A developing country (or a low and middle-income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), medium-industrialized country or underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base (industries) and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
However, this definition is not universally agreed upon.
There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category.
A nation's GDP per capita, compared with other nations, can also be a reference point.
In general, the United Nations accepts any country's claim of itself being "developing".
There are controversies over this term's use, which some feel perpetuates an outdated concept of "us" and "them".
In 2015, the World Bank declared that the "developing/developed world categorization" is becoming less relevant and that they will phase out the use of that descriptor.
Instead, their reports will present data aggregations for regions and income groups.
The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected progress direction.
Since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.
Developing countries tend to have some characteristics in common.
For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); a high number of road traffic accidents; and generally poor infrastructure.
Often, there is also widespread poverty, low education levels, inadequate access to family planning services, many informal settlements, corruption at all government levels, and a lack of so-called good governance.
The UN acknowledges that it has "no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas".
According to its so-called M49 standards, published in 1999:
The UN implies that developing countries are those not on a tightly defined list of developed countries:
Certain countries that have become "developed" in the last 20 years by almost all economic metrics, still insist to be classified as "developing country", as it entitle them to a preferential treatment at the WTO, countries such as Brunei, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Macao, Qatar, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates have been cited and criticized for this self-declared status.
However, under other criteria, some countries are at an intermediate stage of development, or, as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) put it, following the fall of the Soviet Union, "countries in transition": all those of Central and Eastern Europe (including Central European countries that still belonged to the "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions); the former Soviet Union (USSR) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan); and Mongolia.
By 2009, the IMF's World Economic Outlook classified countries as advanced, emerging, or developing, depending on "(1) per capita income level, (2) export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and (3) degree of integration into the global financial system"
Along with the current level of development, countries can also be classified by how much their level of development has changed over a specific period of time.
In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between "developed" and "developing" countries in the presentation of its data, considering the two-category distinction outdated.
Instead, the World Bank classifies countries into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita, re-set each year on July 1.
In 2019, the four categories in US dollars were:
- Low income countries: $1,035 or less.
- Lower middle income countries: $1,036 to $4,045.
- Upper middle income countries: $4,046 to $12,535.
- High income countries: $12,535 or more
Measure and concept of development
Development can be measured by economic or human factors.
Developing countries are, in general, countries that have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and have, in most cases, a medium to low standard of living.
There is an association between low income and high population growth.
The development of a country is measured with statistical indices such as income per capita (per person), gross domestic product per capita, life expectancy, the rate of literacy, freedom index and others.
The UN has developed the Human Development Index (HDI), a compound indicator of some of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available.
The UN had set Millennium Development Goals from a blueprint developed by all of the world's countries and leading development institutions, in order to evaluate growth.
These goals ended in 2015, to be superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals.
The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, modernization, social change and political economy.
Another important indicator is the sectoral changes that have occurred since the stage of development of the country.
Terms used to classify levels of development
There are several terms used to classify countries into rough levels of development.
Classification of any given country differs across sources, and sometimes these classifications or the specific terminology used is considered disparaging.
Use of the term "market" instead of "country" usually indicates specific focus on the characteristics of the countries' capital markets as opposed to the overall economy.
- Developed countries and developed markets
- Developing countries include in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the capital market:
Developing countries can also be categorized by geography:
- Small Island Developing States (a group of developing countries that are small island countries which tend to share similar sustainable development challenges: small but growing populations, limited resources, remoteness, susceptibility to natural disasters, vulnerability to external shocks, excessive dependence on international trade, and fragile environments).
- Landlocked Developing Countries (landlocked countries often experience economic and other disadvantages)
Other classifications include:
- Heavily indebted poor countries, a definition by a program of the IMF and World Bank
- Transition economy, moving from a centrally planned to market-driven economy
- Multi-dimensional clustering system: with the understanding that different countries have different development priorities and levels of access to resources and institutional capacities and to offer a more nuanced understanding of developing countries and their characteristics, scholars have categorised them into five distinct groups based on factors such as levels of poverty and inequality, productivity and innovation, political constraints and dependence on external flows.
There is criticism for using the term "developing country".
The term could imply inferiority of this kind of country compared with a developed country.
Alternative measurements such as gross national happiness have been suggested as important indicators.
One of the early criticism that questioned the use of the terms "developing" and "underdeveloped" countries, was voiced in 1973 by prominent historian and academic Walter Rodney who compared the economic, social and political parameters between the United States and countries in Africa and Asia.
There is "no established convention" for defining "developing country".
The late global health expert Hans Rosling has argued against the terms, calling the concept "outdated" since the terms are used under the prerequisite that the world is divided in rich and poor countries, while the fact is that the vast majority of countries are middle-income.
To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word "developing", international organizations have started to use the term less economically developed country for the poorest nations—which can, in no sense, be regarded as developing.
This highlights that the standard of living across the entire developing world varies greatly.
Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries, underdeveloped nations, low and middle income countries (LMICs) and non-industrialized nations.
At the development level, anthropologist and researcher Jason Hickel has challenged the narrative that the rich countries of the OECD help the poor countries develop their economies and eradicate poverty.
Hickel states that the rich countries "aren’t developing poor countries; poor countries are developing rich ones."
In 2015, the World Bank declared that the "developing / developed world categorization" is becoming less relevant, due to worldwide improvements in indices such as child mortality rates, fertility rates and extreme poverty rates.
Accordingly, World Bank is phasing out use of that descriptor.
Instead, the reports by Worldbank (such as the World Development Indicators (WDI) and the Global Monitoring Report) now include data aggregations for the whole world, for regions, and for income groups – but not for the “developing world”.
Main article: Third World
Over the past few decades since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the term Third World has been used interchangeably with developing countries, but the concept has become outdated in recent years as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world.
The three-world model arose during the Cold War to define countries aligned with NATO (the First World), the Communist Bloc (the Second World, although this term was less used), or neither (the Third World).
Strictly speaking, "Third World" was a political, rather than an economic, grouping.
Main article: Global South
The term "Global South" began to be used more widely since about 2004.
It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.
The Global South refers to these countries' "interconnected histories of colonialism, neo-imperialism, and differential economic and social change through which large inequalities in living standards, life expectancy, and access to resources are maintained".
The term "developing countries" has many research theories associated with it (in chronological order):
- Modernization theory - to explain the process of modernization within societies
- Dependency theory – the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former
- Development theory – a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved.
- Post-Development theory – holds that the whole concept and practice of development is a reflection of Western-Northern hegemony over the rest of the world
Government, politics and administration
Many were governed by an imperial European power until decolonization.
Political systems in developing countries are diverse, but most states had established some form of democratic governments by the early 21st century, with varying degrees of success and political liberty.
The inhabitants of developing countries were introduced to democratic systems later and more abruptly than their Northern counterparts and were sometimes targeted by governmental and non-governmental efforts to encourage participation.
'Effective citizenship' is defined by sociologist Patrick Heller as: "closing [the] gap between formal legal rights in the civil and political arena, and the actual capability to meaningfully practice those rights".
Beyond citizenship, the study of the politics of cross-border mobility in developing countries has also shed valuable light in migration debates, seen as a corrective to the traditional focus on developed countries.
Some political scientists identify a 'typology of nationalizing, developmental, and neoliberal migration management regimes' across developing countries.
Many relied on foreign investment.
This funding focused on improving infrastructure and industry, but led to a system of systemic exploitation.
They exported raw materials, such as rubber, for a bargain.
Companies based in the Western world have often used the cheaper labor in developing countries for production.
The West benefited significantly from this system, but left developing countries undeveloped.
This arrangement is sometimes called neocolonialism, meaning a system in which less-developed countries are taken advantage of by developed countries.
It does not necessarily mean that former colonies are still controlled by their former colonizer; it refers to colonial-like exploitation.
Developing countries are often helping further develop rich countries, rather than being developed themselves.
Several institutions have been established with the goal of putting an end to this system.
One of these institutions is the New International Economic Order.
They have a 'no-strings-attached' policy that promotes developing countries remaining or becoming self-sufficient.
More specifically, they advocate sovereignty over natural resources and industrialization.
Coalitions of developing nations, like the NIEO, frequently lobby for parity in the world stage.
The rise of China might imply the rise of the BRIC countries.
The global issues most often discussed by developing countries include globalisation, global health governance, health, and prevention needs.
This is contrasted by issues developed nations tend to address, such as innovations in science and technology.
Most developing countries have these criteria in common:
- High levels of poverty – measured based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. For example, if the GNI per capita is less than US $1,025 (as of 2018) the country is regarded as a least developed country.
- Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy).
- Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters).
Main article: Slum
In 2012, the proportion of urban population living in slums was highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (62%), followed by South Asia (35%), Southeast Asia (31%) and East Asia (28%).
The UN-Habitat reports that 43% of urban population in developing countries and 78% of those in the least developed countries are slum dwellers.
Slums form and grow in different parts of the world for many different reasons.
Causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, high unemployment, poverty, informal economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts.
For example, as populations expand in poorer countries, rural people are moving to cities in an extensive urban migration that is resulting in the creation of slums.
In some cities, especially in countries in Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, slums are not just marginalized neighborhoods holding a small population; slums are widespread, and are home to a large part of urban population.
These are sometimes called "slum cities".
Violence against women
Main article: Violence against women
Several forms of violence against women are more prevalent in developing countries than in other parts of the world.
Acid throwing is also associated with these countries, as well as in Southeast Asia, including Cambodia.
Honor killing is associated with the Middle East and South Asia.
Marriage by abduction is found in Ethiopia, Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Abuse related to payment of bride price (such as violence, trafficking and forced marriage) is linked to parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is another form of violence against women which is still occurring in many developing countries.
It is found mostly in Africa, and to a lesser extent in the Middle East and some other parts of Asia.
Developing countries with the highest rate of women who have been cut are Somalia (with 98% of women affected), Guinea (96%), Djibouti (93%), Egypt (91%), Eritrea (89%), Mali (89%), Sierra Leone (88%), Sudan (88%), Gambia (76%), Burkina Faso (76%), and Ethiopia (74%).
Due to globalization and immigration, FGM is spreading beyond the borders of Africa and Middle East, to countries such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, New Zealand, the U.S., and UK.
The Istanbul Convention prohibits female genital mutilation (Article 38).
As of 2016, FGM has been legally banned in many African countries.
According to UN Women facts and figures on ending Violence against women, it is estimated that 35 percent of women world wide have experienced either physical and Sexual violence by intimate partners or Sexual violence by a non-partner(Not including Sexual harassment) at some point in their lives.
Evidence shows women who have had experienced physical or sexual Intimate partner violence report higher rates of depression, having an Abortion and acquiring HIV, compared to women who have not had experienced any physical or Sexual violence.
Data from multi-country from Middle East and North Africa shows that men who witnessed their fathers against their mothers, and men who experienced some form of violence as children, more likely have reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in their adult relationships.
Healthcare and public health
The comparison in healthcare between developing countries and developed countries is substantially different.
People in developing countries usually have a lower life expectancy than people in developed countries.
Undernutrition is more common in developing countries.
Certain groups have higher rates of undernutrition, including women—in particular while pregnant or breastfeeding—children under five years of age, and the elderly.
About 165 million children were estimated to have stunted growth from malnutrition in 2013.
In some developing countries, overnutrition in the form of obesity is beginning to present within the same communities as undernutrition.
The following list shows the further significant environmentally-related causes or conditions, as well as certain diseases with a strong environmental component:
- Illness/disease (malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS, etc.): Illness imposes high and regressive cost burdens on families in developing countries.
- Tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases)
- Unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and hygiene
- Indoor air pollution in developing nations
- Pollution (e.g. air pollution, water pollution)
- Motor vehicle collisions
- Unintentional poisoning
- Non communicable diseases and weak healthcare systems
Water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH)
Access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is at very low levels in many developing countries.
In 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that "1 in 3 people, or 2.4 billion, are still without sanitation facilities" while 663 million people still lack access to safe and clean drinking water.
The estimate in 2017 by JMP states that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation.
The majority of these people live in developing countries.
About 892 million people or 12 per cent of the global population, practiced open defecation instead of using toilets in 2016.
Seventy-six per cent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world live in just seven countries.
Countries with a high number of people openly defecating are India (348 million), followed by Nigeria (38.1 million), Indonesia (26.4 million), Ethiopia (23.1 million), Pakistan (19.7 million), Niger (14.6 million) and Sudan (9.7 million).
It calls for clean water and sanitation for all people.
This is particularly relevant for people in developing countries.
In 2009, about 1.4 billion of people in the world lived without electricity.
2.7 billion relied on wood, charcoal, and dung (dry animal dung fuel) for home energy requirements.
This lack of access to modern energy technology limits income generation, blunts efforts to escape poverty, affects people's health due to indoor air pollution, and contributes to global deforestation and climate change.
Small-scale renewable energy technologies and distributed energy options, such as onsite solar power and improved cookstoves, offer rural households modern energy services.
Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries.
In rural and remote areas, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive.
Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative.
Renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty alleviation by providing the energy needed for creating businesses and employment.
Renewable energy technologies can also make indirect contributions to alleviating poverty by providing energy for cooking, space heating, and lighting.
Kenya is the world leader in the number of solar power systems installed per capita.
Indoor air pollution
Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard.
A major source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass.
Because much of the cooking is carried out indoors in environments that lack proper ventilation, millions of people, primarily poor women and children face serious health risks.
Globally, 4.3 million deaths were attributed to exposure to IAP in developing countries in 2012, almost all in low and middle income countries.
The South East Asian and Western Pacific regions bear most of the burden with 1.69 and 1.62 million deaths, respectively.
Almost 600,000 deaths occur in Africa.
An earlier estimate from 2000 put the death toll between 1.5 million and 2 million deaths.
Finding an affordable solution to address the many effects of indoor air pollution is complex.
Strategies include improving combustion, reducing smoke exposure, improving safety and reducing labor, reducing fuel costs, and addressing sustainability.
Water pollution is a major problem in many developing countries.
It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells).
It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.
India and China are two countries with high levels of water pollution: An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness (including waterborne diseases) every day.
About 90 percent of the water in the cities of China is polluted.
As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water.
Further details of water pollution in several countries, including many developing countries:
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has confirmed that warming of the climate system due to human intervention is 'unequivocal'.
The effects of climate change will be felt around the globe and will result in events such as extreme weather events, droughts, floods, biodiversity loss, disease and sea level rise, which are dangerous for societies and the environment.
Although developing countries have not been the major cause of climate change, they are the most at risk from the effects of these changes and may face challenges in adapting to climate change due to the intersecting issues of high climate vulnerability, low economic status, restricted access to technology, failing infrastructure and limited access to financial resources.
Where a country is particularly vulnerable to climate change they are called "highly climate vulnerable".
In the cases where developing countries produce only small quantities of greenhouse gas emissions per capita but are very vulnerable to the negative effects of global warming, the term "forced riders" as opposed to the "free riders" has been used as a descriptor.
Such countries include Comoros, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
Climate vulnerability has been quantified in the Climate Vulnerability Monitor reports of 2010 and 2012.
Climate vulnerability in developing countries occurs in four impact areas: health, extreme weather, habitat loss, and economic stress.
A report by the Climate Vulnerability Monitor in 2012 estimated that climate change causes 400,000 deaths on average each year, mainly due to hunger and communicable diseases in developing countries.
These effects are most severe for the world's poorest countries.
Internationally there is recognition of the mismatch between those that have caused climate change and those which will suffer the most from climate change, termed "climate justice".
It has been a topic for discussion at some of the United Nations Climate Change Conferences (COP).
A changing climate also results in economic burdens.
Rising sea levels cost 1% of GDP to the least developed countries in 2010 – 4% in the Pacific – with 65 billion dollars annually lost from the world economy.
Developing countries with large fisheries sectors are particularly affected.
However, concrete pledges by developed countries have not been forthcoming.
Climate stress is likely to add to existing migration patterns in developing countries and beyond but is not expected to generate entirely new flows of people.
A report by the World Bank in 2018 estimated that around 143 million people in three regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America) could be forced to move within their own countries to escape the slow-onset impacts of climate change.
In spite of the cumulative stressors and challenges faced by developing countries in adapting to the effects of climate change, there are those that are world leaders in the field such as Bangladesh.
Bangladesh created a national programme in 2009 focused on how the country would adapt to climate change (the first country to do so).
It established a fund to support these plans, spending on average $1 billion annually in this regard.
According to the United Nations, family planning can help to slow population growth and decrease poverty in these countries.
The violent herder–farmer conflicts in Nigeria, the march 2019 attacks against Fulani herders in Mali, the Sudanese nomadic conflicts and other conflicts in the countries of the Sahel region have been exacerbated by climate change, land degradation, and population growth.
Droughts and food shortages have been also linked to the Northern Mali conflict.
Many developing countries are considered un-free or flawed democracies by freedom indices such as the Democracy Index, Freedom in the World and Index of Freedom in the World and Following decolonization and independence, elites have often had oligarchic control of the government.
- Increased and intensified industrial and agricultural production and emission of toxic chemicals directly into the soil, air, and water.
- Unsustainable use of energy resources.
- High dependency on natural resources for livelihood, leading to unsustainable exploitation or depletion of those resources
- Child Marriage
- Indebtedness (see Debt of developing countries)
- Under performing civil service (see Civil service reform in developing countries)
- Food insecurity
The economies of many developing nations are tried to primary products and a majority of their exports go to advanced nations.
When advanced nations encounter economic downturns, they can quickly transmitted to their developing country trading partners as seen in global economic downturn of 2008–2009.
- Human Capital
- Trade Policy: Countries with more restrictive policies have not grown as fast as countries with open and less distorted trade policies.
- Investment: Investment has a positive effect on growth.
- Aid for Trade: Included in Sustainable Development Goal 8 under Target 8.a.1 Increase aid for trade is an initiative to help developing countries practice trade and benefit. Aid for trade is to assist developing countries in trade related programmes, priotise trade and trade capacity, improve trade performance and reduce poverty.
- Global partnership: A provision of Sustainable Development Goal 17 which advocates for international investment and support to achieve innovative technological development, access to market, and fair trade for developing countries.
Developing countries according to International Monetary Fund
The following are considered developing economies according to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018.
Countries and regions that are graduated developed economies
The following list, including the Four Asian Tigers and new Eurozone European countries, were historically considered developing countries and regions until the 1990s, and are now listed as advanced economies (developed countries and regions) by the IMF.
Time in brackets is the time to be listed as advanced economies.
- Hong Kong (since 1997)
- Israel (since 1997)
- Singapore (since 1997)
- South Korea (since 1997)
- Taiwan (since 1997)
- Cyprus (since 2001)
- Slovenia (since 2007)
- Malta (since 2008)
- Czech Republic (since 2009, since 2006 by World Bank)
- Slovakia (since 2009)
- Estonia (since 2011)
- Latvia (since 2014)
- Lithuania (since 2015)
Three economies lack data before being listed as advanced economies.
However because of the lack of data, it is difficult to judge whether they were advanced economies or developing economies before being listed as advanced economies.
Newly industrialized countries
Ten countries belong to the "newly industrialized country" classification.
They are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed country's status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts:
- Brazil (since 2006)
- Russia (since 2006)
- India (since 2006)
- China (since 2006)
- South Africa (since 2010)
Society and culture
When looking at media coverage of developing countries, a generalized view has developed through Western media.
This common coverage has created a dominant stereotype of developing countries as: "the 'South' is characterized by socioeconomic and political backwardness, measured against Western values and standards."
Mass media's role often compares the Global South to the North and is thought to be an aid in the divide.
Mass media has also played a role in what information the people in developing countries receive.
The news often covers developed countries and creates an imbalance of information flow.
The people in developing countries do not often receive coverage of the other developing countries but instead gets generous amounts of coverage about developed countries.
- Land reform
- List of countries by wealth per adult
- Women migrant workers from developing countries
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developing country.