Well and Living Only in Theory". David Bowie_sentence_147

David Live nevertheless solidified Bowie's status as a superstar, charting at No. David Bowie_sentence_148

2 in the UK and No. David Bowie_sentence_149

8 in the US. David Bowie_sentence_150

It also spawned a UK No. David Bowie_sentence_151

10 hit in Bowie's cover of Eddie Floyd's "Knock on Wood". David Bowie_sentence_152

After a break in Philadelphia, where Bowie recorded new material, the tour resumed with a new emphasis on soul. David Bowie_sentence_153

The fruit of the Philadelphia recording sessions was Young Americans (1975). David Bowie_sentence_154

Biographer Christopher Sandford writes, "Over the years, most British rockers had tried, one way or another, to become black-by-extension. David Bowie_sentence_155

Few had succeeded as Bowie did now." David Bowie_sentence_156

The album's sound, which the singer identified as "plastic soul", constituted a radical shift in style that initially alienated many of his UK devotees. David Bowie_sentence_157

Young Americans yielded Bowie's first US number one, "Fame", co-written with John Lennon, who contributed backing vocals, and Carlos Alomar. David Bowie_sentence_158

Lennon called Bowie's work "great, but it's just rock'n'roll with lipstick on". David Bowie_sentence_159

Earning the distinction of being one of the first white artists to appear on the US variety show Soul Train, Bowie mimed "Fame", as well as "Golden Years", his November single, which was originally offered to Elvis Presley, who declined it. David Bowie_sentence_160

Young Americans was a commercial success in both the US and the UK, and a re-issue of the 1969 single "Space Oddity" became Bowie's first number-one hit in the UK a few months after "Fame" achieved the same in the US. David Bowie_sentence_161

Despite his by now well established superstardom, Bowie, in the words of Sandford, "for all his record sales (over a million copies of Ziggy Stardust alone), existed essentially on loose change." David Bowie_sentence_162

In 1975, in a move echoing Ken Pitt's acrimonious dismissal five years earlier, Bowie fired his manager. David Bowie_sentence_163

At the culmination of the ensuing months-long legal dispute, he watched, as described by Sandford, "millions of dollars of his future earnings being surrendered" in what were "uniquely generous terms for Defries", then "shut himself up in West 20th Street, where for a week his howls could be heard through the locked attic door." David Bowie_sentence_164

Michael Lippman, Bowie's lawyer during the negotiations, became his new manager; Lippman in turn was awarded substantial compensation when Bowie fired him the following year. David Bowie_sentence_165

Station to Station (1976), produced by Bowie and Harry Maslin, introduced a new Bowie persona, "The Thin White Duke" of its title-track. David Bowie_sentence_166

Visually, the character was an extension of Thomas Jerome Newton, the extraterrestrial being he portrayed in the film The Man Who Fell to Earth the same year. David Bowie_sentence_167

Developing the funk and soul of Young Americans, Station to Station's synthesizer-heavy arrangements prefigured the krautrock-influenced music of his next releases. David Bowie_sentence_168

The extent to which drug addiction was now affecting Bowie was made public when Russell Harty interviewed the singer for his London Weekend Television talk show in anticipation of the album's supporting tour. David Bowie_sentence_169

Shortly before the satellite-linked interview was scheduled to commence, the death of the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco was announced. David Bowie_sentence_170

Bowie was asked to relinquish the satellite booking, to allow the Spanish Government to put out a live newsfeed. David Bowie_sentence_171

This he refused to do, and his interview went ahead. David Bowie_sentence_172

In the ensuing lengthy conversation with Harty, Bowie was incoherent and looked "disconnected". David Bowie_sentence_173

His sanity—by his own later admission—had become twisted from cocaine; he overdosed several times during the year, and was withering physically to an alarming degree. David Bowie_sentence_174

Station to Station's January 1976 release was followed in February by a 31/2-month-long concert tour of Europe and North America. David Bowie_sentence_175

Featuring a starkly lit set, the Isolar – 1976 Tour with its colour newsprint Isolar concert program, highlighted songs from the album, including the dramatic and lengthy title track, the ballads "Wild Is the Wind" and "Word on a Wing", and the funkier "TVC 15" and "Stay". David Bowie_sentence_176

The core band that coalesced to record this album and tour—rhythm guitarist Carlos Alomar, bassist George Murray, and drummer Dennis Davis—continued as a stable unit for the remainder of the 1970s. David Bowie_sentence_177

The tour was highly successful but mired in political controversy. David Bowie_sentence_178

Bowie was quoted in Stockholm as saying that "Britain could benefit from a Fascist leader", and was detained by customs on the Russian/Polish border for possessing Nazi paraphernalia. David Bowie_sentence_179

Matters came to a head in London in May in what became known as the "Victoria Station incident". David Bowie_sentence_180

Arriving in an open-top Mercedes convertible, Bowie waved to the crowd in a gesture that some alleged was a Nazi salute, which was captured on camera and published in NME. David Bowie_sentence_181

Bowie said the photographer caught him in mid-wave. David Bowie_sentence_182

He later blamed his pro-fascism comments and his behaviour during the period on his addictions and the character of the Thin White Duke. David Bowie_sentence_183

"I was out of my mind, totally crazed. David Bowie_sentence_184

The main thing I was functioning on was mythology ... that whole thing about Hitler and Rightism ... David Bowie_sentence_185

I'd discovered King Arthur". David Bowie_sentence_186

According to playwright Alan Franks, writing later in The Times, "he was indeed 'deranged'. David Bowie_sentence_187

He had some very bad experiences with hard drugs." David Bowie_sentence_188

Bowie's cocaine addiction, which had motivated these controversies, had much to do with his time living in Los Angeles, a city which alienated him. David Bowie_sentence_189

Discussing his flirtations with fascism in a 1980 interview with NME, Bowie explained that Los Angeles was "where it had all happened. David Bowie_sentence_190

The fucking place should be wiped off the face of the Earth. David Bowie_sentence_191

To be anything to do with rock and roll and go and live in Los Angeles is, I think, just heading for disaster. David Bowie_sentence_192

It really is." David Bowie_sentence_193

After recovering from addiction, Bowie apologised for these statements, and throughout the 1980s and '90s criticised racism in European politics and the American music industry. David Bowie_sentence_194

Nevertheless, Bowie's comments on fascism, as well as Eric Clapton's alcohol-fuelled denunciations of Pakistani immigrants in 1976, led to the establishment of Rock Against Racism. David Bowie_sentence_195

1976–1979: Berlin era David Bowie_section_6

Main article: Berlin Trilogy David Bowie_sentence_196

Before the end of 1976, Bowie's interest in the burgeoning German music scene, as well as his drug addiction, prompted him to move to West Berlin to clean up and revitalise his career. David Bowie_sentence_197

There he was often seen riding a bicycle between his apartment on Hauptstraße in Schöneberg and Hansa Tonstudio, the recording studio he used, located on Köthener Straße in Kreuzberg, near the Berlin Wall. David Bowie_sentence_198

While working with Brian Eno and sharing an apartment with Iggy Pop, he began to focus on minimalist, ambient music for the first of three albums, co-produced with Tony Visconti, that became known as his Berlin Trilogy. David Bowie_sentence_199

During the same period, Iggy Pop, with Bowie as a co-writer and musician, completed his solo album debut The Idiot and its follow-up Lust for Life, touring the UK, Europe, and the US in March and April 1977. David Bowie_sentence_200

The album Low (1977), partly influenced by the Krautrock sound of Kraftwerk and Neu! David Bowie_sentence_201 , evinced a move away from narration in Bowie's songwriting to a more abstract musical form in which lyrics were sporadic and optional. David Bowie_sentence_202

Although he completed the album in November 1976, it took his unsettled record company another three months to release it. David Bowie_sentence_203

It received considerable negative criticism upon its release—a release which RCA, anxious to maintain the established commercial momentum, did not welcome, and which Bowie's former manager, Tony Defries, who still maintained a significant financial interest in the singer's affairs, tried to prevent. David Bowie_sentence_204

Despite these forebodings, Low yielded the UK No. David Bowie_sentence_205

3 single "Sound and Vision", and its own performance surpassed that of Station to Station in the UK chart, where it reached No. David Bowie_sentence_206

2. David Bowie_sentence_207

Contemporary composer Philip Glass described Low as "a work of genius" in 1992, when he used it as the basis for his Symphony No. David Bowie_sentence_208 1 "Low"; subsequently, Glass used Bowie's next album as the basis for his 1996 Symphony No. David Bowie_sentence_209 4 "Heroes". David Bowie_sentence_210

Glass has praised Bowie's gift for creating "fairly complex pieces of music, masquerading as simple pieces". David Bowie_sentence_211

Also in 1977, London released Starting Point, a ten-song LP containing releases from Bowie's Deram period (1966—67). David Bowie_sentence_212

Echoing Low's minimalist, instrumental approach, the second of the trilogy, "Heroes" (1977), incorporated pop and rock to a greater extent, seeing Bowie joined by guitarist Robert Fripp. David Bowie_sentence_213

Like Low, "Heroes" evinced the zeitgeist of the Cold War, symbolised by the divided city of Berlin. David Bowie_sentence_214

Incorporating ambient sounds from a variety of sources including white noise generators, synthesisers and koto, the album was another hit, reaching No. David Bowie_sentence_215

3 in the UK. David Bowie_sentence_216

Its title-track, though only reaching No. David Bowie_sentence_217

24 in the UK singles chart, gained lasting popularity, and within months had been released in both German and French. David Bowie_sentence_218

Towards the end of the year, Bowie performed the song for Marc Bolan's television show Marc, and again two days later for Bing Crosby's final CBS television Christmas special, when he joined Crosby in "Peace on Earth/Little Drummer Boy", a version of "The Little Drummer Boy" with a new, contrapuntal verse. David Bowie_sentence_219

Five years later, the duet proved a worldwide seasonal hit, charting in the UK at No. David Bowie_sentence_220

3 on Christmas Day, 1982. David Bowie_sentence_221

After completing Low and "Heroes", Bowie spent much of 1978 on the Isolar II world tour, bringing the music of the first two Berlin Trilogy albums to almost a million people during 70 concerts in 12 countries. David Bowie_sentence_222

By now he had broken his drug addiction; biographer David Buckley writes that Isolar II was "Bowie's first tour for five years in which he had probably not anaesthetised himself with copious quantities of cocaine before taking the stage. David Bowie_sentence_223

... David Bowie_sentence_224

Without the oblivion that drugs had brought, he was now in a healthy enough mental condition to want to make friends." David Bowie_sentence_225

Recordings from the tour made up the live album Stage, released the same year. David Bowie_sentence_226

Bowie also recorded narration for an adaptation of Sergei Prokofiev's classical composition Peter and the Wolf, which was released as an album in May 1978. David Bowie_sentence_227

The final piece in what Bowie called his "triptych", Lodger (1979), eschewed the minimalist, ambient nature of the other two, making a partial return to the drum- and guitar-based rock and pop of his pre-Berlin era. David Bowie_sentence_228

The result was a complex mixture of new wave and world music, in places incorporating Hijaz non-Western scales. David Bowie_sentence_229

Some tracks were composed using Eno and Peter Schmidt's Oblique Strategies cards: "Boys Keep Swinging" entailed band members swapping instruments, "Move On" used the chords from Bowie's early composition "All the Young Dudes" played backwards, and "Red Money" took backing tracks from "Sister Midnight", a piece previously composed with Iggy Pop. David Bowie_sentence_230

The album was recorded in Switzerland. David Bowie_sentence_231

Ahead of its release, RCA's Mel Ilberman stated, "It would be fair to call it Bowie's Sergeant Pepper ... a concept album that portrays the Lodger as a homeless wanderer, shunned and victimized by life's pressures and technology." David Bowie_sentence_232

As described by biographer Christopher Sandford, "The record dashed such high hopes with dubious choices, and production that spelt the end—for fifteen years—of Bowie's partnership with Eno." David Bowie_sentence_233

Lodger reached No. David Bowie_sentence_234

4 in the UK and No. David Bowie_sentence_235

20 in the US, and yielded the UK hit singles "Boys Keep Swinging" and "DJ". David Bowie_sentence_236

Towards the end of the year, Bowie and Angie initiated divorce proceedings, and after months of court battles the marriage was ended in early 1980. David Bowie_sentence_237

1980–1988: New Romantic and pop era David Bowie_section_7

Scary Monsters and Super Creeps (1980) produced the number-one hit "Ashes to Ashes", featuring the textural work of guitar-synthesist Chuck Hammer and revisiting the character of Major Tom from "Space Oddity". David Bowie_sentence_238

The song gave international exposure to the underground New Romantic movement when Bowie visited the London club "Blitz"—the main New Romantic hangout—to recruit several of the regulars (including Steve Strange of the band Visage) to act in the accompanying video, renowned as one of the most innovative of all time. David Bowie_sentence_239

While Scary Monsters used principles established by the Berlin albums, it was considered by critics to be far more direct musically and lyrically. David Bowie_sentence_240

The album's hard rock edge included conspicuous guitar contributions from Robert Fripp, Chuck Hammer, and Pete Townshend. David Bowie_sentence_241

As "Ashes to Ashes" hit number one on the UK charts, Bowie opened a three-month run on Broadway on 24 September, starring as John Merrick in The Elephant Man. David Bowie_sentence_242

Bowie paired with Queen in 1981 for a one-off single release, "Under Pressure". David Bowie_sentence_243

The duet was a hit, becoming Bowie's third UK number-one single. David Bowie_sentence_244

Bowie was given the lead role in the BBC's 1982 televised adaptation of Bertolt Brecht's play Baal. David Bowie_sentence_245

Coinciding with its transmission, a five-track EP of songs from the play, recorded earlier in Berlin, was released as David Bowie in Bertolt Brecht's Baal. David Bowie_sentence_246

In March 1982, the month before Paul Schrader's film Cat People came out, Bowie's title song, "Cat People (Putting Out Fire)", was released as a single, becoming a minor US hit and entering the UK Top 30. David Bowie_sentence_247

Bowie reached his peak of popularity and commercial success in 1983 with Let's Dance. David Bowie_sentence_248

Co-produced by Chic's Nile Rodgers, the album went platinum in both the UK and the US. David Bowie_sentence_249

Its three singles became Top 20 hits in both countries, where its title track reached number one. David Bowie_sentence_250

"Modern Love" and "China Girl" each made No. David Bowie_sentence_251

2 in the UK, accompanied by a pair of "absorbing" promotional videos that biographer David Buckley said "activated key archetypes in the pop world. David Bowie_sentence_252

'Let's Dance', with its little narrative surrounding the young Aborigine couple, targeted 'youth', and 'China Girl', with its bare-bummed (and later partially censored) beach lovemaking scene (a homage to the film From Here to Eternity), was sufficiently sexually provocative to guarantee heavy rotation on MTV". David Bowie_sentence_253

Stevie Ray Vaughan was guest guitarist playing solo on "Let's Dance", although the video depicts Bowie miming this part. David Bowie_sentence_254

By 1983, Bowie had emerged as one of the most important video artists of the day. David Bowie_sentence_255

Let's Dance was followed by the Serious Moonlight Tour, during which Bowie was accompanied by guitarist Earl Slick and backing vocalists Frank and George Simms. David Bowie_sentence_256

The world tour lasted six months and was extremely popular." David Bowie_sentence_257

At the 1984 MTV Video Music Awards Bowie received two awards including the inaugural Video Vanguard Award. David Bowie_sentence_258

Tonight (1984), another dance-oriented album, found Bowie collaborating with Tina Turner and, once again, Iggy Pop. David Bowie_sentence_259

It included a number of cover songs, among them the 1966 Beach Boys hit "God Only Knows". David Bowie_sentence_260

The album bore the transatlantic Top 10 hit "Blue Jean", itself the inspiration for a short film that won Bowie a Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video, Jazzin' for Blue Jean. David Bowie_sentence_261

Bowie performed at Wembley Stadium in 1985 for Live Aid, a multi-venue benefit concert for Ethiopian famine relief. David Bowie_sentence_262

During the event, the video for a fundraising single was premiered, Bowie's duet with Mick Jagger. David Bowie_sentence_263

"Dancing in the Street" quickly went to number one on release. David Bowie_sentence_264

The same year, Bowie worked with the Pat Metheny Group to record "This Is Not America" for the soundtrack of The Falcon and the Snowman. David Bowie_sentence_265

Released as a single, the song became a Top 40 hit in the UK and US. David Bowie_sentence_266

Bowie was given a role in the 1986 film Absolute Beginners. David Bowie_sentence_267

It was poorly received by critics, but Bowie's theme song, also named "Absolute Beginners", rose to No. David Bowie_sentence_268

2 in the UK charts. David Bowie_sentence_269

He also appeared as Jareth, the Goblin King, in the 1986 Jim Henson film Labyrinth, for which he worked with composer Trevor Jones and wrote five original songs. David Bowie_sentence_270

His final solo album of the decade was 1987's Never Let Me Down, where he ditched the light sound of his previous two albums, instead offering harder rock with an industrial/techno dance edge. David Bowie_sentence_271

Peaking at No. David Bowie_sentence_272

6 in the UK, the album yielded the hits "Day-In, Day-Out" (his 60th single), "Time Will Crawl", and "Never Let Me Down". David Bowie_sentence_273

Bowie later described it as his "nadir", calling it "an awful album". David Bowie_sentence_274

Supporting Never Let Me Down, and preceded by nine promotional press shows, the 86-concert Glass Spider Tour commenced on 30 May. David Bowie_sentence_275

Bowie's backing band included Peter Frampton on lead guitar. David Bowie_sentence_276

Critics maligned the tour as overproduced, saying it pandered to the current stadium rock trends in its special effects and dancing. David Bowie_sentence_277

The tour influenced concerts by later artists, including Britney Spears, Madonna, and U2. David Bowie_sentence_278

1989–1991: Tin Machine David Bowie_section_8

Main article: Tin Machine David Bowie_sentence_279

Bowie shelved his solo career in 1989, retreating to the relative anonymity of band membership for the first time since the early 1970s. David Bowie_sentence_280

A hard-rocking quartet, Tin Machine came into being after Bowie began to work experimentally with guitarist Reeves Gabrels. David Bowie_sentence_281

The line-up was completed by Tony and Hunt Sales, whom Bowie had known since the late 1970s for their contribution, on bass and drums respectively, to Iggy Pop's 1977 album Lust for Life. David Bowie_sentence_282

Although he intended Tin Machine to operate as a democracy, Bowie dominated, both in songwriting and in decision-making. David Bowie_sentence_283

The band's album debut, Tin Machine (1989), was initially popular, though its politicised lyrics did not find universal approval: Bowie described one song as "a simplistic, naive, radical, laying-it-down about the emergence of Neo-Nazis"; in the view of biographer Christopher Sandford, "It took nerve to denounce drugs, fascism and TV ... in terms that reached the literary level of a comic book." David Bowie_sentence_284

EMI complained of "lyrics that preach" as well as "repetitive tunes" and "minimalist or no production". David Bowie_sentence_285

The album nevertheless reached No. David Bowie_sentence_286

3 and went gold in the UK. David Bowie_sentence_287

Tin Machine's first world tour was a commercial success, but there was growing reluctance—among fans and critics alike—to accept Bowie's presentation as merely a band member. David Bowie_sentence_288

A series of Tin Machine singles failed to chart, and Bowie, after a disagreement with EMI, left the label. David Bowie_sentence_289

Like his audience and his critics, Bowie himself became increasingly disaffected with his role as just one member of a band. David Bowie_sentence_290

Tin Machine began work on a second album, but Bowie put the venture on hold and made a return to solo work. David Bowie_sentence_291

Performing his early hits during the seven-month Sound+Vision Tour, he found commercial success and acclaim once again. David Bowie_sentence_292

In October 1990, a decade after his divorce from Angie, Bowie and Somali-born supermodel Iman were introduced by a mutual friend. David Bowie_sentence_293

Bowie recalled, "I was naming the children the night we met ... it was absolutely immediate." David Bowie_sentence_294

They married in 1992. David Bowie_sentence_295

Tin Machine resumed work the same month, but their audience and critics, ultimately left disappointed by the first album, showed little interest in a second. David Bowie_sentence_296

Tin Machine II's arrival was marked by a widely publicised and ill-timed conflict over the cover art: after production had begun, the new record label, Victory, deemed the depiction of four ancient nude Kouroi statues, judged by Bowie to be "in exquisite taste", to be "a show of wrong, obscene images", requiring air-brushing and patching to render the figures sexless. David Bowie_sentence_297

Tin Machine toured again, but after the live album Tin Machine Live: Oy Vey, Baby failed commercially, the band drifted apart, and Bowie, though he continued to collaborate with Gabrels, resumed his solo career. David Bowie_sentence_298

1992–1998: Electronic period David Bowie_section_9

On 20 April 1992, Bowie appeared at The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert, following the Queen singer's death the previous year. David Bowie_sentence_299

As well as performing "Heroes" and "All the Young Dudes", he was joined on "Under Pressure" by Annie Lennox, who took Mercury's vocal part; during his appearance, Bowie knelt and recited the Lord's Prayer at Wembley Stadium. David Bowie_sentence_300

Four days later, Bowie and Iman were married in Switzerland. David Bowie_sentence_301

Intending to move to Los Angeles, they flew in to search for a suitable property, but found themselves confined to their hotel, under curfew: the 1992 Los Angeles riots began the day they arrived. David Bowie_sentence_302

They settled in New York instead. David Bowie_sentence_303

In 1993, Bowie released his first solo offering since his Tin Machine departure, the soul, jazz, and hip-hop influenced Black Tie White Noise. David Bowie_sentence_304

Making prominent use of electronic instruments, the album, which reunited Bowie with Let's Dance producer Nile Rodgers, confirmed Bowie's return to popularity, hitting the number-one spot on the UK charts and spawning three Top 40 hits, including the Top 10 single "Jump They Say". David Bowie_sentence_305

Bowie explored new directions on The Buddha of Suburbia (1993), ostensibly a soundtrack album of his music composed for the BBC television adaptation of Hanif Kureishi's novel. David Bowie_sentence_306

Only the title track had been used in the television adaptation, although some of his themes for it were also present on the album. David Bowie_sentence_307

It contained some of the new elements introduced in Black Tie White Noise, and also signalled a move towards alternative rock. David Bowie_sentence_308

The album was a critical success but received a low-key release and only made No. David Bowie_sentence_309

87 in the UK charts. David Bowie_sentence_310

Reuniting Bowie with Eno, the quasi-industrial Outside (1995) was originally conceived as the first volume in a non-linear narrative of art and murder. David Bowie_sentence_311

Featuring characters from a short story written by Bowie, the album achieved UK and US chart success, and yielded three Top 40 UK singles. David Bowie_sentence_312

In a move that provoked mixed reaction from both fans and critics, Bowie chose Nine Inch Nails as his tour partner for the Outside Tour. David Bowie_sentence_313

Visiting cities in Europe and North America between September 1995 and February 1996, the tour saw the return of Gabrels as Bowie's guitarist. David Bowie_sentence_314

On 7 January 1997, Bowie celebrated his half century with a 50th birthday concert at Madison Square Garden, New York, at which he was joined in playing his songs and those of his guests, Lou Reed, Dave Grohl and the Foo Fighters, Robert Smith of the Cure, Billy Corgan of the Smashing Pumpkins, Black Francis of the Pixies, and Sonic Youth. David Bowie_sentence_315

Bowie was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on 17 January 1996. David Bowie_sentence_316

Incorporating experiments in British jungle and drum 'n' bass, Earthling (1997) was a critical and commercial success in the UK and the US, and two singles from the album – "Little Wonder" and "Dead Man Walking" – became UK Top 40 hits. David Bowie_sentence_317

Bowie's song "I'm Afraid of Americans" from the Paul Verhoeven film Showgirls was re-recorded for the album, and remixed by Trent Reznor for a single release. David Bowie_sentence_318

The heavy rotation of the accompanying video, also featuring Trent Reznor, contributed to the song's 16-week stay in the US Billboard Hot 100. David Bowie_sentence_319

Reznor also executive produced the Lost Highway soundtrack (1997) which begins and ends with different mixes of Bowie's Outside song "I'm Deranged". David Bowie_sentence_320

Bowie received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on 12 February 1997. David Bowie_sentence_321

The Earthling Tour took in Europe and North America between June and November 1997. David Bowie_sentence_322

In November 1997, Bowie performed on the BBC's Children in Need charity single "Perfect Day", which reached number one in the UK. David Bowie_sentence_323

Bowie reunited with Visconti in 1998 to record "(Safe in This) Sky Life" for The Rugrats Movie. David Bowie_sentence_324

Although the track was edited out of the final cut, it was later re-recorded and released as "Safe" on the B-side of Bowie's 2002 single "Everyone Says 'Hi'". David Bowie_sentence_325

The reunion led to other collaborations including a limited-edition single release version of Placebo's track "Without You I'm Nothing", co-produced by Visconti, with Bowie's harmonised vocal added to the original recording. David Bowie_sentence_326

1999–2012: Neoclassicist era David Bowie_section_10

Bowie, with Reeves Gabrels, created the soundtrack for Omikron: The Nomad Soul, a 1999 computer game in which he and Iman also voiced characters based on their likenesses. David Bowie_sentence_327

Released the same year and containing re-recorded tracks from Omikron, his album Hours featured a song with lyrics by the winner of his "Cyber Song Contest" Internet competition, Alex Grant. David Bowie_sentence_328

Making extensive use of live instruments, the album was Bowie's exit from heavy electronica. David Bowie_sentence_329

Sessions for the planned album Toy, intended to feature new versions of some of Bowie's earliest pieces as well as three new songs, commenced in 2000, but the album was never released. David Bowie_sentence_330

Bowie and Visconti continued their collaboration, producing a new album of completely original songs instead: the result of the sessions was the 2002 album Heathen. David Bowie_sentence_331

On 25 June 2000, Bowie made his second appearance at the Glastonbury Festival in England, playing 30 years after his first. David Bowie_sentence_332

The performance was released as a posthumous live album in November 2018. David Bowie_sentence_333

On 27 June, Bowie performed a concert at BBC Radio Theatre in London, which was released in the compilation album Bowie at the Beeb, which also featured BBC recording sessions from 1968 to 1972. David Bowie_sentence_334

Bowie and Iman's daughter was born on 15 August. David Bowie_sentence_335

His interest in Buddhism led him to support the Tibetan cause by performing at the February 2001 and February 2003 concerts to support Tibet House US at Carnegie Hall in New York. David Bowie_sentence_336

In October 2001, Bowie opened the Concert for New York City, a charity event to benefit the victims of the September 11 attacks, with a minimalist performance of Simon & Garfunkel's "America", followed by a full band performance of "Heroes". David Bowie_sentence_337

2002 saw the release of Heathen, and, during the second half of the year, the Heathen Tour. David Bowie_sentence_338

Taking place in Europe and North America, the tour opened at London's annual Meltdown festival, for which Bowie was that year appointed artistic director. David Bowie_sentence_339

Among the acts he selected for the festival were Philip Glass, Television, and the Dandy Warhols. David Bowie_sentence_340

As well as songs from the new album, the tour featured material from Bowie's Low era. David Bowie_sentence_341

Reality (2003) followed, and its accompanying world tour, the A Reality Tour, with an estimated attendance of 722,000, grossed more than any other in 2004. David Bowie_sentence_342

On 13 June, Bowie headlined the last night of the Isle of Wight Festival 2004, his final live show in the UK. David Bowie_sentence_343

On 25 June, he suffered chest pain while performing at the Hurricane Festival in Scheeßel, Germany. David Bowie_sentence_344

Originally thought to be a pinched nerve in his shoulder, the pain was later diagnosed as an acutely blocked coronary artery, requiring an emergency angioplasty in Hamburg. David Bowie_sentence_345

The remaining 14 dates of the tour were cancelled. David Bowie_sentence_346

In the years following his recuperation from the heart attack, Bowie reduced his musical output, making only one-off appearances on stage and in the studio. David Bowie_sentence_347

He sang in a duet of his 1971 song "Changes" with Butterfly Boucher for the 2004 animated film Shrek 2. David Bowie_sentence_348

During a relatively quiet 2005, he recorded the vocals for the song "(She Can) Do That", co-written with Brian Transeau, for the film Stealth. David Bowie_sentence_349

He returned to the stage on 8 September 2005, appearing with Arcade Fire for the US nationally televised event Fashion Rocks, and performed with the Canadian band for the second time a week later during the CMJ Music Marathon. David Bowie_sentence_350

He contributed backing vocals on TV on the Radio's song "Province" for their album Return to Cookie Mountain, and joined with Lou Reed on Danish alt-rockers Kashmir's 2005 album No Balance Palace. David Bowie_sentence_351

Bowie was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award on 8 February 2006. David Bowie_sentence_352

In April, he announced, "I'm taking a year off—no touring, no albums." David Bowie_sentence_353

He made a surprise guest appearance at David Gilmour's 29 May concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London. David Bowie_sentence_354

The event was recorded, and a selection of songs on which he had contributed joint vocals were subsequently released. David Bowie_sentence_355

He performed again in November, alongside Alicia Keys, at the Black Ball, a benefit event for Keep a Child Alive at the Hammerstein Ballroom in New York. David Bowie_sentence_356

The performance marked the last time Bowie performed his music on stage. David Bowie_sentence_357

Bowie was chosen to curate the 2007 High Line Festival, selecting musicians and artists for the Manhattan event, including electronic pop duo AIR, surrealist photographer Claude Cahun, and English comedian Ricky Gervais. David Bowie_sentence_358

Bowie performed on Scarlett Johansson's 2008 album of Tom Waits covers, Anywhere I Lay My Head. David Bowie_sentence_359

In June 2008 a live album was released of a Ziggy Stardust-era concert from 1972. David Bowie_sentence_360

On the 40th anniversary of the July 1969 moon landing—and Bowie's accompanying commercial breakthrough with "Space Oddity"—EMI released the individual tracks from the original eight-track studio recording of the song, in a 2009 contest inviting members of the public to create a remix. David Bowie_sentence_361

A Reality Tour, a double album of live material from the 2003 concert tour, was released in January 2010. David Bowie_sentence_362

In late March 2011, Toy, Bowie's previously unreleased album from 2001, was leaked onto the internet, containing material used for Heathen and most of its single B-sides, as well as unheard new versions of his early back catalogue. David Bowie_sentence_363

2013–2016: Final years David Bowie_section_11

On 8 January 2013, his 66th birthday, his website announced a new album, to be titled The Next Day and scheduled for release 8 March for Australia, 12 March for the United States, and 11 March for the rest of the world. David Bowie_sentence_364

Bowie's first studio album in a decade, The Next Day contains 14 songs plus 3 bonus tracks. David Bowie_sentence_365

His website acknowledged the length of his hiatus. David Bowie_sentence_366

Record producer Tony Visconti said 29 tracks were recorded for the album, some of which could appear on Bowie's next record, which he might start work on later in 2013. David Bowie_sentence_367

The announcement was accompanied by the immediate release of a single, "Where Are We Now? David Bowie_sentence_368 ", written and recorded by Bowie in New York and produced by longtime collaborator Visconti. David Bowie_sentence_369

A music video for "Where Are We Now?" David Bowie_sentence_370

was released onto Vimeo the same day, directed by New York artist Tony Oursler. David Bowie_sentence_371

The single topped the UK iTunes Chart within hours of its release, and debuted in the UK Singles Chart at No. David Bowie_sentence_372

6, his first single to enter the Top 10 for two decades (since "Jump They Say" in 1993). David Bowie_sentence_373

A second video, "The Stars (Are Out Tonight)", was released 25 February. David Bowie_sentence_374

Directed by Floria Sigismondi, it stars Bowie and Tilda Swinton as a married couple. David Bowie_sentence_375

On 1 March, the album was made available to stream for free through iTunes. David Bowie_sentence_376

The Next Day debuted at No. David Bowie_sentence_377

1 on the UK Albums Chart, was his first album to achieve that position since Black Tie White Noise (1993), and was the fastest-selling album of 2013 at the time. David Bowie_sentence_378

The music video for the song "The Next Day" created some controversy, initially being removed from YouTube for terms-of-service violation, then restored with a warning recommending viewing only by those 18 or over. David Bowie_sentence_379

According to The Times, Bowie ruled out ever giving an interview again. David Bowie_sentence_380

Bowie was featured in a cameo vocal in the Arcade Fire song "Reflektor". David Bowie_sentence_381

A poll carried out by BBC History Magazine, in October 2013, named Bowie as the best-dressed Briton in history. David Bowie_sentence_382

New information was released in September 2014 regarding his next compilation album, Nothing Has Changed, which was released in November. David Bowie_sentence_383

The album featured rare tracks and old material from his catalogue in addition to a new song titled "Sue (Or in a Season of Crime)". David Bowie_sentence_384

In May 2015, "Let's Dance" was announced to be reissued as a yellow vinyl single on 16 July 2015 in conjunction with the David Bowie Is exhibition at the Australian Centre for the Moving Image in Melbourne, Australia. David Bowie_sentence_385

In August 2015, it was announced that Bowie was writing songs for a Broadway musical based on the SpongeBob SquarePants cartoon series. David Bowie_sentence_386

Bowie wrote and recorded the opening title song to the television series The Last Panthers, which aired in November 2015. David Bowie_sentence_387

The theme that was used for The Last Panthers was also the title track for his January 2016 release Blackstar which is said to take cues from his earlier krautrock influenced work. David Bowie_sentence_388

According to The Times: "Blackstar may be the oddest work yet from Bowie". David Bowie_sentence_389

On 7 December 2015, Bowie's musical Lazarus debuted in New York. David Bowie_sentence_390

His last public appearance was at opening night of the production. David Bowie_sentence_391

Blackstar was released on 8 January 2016, Bowie's 69th birthday, and was met with critical acclaim. David Bowie_sentence_392

Following his death on 10 January, producer Tony Visconti revealed that Bowie had planned the album to be his swan song, and a "parting gift" for his fans before his death. David Bowie_sentence_393

Several reporters and critics subsequently noted that most of the lyrics on the album seem to revolve around his impending death, with CNN noting that the album "reveals a man who appears to be grappling with his own mortality". David Bowie_sentence_394

Visconti later said that Bowie had been planning a post-Blackstar album, and had written and recorded demo versions of five songs in his final weeks, suggesting that Bowie believed he had a few months left. David Bowie_sentence_395

The day following his death, online viewing of Bowie's music skyrocketed, breaking the record for Vevo's most viewed artist in a single day. David Bowie_sentence_396

On 15 January, Blackstar debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart; nineteen of his albums were in the UK Top 100 Albums Chart, and thirteen singles were in the UK Top 100 Singles Chart. David Bowie_sentence_397

Blackstar also debuted at number one on album charts around the world, including Australia, France, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, and the US Billboard 200. David Bowie_sentence_398

2016–present: Posthumous releases David Bowie_section_12

In September 2016 a box set was released covering Bowie's mid-70s soul period, including The Gouster, a previously unreleased 1974 album. David Bowie_sentence_399

An EP, No Plan, was released on 8 January 2017, which would have been Bowie's 70th birthday. David Bowie_sentence_400

Apart from "Lazarus", the EP includes three songs that Bowie recorded during the Blackstar sessions, but were left off the album and appeared on the soundtrack album for the Lazarus musical in October 2016. David Bowie_sentence_401

A music video for the title track was also released. David Bowie_sentence_402

2017 and 2018 also saw the release of a series of posthumous live albums, covering the Diamond Dogs tour of 1974, the Isolar tour of 1976 and the Isolar II tour of 1978. David Bowie_sentence_403

In the two years following his death, Bowie sold 5 million records in the UK alone. David Bowie_sentence_404

In their top 10 list for the Global Recording Artist of the Year, the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry named Bowie the second-bestselling artist worldwide in 2016, behind Drake. David Bowie_sentence_405

At the 59th Annual Grammy Awards on 12 February 2017, Bowie won all five nominated awards: Best Rock Performance; Best Alternative Music Album; Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical; Best Recording Package; and Best Rock Song. David Bowie_sentence_406

They were Bowie's first Grammy wins in musical categories. David Bowie_sentence_407

On 8 January 2020, on what would have been Bowie's 73rd birthday, a previously unreleased version of "The Man Who Sold the World" was released and two releases were announced: a streaming-only EP, Is It Any Wonder? David Bowie_sentence_408 , and an album, CHANGESNOWBOWIE, released in November 2020 for Record Store Day. David Bowie_sentence_409

In August 2020, another series of live shows were released, including sets from Dallas in 1995 and Paris in 1999. David Bowie_sentence_410

Acting career David Bowie_section_13

Main article: David Bowie filmography David Bowie_sentence_411

While always primarily a musician, Bowie took acting roles throughout his career, appearing in over 30 movies, television shows and theatrical productions. David Bowie_sentence_412

Bowie's acting career was "productively selective," largely eschewing starring roles for cameos and supporting parts. David Bowie_sentence_413

Many critics have observed that, had Bowie not chosen to pursue music, he could have found great success as an actor. David Bowie_sentence_414

Other critics have noted that, while his screen presence was singular, his best contributions to film were the use of his songs in movies like Lost Highway, A Knight's Tale, The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou and Inglourious Basterds. David Bowie_sentence_415

1960s and 1970s David Bowie_section_14

The beginnings of Bowie's acting career predate his commercial breakthrough as a musician. David Bowie_sentence_416

Studying avant-garde theatre and mime under Lindsay Kemp, he was given the role of Cloud in Kemp's 1967 theatrical production Pierrot in Turquoise (later made into the 1970 television film The Looking Glass Murders). David Bowie_sentence_417

Bowie filmed a walk-on role for the BBC drama series Theater 625 that aired in May 1968. David Bowie_sentence_418

In the black-and-white short The Image (1969), he played a ghostly boy who emerges from a troubled artist's painting to haunt him. David Bowie_sentence_419

The same year, the film of Leslie Thomas's 1966 comic novel The Virgin Soldiers saw Bowie make a brief appearance as an extra. David Bowie_sentence_420

In 1976, Bowie earned acclaim for his first major film role, portraying Thomas Jerome Newton, an alien from a dying planet, in The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg. David Bowie_sentence_421

He later admitted that his severe cocaine use during the film's production left him in such a fragile state of mind that he barely understood the movie. David Bowie_sentence_422

Just a Gigolo (1979), an Anglo-German co-production directed by David Hemmings, saw Bowie in the lead role as Prussian officer Paul von Przygodski, who, returning from World War I, is discovered by a Baroness (Marlene Dietrich) and put into her gigolo stable. David Bowie_sentence_423

The movie was a critical and commercial bomb, and Bowie later expressed embarrassment at his role in it. David Bowie_sentence_424

1980s David Bowie_section_15

Bowie played Joseph Merrick in the Broadway theatre production The Elephant Man, which he undertook wearing no stage make-up, and which earned high praise for his expressive performance. David Bowie_sentence_425

He played the part 157 times between 1980 and 1981. David Bowie_sentence_426

Christiane F. – We Children from Bahnhof Zoo, a 1981 biographical film focusing on a young girl's drug addiction in West Berlin, featured Bowie in a cameo appearance as himself at a concert in Germany. David Bowie_sentence_427

Its soundtrack album, Christiane F. (1981), featured much material from his Berlin Trilogy albums. David Bowie_sentence_428

In 1982, he starred in the titular role in a BBC adaptation of the Bertolt Brecht play Baal. David Bowie_sentence_429

Bowie portrayed a vampire in Tony Scott's erotic horror film The Hunger (1983), with Catherine Deneuve and Susan Sarandon. David Bowie_sentence_430

In Nagisa Oshima's film the same year, Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence, based on Laurens van der Post's novel The Seed and the Sower, Bowie played Major Jack Celliers, a prisoner of war in a Japanese internment camp. David Bowie_sentence_431

Bowie had a cameo in Yellowbeard, a 1983 pirate comedy created by Monty Python members and directed by Mel Damski. David Bowie_sentence_432

To promote the single "Blue Jean" Bowie filmed the 21 minute short film Jazzin' for Blue Jean (1984) with director Julien Temple, and played the dual roles of romantic protagonist Vic and arrogant rock star Screaming Lord Byron. David Bowie_sentence_433

The short won Bowie his only non-posthumous Grammy award. David Bowie_sentence_434

Bowie had a supporting role as hitman Colin in the 1985 John Landis film Into the Night. David Bowie_sentence_435

He declined to play the villain Max Zorin in the James Bond film A View to a Kill (1985). David Bowie_sentence_436

Bowie reteamed with Temple for Absolute Beginners (1986), a rock musical film adapted from Colin MacInnes's book of the same name about life in late 1950s London, in a supporting role as ad man Vendice Partners. David Bowie_sentence_437

The same year, Jim Henson's dark musical fantasy Labyrinth cast him as Jareth, the villainous Goblin King. David Bowie_sentence_438

Despite initial poor box office, the movie grew in popularity and became a cult film. David Bowie_sentence_439

Two years later, he played Pontius Pilate in Martin Scorsese's critically acclaimed biblical epic The Last Temptation of Christ (1988). David Bowie_sentence_440

1990s David Bowie_section_16

In 1991, Bowie reteamed with director John Landis for an episode of the HBO sitcom Dream On and played a disgruntled restaurant employee opposite Rosanna Arquette in The Linguini Incident. David Bowie_sentence_441

Bowie portrayed the mysterious FBI agent Phillip Jeffries in David Lynch's Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me (1992). David Bowie_sentence_442

The prequel to the television series was poorly received at the time of its release, but has since been critically reevaluated. David Bowie_sentence_443

He took a small but pivotal role as his friend Andy Warhol in Basquiat, artist/director Julian Schnabel's 1996 biopic of Jean-Michel Basquiat, another artist he considered a friend and colleague. David Bowie_sentence_444

Bowie co-starred in Giovanni Veronesi's Spaghetti Western Il Mio West (1998, released as Gunslinger's Revenge in the US in 2005) as the most feared gunfighter in the region. David Bowie_sentence_445

He played the aging gangster Bernie in Andrew Goth's Everybody Loves Sunshine (1999, released in the U.S. as B.U.S.T.E.D. David Bowie_sentence_446

), and appeared as the host in the second season of the television horror anthology series The Hunger. David Bowie_sentence_447

Despite having several episodes which focus on vampires and Bowie's involvement, the show had no plot connection to the 1983 film of the same name. David Bowie_sentence_448

In 1999, Bowie voiced two characters in the Sega Dreamcast game Omikron: The Nomad Soul, his only appearance in a video game. David Bowie_sentence_449

2000s and posthumous notes David Bowie_section_17

In Mr. David Bowie_sentence_450 Rice's Secret (2000), Bowie played the title role as the neighbour of a terminally ill 12-year-old. David Bowie_sentence_451

Bowie appeared as himself in the 2001 Ben Stiller comedy Zoolander, judging a "walk-off" between rival male models, and in Eric Idle's 2002 mockumentary The Rutles 2: Can't Buy Me Lunch. David Bowie_sentence_452

In 2005, he filmed a commercial with Snoop Dogg for XM Satellite Radio. David Bowie_sentence_453

Bowie portrayed a fictionalized version of physicist and inventor Nikola Tesla in Christopher Nolan's film The Prestige (2006), which was about the bitter rivalry between two magicians in the late 19th century. David Bowie_sentence_454

Nolan later claimed that Bowie was his only preference to play Tesla, and that he personally appealed to Bowie to take the role after he initially passed. David Bowie_sentence_455

In the same year, he voice-acted in Luc Besson's animated film Arthur and the Invisibles as the powerful villain Maltazard, and appeared as himself in an episode of the Ricky Gervais television series Extras. David Bowie_sentence_456

In 2007, he lent his voice to the character Lord Royal Highness in the SpongeBob's Atlantis SquarePantis television film. David Bowie_sentence_457

In the 2008 film August, directed by Austin Chick, he played a supporting role as Ogilvie, a "ruthless venture capitalist." David Bowie_sentence_458

Bowie's final film appearance was a cameo as himself in the 2009 teen comedy Bandslam. David Bowie_sentence_459

In a 2017 interview with Consequence of Sound, director Denis Villeneuve revealed his intention to cast Bowie in Blade Runner 2049 as the lead villain, Niander Wallace, but when news broke of Bowie's death in January of the same year, Villeneuve was forced to look for talent with similar "rock star" qualities. David Bowie_sentence_460

He eventually cast actor and lead singer of Thirty Seconds to Mars, Jared Leto. David Bowie_sentence_461

Talking about the casting process, Villeneuve said: "Our first thought [for the character] had been David Bowie, who had influenced Blade Runner in many ways. David Bowie_sentence_462

When we learned the sad news, we looked around for someone like that. David Bowie_sentence_463

He [Bowie] embodied the Blade Runner spirit.". David Bowie_sentence_464

David Lynch also hoped to have Bowie reprise his Fire Walk With Me character for Twin Peaks: The Return but Bowie's illness prevented this. David Bowie_sentence_465

His character was portrayed via archival footage. David Bowie_sentence_466

At Bowie's request, Lynch overdubbed Bowie's original dialogue with a different actor's voice, as Bowie was unhappy with his Cajun accent in the original movie. David Bowie_sentence_467

Other works David Bowie_section_18

Painter and art collector David Bowie_section_19

Main article: David Bowie's art collection David Bowie_sentence_468

Bowie was also a painter and artist. David Bowie_sentence_469

He moved to Switzerland in 1976, purchasing a chalet in the hills to the north of Lake Geneva. David Bowie_sentence_470

In the new environment, his cocaine use decreased and he found time for other pursuits outside his musical career. David Bowie_sentence_471

He devoted more time to his painting, and produced a number of post-modernist pieces. David Bowie_sentence_472

When on tour, he took to sketching in a notebook, and photographing scenes for later reference. David Bowie_sentence_473

Visiting galleries in Geneva and the Brücke Museum in Berlin, Bowie became, in the words of biographer Christopher Sandford, "a prolific producer and collector of contemporary art. David Bowie_sentence_474

... Not only did he become a well-known patron of expressionist art: locked in Clos des Mésanges he began an intensive self-improvement course in classical music and literature, and started work on an autobiography." David Bowie_sentence_475

One of Bowie's paintings sold at auction in late 1990 for $500, and the cover for his 1995 album Outside is a close-up of a self-portrait (from a series of five) he painted that same year. David Bowie_sentence_476

His first solo show was at The Gallery, Cork Street in 1995, entitled 'New Afro/Pagan and Work: 1975–1995'. David Bowie_sentence_477

He was invited to join the editorial board of the journal Modern Painters in 1998, and participated in the Nat Tate art hoax later that year. David Bowie_sentence_478

In 1998, during an interview with Michael Kimmelman for The New York Times, he said "Art was, seriously, the only thing I'd ever wanted to own." David Bowie_sentence_479

Subsequently, in a 1999 interview for the BBC, he said "The only thing I buy obsessively and addictively is art". David Bowie_sentence_480

His art collection, which included works by Damien Hirst, Derek Boshier, Frank Auerbach, Henry Moore, and Jean-Michel Basquiat among others, was valued at over £10m in mid-2016. David Bowie_sentence_481

After his death, his family decided to sell most of the collection because they "didn't have the space" to store it. David Bowie_sentence_482

On 10 and 11 November, three auctions were held at Sotheby's in London, first with 47 lots and second with 208 paintings, drawings, and sculptures, third with 100 design lots. David Bowie_sentence_483

The items on sale represented about 65 percent of the collection. David Bowie_sentence_484

Exhibition of the works in the auction attracted 51,470 visitors, the auction itself was attended by 1,750 bidders, with over 1,000 more bidding online. David Bowie_sentence_485

The auctions has overall sale total £32.9 million (app. David Bowie_sentence_486

$41.5 million), while the highest-selling item, Jean-Michel Basquiat's graffiti-inspired painting Air Power, sold for £7.09 million. David Bowie_sentence_487

Bowie Bonds David Bowie_section_20

Main article: Celebrity bond David Bowie_sentence_488

"Bowie Bonds", the first modern example of celebrity bonds, were asset-backed securities of current and future revenues of the 25 albums (287 songs) that Bowie recorded before 1990. David Bowie_sentence_489

Issued in 1997, the bonds were bought for US$55 million by the Prudential Insurance Company of America. David Bowie_sentence_490

Royalties from the 25 albums generated the cash flow that secured the bonds' interest payments. David Bowie_sentence_491

By forfeiting ten years worth of royalties, Bowie received a payment of US$55 million up front. David Bowie_sentence_492

Bowie used this income to buy songs owned by his former manager, Tony Defries. David Bowie_sentence_493

The bonds liquidated in 2007 and the rights to the income from the songs reverted to Bowie. David Bowie_sentence_494

BowieNet David Bowie_section_21

In September 1998, Bowie launched an Internet service provider, BowieNet, developed in conjunction with Robert Goodale and Ron Roy. David Bowie_sentence_495

Subscribers to the dial-up service were offered exclusive content, as well as a BowieNet email address and Internet access. David Bowie_sentence_496

The service was closed by 2006. David Bowie_sentence_497

Legacy and influence David Bowie_section_22

Bowie's songs and stagecraft brought a new dimension to popular music in the early 1970s, strongly influencing both its immediate forms and its subsequent development. David Bowie_sentence_498

Bowie was a pioneer of glam rock, according to music historians Schinder and Schwartz, who credited Marc Bolan and Bowie with creating the genre. David Bowie_sentence_499

At the same time, he inspired the innovators of the punk rock music movement. David Bowie_sentence_500

When punk musicians were "noisily reclaiming the three-minute pop song in a show of public defiance", biographer David Buckley wrote that "Bowie almost completely abandoned traditional rock instrumentation." David Bowie_sentence_501

Bowie's record company promoted his unique status in popular music with the slogan, "There's old wave, there's new wave, and there's David Bowie". David Bowie_sentence_502

Musicologist James Perone credited Bowie with having "brought sophistication to rock music", and critical reviews frequently acknowledged the intellectual depth of his work and influence. David Bowie_sentence_503

The Human League founder Martyn Ware remarked that he had lived his life "as though he were an art installation." David Bowie_sentence_504

The BBC's arts editor Will Gompertz likened Bowie to Pablo Picasso, writing that he was "an innovative, visionary, restless artist who synthesised complex avant garde concepts into beautifully coherent works that touched the hearts and minds of millions". David Bowie_sentence_505

U2 lead singer Bono commented, "I like Bowie when he’s evenly pulled in the direction of being a pop star and Picasso, where he's right down the middle. David Bowie_sentence_506

That’s usually my favorite, when the songwriting is disciplined but the recording is not. David Bowie_sentence_507

I love when he's pulled equally in the directions of art and populism." David Bowie_sentence_508

Broadcaster John Peel contrasted Bowie with his progressive rock contemporaries, arguing that Bowie was "an interesting kind of fringe figure... on the outskirts of things". David Bowie_sentence_509

Peel said he "liked the idea of him reinventing himself... the one distinguishing feature about early-70s progressive rock was that it didn't progress. David Bowie_sentence_510

Before Bowie came along, people didn't want too much change". David Bowie_sentence_511

Buckley called the era "bloated, self-important, leather-clad, self-satisfied"; then Bowie "subverted the whole notion of what it was to be a rock star". David Bowie_sentence_512

Buckley called Bowie "both star and icon. David Bowie_sentence_513

The vast body of work he has produced ... has created perhaps the biggest cult in popular culture. David Bowie_sentence_514

... His influence has been unique in popular culture—he has permeated and altered more lives than any comparable figure." David Bowie_sentence_515

Through continual reinvention, his influence broadened and extended. David Bowie_sentence_516

Biographer Thomas Forget added, "Because he has succeeded in so many different styles of music, it is almost impossible to find a popular artist today that has not been influenced by David Bowie." David Bowie_sentence_517

In 2000, Bowie was voted by other music stars as the "most influential artist of all time" in a poll by NME. David Bowie_sentence_518

Alexis Petridis of The Guardian wrote that Bowie was confirmed by 1980 to be "the most important and influential artist since the Beatles". David Bowie_sentence_519

Neil McCormick of The Daily Telegraph stated that Bowie had "one of the supreme careers in popular music, art and culture of the 20th century" and "he was too inventive, too mercurial, too strange for all but his most devoted fans to keep up with". David Bowie_sentence_520

The BBC's Mark Easton argued that Bowie provided fuel for "the creative powerhouse that Britain has become" by challenging future generations "to aim high, to be ambitious and provocative, to take risks". David Bowie_sentence_521

Easton concluded that Bowie had "changed the way the world sees Britain. David Bowie_sentence_522

And the way Britain sees itself". David Bowie_sentence_523

In 2006, Bowie was voted the fourth greatest living British icon in a poll held by the BBC's Culture Show. David Bowie_sentence_524

Annie Zaleski of Alternative Press wrote, "Every band or solo artist who's decided to rip up their playbook and start again owes a debt to Bowie". David Bowie_sentence_525

In 2016, he was dubbed "The Greatest Rock Star Ever" by Rolling Stone magazine. David Bowie_sentence_526

Numerous figures from the music industry whose careers Bowie had influenced paid tribute to him following his death; panegyrics on Twitter (tweets about him peaked at 20,000 a minute an hour after the announcement of his death) also came from outside the entertainment industry and pop culture, such as those from the Vatican, namely Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, who quoted "Space Oddity", and the Federal Foreign Office, which thanked Bowie for his part in the fall of the Berlin Wall and referenced "Heroes". David Bowie_sentence_527

Belgian amateur astronomers at the MIRA Public Observatory in conjunction with Studio Brussel created a "Bowie asterism" in homage to Bowie in January 2016; it depicts the lightning bolt of Aladdin Sane using the stars Sigma Librae, Spica, Zeta Centauri, SAO 204132, Sigma Octantis, SAO 241641 and Beta Trianguli Australis which were near Mars at the time of Bowie's death. David Bowie_sentence_528

On 7 January 2017, the BBC broadcast the 90-minute documentary David Bowie: The Last Five Years, taking a detailed look at Bowie's last albums, The Next Day and Blackstar, and his play Lazarus. David Bowie_sentence_529

On 8 January 2017, which would have been Bowie's 70th birthday, a charity concert in his birthplace of Brixton was hosted by the actor Gary Oldman, a close friend. David Bowie_sentence_530

A David Bowie walking tour through Brixton was also launched, and other events marking his birthday weekend included concerts in New York, Los Angeles, Sydney, and Tokyo. David Bowie_sentence_531

On 6 February 2018, the maiden flight of the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket carried Elon Musk's personal Tesla Roadster and a mannequin affectionately named Starman into space. David Bowie_sentence_532

"Space Oddity" and "Life on Mars?" David Bowie_sentence_533

were looping on the car's sound system during the launch. David Bowie_sentence_534

David Bowie Is David Bowie_section_23

Main article: David Bowie Is David Bowie_sentence_535

An exhibition of Bowie artefacts, called David Bowie Is, was organised by the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, and shown there in 2013. David Bowie_sentence_536

The London exhibit was visited by over 300,000 people, making it one of the most successful exhibitions ever staged at the museum. David Bowie_sentence_537

Later that year the exhibition began a world tour which started in Toronto and included stops in Chicago, Paris, Melbourne, Groningen and Brooklyn, New York where the exhibit ended in 2018 at the Brooklyn Museum. David Bowie_sentence_538

The exhibition hosted around 2,000,000 visitors over the entire course of its run. David Bowie_sentence_539

Stardust biopic David Bowie_section_24

Main article: Stardust (2020 film) David Bowie_sentence_540

A biopic, Stardust, was announced on 31 January 2019, with musician and actor Johnny Flynn as Bowie, Jena Malone as his wife Angie, and Marc Maron as his publicist. David Bowie_sentence_541

The film follows Bowie on his first trip to the United States in 1971. David Bowie_sentence_542

The film was written by Christopher Bell and directed by Gabriel Range. David Bowie_sentence_543

Bowie's son Duncan Jones spoke out against the film, saying he was not consulted and that the film would not have permission to use Bowie's music. David Bowie_sentence_544

The film was set to premiere at the 2020 Tribeca Film Festival, but the festival was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. David Bowie_sentence_545

Musicianship David Bowie_section_25

From the time of his earliest recordings in the 1960s, Bowie employed a wide variety of musical styles. David Bowie_sentence_546

His early compositions and performances were strongly influenced by rock and rollers like Little Richard and Elvis Presley, and also the wider world of show business. David Bowie_sentence_547

He particularly strove to emulate the British musical theatre singer-songwriter and actor Anthony Newley, whose vocal style he frequently adopted, and made prominent use of for his 1967 debut release, David Bowie (to the disgust of Newley himself, who destroyed the copy he received from Bowie's publisher). David Bowie_sentence_548

Bowie's music hall fascination continued to surface sporadically alongside such diverse styles as hard rock and heavy metal, soul, psychedelic folk, and pop. David Bowie_sentence_549

Musicologist James Perone observes Bowie's use of octave switches for different repetitions of the same melody, exemplified in his commercial breakthrough single, "Space Oddity", and later in the song "Heroes", to dramatic effect; Perone notes that "in the lowest part of his vocal register ... his voice has an almost crooner-like richness." David Bowie_sentence_550

Voice instructor Jo Thompson describes Bowie's vocal vibrato technique as "particularly deliberate and distinctive". David Bowie_sentence_551

Schinder and Schwartz call him "a vocalist of extraordinary technical ability, able to pitch his singing to particular effect." David Bowie_sentence_552

Here, too, as in his stagecraft and songwriting, the singer's role playing is evident: historiographer Michael Campbell says that Bowie's lyrics "arrest our ear, without question. David Bowie_sentence_553

But Bowie continually shifts from person to person as he delivers them ... His voice changes dramatically from section to section." David Bowie_sentence_554

In a 2014 analysis of 77 "top" singers' vocal ranges, Bowie was 8th, just behind Christina Aguilera and just ahead of Paul McCartney. David Bowie_sentence_555

In addition to the guitar, Bowie also played a variety of keyboards, including piano, Mellotron, Chamberlin, and synthesizers; harmonica; alto and baritone saxophones; stylophone; viola; cello; koto (in the Heroes track "Moss Garden"); thumb piano; drums (on the Heathen track "Cactus"), and various percussion instruments. David Bowie_sentence_556

Personal life David Bowie_section_26

Early relationships David Bowie_section_27

Bowie met dancer Lindsay Kemp in 1967 and enrolled in his dance class at the London Dance Centre. David Bowie_sentence_557

He commented in 1972 that meeting Kemp was when his interest in image "really blossomed". David Bowie_sentence_558

"He lived on his emotions, he was a wonderful influence. David Bowie_sentence_559

His day-to-day life was the most theatrical thing I had ever seen, ever. David Bowie_sentence_560

It was everything I thought Bohemia probably was. David Bowie_sentence_561

I joined the circus." David Bowie_sentence_562

In January 1968, Kemp choreographed a dance scene for a BBC play, The Pistol Shot, in the Theatre 625 series, and used Bowie with a dancer, Hermione Farthingale; the pair began dating, and moved into a London flat together. David Bowie_sentence_563

Bowie and Farthingale broke up in early 1969 when she went to Norway to take part in a film, Song of Norway; this affected him, and several songs, such as "Letter to Hermione" and "Life on Mars?" David Bowie_sentence_564

reference her, and for the video accompanying "Where Are We Now? David Bowie_sentence_565 ", he wore a T-shirt with the words "m/s Song of Norway". David Bowie_sentence_566

They were last together in January 1969 for the filming of Love You till Tuesday, a 30-minute film that was not released until 1984: intended as a promotional vehicle, it featured performances from Bowie's repertoire, including "Space Oddity", which had not been released when the film was made. David Bowie_sentence_567

Family David Bowie_section_28

Bowie married his first wife, Mary Angela Barnett on 19 March 1970 at Bromley Register Office in Bromley, London. David Bowie_sentence_568

They had an open marriage. David Bowie_sentence_569

Angela described their union as a marriage of convenience. David Bowie_sentence_570

"We got married so that I could [get a permit to] work. David Bowie_sentence_571

I didn't think it would last and David said, before we got married, 'I'm not really in love with you' and I thought that's probably a good thing," she said. David Bowie_sentence_572

Bowie said about Angela that "living with her is like living with a blow torch." David Bowie_sentence_573

Their son Duncan, born on 30 May 1971, was at first known as Zowie. David Bowie_sentence_574

Bowie and Angela divorced on 8 February 1980 in Switzerland. David Bowie_sentence_575

Bowie received custody of their son. David Bowie_sentence_576

After the gag order that was part of their divorce agreement ended, Angela wrote, Backstage Passes: Life on the Wild Side with David Bowie, a memoir of their turbulent marriage. David Bowie_sentence_577

On 24 April 1992, Bowie married Somali-American model Iman in a private ceremony in Lausanne. David Bowie_sentence_578

The wedding was later solemnised on 6 June in Florence. David Bowie_sentence_579

They had one daughter, Alexandria "Lexi" Zahra Jones, born in August 2000. David Bowie_sentence_580

The couple resided primarily in New York City and London, as well as owning an apartment in Sydney's Elizabeth Bay and Britannia Bay House on the island of Mustique. David Bowie_sentence_581

Sexuality David Bowie_section_29

Bowie declared himself gay in an interview with Michael Watts for a 1972 issue of Melody Maker, coinciding with his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust. David Bowie_sentence_582

According to Buckley, "If Ziggy confused both his creator and his audience, a big part of that confusion centred on the topic of sexuality." David Bowie_sentence_583

In a September 1976 interview with Playboy, Bowie said, "It's true—I am a bisexual. David Bowie_sentence_584

But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. David Bowie_sentence_585

I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me." David Bowie_sentence_586

His first wife, Angie, supports his claim of bisexuality and alleges that Bowie had a relationship with Mick Jagger. David Bowie_sentence_587

In a 1983 interview with Rolling Stone, Bowie said his public declaration of bisexuality was "the biggest mistake I ever made" and "I was always a closet heterosexual." David Bowie_sentence_588

On other occasions, he said his interest in homosexual and bisexual culture had been more a product of the times and the situation in which he found himself than of his own feelings. David Bowie_sentence_589

Blender asked Bowie in 2002 whether he still believed his public declaration was his biggest mistake. David Bowie_sentence_590

After a long pause, he said, "I don't think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a lot tougher in America. David Bowie_sentence_591

I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. David Bowie_sentence_592

But I had no inclination to hold any banners nor be a representative of any group of people." David Bowie_sentence_593

Bowie said he wanted to be a songwriter and performer rather than a headline for his bisexuality, and in "puritanical" America, "I think it stood in the way of so much I wanted to do." David Bowie_sentence_594

Buckley wrote that Bowie "mined sexual intrigue for its ability to shock", and was probably "never gay, nor even consistently actively bisexual", instead experimenting "out of a sense of curiosity and a genuine allegiance with the 'transgressional'." David Bowie_sentence_595

Biographer Christopher Sandford said, according to Mary Finnigan—with whom Bowie had an affair in 1969—the singer and his first wife Angie "created their bisexual fantasy". David Bowie_sentence_596

Sandford wrote that Bowie "made a positive fetish of repeating the quip that he and his wife had met while 'fucking the same bloke' ... David Bowie_sentence_597

Gay sex was always an anecdotal and laughing matter. David Bowie_sentence_598

That Bowie's actual tastes swung the other way is clear from even a partial tally of his affairs with women." David Bowie_sentence_599

The BBC's Mark Easton wrote in 2016 that Britain was "far more tolerant of difference" and that gay rights, such as same-sex marriage, and gender equality would not have "enjoyed the broad support they do today without Bowie's androgynous challenge all those years ago". David Bowie_sentence_600

Spirituality and religion David Bowie_section_30

Over the years, Bowie made numerous references to religions and to his evolving spirituality. David Bowie_sentence_601

Beginning in 1967, he became interested in Buddhism and considered becoming a Buddhist monk. David Bowie_sentence_602

After a few months' study at Tibet House in London, he was told by a Lama, "You don't want to be Buddhist. David Bowie_sentence_603

... You should follow music." David Bowie_sentence_604

By 1975, Bowie admitted, "I felt totally, absolutely alone. David Bowie_sentence_605

And I probably was alone because I pretty much had abandoned God." David Bowie_sentence_606

In his will, Bowie stipulated that he be cremated and his ashes scattered in Bali "in accordance with the Buddhist rituals". David Bowie_sentence_607

After Bowie married Iman in a private ceremony in 1992, he said they knew that their "real marriage, sanctified by God, had to happen in a church in Florence". David Bowie_sentence_608

Earlier that year, he knelt on stage at The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert and recited the Lord's Prayer before a television audience. David Bowie_sentence_609

In 1993, Bowie said he had an "undying" belief in the "unquestionable" existence of God. David Bowie_sentence_610

In a separate 1993 interview, while describing the genesis of the music for his album Black Tie White Noise, he said " … it was important for me to find something [musically] that also had no sort of representation of institutionalized and organized religion, of which I'm not a believer, I must make that clear." David Bowie_sentence_611

Interviewed in 2005, Bowie said whether God exists "is not a question that can be answered. David Bowie_sentence_612

... David Bowie_sentence_613

I'm not quite an atheist and it worries me. David Bowie_sentence_614

There's that little bit that holds on: 'Well, I'm almost an atheist. David Bowie_sentence_615

Give me a couple of months. David Bowie_sentence_616

... David Bowie_sentence_617

I've nearly got it right.'" David Bowie_sentence_618

He had a tattoo of the Serenity Prayer in Japanese on his left calf. David Bowie_sentence_619

"Questioning [his] spiritual life [was] always ... germane" to Bowie's songwriting. David Bowie_sentence_620

The song "Station to Station" is "very much concerned with the Stations of the Cross"; the song also specifically references Kabbalah. David Bowie_sentence_621

Bowie called the album "extremely dark ... the nearest album to a magick treatise that I've written". David Bowie_sentence_622

Earthling showed "the abiding need in me to vacillate between atheism or a kind of gnosticism ... What I need is to find a balance, spiritually, with the way I live and my demise." David Bowie_sentence_623

Released shortly before his death, "Lazarus"—from his final album, Blackstar—began with the words, "Look up here, I'm in Heaven" while the rest of the album deals with other matters of mysticism and mortality. David Bowie_sentence_624

Politics David Bowie_section_31

In 1976, speaking as The Thin White Duke, Bowie's persona at the time, and "at least partially tongue-in-cheek", he made statements that expressed support for fascism and perceived admiration for Adolf Hitler in interviews with Playboy, NME, and a Swedish publication. David Bowie_sentence_625

Bowie was quoted as saying: "Britain is ready for a fascist leader... David Bowie_sentence_626

I think Britain could benefit from a fascist leader. David Bowie_sentence_627

After all, fascism is really nationalism... David Bowie_sentence_628

I believe very strongly in fascism, people have always responded with greater efficiency under a regimental leadership." David Bowie_sentence_629

He was also quoted as saying: "Adolf Hitler was one of the first rock stars" and "You've got to have an extreme right front come up and sweep everything off its feet and tidy everything up." David Bowie_sentence_630

Bowie later retracted these comments in an interview with Melody Maker in October 1977, blaming them on mental instability caused by his drug problems at the time, saying: "I was out of my mind, totally, completely crazed." David Bowie_sentence_631

In the 1980s and 1990s, Bowie's public statements shifted sharply towards anti-racism and anti-fascism. David Bowie_sentence_632

In an interview with MTV anchor Mark Goodman in 1983, Bowie criticised the channel for not providing enough coverage of black musicians, becoming visibly uncomfortable when the host suggested concerns among midwestern viewers was a reason. David Bowie_sentence_633

The music videos for "China Girl" and "Let's Dance" were described by Bowie as a "very simple, very direct" statement against racism. David Bowie_sentence_634

The album Tin Machine took a more direct stance against fascism and Neo-Nazism, and was criticised for being too preachy. David Bowie_sentence_635

At the 2014 Brit Awards on 19 February, Bowie became the oldest recipient of a Brit Award in the ceremony's history when he won the award for British Male Solo Artist, which was collected on his behalf by Kate Moss. David Bowie_sentence_636

His speech read: "I'm completely delighted to have a Brit for being the best male – but I am, aren't I Kate? David Bowie_sentence_637

Yes. David Bowie_sentence_638

I think it's a great way to end the day. David Bowie_sentence_639

Thank you very, very much and Scotland stay with us." David Bowie_sentence_640

Bowie's reference to the forthcoming September 2014 Scottish independence referendum garnered a significant reaction throughout the UK on social media. David Bowie_sentence_641

In 2016, filmmaker and activist Michael Moore said he had wanted to use "Panic in Detroit" for his 1998 documentary The Big One. David Bowie_sentence_642

Denied at first, Moore was given the rights after calling Bowie personally, recalling: "I've read stuff since his death saying that he wasn't that political and he stayed away from politics. David Bowie_sentence_643

But that wasn't the conversation that I had with him." David Bowie_sentence_644

Death David Bowie_section_32

Main article: Death of David Bowie David Bowie_sentence_645

On 10 January 2016, two days after his 69th birthday and the release of the album Blackstar, Bowie died from liver cancer in his New York City apartment. David Bowie_sentence_646

He had been diagnosed 18 months earlier but had not made the news of his illness public. David Bowie_sentence_647

The Belgian theatre director Ivo van Hove, who had worked with the singer on his off-Broadway musical Lazarus, explained that Bowie was unable to attend rehearsals due to the progression of the disease. David Bowie_sentence_648

He noted that Bowie had kept working during the illness. David Bowie_sentence_649

Bowie's producer Tony Visconti wrote: David Bowie_sentence_650

Following Bowie's death, fans gathered at impromptu street shrines. David Bowie_sentence_651

At the mural of Bowie in his birthplace of Brixton, south London, which shows him in his Aladdin Sane character, fans laid flowers and sang his songs. David Bowie_sentence_652

Other memorial sites included Berlin, Los Angeles, and outside his apartment in New York. David Bowie_sentence_653

After news of his death, sales of his albums and singles soared. David Bowie_sentence_654

Bowie had insisted that he did not want a funeral, and according to his death certificate he was cremated in New Jersey on 12 January. David Bowie_sentence_655

As he wished in his will, his ashes were scattered in a Buddhist ceremony in Bali, Indonesia. David Bowie_sentence_656

Discography David Bowie_section_33

Main article: David Bowie discography David Bowie_sentence_657

Studio albums: David Bowie_sentence_658

Awards and achievements David Bowie_section_34

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by David Bowie David Bowie_sentence_659

Bowie's 1969 commercial breakthrough, the song "Space Oddity", won him an Ivor Novello Special Award For Originality. David Bowie_sentence_660

For his performance in the 1976 science fiction film The Man Who Fell to Earth, he won a Saturn Award for Best Actor. David Bowie_sentence_661

In the ensuing decades he was honoured with numerous awards for his music and its accompanying videos, receiving, among others, six Grammy Awards and four Brit Awards—winning Best British Male Artist twice; the award for Outstanding Contribution to Music in 1996; and the Brits Icon award for his "lasting impact on British culture", given posthumously in 2016. David Bowie_sentence_662

In 1999, Bowie was made a Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government. David Bowie_sentence_663

He received an honorary doctorate from Berklee College of Music the same year. David Bowie_sentence_664

He declined the royal honour of Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 2000, and turned down a knighthood in 2003. David Bowie_sentence_665

Bowie later stated "I would never have any intention of accepting anything like that. David Bowie_sentence_666

I seriously don't know what it's for. David Bowie_sentence_667

It's not what I spent my life working for." David Bowie_sentence_668

Bowie has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling music artists. David Bowie_sentence_669

In the United Kingdom, he was awarded 9 platinum, 11 gold, and 8 silver albums, and in the United States, 5 platinum and 9 gold. David Bowie_sentence_670

Five of Bowie's albums appear on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. David Bowie_sentence_671

Four of Bowie's songs appear on the Rolling Stone list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. David Bowie_sentence_672

Additionally, four of his songs are included in The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll. David Bowie_sentence_673

According to Acclaimed Music, he is the fourth most celebrated artist in popular music history. David Bowie_sentence_674

In the BBC's 2002 poll of the 100 Greatest Britons, he was ranked 29. David Bowie_sentence_675

In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him 39th on their list of the 100 Greatest Rock Artists of All Time. David Bowie_sentence_676

Bowie was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. David Bowie_sentence_677

He was inducted into the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame in 2013. David Bowie_sentence_678

In 2016, Rolling Stone proclaimed Bowie "the greatest rock star ever". David Bowie_sentence_679

In 2008, the spider Heteropoda davidbowie was named in Bowie's honour. David Bowie_sentence_680

On 5 January 2015, a main-belt asteroid was named 342843 Davidbowie. David Bowie_sentence_681

On 13 January 2016, Belgian amateur astronomers at MIRA Public Observatory created a "Bowie asterism" of seven stars which had been in the vicinity of Mars at the time of Bowie's death; the "constellation" forms the lightning bolt on Bowie's face from the cover of his Aladdin Sane album. David Bowie_sentence_682

On 25 March 2018, a statue of Bowie was unveiled in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, the town where he debuted Ziggy Stardust. David Bowie_sentence_683

The statue features a likeness of Bowie in 2002 accompanied with various characters and looks from over his career, with Ziggy at the front. David Bowie_sentence_684

See also David Bowie_section_35

David Bowie_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David Bowie.