Dental click

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"Tut tut" redirects here. Dental click_sentence_0

For the Canadian ferry, see MV Skookum (1906). Dental click_sentence_1

"ǀ" redirects here. Dental click_sentence_2

It is not to be confused with the vertical bar. Dental click_sentence_3

Dental click_table_infobox_0

Voiced dental clickDental click_header_cell_0_0_0
ǀ̬Dental click_header_cell_0_1_0
ᶢǀ ᵈǀDental click_header_cell_0_2_0
ʇ̬Dental click_header_cell_0_3_0
ᶢʇDental click_header_cell_0_4_0

Dental click_table_infobox_1

Dental nasal clickDental click_header_cell_1_0_0
ǀ̃Dental click_header_cell_1_1_0
ᵑǀ ⁿǀDental click_header_cell_1_2_0
ʇ̃Dental click_header_cell_1_3_0
ᵑʇDental click_header_cell_1_4_0

Dental (or more precisely denti-alveolar) clicks are a family of click consonants found, as constituents of words, only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. Dental click_sentence_4

In English, the tut-tut! Dental click_sentence_5

(British spelling, "tutting") or tsk! Dental click_sentence_6

tsk! Dental click_sentence_7

(American spelling, "tsking") sound used to express disapproval or pity is a dental click, although, in this context, it is not a phoneme (a sound that distinguishes words) but a paralinguistic speech-sound. Dental click_sentence_8

Similarly paralinguistic usage of dental clicks is made in certain other languages, but the meaning thereof differs widely between many of the languages (e.g., affirmation in Somali but negation in many varieties of Arabic). Dental click_sentence_9

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the place of articulation of these sounds is ⟨ǀ⟩, a vertical bar. Dental click_sentence_10

Prior to 1989, ⟨ʇ⟩ was the IPA letter for the dental clicks. Dental click_sentence_11

It is still occasionally used where the symbol ⟨ǀ⟩ would be confounded with other symbols, such as prosody marks, or simply because in many fonts the vertical bar is indistinguishable from an el or capital i. Dental click_sentence_12

Either letter may be combined with a second letter to indicate the manner of articulation, though this is commonly omitted for tenuis clicks, and increasingly a diacritic is used instead. Dental click_sentence_13

Common dental clicks are: Dental click_sentence_14

Dental click_table_general_2

Trans. IDental click_header_cell_2_0_0 Trans. IIDental click_header_cell_2_0_1 Trans. IIIDental click_header_cell_2_0_2 DescriptionDental click_header_cell_2_0_3
(velar)Dental click_header_cell_2_1_0
⟨k͜ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_2_0 ⟨ᵏǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_2_1 ⟨ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_2_2 tenuis dental clickDental click_cell_2_2_3
⟨k͜ǀʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_3_0 ⟨ᵏǀʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_3_1 ⟨ǀʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_3_2 aspirated dental clickDental click_cell_2_3_3
⟨ɡ͜ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_4_0 ⟨ᶢǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_4_1 ⟨ǀ̬⟩Dental click_cell_2_4_2 voiced dental clickDental click_cell_2_4_3
⟨ŋ͜ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_5_0 ⟨ᵑǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_5_1 ⟨ǀ̃⟩Dental click_cell_2_5_2 dental nasal clickDental click_cell_2_5_3
⟨ŋ͜ǀ̥ʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_6_0 ⟨ᵑǀ̥ʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_6_1 ⟨ǀ̥̃ʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_6_2 aspirated dental nasal clickDental click_cell_2_6_3
⟨ŋ͜ǀˀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_7_0 ⟨ᵑǀˀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_7_1 ⟨ǀ̃ˀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_7_2 glottalized dental nasal clickDental click_cell_2_7_3
(uvular)Dental click_header_cell_2_8_0
⟨q͜ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_9_0 ⟨ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_9_1 Dental click_cell_2_9_2 tenuis dental clickDental click_cell_2_9_3
⟨q͜ǀʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_10_0 ⟨ǀʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_10_1 Dental click_cell_2_10_2 aspirated dental clickDental click_cell_2_10_3
⟨ɢ͜ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_11_0 ⟨ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_11_1 Dental click_cell_2_11_2 voiced dental clickDental click_cell_2_11_3
⟨ɴ͜ǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_12_0 ⟨ᶰǀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_12_1 Dental click_cell_2_12_2 dental nasal clickDental click_cell_2_12_3
⟨ɴ͜ǀ̥ʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_13_0 ⟨ᶰǀ̥ʰ⟩Dental click_cell_2_13_1 Dental click_cell_2_13_2 aspirated dental nasal clickDental click_cell_2_13_3
⟨ɴ͜ǀˀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_14_0 ⟨ᶰǀˀ⟩Dental click_cell_2_14_1 Dental click_cell_2_14_2 glottalized dental nasal clickDental click_cell_2_14_3

The last is what is heard in the sound sample at right, as non-native speakers tend to glottalize clicks to avoid nasalizing them. Dental click_sentence_15

In the orthographies of individual languages, the letters and digraphs for dental clicks may be based on either the vertical bar symbol of the IPA, ⟨ǀ⟩, or on the Latin ⟨c⟩ of Bantu convention. Dental click_sentence_16

Nama and most Saan languages use the former; Naro, Sandawe, and Zulu use the latter. Dental click_sentence_17

Features Dental click_section_0

Features of dental clicks: Dental click_sentence_18

Dental click_unordered_list_0

  • The basic articulation may be voiced, nasal, aspirated, glottalized, etc.Dental click_item_0_0
  • The forward place of articulation is typically dental (or denti-alveolar) and laminal, which means it is articulated with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge or the upper teeth, but depending on the language may be interdental or even apical. The release is a noisy, affricate-like sound.Dental click_item_0_1
  • Clicks may be oral or nasal, which means that the airflow is either restricted to the mouth, or passes through the nose as well.Dental click_item_0_2
  • They are central consonants, which means they are produced by releasing the airstream at the center of the tongue, rather than at the sides.Dental click_item_0_3
  • The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.Dental click_item_0_4

Occurrence Dental click_section_1

Dental clicks are common in Khoisan languages and the neighboring Nguni languages, such as Zulu and Xhosa. Dental click_sentence_19

In the Nguni languages, the tenuis click is denoted by the letter c, the murmured click by gc, the aspirated click by ch, and the nasal click by nc. Dental click_sentence_20

The prenasalized clicks are written ngc and nkc. Dental click_sentence_21

The Cushitic language Dahalo has four clicks, all of them nasalized: [ᵑ̊ʇ, ᵑʇ, ᵑ̊ʇʷ, ᵑʇʷ]. Dental click_sentence_22

Dental clicks may also be used para-linguistically. Dental click_sentence_23

For example, English speakers use a plain dental click, usually written tsk or tut (and often reduplicated tsk-tsk or tut-tut; these spellings often lead to spelling pronunciations /tɪsk/ or /tʌt/), as an interjection to express commiseration, disapproval, irritation, or to call a small animal. Dental click_sentence_24

German (ts or tss), Hungarian (cöccögés), Persian (noch), Portuguese (tsc), Russian (; ) Spanish (ts) and French (t-t-t-t) speakers use the dental click in exactly the same way as English. Dental click_sentence_25

The dental click is also used para-linguistically in Semitic languages such as Arabic, Hebrew and Indo-European Pashto, and Persian where it is transcribed as نچ‎/noch and is also used as a negative response to a "yes or no" question (including Dari and Tajiki). Dental click_sentence_26

It is also used in some languages spoken in regions closer to, or in, Europe, such as Turkish, Albanian, Greek, Bulgarian, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian or Serbo-Croatian to denote a negative response to a "yes or no" question. Dental click_sentence_27

The dental click is sometimes accompanied by an upward motion of the head. Dental click_sentence_28

See also Dental click_section_2

Dental click_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: click.