"Tut tut" redirects here.
For the Canadian ferry, see MV Skookum (1906).
"ǀ" redirects here.
It is not to be confused with the vertical bar.
|Voiced dental click|
|Dental nasal click|
In English, the tut-tut!
(British spelling, "tutting") or tsk!
(American spelling, "tsking") sound used to express disapproval or pity is a dental click, although, in this context, it is not a phoneme (a sound that distinguishes words) but a paralinguistic speech-sound.
Similarly paralinguistic usage of dental clicks is made in certain other languages, but the meaning thereof differs widely between many of the languages (e.g., affirmation in Somali but negation in many varieties of Arabic).
Prior to 1989, ⟨ʇ⟩ was the IPA letter for the dental clicks.
It is still occasionally used where the symbol ⟨ǀ⟩ would be confounded with other symbols, such as prosody marks, or simply because in many fonts the vertical bar is indistinguishable from an el or capital i.
Common dental clicks are:
|Trans. I||Trans. II||Trans. III||Description|
|⟨k͜ǀ⟩||⟨ᵏǀ⟩||⟨ǀ⟩||tenuis dental click|
|⟨k͜ǀʰ⟩||⟨ᵏǀʰ⟩||⟨ǀʰ⟩||aspirated dental click|
|⟨ɡ͜ǀ⟩||⟨ᶢǀ⟩||⟨ǀ̬⟩||voiced dental click|
|⟨ŋ͜ǀ⟩||⟨ᵑǀ⟩||⟨ǀ̃⟩||dental nasal click|
|⟨ŋ͜ǀ̥ʰ⟩||⟨ᵑǀ̥ʰ⟩||⟨ǀ̥̃ʰ⟩||aspirated dental nasal click|
|⟨ŋ͜ǀˀ⟩||⟨ᵑǀˀ⟩||⟨ǀ̃ˀ⟩||glottalized dental nasal click|
|⟨q͜ǀ⟩||⟨ǀ⟩||tenuis dental click|
|⟨q͜ǀʰ⟩||⟨ǀʰ⟩||aspirated dental click|
|⟨ɢ͜ǀ⟩||⟨ǀ⟩||voiced dental click|
|⟨ɴ͜ǀ⟩||⟨ᶰǀ⟩||dental nasal click|
|⟨ɴ͜ǀ̥ʰ⟩||⟨ᶰǀ̥ʰ⟩||aspirated dental nasal click|
|⟨ɴ͜ǀˀ⟩||⟨ᶰǀˀ⟩||glottalized dental nasal click|
The last is what is heard in the sound sample at right, as non-native speakers tend to glottalize clicks to avoid nasalizing them.
In the orthographies of individual languages, the letters and digraphs for dental clicks may be based on either the vertical bar symbol of the IPA, ⟨ǀ⟩, or on the Latin ⟨c⟩ of Bantu convention.
Features of dental clicks:
- The basic articulation may be voiced, nasal, aspirated, glottalized, etc.
- The forward place of articulation is typically dental (or denti-alveolar) and laminal, which means it is articulated with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge or the upper teeth, but depending on the language may be interdental or even apical. The release is a noisy, affricate-like sound.
- Clicks may be oral or nasal, which means that the airflow is either restricted to the mouth, or passes through the nose as well.
- They are central consonants, which means they are produced by releasing the airstream at the center of the tongue, rather than at the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
The prenasalized clicks are written ngc and nkc.
The Cushitic language Dahalo has four clicks, all of them nasalized: [ᵑ̊ʇ, ᵑʇ, ᵑ̊ʇʷ, ᵑʇʷ].
Dental clicks may also be used para-linguistically.
For example, English speakers use a plain dental click, usually written tsk or tut (and often reduplicated tsk-tsk or tut-tut; these spellings often lead to spelling pronunciations /tɪsk/ or /tʌt/), as an interjection to express commiseration, disapproval, irritation, or to call a small animal.
The dental click is also used para-linguistically in Semitic languages such as Arabic, Hebrew and Indo-European Pashto, and Persian where it is transcribed as نچ/noch and is also used as a negative response to a "yes or no" question (including Dari and Tajiki).
It is also used in some languages spoken in regions closer to, or in, Europe, such as Turkish, Albanian, Greek, Bulgarian, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian or Serbo-Croatian to denote a negative response to a "yes or no" question.
The dental click is sometimes accompanied by an upward motion of the head.
- Lateral click
- Alveolar click
- Bilabial click
- Palatal click
- Retroflex click
- Index of phonetics articles
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental click.