Detroit

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This article is about the city Detroit in Michigan. Detroit_sentence_0

For other uses, see Detroit (disambiguation). Detroit_sentence_1

"Motor City" and "Detroit City" redirect here. Detroit_sentence_2

For other uses, see Motor City (disambiguation) and Detroit City (disambiguation). Detroit_sentence_3

Detroit_table_infobox_0

Detroit, Michigan

Détroit (French)Detroit_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryDetroit_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesDetroit_cell_0_1_1
StateDetroit_header_cell_0_2_0 MichiganDetroit_cell_0_2_1
CountyDetroit_header_cell_0_3_0 WayneDetroit_cell_0_3_1
FoundedDetroit_header_cell_0_4_0 July 24, 1701Detroit_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedDetroit_header_cell_0_5_0 September 13, 1806Detroit_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentDetroit_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeDetroit_header_cell_0_7_0 Mayor–councilDetroit_cell_0_7_1
BodyDetroit_header_cell_0_8_0 Detroit City CouncilDetroit_cell_0_8_1
MayorDetroit_header_cell_0_9_0 Mike Duggan (D)Detroit_cell_0_9_1
City CouncilDetroit_header_cell_0_10_0 MembersDetroit_cell_0_10_1
AreaDetroit_header_cell_0_11_0
CityDetroit_header_cell_0_12_0 142.89 sq mi (370.08 km)Detroit_cell_0_12_1
LandDetroit_header_cell_0_13_0 138.72 sq mi (359.27 km)Detroit_cell_0_13_1
WaterDetroit_header_cell_0_14_0 4.17 sq mi (10.81 km)Detroit_cell_0_14_1
UrbanDetroit_header_cell_0_15_0 1,295 sq mi (3,350 km)Detroit_cell_0_15_1
MetroDetroit_header_cell_0_16_0 3,913 sq mi (10,130 km)Detroit_cell_0_16_1
ElevationDetroit_header_cell_0_17_0 656 ft (200 m)Detroit_cell_0_17_1
Population (2010)Detroit_header_cell_0_18_0
CityDetroit_header_cell_0_19_0 713,777Detroit_cell_0_19_1
Estimate (2019)Detroit_header_cell_0_20_0 670,031Detroit_cell_0_20_1
RankDetroit_header_cell_0_21_0 U.S.: 24thDetroit_cell_0_21_1
DensityDetroit_header_cell_0_22_0 4,830.27/sq mi (1,864.98/km)Detroit_cell_0_22_1
UrbanDetroit_header_cell_0_23_0 3,734,090 (US: 11th)Detroit_cell_0_23_1
MetroDetroit_header_cell_0_24_0 4,292,060 (US: 14th)Detroit_cell_0_24_1
CSADetroit_header_cell_0_25_0 5,336,286 (US: 12th)Detroit_cell_0_25_1
Demonym(s)Detroit_header_cell_0_26_0 DetroiterDetroit_cell_0_26_1
Time zoneDetroit_header_cell_0_27_0 UTC−5 (EST)Detroit_cell_0_27_1
Summer (DST)Detroit_header_cell_0_28_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Detroit_cell_0_28_1
ZIP Code(s)Detroit_header_cell_0_29_0 48127, 48201, 48202, 48204–48206, 48208–48210, 48212–48217, 48219, 48221–48228, 48231–48236, 48238–48240, 48243, 48244, 48255, 48260, 48264, 48266–48269, 48272, 48275, 48277–48279, 48288Detroit_cell_0_29_1
Area code(s)Detroit_header_cell_0_30_0 313Detroit_cell_0_30_1
FIPS codeDetroit_header_cell_0_31_0 26-22000Detroit_cell_0_31_1
GNIS feature IDDetroit_header_cell_0_32_0 1617959Detroit_cell_0_32_1
WebsiteDetroit_header_cell_0_33_0 Detroit_cell_0_33_1

Detroit (/dɪˈtrɔɪt/, locally also /ˈdiːtrɔɪt/; French: Détroit, lit. Detroit_sentence_4

'strait') is the largest and most-populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest U.S. city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County. Detroit_sentence_5

The municipality of Detroit had a 2019 estimated population of 670,031, making it the 24th-most populous city in the United States. Detroit_sentence_6

The metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area, and 14th-largest in the United States. Detroit_sentence_7

Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art, architecture and design. Detroit_sentence_8

Detroit is a major port on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Detroit_sentence_9

The Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. Detroit_sentence_10

The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, and the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit_sentence_11

Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a highway tunnel, railway tunnel, and the Ambassador Bridge, which is the second busiest international crossing in North America, after San Diego–Tijuana. Detroit_sentence_12

Detroit is best known as the center of the U.S. Detroit_sentence_13 automobile industry, and the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and Fiat Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. Detroit_sentence_14

In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_15

During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. Detroit_sentence_16

The city became the 4th-largest in the nation in 1920, after only New York City, Chicago and Philadelphia with the influence of the booming auto industry. Detroit_sentence_17

With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, and by the 1940s, the city remained as the fourth-largest in the country. Detroit_sentence_18

However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, and rapid suburbanization, Detroit entered a state of urban decay and lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Detroit_sentence_19

Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. Detroit_sentence_20

In 2013, Detroit became the largest U.S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it successfully exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances. Detroit_sentence_21

Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence, particularly in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, and playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop, rock, and punk music. Detroit_sentence_22

The rapid growth of Detroit in its boom years resulted in a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places. Detroit_sentence_23

Since the 2000s conservation efforts have managed to save many architectural pieces and achieved several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, and a riverfront revitalization project. Detroit_sentence_24

More recently, the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, and various other neighborhoods has increased. Detroit_sentence_25

An increasingly popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. Detroit_sentence_26

In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U.S. city to receive that designation. Detroit_sentence_27

History Detroit_section_0

Main articles: History of Detroit and Timeline of Detroit Detroit_sentence_28

Early settlement Detroit_section_1

Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders. Detroit_sentence_29

In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa, Potawatomi and Iroquois peoples. Detroit_sentence_30

The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, and other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s. Detroit_sentence_31

The Huron and Neutral peoples held the north side of Lake Erie until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. Detroit_sentence_32

By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, and had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. Detroit_sentence_33

For the next hundred years, virtually no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' likely response. Detroit_sentence_34

When the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west. Detroit_sentence_35

British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting settlements below the Great Lakes and west of the Alleghenies. Detroit_sentence_36

Many colonial American would-be migrants resented this restraint and became supporters of the American Revolution. Detroit_sentence_37

The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began almost immediately. Detroit_sentence_38

By 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards. Detroit_sentence_39

Later settlement Detroit_section_2

The city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River (French: le détroit du lac Érié, meaning the strait of Lake Erie), linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie; in the historical context, the strait included the St. Detroit_sentence_40 Clair River, Lake St. Clair and the Detroit River. Detroit_sentence_41

On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers, began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Detroit_sentence_42

Cadillac would later name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. Detroit_sentence_43

A church was soon founded here, and the parish was known as Sainte Anne de Détroit. Detroit_sentence_44

France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit; when it reached a population of 800 in 1765, this was the largest European settlement between Montreal and New Orleans, both also French settlements, in the former colonies of New France and La Louisiane, respectively. Detroit_sentence_45

By 1773, after the addition of Anglo-American settlers, the population of Detroit was 1,400. Detroit_sentence_46

By 1778, its population reached 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in what was known as the Province of Quebec since the British takeover of French colonies following their victory in the Seven Years' War. Detroit_sentence_47

The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which numerous Native American people had important roles as trappers and traders. Detroit_sentence_48

Today the flag of Detroit reflects its French colonial heritage. Detroit_sentence_49

Descendants of the earliest French and French-Canadian settlers formed a cohesive community, who gradually were superseded as the dominant population after more Anglo-American settlers arrived in the early 19th century with American westward migration. Detroit_sentence_50

Living along the shores of Lakes St. Clair, and south to Monroe and downriver suburbs, the ethnic French Canadians of Detroit, also known as Muskrat French in reference to the fur trade, remain a subculture in the region in the 21st century. Detroit_sentence_51

During the French and Indian War (1754–63), the North American front of the Seven Years' War between Britain and France, British troops gained control of the settlement in 1760, and shortened its name to Detroit. Detroit_sentence_52

Several regional Native American tribes, such as the Potowatomi, Ojibwe and Huron, launched Pontiac's Rebellion (1763), and conducted a siege of Fort Detroit, but failed to capture it. Detroit_sentence_53

In defeat, France ceded its territory in North America east of the Mississippi to Britain following the war. Detroit_sentence_54

Following the American Revolutionary War and United States independence, Britain ceded Detroit along with other territory in the area under the Jay Treaty (1796), which established the northern border with its colony of Canada. Detroit_sentence_55

In 1805, fire destroyed most of the Detroit settlement, which had primarily buildings made of wood. Detroit_sentence_56

One stone fort, a river warehouse, and brick chimneys of former wooden homes were the sole structures to survive. Detroit_sentence_57

Of the 600 Detroit residents in this area, none died in the fire. Detroit_sentence_58

19th century Detroit_section_3

From 1805 to 1847, Detroit was the capital of Michigan (first the territory, then the state). Detroit_sentence_59

William Hull, the United States commander at Detroit surrendered without a fight to British troops and their Native American allies during the War of 1812 in the Siege of Detroit, believing his forces were vastly outnumbered. Detroit_sentence_60

The Battle of Frenchtown (January 18–23, 1813) was part of a U.S. effort to retake the city, and U.S. troops suffered their highest fatalities of any battle in the war. Detroit_sentence_61

This battle is commemorated at River Raisin National Battlefield Park south of Detroit in Monroe County. Detroit_sentence_62

Detroit was recaptured by the United States later that year. Detroit_sentence_63

The settlement was incorporated as a city in 1815. Detroit_sentence_64

As the city expanded, a geometric street plan developed by Augustus B. Woodward was followed, featuring grand boulevards as in Paris. Detroit_sentence_65

Prior to the American Civil War, the city's access to the Canada–US border made it a key stop for refugee slaves gaining freedom in the North along the Underground Railroad. Detroit_sentence_66

Many went across the Detroit River to Canada to escape pursuit by slave catchers. Detroit_sentence_67

An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 African-American refugees settled in Canada. Detroit_sentence_68

George DeBaptiste was considered to be the "president" of the Detroit Underground Railroad, William Lambert the "vice president" or "secretary", and Laura Haviland the "superintendent". Detroit_sentence_69

Numerous men from Detroit volunteered to fight for the Union during the American Civil War, including the 24th Michigan Infantry Regiment. Detroit_sentence_70

It was part of the legendary Iron Brigade, which fought with distinction and suffered 82% casualties at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. Detroit_sentence_71

When the First Volunteer Infantry Regiment arrived to fortify Washington, D.C., President Abraham Lincoln is quoted as saying "Thank God for Michigan!" Detroit_sentence_72

George Armstrong Custer led the Michigan Brigade during the Civil War and called them the "Wolverines". Detroit_sentence_73

During the late 19th century, wealthy industry and shipping magnates commissioned design and construction of several Gilded Age mansions east and west of the current downtown, along the major avenues of the Woodward plan. Detroit_sentence_74

Most notable among them was the David Whitney House at 4421 Woodward Avenue, and the grand avenue became a favored address for mansions. Detroit_sentence_75

During this period some referred to Detroit as the "Paris of the West" for its architecture, grand avenues in the Paris style, and for Washington Boulevard, recently electrified by Thomas Edison. Detroit_sentence_76

The city had grown steadily from the 1830s with the rise of shipping, shipbuilding, and manufacturing industries. Detroit_sentence_77

Strategically located along the Great Lakes waterway, Detroit emerged as a major port and transportation hub. Detroit_sentence_78

In 1896, a thriving carriage trade prompted Henry Ford to build his first automobile in a rented workshop on Mack Avenue. Detroit_sentence_79

During this growth period, Detroit expanded its borders by annexing all or part of several surrounding villages and townships. Detroit_sentence_80

20th century Detroit_section_4

In 1903, Henry Ford founded the Ford Motor Company. Detroit_sentence_81

Ford's manufacturing—and those of automotive pioneers William C. Durant, the Dodge Brothers, Packard, and Walter Chrysler—established Detroit's status in the early 20th century as the world's automotive capital. Detroit_sentence_82

The growth of the auto industry was reflected by changes in businesses throughout the Midwest and nation, with the development of garages to service vehicles and gas stations, as well as factories for parts and tires. Detroit_sentence_83

With the rapid growth of industrial workers in the auto factories, labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor and the United Auto Workers fought to organize workers to gain them better working conditions and wages. Detroit_sentence_84

They initiated strikes and other tactics in support of improvements such as the 8-hour day/40-hour work week, increased wages, greater benefits and improved working conditions. Detroit_sentence_85

The labor activism during those years increased influence of union leaders in the city such as Jimmy Hoffa of the Teamsters and Walter Reuther of the Autoworkers. Detroit_sentence_86

Due to the booming auto industry, Detroit became the 4th-largest in the nation in 1920, following New York City, Chicago and Philadelphia. Detroit_sentence_87

The prohibition of alcohol from 1920 to 1933 resulted in the Detroit River becoming a major conduit for smuggling of illegal Canadian spirits. Detroit_sentence_88

Detroit, like many places in the United States, developed racial conflict and discrimination in the 20th century following the rapid demographic changes as hundreds of thousands of new workers were attracted to the industrial city; in a short period it became the 4th-largest city in the nation. Detroit_sentence_89

The Great Migration brought rural blacks from the South; they were outnumbered by southern whites who also migrated to the city. Detroit_sentence_90

Immigration brought southern and eastern Europeans of Catholic and Jewish faith; these new groups competed with native-born whites for jobs and housing in the booming city. Detroit_sentence_91

Detroit was one of the major Midwest cities that was a site for the dramatic urban revival of the Ku Klux Klan beginning in 1915. Detroit_sentence_92

"By the 1920s the city had become a stronghold of the KKK," whose members primarily opposed Catholic and Jewish immigrants, but also practiced discrimination against black Americans. Detroit_sentence_93

Even after the decline of the KKK in the late 1920s, the Black Legion, a secret vigilante group, was active in the Detroit area in the 1930s. Detroit_sentence_94

One-third of its estimated 20,000 to 30,000 members in Michigan were based in the city. Detroit_sentence_95

It was defeated after numerous prosecutions following the kidnapping and murder in 1936 of Charles Poole, a Catholic organizer with the federal Works Progress Administration. Detroit_sentence_96

Some 49 men of the Black Legion were convicted of numerous crimes, with many sentenced to life in prison for murder. Detroit_sentence_97

In the 1940s the world's "first urban depressed freeway" ever built, the Davison, was constructed in Detroit. Detroit_sentence_98

During World War II, the government encouraged retooling of the American automobile industry in support of the Allied powers, leading to Detroit's key role in the American Arsenal of Democracy. Detroit_sentence_99

Jobs expanded so rapidly due to the defense buildup in World War II that 400,000 people migrated to the city from 1941 to 1943, including 50,000 blacks in the second wave of the Great Migration, and 350,000 whites, many of them from the South. Detroit_sentence_100

Whites, including ethnic Europeans, feared black competition for jobs and scarce housing. Detroit_sentence_101

The federal government prohibited discrimination in defense work, but when in June 1943 Packard promoted three black people to work next to whites on its assembly lines, 25,000 white workers walked off the job. Detroit_sentence_102

The Detroit race riot of 1943 took place in June, three weeks after the Packard plant protest, beginning with an altercation at Belle Isle. Detroit_sentence_103

Blacks suffered 25 deaths (of a total of 34), three-quarters of 600 wounded, and most of the losses due to property damage. Detroit_sentence_104

Rioters moved through the city, and young whites traveled across town to attack more settled blacks in their neighborhood of Paradise Valley. Detroit_sentence_105

Postwar era Detroit_section_5

Industrial mergers in the 1950s, especially in the automobile sector, increased oligopoly in the American auto industry. Detroit_sentence_106

Detroit manufacturers such as Packard and Hudson merged into other companies and eventually disappeared. Detroit_sentence_107

At its peak population of 1,849,568, in the 1950 Census, the city was the 5th-largest in the United States, after New York City, Chicago, Philadelphia and Los Angeles. Detroit_sentence_108

In this postwar era, the auto industry continued to create opportunities for many African Americans from the South, who continued with their Great Migration to Detroit and other northern and western cities to escape the strict Jim Crow laws and racial discrimination policies of the South. Detroit_sentence_109

Postwar Detroit was a prosperous industrial center of mass production. Detroit_sentence_110

The auto industry comprised about 60% of all industry in the city, allowing space for a plethora of separate booming businesses including stove making, brewing, furniture building, oil refineries, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and more. Detroit_sentence_111

The expansion of jobs created unique opportunities for black Americans, who saw novel high employment rates: there was a 103% increase in the number of blacks employed in postwar Detroit. Detroit_sentence_112

Black Americans who immigrated to northern industrial cities from the south still faced intense racial discrimination in the employment sector. Detroit_sentence_113

Racial discrimination kept the work force and better jobs predominantly white, while many black Detroiters held lower paying factory jobs. Detroit_sentence_114

Despite changes in demographics as the city’s black population expanded, Detroit's police force, fire department, and other city jobs continued to be held by predominantly white residents. Detroit_sentence_115

This created an unbalanced racial power dynamic. Detroit_sentence_116

Unequal opportunities in employment resulted in unequal housing opportunities for the majority of the black community: with overall lower incomes and facing the backlash of discriminatory housing policies, the black community was limited to lower cost, lower quality housing in the city. Detroit_sentence_117

The surge in Detroit's black population with the Great Migration augmented the strain on housing scarcity. Detroit_sentence_118

The liveable areas available to the black community were limited, and as a result, families often crowded together in unsanitary, unsafe, and illegal quarters. Detroit_sentence_119

Such discrimination became increasingly evident in the policies of redlining implemented by banks and federal housing groups, which almost completely restricted the ability of blacks to improve their housing and encouraged white people to guard the racial divide that defined their neighborhoods. Detroit_sentence_120

As a result, black people were often denied bank loans to obtain better housing and interest rates and rents were unfairly inflated to prevent their moving into white neighborhoods. Detroit_sentence_121

White residents and political leaders largely opposed the influx of black Detroiters to white neighborhoods, believing that their presence would lead to neighborhood deterioration (most predominantly black neighborhoods deteriorated due to local and federal governmental neglect). Detroit_sentence_122

This perpetuated a cyclical exclusionary process that marginalized the agency of black Detroiters by trapping them in the unhealthiest, unsafest areas of the city. Detroit_sentence_123

As in other major American cities in the postwar era, construction of a federally subsidized, extensive highway and freeway system around Detroit, and pent-up demand for new housing stimulated suburbanization; highways made commuting by car for higher income residents easier. Detroit_sentence_124

However, this construction had negative implications for many lower income urban residents. Detroit_sentence_125

Highways were constructed through and completely demolished neighborhoods of poor residents and black communities who had less political power to oppose them. Detroit_sentence_126

The neighborhoods were mostly low income, considered blighted, or made up of older housing where investment had been lacking due to racial redlining, so the highways were presented as a kind of urban renewal. Detroit_sentence_127

These neighborhoods (such as Black Bottom and Paradise Valley) were extremely important to the black communities of Detroit, providing spaces for independent black businesses and social/cultural organizations.. Their destruction displaced residents with little consideration of the effects of breaking up functioning neighborhoods and businesses. Detroit_sentence_128

In 1956, Detroit's last heavily used electric streetcar line, which traveled along the length of Woodward Avenue, was removed and replaced with gas-powered buses. Detroit_sentence_129

It was the last line of what had once been a 534-mile network of electric streetcars. Detroit_sentence_130

In 1941 at peak times, a streetcar ran on Woodward Avenue every 60 seconds. Detroit_sentence_131

All of these changes in the area's transportation system favored low-density, auto-oriented development rather than high-density urban development. Detroit_sentence_132

Industry also moved to the suburbs, seeking large plots of land for single story factories. Detroit_sentence_133

By the 21st century, the metro Detroit area had developed as one of the most sprawling job markets in the United States; combined with poor public transport, this resulted in many new jobs being beyond the reach of urban low-income workers. Detroit_sentence_134

In 1950, the city held about one-third of the state's population, anchored by its industries and workers. Detroit_sentence_135

Over the next sixty years, the city's population declined to less than 10 percent of the state's population. Detroit_sentence_136

During the same time period, the sprawling Detroit metropolitan area, which surrounds and includes the city, grew to contain more than half of Michigan's population. Detroit_sentence_137

The shift of population and jobs eroded Detroit's tax base. Detroit_sentence_138

In June 1963, Rev. Detroit_sentence_139

Martin Luther King Jr. gave a major speech as part of a civil rights march in Detroit that foreshadowed his "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington, D.C., two months later. Detroit_sentence_140

While the civil rights movement gained significant federal civil rights laws in 1964 and 1965, longstanding inequities resulted in confrontations between the police and inner city black youth who wanted change. Detroit_sentence_141

Longstanding tensions in Detroit culminated in the Twelfth Street riot in July 1967. Detroit_sentence_142

Governor George W. Romney ordered the Michigan National Guard into Detroit, and President Johnson sent in U.S. Army troops. Detroit_sentence_143

The result was 43 dead, 467 injured, over 7,200 arrests, and more than 2,000 buildings destroyed, mostly in black residential and business areas. Detroit_sentence_144

Thousands of small businesses closed permanently or relocated to safer neighborhoods. Detroit_sentence_145

The affected district lay in ruins for decades. Detroit_sentence_146

It was the most costly riot in the United States. Detroit_sentence_147

On August 18, 1970, the NAACP filed suit against Michigan state officials, including Governor William Milliken, charging de facto public school segregation. Detroit_sentence_148

The NAACP argued that although schools were not legally segregated, the city of Detroit and its surrounding counties had enacted policies to maintain racial segregation in public schools. Detroit_sentence_149

The NAACP also suggested a direct relationship between unfair housing practices and educational segregation, as the composition of students in the schools followed segregated neighborhoods. Detroit_sentence_150

The District Court held all levels of government accountable for the segregation in its ruling. Detroit_sentence_151

The Sixth Circuit Court affirmed some of the decision, holding that it was the state's responsibility to integrate across the segregated metropolitan area. Detroit_sentence_152

The U.S. Supreme Court took up the case February 27, 1974. Detroit_sentence_153

The subsequent Milliken v. Bradley decision had nationwide influence. Detroit_sentence_154

In a narrow decision, the US Supreme Court found schools were a subject of local control, and suburbs could not be forced to solve problems in the city's school district. Detroit_sentence_155

"Milliken was perhaps the greatest missed opportunity of that period," said Myron Orfield, professor of law at the University of Minnesota. Detroit_sentence_156

"Had that gone the other way, it would have opened the door to fixing nearly all of Detroit's current problems." Detroit_sentence_157

John Mogk, a professor of law and an expert in urban planning at Wayne State University in Detroit, says, Detroit_sentence_158

1970s Detroit_section_6

Main articles: Decline of Detroit and Detroit bankruptcy Detroit_sentence_159

In November 1973, the city elected Coleman Young as its first black mayor. Detroit_sentence_160

After taking office, Young emphasized increasing racial diversity in the police department, which was predominately white. Detroit_sentence_161

Young also worked to improve Detroit's transportation system, but tension between Young and his suburban counterparts over regional matters was problematic throughout his mayoral term. Detroit_sentence_162

In 1976, the federal government offered $600 million for building a regional rapid transit system, under a single regional authority. Detroit_sentence_163

But the inability of Detroit and its suburban neighbors to solve conflicts over transit planning resulted in the region losing the majority of funding for rapid transit. Detroit_sentence_164

Following the failure to reach a regional agreement over the larger system, the city moved forward with construction of the elevated downtown circulator portion of the system, which became known as the Detroit People Mover. Detroit_sentence_165

The gasoline crises of 1973 and 1979 also affected Detroit and the U.S. auto industry. Detroit_sentence_166

Buyers chose smaller, more fuel-efficient cars made by foreign makers as the price of gas rose. Detroit_sentence_167

Efforts to revive the city were stymied by the struggles of the auto industry, as their sales and market share declined. Detroit_sentence_168

Automakers laid off thousands of employees and closed plants in the city, further eroding the tax base. Detroit_sentence_169

To counteract this, the city used eminent domain to build two large new auto assembly plants in the city. Detroit_sentence_170

As mayor, Young sought to revive the city by seeking to increase investment in the city's declining downtown. Detroit_sentence_171

The Renaissance Center, a mixed-use office and retail complex, opened in 1977. Detroit_sentence_172

This group of skyscrapers was an attempt to keep businesses in downtown. Detroit_sentence_173

Young also gave city support to other large developments to attract middle and upper-class residents back to the city. Detroit_sentence_174

Despite the Renaissance Center and other projects, the downtown area continued to lose businesses to the automobile-dependent suburbs. Detroit_sentence_175

Major stores and hotels closed, and many large office buildings went vacant. Detroit_sentence_176

Young was criticized for being too focused on downtown development and not doing enough to lower the city's high crime rate and improve city services to residents. Detroit_sentence_177

High unemployment was compounded by middle-class flight to the suburbs, and some residents leaving the state to find work. Detroit_sentence_178

The result for the city was a higher proportion of poor in its population, reduced tax base, depressed property values, abandoned buildings, abandoned neighborhoods, high crime rates, and a pronounced demographic imbalance. Detroit_sentence_179

1980s Detroit_section_7

On August 16, 1987, Northwest Airlines Flight 255 crashed near Detroit, killing all but one of the 155 people on board, as well as two people on the ground. Detroit_sentence_180

1990s & 2000s Detroit_section_8

In 1993 Young retired as Detroit's longest-serving mayor, deciding not to seek a sixth term. Detroit_sentence_181

That year the city elected Dennis Archer, a former Michigan Supreme Court justice. Detroit_sentence_182

Archer prioritized downtown development and easing tensions with Detroit's suburban neighbors. Detroit_sentence_183

A referendum to allow casino gambling in the city passed in 1996; several temporary casino facilities opened in 1999, and permanent downtown casinos with hotels opened in 2007–08. Detroit_sentence_184

Campus Martius, a reconfiguration of downtown's main intersection as a new park, was opened in 2004. Detroit_sentence_185

The park has been cited as one of the best public spaces in the United States. Detroit_sentence_186

The city's riverfront on the Detroit River has been the focus of redevelopment, following successful examples of other older industrial cities. Detroit_sentence_187

In 2001, the first portion of the International Riverfront was completed as a part of the city's 300th anniversary celebration. Detroit_sentence_188

2010s Detroit_section_9

See also: Planning and development in Detroit Detroit_sentence_189

In September 2008, Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (who had served for six years) resigned following felony convictions. Detroit_sentence_190

In 2013, Kilpatrick was convicted on 24 federal felony counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, and racketeering, and was sentenced to 28 years in federal prison. Detroit_sentence_191

The former mayor's activities cost the city an estimated $20 million. Detroit_sentence_192

The city's financial crisis resulted in Michigan taking over administrative control of its government. Detroit_sentence_193

The state governor declared a financial emergency in March 2013, appointing Kevyn Orr as emergency manager. Detroit_sentence_194

On July 18, 2013, Detroit became the largest U.S. city to file for bankruptcy. Detroit_sentence_195

It was declared bankrupt by U.S. District Court on December 3, 2013, in light of the city's $18.5 billion debt and its inability to fully repay its thousands of creditors. Detroit_sentence_196

On November 7, 2014, the city's plan for exiting bankruptcy was approved. Detroit_sentence_197

The following month, on December 11, the city officially exited bankruptcy. Detroit_sentence_198

The plan allowed the city to eliminate $7 billion in debt and invest $1.7 billion into improved city services. Detroit_sentence_199

One way the city obtained this money was through the Detroit Institute of the Arts. Detroit_sentence_200

Holding over 60,000 pieces of art worth billions of dollars, some saw it as the key to funding this investment. Detroit_sentence_201

The city came up with a plan to monetize the art, and sell it leading to the DIA becoming a private organization. Detroit_sentence_202

After months of legal battles, the city finally got hundreds of millions of dollars towards funding a new Detroit. Detroit_sentence_203

One of the largest post-bankruptcy efforts to improve city services has been work to fix the city's broken street lighting system. Detroit_sentence_204

At one time it was estimated that 40% of lights were not working, which resulted in public safety issues and abandonment of housing. Detroit_sentence_205

The plan called for replacing outdated high pressure sodium lights with 65,000 LED lights. Detroit_sentence_206

Construction began in late 2014 and finished in December 2016; Detroit is the largest U.S city with all LED street lighting. Detroit_sentence_207

In the 2010s, several initiatives were taken by Detroit's citizens and new residents to improve the cityscape by renovating and revitalizing neighborhoods. Detroit_sentence_208

Such projects include volunteer renovation groups and various urban gardening movements. Detroit_sentence_209

Miles of associated parks and landscaping have been completed in recent years. Detroit_sentence_210

In 2011, the Port Authority Passenger Terminal opened, with the riverwalk connecting Hart Plaza to the Renaissance Center. Detroit_sentence_211

The well-known symbol of the city's decades-long demise, the Michigan Central Station, was long vacant. Detroit_sentence_212

The city renovated it with new windows, elevators and facilities since 2015. Detroit_sentence_213

In 2018, Ford Motor Company purchased the building and plans to use it for mobility testing with a potential return of train service. Detroit_sentence_214

Several other landmark buildings have been privately renovated and adapted as condominiums, hotels, offices, or for cultural uses. Detroit_sentence_215

Detroit is mentioned as a city of renaissance and has reversed many of the trends of the prior decades. Detroit_sentence_216

The city has also seen a growing number of well off, gentrified areas beginning to pop up all around. Detroit_sentence_217

In downtown, for example, with the construction of Little Caesars arena came a barrage of new, high class shops and restaurants up and down Woodward Ave that make the area look night and day to how it used to. Detroit_sentence_218

The construction of buildings like this, the Metropolitan Building, and other high-rise, expensive apartments has led to an influx of wealthy families, but also, unfortunately, a slight displacement of long time residents and culture. Detroit_sentence_219

Areas outside of downtown and other recently revived areas have an average household income of about 25% less than the gentrified areas, and this is continuing to grow. Detroit_sentence_220

Rents and cost of living in these gentrified areas rise every year, pushing minorities and the poor out, causing more and more racial disparity and separation in the city. Detroit_sentence_221

The cost of even just a one bedroom loft in Rivertown can be up to $300,000, with a 5-year sale price change of over 500% and an average income rising by 18%. Detroit_sentence_222

Not only does this cause physical displacement, but it also leads to the destruction of culture. Detroit_sentence_223

Families who have lived in these areas for decades are seeing all of their parks, restaurants, and shops being torn down and replaced by new ones that they can’t afford. Detroit_sentence_224

Geography Detroit_section_10

Metropolitan area Detroit_section_11

Detroit is the center of a three-county urban area (with a population of 3,734,090 within an area of 1,337 square miles (3,460 km) according to the 2010 United States Census), six-county metropolitan statistical area (population of 4,296,250 in an area of 3,913 square miles [10,130 km] as of the 2010 census), and a nine-county Combined Statistical Area (population of 5.3 million within 5,814 square miles [15,060 km] as of 2010). Detroit_sentence_225

Topography Detroit_section_12

According to the U.S. Detroit_sentence_226 Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 142.87 square miles (370.03 km), of which 138.75 square miles (359.36 km) is land and 4.12 square miles (10.67 km) is water. Detroit_sentence_227

Detroit is the principal city in Metro Detroit and Southeast Michigan. Detroit_sentence_228

It is situated in the Midwestern United States and the Great Lakes region. Detroit_sentence_229

The Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge is the only international wildlife preserve in North America, and is uniquely located in the heart of a major metropolitan area. Detroit_sentence_230

The Refuge includes islands, coastal wetlands, marshes, shoals, and waterfront lands along 48 miles (77 km) of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie shoreline. Detroit_sentence_231

The city slopes gently from the northwest to southeast on a till plain composed largely of glacial and lake clay. Detroit_sentence_232

The most notable topographical feature in the city is the Detroit Moraine, a broad clay ridge on which the older portions of Detroit and Windsor are located, rising approximately 62 feet (19 m) above the river at its highest point. Detroit_sentence_233

The highest elevation in the city is directly north of Gorham Playground on the northwest side approximately three blocks south of 8 Mile Road, at a height of 675 to 680 feet (206 to 207 m). Detroit_sentence_234

Detroit's lowest elevation is along the Detroit River, at a surface height of 572 feet (174 m). Detroit_sentence_235

Belle Isle Park is a 982-acre (1.534 sq mi; 397 ha) island park in the Detroit River, between Detroit and Windsor, Ontario. Detroit_sentence_236

It is connected to the mainland by the MacArthur Bridge in Detroit. Detroit_sentence_237

Belle Isle Park contains such attractions as the James Scott Memorial Fountain, the Belle Isle Conservatory, the Detroit Yacht Club on an adjacent island, a half-mile (800 m) beach, a golf course, a nature center, monuments, and gardens. Detroit_sentence_238

The city skyline may be viewed from the island. Detroit_sentence_239

Three road systems cross the city: the original French template, with avenues radiating from the waterfront, and true north–south roads based on the Northwest Ordinance township system. Detroit_sentence_240

The city is north of Windsor, Ontario. Detroit_sentence_241

Detroit is the only major city along the Canada–U.S. Detroit_sentence_242

border in which one travels south in order to cross into Canada. Detroit_sentence_243

Detroit has four border crossings: the Ambassador Bridge and the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel provide motor vehicle thoroughfares, with the Michigan Central Railway Tunnel providing railroad access to and from Canada. Detroit_sentence_244

The fourth border crossing is the Detroit–Windsor Truck Ferry, near the Windsor Salt Mine and Zug Island. Detroit_sentence_245

Near Zug Island, the southwest part of the city was developed over a 1,500-acre (610 ha) salt mine that is 1,100 feet (340 m) below the surface. Detroit_sentence_246

The Detroit salt mine run by the Detroit Salt Company has over 100 miles (160 km) of roads within. Detroit_sentence_247

Climate Detroit_section_13

Detroit and the rest of southeastern Michigan have a hot-summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa) which is influenced by the Great Lakes like other places in the state; the city and close-in suburbs are part of USDA Hardiness zone 6b, while the more distant northern and western suburbs generally are included in zone 6a. Detroit_sentence_248

Winters are cold, with moderate snowfall and temperatures not rising above freezing on an average 44 days annually, while dropping to or below 0 °F (−18 °C) on an average 4.4 days a year; summers are warm to hot with temperatures exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) on 12 days. Detroit_sentence_249

The warm season runs from May to September. Detroit_sentence_250

The monthly daily mean temperature ranges from 25.6 °F (−3.6 °C) in January to 73.6 °F (23.1 °C) in July. Detroit_sentence_251

Official temperature extremes range from 105 °F (41 °C) on July 24, 1934, down to −21 °F (−29 °C) on January 21, 1984; the record low maximum is −4 °F (−20 °C) on January 19, 1994, while, conversely the record high minimum is 80 °F (27 °C) on August 1, 2006, the most recent of five occurrences. Detroit_sentence_252

A decade or two may pass between readings of 100 °F (38 °C) or higher, which last occurred July 17, 2012. Detroit_sentence_253

The average window for freezing temperatures is October 20 thru April 22, allowing a growing season of 180 days. Detroit_sentence_254

Precipitation is moderate and somewhat evenly distributed throughout the year, although the warmer months such as May and June average more, averaging 33.5 inches (850 mm) annually, but historically ranging from 20.49 in (520 mm) in 1963 to 47.70 in (1,212 mm) in 2011. Detroit_sentence_255

Snowfall, which typically falls in measurable amounts between November 15 through April 4 (occasionally in October and very rarely in May), averages 42.5 inches (108 cm) per season, although historically ranging from 11.5 in (29 cm) in 1881–82 to 94.9 in (241 cm) in 2013–14. Detroit_sentence_256

A thick snowpack is not often seen, with an average of only 27.5 days with 3 in (7.6 cm) or more of snow cover. Detroit_sentence_257

Thunderstorms are frequent in the Detroit area. Detroit_sentence_258

These usually occur during spring and summer. Detroit_sentence_259

Detroit_table_general_1

Climate data for DetroitDetroit_header_cell_1_0_0
MonthDetroit_header_cell_1_1_0 JanDetroit_header_cell_1_1_1 FebDetroit_header_cell_1_1_2 MarDetroit_header_cell_1_1_3 AprDetroit_header_cell_1_1_4 MayDetroit_header_cell_1_1_5 JunDetroit_header_cell_1_1_6 JulDetroit_header_cell_1_1_7 AugDetroit_header_cell_1_1_8 SepDetroit_header_cell_1_1_9 OctDetroit_header_cell_1_1_10 NovDetroit_header_cell_1_1_11 DecDetroit_header_cell_1_1_12 YearDetroit_header_cell_1_1_13
Average sea temperature °F (°C)Detroit_header_cell_1_2_0 33.6

(0.9)Detroit_cell_1_2_1

32.7

(0.4)Detroit_cell_1_2_2

33.4

(0.8)Detroit_cell_1_2_3

39.7

(4.3)Detroit_cell_1_2_4

48.9

(9.4)Detroit_cell_1_2_5

63.9

(17.7)Detroit_cell_1_2_6

74.7

(23.7)Detroit_cell_1_2_7

75.4

(24.1)Detroit_cell_1_2_8

70.5

(21.4)Detroit_cell_1_2_9

60.3

(15.7)Detroit_cell_1_2_10

48.6

(9.2)Detroit_cell_1_2_11

38.1

(3.4)Detroit_cell_1_2_12

51.7

(10.9)Detroit_cell_1_2_13

Mean daily daylight hoursDetroit_header_cell_1_3_0 9.0Detroit_cell_1_3_1 11.0Detroit_cell_1_3_2 12.0Detroit_cell_1_3_3 13.0Detroit_cell_1_3_4 15.0Detroit_cell_1_3_5 15.0Detroit_cell_1_3_6 15.0Detroit_cell_1_3_7 14.0Detroit_cell_1_3_8 12.0Detroit_cell_1_3_9 11.0Detroit_cell_1_3_10 10.0Detroit_cell_1_3_11 9.0Detroit_cell_1_3_12 12.2Detroit_cell_1_3_13
Average Ultraviolet indexDetroit_header_cell_1_4_0 1Detroit_cell_1_4_1 2Detroit_cell_1_4_2 4Detroit_cell_1_4_3 6Detroit_cell_1_4_4 7Detroit_cell_1_4_5 8Detroit_cell_1_4_6 9Detroit_cell_1_4_7 8Detroit_cell_1_4_8 6Detroit_cell_1_4_9 4Detroit_cell_1_4_10 2Detroit_cell_1_4_11 1Detroit_cell_1_4_12 4.8Detroit_cell_1_4_13
Source: Weather AtlasDetroit_header_cell_1_5_0

Cityscape Detroit_section_14

See also: List of tallest buildings in Detroit Detroit_sentence_260

Architecture Detroit_section_15

Main article: Architecture of metropolitan Detroit Detroit_sentence_261

Seen in panorama, Detroit's waterfront shows a variety of architectural styles. Detroit_sentence_262

The post modern Neo-Gothic spires of the One Detroit Center (1993) were designed to refer to the city's Art Deco skyscrapers. Detroit_sentence_263

Together with the Renaissance Center, these buildings form a distinctive and recognizable skyline. Detroit_sentence_264

Examples of the Art Deco style include the Guardian Building and Penobscot Building downtown, as well as the Fisher Building and Cadillac Place in the New Center area near Wayne State University. Detroit_sentence_265

Among the city's prominent structures are United States' largest Fox Theatre, the Detroit Opera House, and the Detroit Institute of Arts, all built in the early 20th century. Detroit_sentence_266

While the Downtown and New Center areas contain high-rise buildings, the majority of the surrounding city consists of low-rise structures and single-family homes. Detroit_sentence_267

Outside of the city's core, residential high-rises are found in upper-class neighborhoods such as the East Riverfront, extending toward Grosse Pointe, and the Palmer Park neighborhood just west of Woodward. Detroit_sentence_268

The University Commons-Palmer Park district in northwest Detroit, near the University of Detroit Mercy and Marygrove College, anchors historic neighborhoods including Palmer Woods, Sherwood Forest, and the University District. Detroit_sentence_269

Forty-two significant structures or sites are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Detroit_sentence_270

Neighborhoods constructed prior to World War II feature the architecture of the times, with wood-frame and brick houses in the working-class neighborhoods, larger brick homes in middle-class neighborhoods, and ornate mansions in upper-class neighborhoods such as Brush Park, Woodbridge, Indian Village, Palmer Woods, Boston-Edison, and others. Detroit_sentence_271

Some of the oldest neighborhoods are along the major Woodward and East Jefferson corridors, which formed spines of the city. Detroit_sentence_272

Some newer residential construction may also be found along the Woodward corridor, and in the far west and northeast. Detroit_sentence_273

The oldest extant neighborhoods include West Canfield and Brush Park. Detroit_sentence_274

There have been multi-million dollar restorations of existing homes and construction of new homes and condominiums here. Detroit_sentence_275

The city has one of United States' largest surviving collections of late 19th- and early 20th-century buildings. Detroit_sentence_276

Architecturally significant churches and cathedrals in the city include St. Detroit_sentence_277 Joseph's, Old St. Mary's, the Sweetest Heart of Mary, and the Cathedral of the Most Blessed Sacrament. Detroit_sentence_278

The city has substantial activity in urban design, historic preservation, and architecture. Detroit_sentence_279

A number of downtown redevelopment projects—of which Campus Martius Park is one of the most notable—have revitalized parts of the city. Detroit_sentence_280

Grand Circus Park and historic district is near the city's theater district; Ford Field, home of the Detroit Lions, and Comerica Park, home of the Detroit Tigers. Detroit_sentence_281

Little Caesars Arena, a new home for the Detroit Red Wings and the Detroit Pistons, with attached residential, hotel, and retail use, opened on September 5, 2017. Detroit_sentence_282

The plans for the project call for mixed-use residential on the blocks surrounding the arena and the renovation of the vacant 14-story Eddystone Hotel. Detroit_sentence_283

It will be a part of The District Detroit, a group of places owned by Olympia Entertainment Inc., including Comerica Park and the Detroit Opera House, among others. Detroit_sentence_284

The Detroit International Riverfront includes a partially completed three-and-one-half-mile riverfront promenade with a combination of parks, residential buildings, and commercial areas. Detroit_sentence_285

It extends from Hart Plaza to the MacArthur Bridge, which connects to Belle Isle Park, the largest island park in a U.S. city. Detroit_sentence_286

The riverfront includes Tri-Centennial State Park and Harbor, Michigan's first urban state park. Detroit_sentence_287

The second phase is a two-mile (3.2-kilometer) extension from Hart Plaza to the Ambassador Bridge for a total of five miles (8.0 kilometres) of parkway from bridge to bridge. Detroit_sentence_288

Civic planners envision the pedestrian parks will stimulate residential redevelopment of riverfront properties condemned under eminent domain. Detroit_sentence_289

Other major parks include River Rouge (in the southwest side), the largest park in Detroit; Palmer (north of Highland Park) and Chene Park (on the east river downtown). Detroit_sentence_290

Detroit_unordered_list_0

  • Detroit_item_0_0
  • Detroit_item_0_1
  • Detroit_item_0_2
  • Detroit_item_0_3
  • Detroit_item_0_4
  • Detroit_item_0_5
  • Detroit_item_0_6
  • Detroit_item_0_7
  • Detroit_item_0_8
  • Detroit_item_0_9
  • Detroit_item_0_10
  • Detroit_item_0_11
  • Detroit_item_0_12

Neighborhoods Detroit_section_16

Further information: Neighborhoods in Detroit Detroit_sentence_291

Detroit has a variety of neighborhood types. Detroit_sentence_292

The revitalized Downtown, Midtown, and New Center areas feature many historic buildings and are high density, while further out, particularly in the northeast and on the fringes, high vacancy levels are problematic, for which a number of solutions have been proposed. Detroit_sentence_293

In 2007, Downtown Detroit was recognized as the best city neighborhood in which to retire among the United States' largest metro areas by CNN Money Magazine editors. Detroit_sentence_294

Lafayette Park is a revitalized neighborhood on the city's east side, part of the Ludwig Mies van der Rohe residential district. Detroit_sentence_295

The 78-acre (32 ha) development was originally called the Gratiot Park. Detroit_sentence_296

Planned by Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig Hilberseimer and Alfred Caldwell it includes a landscaped, 19-acre (7.7 ha) park with no through traffic, in which these and other low-rise apartment buildings are situated. Detroit_sentence_297

Immigrants have contributed to the city's neighborhood revitalization, especially in southwest Detroit. Detroit_sentence_298

Southwest Detroit has experienced a thriving economy in recent years, as evidenced by new housing, increased business openings and the recently opened Mexicantown International Welcome Center. Detroit_sentence_299

The city has numerous neighborhoods consisting of vacant properties resulting in low inhabited density in those areas, stretching city services and infrastructure. Detroit_sentence_300

These neighborhoods are concentrated in the northeast and on the city's fringes. Detroit_sentence_301

A 2009 parcel survey found about a quarter of residential lots in the city to be undeveloped or vacant, and about 10% of the city's housing to be unoccupied. Detroit_sentence_302

The survey also reported that most (86%) of the city's homes are in good condition with a minority (9%) in fair condition needing only minor repairs. Detroit_sentence_303

To deal with vacancy issues, the city has begun demolishing the derelict houses, razing 3,000 of the total 10,000 in 2010, but the resulting low density creates a strain on the city's infrastructure. Detroit_sentence_304

To remedy this, a number of solutions have been proposed including resident relocation from more sparsely populated neighborhoods and converting unused space to urban agricultural use, including Hantz Woodlands, though the city expects to be in the planning stages for up to another two years. Detroit_sentence_305

Public funding and private investment have also been made with promises to rehabilitate neighborhoods. Detroit_sentence_306

In April 2008, the city announced a $300-million stimulus plan to create jobs and revitalize neighborhoods, financed by city bonds and paid for by earmarking about 15% of the wagering tax. Detroit_sentence_307

The city's working plans for neighborhood revitalizations include 7-Mile/Livernois, Brightmoor, East English Village, Grand River/Greenfield, North End, and Osborn. Detroit_sentence_308

Private organizations have pledged substantial funding to the efforts. Detroit_sentence_309

Additionally, the city has cleared a 1,200-acre (490 ha) section of land for large-scale neighborhood construction, which the city is calling the Far Eastside Plan. Detroit_sentence_310

In 2011, Mayor Dave Bing announced a plan to categorize neighborhoods by their needs and prioritize the most needed services for those neighborhoods. Detroit_sentence_311

Demographics Detroit_section_17

See also: Demographic history of Detroit and Demographics of Metro Detroit Detroit_sentence_312

In the 2010 United States Census, the city had 713,777 residents, ranking it the 18th most populous city in the United States. Detroit_sentence_313

Of the large shrinking cities in the United States, Detroit has had the most dramatic decline in population of the past 60 years (down 1,135,791) and the second largest percentage decline (down 61.4%). Detroit_sentence_314

While the drop in Detroit's population has been ongoing since 1950, the most dramatic period was the significant 25% decline between the 2000 and 2010 Census. Detroit_sentence_315

Previously a major population center and site of worldwide automobile manufacturing, Detroit has suffered a long economic decline produced by numerous factors. Detroit_sentence_316

Like many industrial American cities, Detroit peak population was in 1950, before postwar suburbanization took effect. Detroit_sentence_317

The peak population was 1.8 million people. Detroit_sentence_318

Following suburbanization, industrial restructuring, and loss of jobs (as described above), by the 2010 census, the city had less than 40 percent of that number, with just over 700,000 residents. Detroit_sentence_319

The city has declined in population in each census since 1950. Detroit_sentence_320

The population collapse has resulted in large numbers of abandoned homes and commercial buildings, and areas of the city hit hard by urban decay. Detroit_sentence_321

Detroit's 713,777 residents represent 269,445 households, and 162,924 families residing in the city. Detroit_sentence_322

The population density was 5,144.3 people per square mile (1,895/km). Detroit_sentence_323

There were 349,170 housing units at an average density of 2,516.5 units per square mile (971.6/km). Detroit_sentence_324

Housing density has declined. Detroit_sentence_325

The city has demolished thousands of Detroit's abandoned houses, planting some areas and in others allowing the growth of urban prairie. Detroit_sentence_326

Of the 269,445 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 21.5% were married couples living together, 31.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families, 34.0% were made up of individuals, and 3.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Detroit_sentence_327

Average household size was 2.59, and average family size was 3.36. Detroit_sentence_328

There was a wide distribution of age in the city, with 31.1% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% 65 years of age or older. Detroit_sentence_329

The median age was 31 years. Detroit_sentence_330

For every 100 females, there were 89.1 males. Detroit_sentence_331

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. Detroit_sentence_332

According to a 2014 study, 67% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 49% professing attendance at Protestant churches, and 16% professing Roman Catholic beliefs, while 24% claim no religious affiliation. Detroit_sentence_333

Other religions collectively make up about 8% of the population. Detroit_sentence_334

Income and employment Detroit_section_18

The loss of industrial and working-class jobs in the city has resulted in high rates of poverty and associated problems. Detroit_sentence_335

From 2000 to 2009, the city's estimated median household income fell from $29,526 to $26,098. Detroit_sentence_336

As of 2010 the mean income of Detroit is below the overall U.S. average by several thousand dollars. Detroit_sentence_337

Of every three Detroit residents, one lives in poverty. Detroit_sentence_338

Luke Bergmann, author of Getting Ghost: Two Young Lives and the Struggle for the Soul of an American City, said in 2010, "Detroit is now one of the poorest big cities in the country". Detroit_sentence_339

In the 2018 American Community Survey, median household income in the city was $31,283, compared with the median for Michigan of $56,697. Detroit_sentence_340

The median income for a family was $36,842, well below the state median of $72,036. Detroit_sentence_341

33.4% of families had income at or below the federally defined poverty level. Detroit_sentence_342

Out of the total population, 47.3% of those under the age of 18 and 21.0% of those 65 and older had income at or below the federally defined poverty line. Detroit_sentence_343

Oakland County in Metro Detroit, once rated amongst the wealthiest US counties per household, is no longer shown in the top 25 listing of Forbes magazine. Detroit_sentence_344

But internal county statistical methods—based on measuring per capita income for counties with more than one million residents—show Oakland is still within the top 12, slipping from the 4th-most affluent such county in the U.S. in 2004 to 11th-most affluent in 2009. Detroit_sentence_345

Detroit dominates Wayne County, which has an average household income of about $38,000, compared to Oakland County's $62,000. Detroit_sentence_346

Race and ethnicity Detroit_section_19

See also: Ethnic groups in Metro Detroit Detroit_sentence_347

Detroit_table_general_2

Detroit Racial CompositionDetroit_table_caption_2
Demographic profileDetroit_header_cell_2_0_0 2010Detroit_header_cell_2_0_1 1990Detroit_header_cell_2_0_2 1970Detroit_header_cell_2_0_3 1950Detroit_header_cell_2_0_4 1940Detroit_header_cell_2_0_5 1930Detroit_header_cell_2_0_6 1920Detroit_header_cell_2_0_7 1910Detroit_header_cell_2_0_8
WhiteDetroit_cell_2_1_0 10.6%Detroit_cell_2_1_1 21.6%Detroit_cell_2_1_2 55.5%Detroit_cell_2_1_3 83.6%Detroit_cell_2_1_4 90.7%Detroit_cell_2_1_5 92.2%Detroit_cell_2_1_6 95.8%Detroit_cell_2_1_7 98.7%Detroit_cell_2_1_8
—Non-HispanicDetroit_cell_2_2_0 7.8%Detroit_cell_2_2_1 20.7%Detroit_cell_2_2_2 54.0%Detroit_cell_2_2_3 N/ADetroit_cell_2_2_4 90.4%Detroit_cell_2_2_5 N/ADetroit_cell_2_2_6 N/ADetroit_cell_2_2_7 N/ADetroit_cell_2_2_8
Black or African AmericanDetroit_cell_2_3_0 82.7%Detroit_cell_2_3_1 75.7%Detroit_cell_2_3_2 43.7%Detroit_cell_2_3_3 16.2%Detroit_cell_2_3_4 9.2%Detroit_cell_2_3_5 7.7%Detroit_cell_2_3_6 4.1%Detroit_cell_2_3_7 1.2%Detroit_cell_2_3_8
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Detroit_cell_2_4_0 6.8%Detroit_cell_2_4_1 2.8%Detroit_cell_2_4_2 1.8%Detroit_cell_2_4_3 N/ADetroit_cell_2_4_4 0.3%Detroit_cell_2_4_5 N/ADetroit_cell_2_4_6 N/ADetroit_cell_2_4_7 N/ADetroit_cell_2_4_8
AsianDetroit_cell_2_5_0 1.1%Detroit_cell_2_5_1 0.8%Detroit_cell_2_5_2 0.3%Detroit_cell_2_5_3 0.1%Detroit_cell_2_5_4 0.1%Detroit_cell_2_5_5 0.1%Detroit_cell_2_5_6 0.1%Detroit_cell_2_5_7 N/ADetroit_cell_2_5_8

Beginning with the rise of the automobile industry, Detroit's population increased more than sixfold during the first half of the 20th century as an influx of European, Middle Eastern (Lebanese, Assyrian/Chaldean), and Southern migrants brought their families to the city. Detroit_sentence_348

With this economic boom following World War I, the African American population grew from a mere 6,000 in 1910 to more than 120,000 by 1930. Detroit_sentence_349

This influx of thousands of African Americans in the 20th century became known as the Great Migration. Detroit_sentence_350

Many of the original white families in Detroit saw this increase in diversity as a threat to their way of life and made it their mission to isolate black people from their neighborhoods, workplaces, and public institutions. Detroit_sentence_351

Perhaps one of the most overt examples of neighborhood discrimination occurred in 1925 when African American physician Ossian Sweet found his home surrounded by an angry mob of his hostile white neighbors violently protesting his new move into a traditionally white neighborhood. Detroit_sentence_352

Sweet and ten of his family members and friends were put on trial for murder as one of the mob members throwing rocks at the newly purchased house was shot and killed by someone firing out of a second floor window. Detroit_sentence_353

Many middle-class families experienced the same kind of hostility as they sought the security of homeownership and the potential for upward mobility. Detroit_sentence_354

Detroit has a relatively large Mexican-American population. Detroit_sentence_355

In the early 20th century, thousands of Mexicans came to Detroit to work in agricultural, automotive, and steel jobs. Detroit_sentence_356

During the Mexican Repatriation of the 1930s many Mexicans in Detroit were willingly repatriated or forced to repatriate. Detroit_sentence_357

By the 1940s much of the Mexican community began to settle what is now Mexicantown. Detroit_sentence_358

After World War II, many people from Appalachia also settled in Detroit. Detroit_sentence_359

Appalachians formed communities and their children acquired southern accents. Detroit_sentence_360

Many Lithuanians also settled in Detroit during the World War II era, especially on the city's Southwest side in the West Vernor area, where the renovated Lithuanian Hall reopened in 2006. Detroit_sentence_361

By 1940, 80% of Detroit deeds contained restrictive covenants prohibiting African Americans from buying houses they could afford. Detroit_sentence_362

These discriminatory tactics were successful as a majority of black people in Detroit resorted to living in all black neighborhoods such as Black Bottom and Paradise Valley. Detroit_sentence_363

At this time, white people still made up about 90.4% of the city's population. Detroit_sentence_364

From the 1940s to the 1970s a second wave of black people moved to Detroit in search of employment and with the desire to escape the Jim Crow laws enforcing segregation in the south. Detroit_sentence_365

However, they soon found themselves once again excluded from many opportunities in Detroit—through violence and policy perpetuating economic discrimination (e.g., redlining). Detroit_sentence_366

White residents attacked black homes: breaking windows, starting fires, and detonating bombs. Detroit_sentence_367

An especially grueling result of this increasing competition between black and white people was the Riot of 1943 that had violent ramifications. Detroit_sentence_368

This era of intolerance made it almost impossible for African Americans to be successful without access to proper housing or the economic stability to maintain their homes and the conditions of many neighborhoods began to decline. Detroit_sentence_369

In 1948, the landmark Supreme Court case of Shelley v. Kraemer outlawed restrictive covenants and while racism in housing did not disappear, it allowed affluent black families to begin moving to traditionally white neighborhoods. Detroit_sentence_370

Many white families with the financial ability moved to the suburbs of Detroit taking their jobs and tax dollars with them. Detroit_sentence_371

By 1950, much of the city's white population had moved to the suburbs as macrostructural processes such as "white flight" and "suburbanization" led to a complete population shift. Detroit_sentence_372

The Detroit riot of 1967 is considered to be one of the greatest racial turning points in the history of the city. Detroit_sentence_373

The ramifications of the uprising were widespread as there were many allegations of white police brutality towards African Americans and over $36 million of insured property was lost. Detroit_sentence_374

Discrimination and deindustrialization in tandem with racial tensions that had been intensifying in the previous years boiled over and led to an event considered to be the most damaging in Detroit's history. Detroit_sentence_375

The population of Latinos significantly increased in the 1990s due to immigration from Jalisco. Detroit_sentence_376

By 2010 Detroit had 48,679 Hispanics, including 36,452 Mexicans: a 70% increase from 1990. Detroit_sentence_377

While African Americans previously comprised only 13% of Michigan's population, by 2010 they made up nearly 82% of Detroit's population. Detroit_sentence_378

The next largest population groups were white people, at 10%, and Hispanics, at 6%. Detroit_sentence_379

In 2001, 103,000 Jews, or about 1.9% of the population, were living in the Detroit area, in both Detroit and Ann Arbor. Detroit_sentence_380

According to the 2010 census, segregation in Detroit has decreased in absolute and relative terms and in the first decade of the 21st century, about two-thirds of the total black population in the metropolitan area resided within the city limits of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_381

The number of integrated neighborhoods increased from 100 in 2000 to 204 in 2010. Detroit_sentence_382

Detroit also moved down the ranking from number one most segregated city to number four. Detroit_sentence_383

A 2011 op-ed in The New York Times attributed the decreased segregation rating to the overall exodus from the city, cautioning that these areas may soon become more segregated. Detroit_sentence_384

This pattern already happened in the 1970s, when apparent integration was a precursor to white flight and resegregation. Detroit_sentence_385

Over a 60-year period, white flight occurred in the city. Detroit_sentence_386

According to an estimate of the Michigan Metropolitan Information Center, from 2008 to 2009 the percentage of non-Hispanic White residents increased from 8.4% to 13.3%. Detroit_sentence_387

As the city has become more gentrified, some empty nesters and many young white people have moved into the city, increasing housing values and once again forcing African Americans to move. Detroit_sentence_388

Gentrification in Detroit has become a rather controversial issue as reinvestment will hopefully lead to economic growth and an increase in population; however, it has already forced many black families to relocate to the suburbs. Detroit_sentence_389

Despite revitalization efforts, Detroit remains one of the most racially segregated cities in the United States. Detroit_sentence_390

One of the implications of racial segregation, which correlates with class segregation, may correlate to overall worse health for some populations. Detroit_sentence_391

Asians and Asian Americans Detroit_section_20

As of 2002, of all of the municipalities in the Wayne County-Oakland County-Macomb County area, Detroit had the second largest Asian population. Detroit_sentence_392

As of that year Detroit's percentage of Asians was 1%, far lower than the 13.3% of Troy. Detroit_sentence_393

By 2000 Troy had the largest Asian American population in the tricounty area, surpassing Detroit. Detroit_sentence_394

There are four areas in Detroit with significant Asian and Asian American populations. Detroit_sentence_395

Northeast Detroit has population of Hmong with a smaller group of Lao people. Detroit_sentence_396

A portion of Detroit next to eastern Hamtramck includes Bangladeshi Americans, Indian Americans, and Pakistani Americans; nearly all of the Bangladeshi population in Detroit lives in that area. Detroit_sentence_397

Many of those residents own small businesses or work in blue collar jobs, and the population is mostly Muslim. Detroit_sentence_398

The area north of Downtown Detroit, including the region around the Henry Ford Hospital, the Detroit Medical Center, and Wayne State University, has transient Asian national origin residents who are university students or hospital workers. Detroit_sentence_399

Few of them have permanent residency after schooling ends. Detroit_sentence_400

They are mostly Chinese and Indian but the population also includes Filipinos, Koreans, and Pakistanis. Detroit_sentence_401

In Southwest Detroit and western Detroit there are smaller, scattered Asian communities including an area in the westside adjacent to Dearborn and Redford Township that has a mostly Indian Asian population, and a community of Vietnamese and Laotians in Southwest Detroit. Detroit_sentence_402

As of 2006, the city has one of the U.S.'s largest concentrations of Hmong Americans. Detroit_sentence_403

In 2006, the city had about 4,000 Hmong and other Asian immigrant families. Detroit_sentence_404

Most Hmong live east of Coleman Young Airport near Osborn High School. Detroit_sentence_405

Hmong immigrant families generally have lower incomes than those of suburban Asian families. Detroit_sentence_406

Economy Detroit_section_21

See also: Economy of metropolitan Detroit and Planning and development in Detroit Detroit_sentence_407

Several major corporations are based in the city, including three Fortune 500 companies. Detroit_sentence_408

The most heavily represented sectors are manufacturing (particularly automotive), finance, technology, and health care. Detroit_sentence_409

The most significant companies based in Detroit include General Motors, Quicken Loans, Ally Financial, Compuware, Shinola, American Axle, Little Caesars, DTE Energy, Lowe Campbell Ewald, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, and Rossetti Architects. Detroit_sentence_410

About 80,500 people work in downtown Detroit, comprising one-fifth of the city's employment base. Detroit_sentence_411

Aside from the numerous Detroit-based companies listed above, downtown contains large offices for Comerica, Chrysler, Fifth Third Bank, HP Enterprise, Deloitte, PricewaterhouseCoopers, KPMG, and Ernst & Young. Detroit_sentence_412

Ford Motor Company is in the adjacent city of Dearborn. Detroit_sentence_413

Thousands more employees work in Midtown, north of the central business district. Detroit_sentence_414

Midtown's anchors are the city's largest single employer Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University, and the Henry Ford Health System in New Center. Detroit_sentence_415

Midtown is also home to watchmaker Shinola and an array of small and startup companies. Detroit_sentence_416

New Center bases TechTown, a research and business incubator hub that is part of the WSU system. Detroit_sentence_417

Like downtown and Corktown, Midtown also has a fast-growing retailing and restaurant scene. Detroit_sentence_418

A number of the city's downtown employers are relatively new, as there has been a marked trend of companies moving from satellite suburbs around Metropolitan Detroit into the downtown core. Detroit_sentence_419

Compuware completed its world headquarters in downtown in 2003. Detroit_sentence_420

OnStar, Blue Cross Blue Shield, and HP Enterprise Services are at the Renaissance Center. Detroit_sentence_421

PricewaterhouseCoopers Plaza offices are adjacent to Ford Field, and Ernst & Young completed its office building at One Kennedy Square in 2006. Detroit_sentence_422

Perhaps most prominently, in 2010, Quicken Loans, one of the largest mortgage lenders, relocated its world headquarters and 4,000 employees to downtown Detroit, consolidating its suburban offices. Detroit_sentence_423

In July 2012, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office opened its Elijah J. McCoy Satellite Office in the Rivertown/Warehouse District as its first location outside Washington, D.C.'s metropolitan area. Detroit_sentence_424

In April 2014, the United States Department of Labor reported the city's unemployment rate at 14.5%. Detroit_sentence_425

The city of Detroit and other public–private partnerships have attempted to catalyze the region's growth by facilitating the building and historical rehabilitation of residential high-rises in the downtown, creating a zone that offers many business tax incentives, creating recreational spaces such as the Detroit RiverWalk, Campus Martius Park, Dequindre Cut Greenway, and Green Alleys in Midtown. Detroit_sentence_426

The city itself has cleared sections of land while retaining a number of historically significant vacant buildings in order to spur redevelopment; even though it has struggled with finances, the city issued bonds in 2008 to provide funding for ongoing work to demolish blighted properties. Detroit_sentence_427

Two years earlier, downtown reported $1.3 billion in restorations and new developments which increased the number of construction jobs in the city. Detroit_sentence_428

In the decade prior to 2006, downtown gained more than $15 billion in new investment from private and public sectors. Detroit_sentence_429

Despite the city's recent financial issues, many developers remain unfazed by Detroit's problems. Detroit_sentence_430

Midtown is one of the most successful areas within Detroit to have a residential occupancy rate of 96%. Detroit_sentence_431

Numerous developments have been recently completed or are in various stages of construction. Detroit_sentence_432

These include the $82 million reconstruction of downtown's David Whitney Building (now an Aloft Hotel and luxury residences), the Woodward Garden Block Development in Midtown, the residential conversion of the David Broderick Tower in downtown, the rehabilitation of the Book Cadillac Hotel (now a Westin and luxury condos) and Fort Shelby Hotel (now Doubletree) also in downtown, and various smaller projects. Detroit_sentence_433

Downtown's population of young professionals is growing and retail is expanding. Detroit_sentence_434

A study in 2007 found out that Downtown's new residents are predominantly young professionals (57% are ages 25 to 34, 45% have bachelor's degrees, and 34% have a master's or professional degree), a trend which has hastened over the last decade. Detroit_sentence_435

Since 2006, $9 billion has been invested in downtown and surrounding neighborhoods; $5.2 billion of which has come in 2013 and 2014. Detroit_sentence_436

Construction activity, particularly rehabilitation of historic downtown buildings, has increased markedly. Detroit_sentence_437

The number of vacant downtown buildings has dropped from nearly 50 to around 13. Detroit_sentence_438

On July 25, 2013, Meijer, a midwestern retail chain, opened its first supercenter store in Detroit; this was a $20 million, 190,000-square-foot store in the northern portion of the city and it also is the centerpiece of a new $72 million shopping center named Gateway Marketplace. Detroit_sentence_439

On June 11, 2015, Meijer opened its second supercenter store in the city. Detroit_sentence_440

On June 26, 2019, JPMorgan Chase announced plans to invest $50 million more in affordable housing, job training and entrepreneurship by the end of 2022, growing its investment to $200 million. Detroit_sentence_441

Culture and contemporary life Detroit_section_22

Main article: Culture of Detroit Detroit_sentence_442

In the central portions of Detroit, the population of young professionals, artists, and other transplants is growing and retail is expanding. Detroit_sentence_443

This dynamic is luring additional new residents, and former residents returning from other cities, to the city's Downtown along with the revitalized Midtown and New Center areas. Detroit_sentence_444

A desire to be closer to the urban scene has also attracted some young professionals to reside in inner ring suburbs such as Ferndale and Royal Oak, Michigan. Detroit_sentence_445

Detroit's proximity to Windsor, Ontario, provides for views and nightlife, along with Ontario's minimum drinking age of 19. Detroit_sentence_446

A 2011 study by Walk Score recognized Detroit for its above average walkability among large U.S. cities. Detroit_sentence_447

About two-thirds of suburban residents occasionally dine and attend cultural events or take in professional games in the city of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_448

Nicknames Detroit_section_23

Known as the world's automotive center, "Detroit" is a metonym for that industry. Detroit_sentence_449

Detroit's auto industry, some of which was converted to wartime defense production, was an important element of the American "Arsenal of Democracy" supporting the Allied powers during World War II. Detroit_sentence_450

It is an important source of popular music legacies celebrated by the city's two familiar nicknames, the Motor City and Motown. Detroit_sentence_451

Other nicknames arose in the 20th century, including City of Champions, beginning in the 1930s for its successes in individual and team sport; The D; Hockeytown (a trademark owned by the city's NHL club, the Red Wings); Rock City (after the Kiss song "Detroit Rock City"); and The 313 (its telephone area code). Detroit_sentence_452

Music Detroit_section_24

Main article: Music of Detroit Detroit_sentence_453

Live music has been a prominent feature of Detroit's nightlife since the late 1940s, bringing the city recognition under the nickname 'Motown'. Detroit_sentence_454

The metropolitan area has many nationally prominent live music venues. Detroit_sentence_455

Concerts hosted by Live Nation perform throughout the Detroit area. Detroit_sentence_456

Large concerts are held at DTE Energy Music Theatre. Detroit_sentence_457

The city's theatre venue circuit is the United States' second largest and hosts Broadway performances. Detroit_sentence_458

The city of Detroit has a rich musical heritage and has contributed to a number of different genres over the decades leading into the new millennium. Detroit_sentence_459

Important music events in the city include: the Detroit International Jazz Festival, the Detroit Electronic Music Festival, the Motor City Music Conference (MC2), the Urban Organic Music Conference, the Concert of Colors, and the hip-hop Summer Jamz festival. Detroit_sentence_460

In the 1940s, Detroit blues artist John Lee Hooker became a long-term resident in the city's southwest Delray neighborhood. Detroit_sentence_461

Hooker, among other important blues musicians migrated from his home in Mississippi bringing the Delta blues to northern cities like Detroit. Detroit_sentence_462

Hooker recorded for Fortune Records, the biggest pre-Motown blues/soul label. Detroit_sentence_463

During the 1950s, the city became a center for jazz, with stars performing in the Black Bottom neighborhood. Detroit_sentence_464

Prominent emerging Jazz musicians of the 1960s included: trumpet player Donald Byrd who attended Cass Tech and performed with Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers early in his career and Saxophonist Pepper Adams who enjoyed a solo career and accompanied Byrd on several albums. Detroit_sentence_465

The Graystone International Jazz Museum documents jazz in Detroit. Detroit_sentence_466

Other, prominent Motor City R&B stars in the 1950s and early 1960s was Nolan Strong, Andre Williams and Nathaniel Mayer – who all scored local and national hits on the Fortune Records label. Detroit_sentence_467

According to Smokey Robinson, Strong was a primary influence on his voice as a teenager. Detroit_sentence_468

The Fortune label, a family-operated label on Third Avenue in Detroit, was owned by the husband and wife team of Jack Brown and Devora Brown. Detroit_sentence_469

Fortune, which also released country, gospel and rockabilly LPs and 45s, laid the groundwork for Motown, which became Detroit's most legendary record label. Detroit_sentence_470

Berry Gordy, Jr. founded Motown Records which rose to prominence during the 1960s and early 1970s with acts such as Stevie Wonder, The Temptations, The Four Tops, Smokey Robinson & The Miracles, Diana Ross & The Supremes, the Jackson 5, Martha and the Vandellas, The Spinners, Gladys Knight & the Pips, The Marvelettes, The Elgins, The Monitors, The Velvelettes and Marvin Gaye. Detroit_sentence_471

Artists were backed by in-house vocalists The Andantes and The Funk Brothers, the Motown house band that was featured in Paul Justman's 2002 documentary film Standing in the Shadows of Motown, based on Allan Slutsky's book of the same name. Detroit_sentence_472

The Motown Sound played an important role in the crossover appeal with popular music, since it was the first African American owned record label to primarily feature African-American artists. Detroit_sentence_473

Gordy moved Motown to Los Angeles in 1972 to pursue film production, but the company has since returned to Detroit. Detroit_sentence_474

Aretha Franklin, another Detroit R&B star, carried the Motown Sound; however, she did not record with Berry's Motown Label. Detroit_sentence_475

Local artists and bands rose to prominence in the 1960s and 70s including: the MC5, Glenn Frey, The Stooges, Bob Seger, Amboy Dukes featuring Ted Nugent, Mitch Ryder and The Detroit Wheels, Rare Earth, Alice Cooper, and Suzi Quatro. Detroit_sentence_476

The group Kiss emphasized the city's connection with rock in the song Detroit Rock City and the movie produced in 1999. Detroit_sentence_477

In the 1980s, Detroit was an important center of the hardcore punk rock underground with many nationally known bands coming out of the city and its suburbs, such as The Necros, The Meatmen, and Negative Approach. Detroit_sentence_478

In the 1990s and the new millennium, the city has produced a number of influential hip hop artists, including Eminem, the hip-hop artist with the highest cumulative sales, his rap group D12, hip-hop rapper and producer Royce da 5'9", hip-hop producer Denaun Porter, hip-hop producer J Dilla, rapper and producer Esham and hip hop duo Insane Clown Posse. Detroit_sentence_479

The city is also home to rappers Big Sean and Danny Brown. Detroit_sentence_480

The band Sponge toured and produced music, with artists such as Kid Rock and Uncle Kracker. Detroit_sentence_481

The city also has an active garage rock genre that has generated national attention with acts such as: The White Stripes, The Von Bondies, The Detroit Cobras, The Dirtbombs, Electric Six, and The Hard Lessons. Detroit_sentence_482

Detroit is cited as the birthplace of techno music in the early 1980s. Detroit_sentence_483

The city also lends its name to an early and pioneering genre of electronic dance music, "Detroit techno". Detroit_sentence_484

Featuring science fiction imagery and robotic themes, its futuristic style was greatly influenced by the geography of Detroit's urban decline and its industrial past. Detroit_sentence_485

Prominent Detroit techno artists include Juan Atkins, Derrick May, Kevin Saunderson, and Jeff Mills. Detroit_sentence_486

The Detroit Electronic Music Festival, now known as "Movement", occurs annually in late May on Memorial Day Weekend, and takes place in Hart Plaza. Detroit_sentence_487

In the early years (2000–2002), this was a landmark event, boasting over a million estimated attendees annually, coming from all over the world to celebrate Techno music in the city of its birth. Detroit_sentence_488

Entertainment and performing arts Detroit_section_25

Main article: Theatre in Detroit Detroit_sentence_489

Major theaters in Detroit include the Fox Theatre (5,174 seats), Music Hall Center for the Performing Arts (1,770 seats), the Gem Theatre (451 seats), Masonic Temple Theatre (4,404 seats), the Detroit Opera House (2,765 seats), the Fisher Theatre (2,089 seats), The Fillmore Detroit (2,200 seats), Saint Andrew's Hall, the Majestic Theater, and Orchestra Hall (2,286 seats) which hosts the renowned Detroit Symphony Orchestra. Detroit_sentence_490

The Nederlander Organization, the largest controller of Broadway productions in New York City, originated with the purchase of the Detroit Opera House in 1922 by the Nederlander family. Detroit_sentence_491

Motown Motion Picture Studios with 535,000 square feet (49,700 m) produces movies in Detroit and the surrounding area based at the Pontiac Centerpoint Business Campus for a film industry expected to employ over 4,000 people in the metro area. Detroit_sentence_492

Tourism Detroit_section_26

Main article: Tourism in metropolitan Detroit Detroit_sentence_493

Because of its unique culture, distinctive architecture, and revitalization and urban renewal efforts in the 21st century, Detroit has enjoyed increased prominence as a tourist destination in recent years. Detroit_sentence_494

The New York Times listed Detroit as the 9th-best destination in its list of 52 Places to Go in 2017, while travel guide publisher Lonely Planet named Detroit the second-best city in the world to visit in 2018. Detroit_sentence_495

Many of the area's prominent museums are in the historic cultural center neighborhood around Wayne State University and the College for Creative Studies. Detroit_sentence_496

These museums include the Detroit Institute of Arts, the Detroit Historical Museum, Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, the Detroit Science Center, as well as the main branch of the Detroit Public Library. Detroit_sentence_497

Other cultural highlights include Motown Historical Museum, the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant museum (birthplace of the Ford Model T and the world's oldest car factory building open to the public), the Pewabic Pottery studio and school, the Tuskegee Airmen Museum, Fort Wayne, the Dossin Great Lakes Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit (MOCAD), the Contemporary Art Institute of Detroit (CAID), and the Belle Isle Conservatory. Detroit_sentence_498

In 2010, the G.R. Detroit_sentence_499

N'Namdi Gallery opened in a 16,000-square-foot (1,500 m) complex in Midtown. Detroit_sentence_500

Important history of America and the Detroit area are exhibited at The Henry Ford in Dearborn, the United States' largest indoor-outdoor museum complex. Detroit_sentence_501

The Detroit Historical Society provides information about tours of area churches, skyscrapers, and mansions. Detroit_sentence_502

Inside Detroit, meanwhile, hosts tours, educational programming, and a downtown welcome center. Detroit_sentence_503

Other sites of interest are the Detroit Zoo in Royal Oak, the Cranbrook Art Museum in Bloomfield Hills, the Anna Scripps Whitcomb Conservatory on Belle Isle, and Walter P. Chrysler Museum in Auburn Hills. Detroit_sentence_504

The city's Greektown and three downtown casino resort hotels serve as part of an entertainment hub. Detroit_sentence_505

The Eastern Market farmer's distribution center is the largest open-air flowerbed market in the United States and has more than 150 foods and specialty businesses. Detroit_sentence_506

On Saturdays, about 45,000 people shop the city's historic Eastern Market. Detroit_sentence_507

The Midtown and the New Center area are centered on Wayne State University and Henry Ford Hospital. Detroit_sentence_508

Midtown has about 50,000 residents and attracts millions of visitors each year to its museums and cultural centers; for example, the Detroit Festival of the Arts in Midtown draws about 350,000 people. Detroit_sentence_509

Annual summer events include the Electronic Music Festival, International Jazz Festival, the Woodward Dream Cruise, the African World Festival, the country music Hoedown, Noel Night, and Dally in the Alley. Detroit_sentence_510

Within downtown, Campus Martius Park hosts large events, including the annual Motown Winter Blast. Detroit_sentence_511

As the world's traditional automotive center, the city hosts the North American International Auto Show. Detroit_sentence_512

Held since 1924, America's Thanksgiving Parade is one of the nation's largest. Detroit_sentence_513

River Days, a five-day summer festival on the International Riverfront lead up to the Windsor–Detroit International Freedom Festival fireworks, which draw super sized-crowds ranging from hundreds of thousands to over three million people. Detroit_sentence_514

An important civic sculpture in Detroit is The Spirit of Detroit by Marshall Fredericks at the Coleman Young Municipal Center. Detroit_sentence_515

The image is often used as a symbol of Detroit and the statue itself is occasionally dressed in sports jerseys to celebrate when a Detroit team is doing well. Detroit_sentence_516

A memorial to Joe Louis at the intersection of Jefferson and Woodward Avenues was dedicated on October 1, 1986. Detroit_sentence_517

The sculpture, commissioned by Sports Illustrated and executed by Robert Graham, is a 24-foot (7.3 m) long arm with a fisted hand suspended by a pyramidal framework. Detroit_sentence_518

Artist Tyree Guyton created the controversial street art exhibit known as the Heidelberg Project in 1986, using found objects including cars, clothing and shoes found in the neighborhood near and on Heidelberg Street on the near East Side of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_519

Guyton continues to work with neighborhood residents and tourists in constantly evolving the neighborhood-wide art installation. Detroit_sentence_520

Sports Detroit_section_27

Further information: Sports in Detroit and U.S. Detroit_sentence_521 cities with teams from four major sports Detroit_sentence_522

Detroit is one of 13 U.S. metropolitan areas that are home to professional teams representing the four major sports in North America. Detroit_sentence_523

Since 2017, all of these teams play in the city limits of Detroit itself, a distinction shared with only three other U.S. cities. Detroit_sentence_524

Detroit is the only U.S. city to have its four major sports teams play within its downtown district. Detroit_sentence_525

There are three active major sports venues in the city: Comerica Park (home of the Major League Baseball team Detroit Tigers), Ford Field (home of the NFL's Detroit Lions), and Little Caesars Arena (home of the NHL's Detroit Red Wings and the NBA's Detroit Pistons). Detroit_sentence_526

A 1996 marketing campaign promoted the nickname "Hockeytown". Detroit_sentence_527

The Detroit Tigers have won four World Series titles (1935, 1945, 1968, and 1984). Detroit_sentence_528

The Detroit Red Wings have won 11 Stanley Cups (1935–36, 1936–37, 1942–43, 1949–50, 1951–52, 1953–54, 1954–55, 1996–97, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2007–08) (the most by an American NHL franchise). Detroit_sentence_529

The Detroit Lions have won 4 NFL titles (1935, 1952, 1953, 1957) . Detroit_sentence_530

The Detroit Pistons have won three NBA titles (1989, 1990, 2004). Detroit_sentence_531

With the Pistons' first of three NBA titles in 1989, the city of Detroit has won titles in all four of the major professional sports leagues. Detroit_sentence_532

Two new downtown stadiums for the Detroit Tigers and Detroit Lions opened in 2000 and 2002, respectively, returning the Lions to the city proper. Detroit_sentence_533

In college sports, Detroit's central location within the Mid-American Conference has made it a frequent site for the league's championship events. Detroit_sentence_534

While the MAC Basketball Tournament moved permanently to Cleveland starting in 2000, the MAC Football Championship Game has been played at Ford Field in Detroit since 2004, and annually attracts 25,000 to 30,000 fans. Detroit_sentence_535

The University of Detroit Mercy has an NCAA Division I program, and Wayne State University has both NCAA Division I and II programs. Detroit_sentence_536

The NCAA football Quick Lane Bowl is held at Ford Field each December. Detroit_sentence_537

The local soccer team is called the Detroit City Football Club and was founded in 2012. Detroit_sentence_538

The team plays in the National Premier Soccer League, and its nickname is Le Rouge. Detroit_sentence_539

The city hosted the 2005 MLB All-Star Game, 2006 Super Bowl XL, both the 2006 and 2012 World Series, WrestleMania 23 in 2007, and the NCAA Final Four in April 2009. Detroit_sentence_540

The city hosted the Detroit Indy Grand Prix on Belle Isle Park from 1989 to 2001, 2007 to 2008, and 2012 and beyond. Detroit_sentence_541

In 2007, open-wheel racing returned to Belle Isle with both Indy Racing League and American Le Mans Series Racing. Detroit_sentence_542

From 1982 to 1988, Detroit held the Detroit Grand Prix, at the Detroit street circuit. Detroit_sentence_543

Detroit is one of eight American cities to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NFL, NHL and NBA), though of the eight it is the only one to have not won a Super Bowl title (all of the Lions' titles came prior to the start of the Super Bowl era). Detroit_sentence_544

In the years following the mid-1930s, Detroit was referred to as the "City of Champions" after the Tigers, Lions, and Red Wings captured the three major professional sports championships in existence at the time in a seven-month period of time (the Tigers won the World Series in October 1935; the Lions won the NFL championship in December 1935; the Red Wings won the Stanley Cup in April 1936). Detroit_sentence_545

In 1932, Eddie "The Midnight Express" Tolan from Detroit won the 100- and 200-meter races and two gold medals at the 1932 Summer Olympics. Detroit_sentence_546

Joe Louis won the heavyweight championship of the world in 1937. Detroit_sentence_547

Detroit has made the most bids to host the Summer Olympics without ever being awarded the games although all seven being unsuccessful bids for the 1944, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1972 summer games. Detroit_sentence_548

Law and government Detroit_section_28

Further information: Government of Detroit and List of mayors of Detroit Detroit_sentence_549

The city is governed pursuant to the home rule Charter of the City of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_550

The government of Detroit, Michigan is run by a mayor, the nine-member Detroit City Council, the eleven-member Board of Police Commissioners, and a clerk. Detroit_sentence_551

All of these officers are elected on a nonpartisan ballot, with the exception of four of the police commissioners, who are appointer by the mayor. Detroit_sentence_552

Detroit has a "strong mayoral" system, with the mayor approving departmental appointments. Detroit_sentence_553

The council approves budgets, but the mayor is not obligated to adhere to any earmarking. Detroit_sentence_554

The city clerk supervises elections and is formally charged with the maintenance of municipal records. Detroit_sentence_555

City ordinances and substantially large contracts must be approved by the council. Detroit_sentence_556

The Detroit City Code is the codification of Detroit's local ordinances. Detroit_sentence_557

The city clerk supervises elections and is formally charged with the maintenance of municipal records. Detroit_sentence_558

Municipal elections for mayor, city council and city clerk are held at four-year intervals, in the year after presidential elections. Detroit_sentence_559

Following a November 2009 referendum, seven council members will be elected from districts beginning in 2013 while two will continue to be elected at-large. Detroit_sentence_560

Detroit's courts are state-administered and elections are nonpartisan. Detroit_sentence_561

The Probate Court for Wayne County is in the Coleman A. Detroit_sentence_562 Young Municipal Center in downtown Detroit. Detroit_sentence_563

The Circuit Court is across Gratiot Avenue in the Frank Murphy Hall of Justice, in downtown Detroit. Detroit_sentence_564

The city is home to the Thirty-Sixth District Court, as well as the First District of the Michigan Court of Appeals and the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan. Detroit_sentence_565

The city provides law enforcement through the Detroit Police Department and emergency services through the Detroit Fire Department. Detroit_sentence_566

Crime Detroit_section_29

Further information: Crime in Detroit and Detroit Police Department Detroit_sentence_567

Detroit has struggled with high crime for decades. Detroit_sentence_568

The number of homicides peaked in 1974 at 714 and again in 1991 with 615. Detroit_sentence_569

The murder rate for the city has gone up and down throughout the years averaging over 400 murders with a population of over 1,000,000 residents. Detroit_sentence_570

The crime rate however has been above the national average since the 1970s. Detroit_sentence_571

Crime has since decreased and, in 2014, the murder rate was 43.4 per 100,000, lower than in St. Detroit_sentence_572 Louis. Detroit_sentence_573

About half of all murders in Michigan in 2015 occurred in Detroit. Detroit_sentence_574

Although the rate of violent crime dropped 11% in 2008, violent crime in Detroit has not declined as much as the national average from 2007 to 2011. Detroit_sentence_575

The violent crime rate is one of the highest in the United States. Detroit_sentence_576

Neighborhoodscout.com reported a crime rate of 62.18 per 1,000 residents for property crimes, and 16.73 per 1,000 for violent crimes (compared to national figures of 32 per 1,000 for property crimes and 5 per 1,000 for violent crime in 2008). Detroit_sentence_577

Annual statistics released by the Detroit Police Department for 2016 indicate that while the city's overall crime rate declined that year, the murder rate rose from 2015. Detroit_sentence_578

In 2016 there were 302 homicides in Detroit, a 2.37% increase in the number of murder victims from the preceding year. Detroit_sentence_579

The city's downtown typically has lower crime than national and state averages. Detroit_sentence_580

According to a 2007 analysis, Detroit officials note about 65 to 70 percent of homicides in the city were drug related, with the rate of unsolved murders roughly 70%. Detroit_sentence_581

Areas of the city adjacent to the Detroit River are also patrolled by the United States Border Patrol. Detroit_sentence_582

In 2012, crime in the city was among the reasons for more expensive car insurance. Detroit_sentence_583

Politics Detroit_section_30

Beginning with its incorporation in 1802, Detroit has had a total of 74 mayors. Detroit_sentence_584

Detroit's last mayor from the Republican Party was Louis Miriani, who served from 1957 to 1962. Detroit_sentence_585

In 1973, the city elected its first black mayor, Coleman Young. Detroit_sentence_586

Despite development efforts, his combative style during his five terms in office was not well received by many suburban residents. Detroit_sentence_587

Mayor Dennis Archer, a former Michigan Supreme Court Justice, refocused the city's attention on redevelopment with a plan to permit three casinos downtown. Detroit_sentence_588

By 2008, three major casino resort hotels established operations in the city. Detroit_sentence_589

In 2000, the city requested an investigation by the United States Justice Department into the Detroit Police Department which was concluded in 2003 over allegations regarding its use of force and civil rights violations. Detroit_sentence_590

The city proceeded with a major reorganization of the Detroit Police Department. Detroit_sentence_591

In 2013, felony bribery charges were brought against seven building inspectors. Detroit_sentence_592

In 2016, further corruption charges were brought against 12 principals, a former school superintendent and supply vendor for a $12 million kickback scheme. Detroit_sentence_593

However, law professor Peter Henning argues Detroit's corruption is not unusual for a city its size, especially when compared with Chicago. Detroit_sentence_594

Detroit is sometimes referred to as the sanctuary city because it has "anti-profiling ordinances that generally prohibit local police from asking about the immigration status of people who are not suspected of any crime". Detroit_sentence_595

Public finances Detroit_section_31

Detroit's protracted decline has resulted in severe urban decay, with thousands of empty buildings around the city, referred to as greyfield. Detroit_sentence_596

Some parts of Detroit are so sparsely populated the city has difficulty providing municipal services. Detroit_sentence_597

The city has demolished abandoned homes and buildings, planting grass and trees, and considered removing street lighting from large portions of the city, in order to encourage the small population in certain areas to move to more populated areas. Detroit_sentence_598

Roughly half of the owners of Detroit's 305,000 properties failed to pay their 2011 tax bills, resulting in about $246 million in taxes and fees going uncollected, nearly half of which was due to Detroit. Detroit_sentence_599

The rest of the money would have been earmarked for Wayne County, Detroit Public Schools, and the library system. Detroit_sentence_600

In March 2013, Governor Rick Snyder declared a financial emergency in the city, stating the city has a $327 million budget deficit and faces more than $14 billion in long-term debt. Detroit_sentence_601

It has been making ends meet on a month-to-month basis with the help of bond money held in a state escrow account and has instituted mandatory unpaid days off for many city workers. Detroit_sentence_602

Those troubles, along with underfunded city services, such as police and fire departments, and ineffective turnaround plans from Mayor Bing and the City Council led the state of Michigan to appoint an emergency manager for Detroit on March 14, 2013. Detroit_sentence_603

On June 14, 2013, Detroit defaulted on $2.5 billion of debt by withholding $39.7 million in interest payments, while Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr met with bondholders and other creditors in an attempt to restructure the city's $18.5 billion debt and avoid bankruptcy. Detroit_sentence_604

On July 18, 2013, the City of Detroit filed for Chapter 9 bankruptcy protection. Detroit_sentence_605

It was declared bankrupt by U.S. judge Stephen Rhodes on December 3, with its $18.5 billion debt; he said in accepting the city's contention it is broke and negotiations with its thousands of creditors were infeasible. Detroit_sentence_606

The city levies an income tax of 2.4 percent on residents and 1.2 percent on nonresidents. Detroit_sentence_607

Education and research institute Detroit_section_32

Colleges and universities Detroit_section_33

See also: Colleges and universities in Metro Detroit Detroit_sentence_608

Detroit is home to several institutions of higher learning including Wayne State University, a national research university with medical and law schools in the Midtown area offering hundreds of academic degrees and programs. Detroit_sentence_609

The University of Detroit Mercy, in Northwest Detroit in the University District, is a prominent Roman Catholic co-educational university affiliated with the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) and the Sisters of Mercy. Detroit_sentence_610

The University of Detroit Mercy offers more than a hundred academic degrees and programs of study including business, dentistry, law, engineering, architecture, nursing and allied health professions. Detroit_sentence_611

The University of Detroit Mercy School of Law is Downtown across from the Renaissance Center. Detroit_sentence_612

Grand Valley State University's Detroit Center host workshops, seminars, professional development, and other large gatherings in the building. Detroit_sentence_613

Located in the heart of downtown next to Comerica Park and the Detroit Athletic Club, the Center has become a key component for educational activity in the city. Detroit_sentence_614

Sacred Heart Major Seminary, founded in 1919, is affiliated with Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome and offers pontifical degrees as well as civil undergraduate and graduate degrees. Detroit_sentence_615

Sacred Heart Major Seminary offers a variety of academic programs for both clerical and lay students. Detroit_sentence_616

Other institutions in the city include the College for Creative Studies, Marygrove College and Wayne County Community College. Detroit_sentence_617

In June 2009, the Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine which is based in East Lansing opened a satellite campus at the Detroit Medical Center. Detroit_sentence_618

The University of Michigan was established in 1817 in Detroit and later moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. Detroit_sentence_619

Primary and secondary schools Detroit_section_34

As of 2016 many K-12 students in Detroit frequently change schools, with some children having been enrolled in seven schools before finishing their K-12 careers. Detroit_sentence_620

There is a concentration of senior high schools and charter schools in the Downtown Detroit area, which had wealthier residents and more gentrification relative to other parts of Detroit: Downtown, northwest Detroit, and northeast Detroit have 1,894, 3,742, and 6,018 students of high school age each, respectively, while they have 11, three, and two high schools each, respectively. Detroit_sentence_621

As of 2016 because of the lack of public transportation and the lack of school bus services, many Detroit families have to rely on themselves to transport children to school. Detroit_sentence_622

Public schools and charter schools Detroit_section_35

With about 66,000 public school students (2011–12), the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) district is the largest school district in Michigan. Detroit_sentence_623

Detroit has an additional 56,000 charter school students for a combined enrollment of about 122,000 students. Detroit_sentence_624

As of 2009 there are about as many students in charter schools as there are in district schools. Detroit_sentence_625

As of 2016 DPS continues to have the majority of the special education pupils. Detroit_sentence_626

In addition, some Detroit students, as of 2016, attend public schools in other municipalities. Detroit_sentence_627

In 1999, the Michigan Legislature removed the locally elected board of education amid allegations of mismanagement and replaced it with a reform board appointed by the mayor and governor. Detroit_sentence_628

The elected board of education was re-established following a city referendum in 2005. Detroit_sentence_629

The first election of the new 11-member board of education occurred on November 8, 2005. Detroit_sentence_630

Due to growing Detroit charter schools enrollment as well as a continued exodus of population, the city planned to close many public schools. Detroit_sentence_631

State officials report a 68% graduation rate for Detroit's public schools adjusted for those who change schools. Detroit_sentence_632

Traditional public and charter school students in the city have performed poorly on standardized tests. Detroit_sentence_633

Circa 2009 and 2011, while Detroit traditional public schools scored a record low on national tests, the publicly funded charter schools did even worse than the traditional public schools. Detroit_sentence_634

As of 2016 there were 30,000 excess openings in Detroit traditional public and charter schools, bearing in mind the number of K-12-aged children in the city. Detroit_sentence_635

In 2016, Kate Zernike of The New York Times stated school performance did not improve despite the proliferation of charters, describing the situation as "lots of choice, with no good choice". Detroit_sentence_636

Detroit public schools students scored the lowest on tests of reading and writing of all major cities in the United States in 2015. Detroit_sentence_637

Among eighth-graders, only 27% showed basic proficiency in math and 44% in reading. Detroit_sentence_638

Nearly half of Detroit's adults are functionally illiterate. Detroit_sentence_639

Private schools Detroit_section_36

Detroit is served by various private schools, as well as parochial Roman Catholic schools operated by the Archdiocese of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_640

As of 2013 there are four Catholic grade schools and three Catholic high schools in the City of Detroit, with all of them in the city's west side. Detroit_sentence_641

The Archdiocese of Detroit lists a number of primary and secondary schools in the metro area as Catholic education has emigrated to the suburbs. Detroit_sentence_642

Of the three Catholic high schools in the city, two are operated by the Society of Jesus and the third is co-sponsored by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and the Congregation of St. Detroit_sentence_643 Basil. Detroit_sentence_644

In the 1964–1965 school year there were about 110 Catholic grade schools in Detroit, Hamtramck, and Highland Park and 55 Catholic high schools in those three cities. Detroit_sentence_645

The Catholic school population in Detroit has decreased due to the increase of charter schools, increasing tuition at Catholic schools, the small number of African-American Catholics, White Catholics moving to suburbs, and the decreased number of teaching nuns. Detroit_sentence_646

Media Detroit_section_37

Main article: Media in Detroit Detroit_sentence_647

The Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News are the major daily newspapers, both broadsheet publications published together under a joint operating agreement called the Detroit Newspaper Partnership. Detroit_sentence_648

Media philanthropy includes the Detroit Free Press high school journalism program and the Old Newsboys' Goodfellow Fund of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_649

In March 2009, the two newspapers reduced home delivery to three days a week, print reduced newsstand issues of the papers on non-delivery days and focus resources on Internet-based news delivery. Detroit_sentence_650

The Metro Times, founded in 1980, is a weekly publication, covering news, arts & entertainment. Detroit_sentence_651

Also founded in 1935 and based in Detroit the Michigan Chronicle is one of the oldest and most respected African-American weekly newspapers in America. Detroit_sentence_652

Covering politics, entertainment, sports and community events. Detroit_sentence_653

The Detroit television market is the 11th largest in the United States; according to estimates that do not include audiences in large areas of Ontario, Canada (Windsor and its surrounding area on broadcast and cable TV, as well as several other cable markets in Ontario, such as the city of Ottawa) which receive and watch Detroit television stations. Detroit_sentence_654

Detroit has the 11th largest radio market in the United States, though this ranking does not take into account Canadian audiences. Detroit_sentence_655

Nearby Canadian stations such as Windsor's CKLW (whose jingles formerly proclaimed "CKLW-the Motor City") are popular in Detroit. Detroit_sentence_656

Infrastructure Detroit_section_38

Health systems Detroit_section_39

Within the city of Detroit, there are over a dozen major hospitals which include the Detroit Medical Center (DMC), Henry Ford Health System, St. Detroit_sentence_657 John Health System, and the John D. Dingell VA Medical Center. Detroit_sentence_658

The DMC, a regional Level I trauma center, consists of Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Harper University Hospital, Hutzel Women's Hospital, Kresge Eye Institute, Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Karmanos Cancer Institute. Detroit_sentence_659

The DMC has more than 2,000 licensed beds and 3,000 affiliated physicians. Detroit_sentence_660

It is the largest private employer in the City of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_661

The center is staffed by physicians from the Wayne State University School of Medicine, the largest single-campus medical school in the United States, and the United States' fourth largest medical school overall. Detroit_sentence_662

Detroit Medical Center formally became a part of Vanguard Health Systems on December 30, 2010, as a for profit corporation. Detroit_sentence_663

Vanguard has agreed to invest nearly $1.5 B in the Detroit Medical Center complex which will include $417 M to retire debts, at least $350 M in capital expenditures and an additional $500 M for new capital investment. Detroit_sentence_664

Vanguard has agreed to assume all debts and pension obligations. Detroit_sentence_665

The metro area has many other hospitals including William Beaumont Hospital, St. Joseph's, and University of Michigan Medical Center. Detroit_sentence_666

In 2011, Detroit Medical Center and Henry Ford Health System substantially increased investments in medical research facilities and hospitals in the city's Midtown and New Center. Detroit_sentence_667

In 2012, two major construction projects were begun in New Center, the Henry Ford Health System started the first phase of a $500 million, 300-acre revitalization project, with the construction of a new $30 million, 275,000-square-foot, Medical Distribution Center for Cardinal Health, Inc. and Wayne State University started construction on a new $93 million, 207,000-square-foot, Integrative Biosciences Center (IBio). Detroit_sentence_668

As many as 500 researchers, and staff will work out of the IBio Center. Detroit_sentence_669

Transportation Detroit_section_40

Main article: Transportation in metropolitan Detroit Detroit_sentence_670

With its proximity to Canada and its facilities, ports, major highways, rail connections and international airports, Detroit is an important transportation hub. Detroit_sentence_671

The city has three international border crossings, the Ambassador Bridge, Detroit–Windsor Tunnel and Michigan Central Railway Tunnel, linking Detroit to Windsor, Ontario. Detroit_sentence_672

The Ambassador Bridge is the single busiest border crossing in North America, carrying 27% of the total trade between the U.S. and Canada. Detroit_sentence_673

On February 18, 2015, Canadian Transport Minister Lisa Raitt announced Canada has agreed to pay the entire cost to build a $250 million U.S. Customs plaza adjacent to the planned new Detroit–Windsor bridge, now the Gordie Howe International Bridge. Detroit_sentence_674

Canada had already planned to pay for 95% of the bridge, which will cost $2.1 billion, and is expected to open in 2022 or 2023. Detroit_sentence_675

"This allows Canada and Michigan to move the project forward immediately to its next steps which include further design work and property acquisition on the U.S. side of the border," Raitt said in a statement issued after she spoke in the House of Commons. Detroit_sentence_676

Transit systems Detroit_section_41

Mass transit in the region is provided by bus services. Detroit_sentence_677

The Detroit Department of Transportation (DDOT) provides service within city limits up to the outer edges of the city. Detroit_sentence_678

From there, the Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) provides service to the suburbs and the city regionally with local routes and SMART's FAST service. Detroit_sentence_679

FAST is a new service provided by SMART which offers limited stops along major corridors throughout the Detroit metropolitan area connecting the suburbs to downtown. Detroit_sentence_680

The new high-frequency service travels along three of Detroit's busiest corridors, Gratiot, Woodward, and Michigan, and only stops at designated FAST stops. Detroit_sentence_681

Cross border service between the downtown areas of Windsor and Detroit is provided by Transit Windsor via the Tunnel Bus. Detroit_sentence_682

An elevated rail system known as the People Mover, completed in 1987, provides daily service around a 2.94-mile (4.73 km) loop downtown. Detroit_sentence_683

The QLINE serves as a link between the Detroit People Mover and Detroit Amtrak station via Woodward Avenue. Detroit_sentence_684

The SEMCOG Commuter Rail line will extend from Detroit's New Center, connecting to Ann Arbor via Dearborn, Wayne, and Ypsilanti when it is opened. Detroit_sentence_685

The Regional Transit Authority (RTA) was established by an act of the Michigan legislature in December 2012 to oversee and coordinate all existing regional mass transit operations, and to develop new transit services in the region. Detroit_sentence_686

The RTA's first project was the introduction of RelfeX, a limited-stop, cross-county bus service connecting downtown and midtown Detroit with Oakland county via Woodward avenue. Detroit_sentence_687

Amtrak provides service to Detroit, operating its Wolverine service between Chicago and Pontiac. Detroit_sentence_688

The Amtrak station is in New Center north of downtown. Detroit_sentence_689

The J. Detroit_sentence_690 W. Westcott II, which delivers mail to lake freighters on the Detroit River, is a floating post office. Detroit_sentence_691

Modal characteristics Detroit_section_42

The city of Detroit has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. Detroit_sentence_692

In 2016, 24.7 percent of Detroit households lacked a car, much higher than the national average of 8.7. Detroit_sentence_693

Detroit averaged 1.15 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Detroit_sentence_694

Freight railroads Detroit_section_43

Freight railroad operations in the city of Detroit are provided by Canadian National Railway, Canadian Pacific Railway, Conrail Shared Assets, CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern Railway, each of which have local yards within the city. Detroit_sentence_695

Detroit is also served by the Delray Connecting Railroad and Detroit Connecting Railroad shortlines. Detroit_sentence_696

Airports Detroit_section_44

Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW), the principal airport serving Detroit, is in nearby Romulus. Detroit_sentence_697

DTW is a primary hub for Delta Air Lines (following its acquisition of Northwest Airlines), and a secondary hub for Spirit Airlines. Detroit_sentence_698

The airport is connected to Downtown Detroit by the Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) FAST Michigan route. Detroit_sentence_699

Coleman A. Detroit_sentence_700 Young International Airport (DET), previously called Detroit City Airport, is on Detroit's northeast side; the airport now maintains only charter service and general aviation. Detroit_sentence_701

Willow Run Airport, in far-western Wayne County near Ypsilanti, is a general aviation and cargo airport. Detroit_sentence_702

Freeways Detroit_section_45

Main article: Roads and freeways in metropolitan Detroit Detroit_sentence_703

Metro Detroit has an extensive toll-free network of freeways administered by the Michigan Department of Transportation. Detroit_sentence_704

Four major Interstate Highways surround the city. Detroit_sentence_705

Detroit is connected via Interstate 75 (I-75) and I-96 to Kings Highway 401 and to major Southern Ontario cities such as London, Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area. Detroit_sentence_706

I-75 (Chrysler and Fisher freeways) is the region's main north–south route, serving Flint, Pontiac, Troy, and Detroit, before continuing south (as the Detroit–Toledo and Seaway Freeways) to serve many of the communities along the shore of Lake Erie. Detroit_sentence_707

I-94 (Edsel Ford Freeway) runs east–west through Detroit and serves Ann Arbor to the west (where it continues to Chicago) and Port Huron to the northeast. Detroit_sentence_708

The stretch of the I-94 freeway from Ypsilanti to Detroit was one of America's earlier limited-access highways. Detroit_sentence_709

Henry Ford built it to link the factories at Willow Run and Dearborn during World War II. Detroit_sentence_710

A portion was known as the Willow Run Expressway. Detroit_sentence_711

The I-96 freeway runs northwest–southeast through Livingston, Oakland and Wayne counties and (as the Jeffries Freeway through Wayne County) has its eastern terminus in downtown Detroit. Detroit_sentence_712

I-275 runs north–south from I-75 in the south to the junction of I-96 and I-696 in the north, providing a bypass through the western suburbs of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_713

I-375 is a short spur route in downtown Detroit, an extension of the Chrysler Freeway. Detroit_sentence_714

I-696 (Reuther Freeway) runs east–west from the junction of I-96 and I-275, providing a route through the northern suburbs of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_715

Taken together, I-275 and I-696 form a semicircle around Detroit. Detroit_sentence_716

Michigan state highways designated with the letter M serve to connect major freeways. Detroit_sentence_717

Floating post office Detroit_section_46

Detroit has a floating post office. Detroit_sentence_718

In 1948, The J. Detroit_sentence_719 W. Westcott II became a floating post office servicing the Port of Detroit. Detroit_sentence_720

Its zip code is 48222. Detroit_sentence_721

Originally established in 1874 as a maritime reporting agency to inform other vessels about port conditions, the J. W. Westcott II is still in operation today. Detroit_sentence_722

Notable people Detroit_section_47

Main article: List of people from Detroit Detroit_sentence_723

International relations Detroit_section_48

Detroit has seven sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: Detroit_sentence_724

Detroit_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detroit.