Developing country

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A developing country (or a low and middle-income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), medium-industrialized country or underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base (industries) and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. Developing country_sentence_0

However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. Developing country_sentence_1

There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. Developing country_sentence_2

A nation's GDP per capita, compared with other nations, can also be a reference point. Developing country_sentence_3

In general, the United Nations accepts any country's claim of itself being "developing". Developing country_sentence_4

There are controversies over this term's use, which some feel perpetuates an outdated concept of "us" and "them". Developing country_sentence_5

In 2015, the World Bank declared that the "developing/developed world categorization" is becoming less relevant and that they will phase out the use of that descriptor. Developing country_sentence_6

Instead, their reports will present data aggregations for regions and income groups. Developing country_sentence_7

The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected progress direction. Developing country_sentence_8

Since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries. Developing country_sentence_9

Developing countries tend to have some characteristics in common. Developing country_sentence_10

For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); a high number of road traffic accidents; and generally poor infrastructure. Developing country_sentence_11

Often, there is also widespread poverty, low education levels, inadequate access to family planning services, many informal settlements, corruption at all government levels, and a lack of so-called good governance. Developing country_sentence_12

Global warming (climate change) is expected to impact developing countries more than wealthier countries, as most of them have a high "climate vulnerability". Developing country_sentence_13

The Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations were set up to help overcome many of these problems. Developing country_sentence_14

Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support developing countries' economic, environmental, social, and political development. Developing country_sentence_15

Definitions Developing country_section_0

The UN acknowledges that it has "no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas". Developing country_sentence_16

According to its so-called M49 standards, published in 1999: Developing country_sentence_17

The UN implies that developing countries are those not on a tightly defined list of developed countries: Developing country_sentence_18

Certain countries that have become "developed" in the last 20 years by almost all economic metrics, still insist to be classified as "developing country", as it entitle them to a preferential treatment at the WTO, countries such as Brunei, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Macao, Qatar, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates have been cited and criticized for this self-declared status. Developing country_sentence_19

However, under other criteria, some countries are at an intermediate stage of development, or, as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) put it, following the fall of the Soviet Union, "countries in transition": all those of Central and Eastern Europe (including Central European countries that still belonged to the "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions); the former Soviet Union (USSR) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan); and Mongolia. Developing country_sentence_20

By 2009, the IMF's World Economic Outlook classified countries as advanced, emerging, or developing, depending on "(1) per capita income level, (2) export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and (3) degree of integration into the global financial system" Developing country_sentence_21

Along with the current level of development, countries can also be classified by how much their level of development has changed over a specific period of time. Developing country_sentence_22

In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between "developed" and "developing" countries in the presentation of its data, considering the two-category distinction outdated. Developing country_sentence_23

Instead, the World Bank classifies countries into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita, re-set each year on July 1. Developing country_sentence_24

In 2019, the four categories in US dollars were: Developing country_sentence_25

Developing country_unordered_list_0

  • Low income countries: $1,035 or less.Developing country_item_0_0
  • Lower middle income countries: $1,036 to $4,045.Developing country_item_0_1
  • Upper middle income countries: $4,046 to $12,535.Developing country_item_0_2
  • High income countries: $12,535 or moreDeveloping country_item_0_3

Measure and concept of development Developing country_section_1

Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as "one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment". Developing country_sentence_26

Development can be measured by economic or human factors. Developing country_sentence_27

Developing countries are, in general, countries that have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and have, in most cases, a medium to low standard of living. Developing country_sentence_28

There is an association between low income and high population growth. Developing country_sentence_29

The development of a country is measured with statistical indices such as income per capita (per person), gross domestic product per capita, life expectancy, the rate of literacy, freedom index and others. Developing country_sentence_30

The UN has developed the Human Development Index (HDI), a compound indicator of some of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available. Developing country_sentence_31

The UN had set Millennium Development Goals from a blueprint developed by all of the world's countries and leading development institutions, in order to evaluate growth. Developing country_sentence_32

These goals ended in 2015, to be superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals. Developing country_sentence_33

The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, modernization, social change and political economy. Developing country_sentence_34

Another important indicator is the sectoral changes that have occurred since the stage of development of the country. Developing country_sentence_35

On an average, countries with a 50% contribution from the secondary sector (manufacturing) have grown substantially. Developing country_sentence_36

Similarly countries with a tertiary sector stronghold also see a greater rate of economic development. Developing country_sentence_37

Terms used to classify levels of development Developing country_section_2

There are several terms used to classify countries into rough levels of development. Developing country_sentence_38

Classification of any given country differs across sources, and sometimes these classifications or the specific terminology used is considered disparaging. Developing country_sentence_39

Use of the term "market" instead of "country" usually indicates specific focus on the characteristics of the countries' capital markets as opposed to the overall economy. Developing country_sentence_40

Developing country_unordered_list_1

Developing countries can also be categorized by geography: Developing country_sentence_41

Developing country_unordered_list_2

Other classifications include: Developing country_sentence_42

Developing country_unordered_list_3

  • Heavily indebted poor countries, a definition by a program of the IMF and World BankDeveloping country_item_3_12
  • Transition economy, moving from a centrally planned to market-driven economyDeveloping country_item_3_13
  • Multi-dimensional clustering system: with the understanding that different countries have different development priorities and levels of access to resources and institutional capacities and to offer a more nuanced understanding of developing countries and their characteristics, scholars have categorised them into five distinct groups based on factors such as levels of poverty and inequality, productivity and innovation, political constraints and dependence on external flows.Developing country_item_3_14

Criticisms and related terms Developing country_section_3

There is criticism for using the term "developing country". Developing country_sentence_43

The term could imply inferiority of this kind of country compared with a developed country. Developing country_sentence_44

It could assume a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of economic development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan, choose not to follow. Developing country_sentence_45

Alternative measurements such as gross national happiness have been suggested as important indicators. Developing country_sentence_46

One of the early criticism that questioned the use of the terms "developing" and "underdeveloped" countries, was voiced in 1973 by prominent historian and academic Walter Rodney who compared the economic, social and political parameters between the United States and countries in Africa and Asia. Developing country_sentence_47

There is "no established convention" for defining "developing country". Developing country_sentence_48

According to economist and sustainable development expert Jeffrey Sachs, the current divide between the developed and developing world is largely a phenomenon of the 20th century. Developing country_sentence_49

The late global health expert Hans Rosling has argued against the terms, calling the concept "outdated" since the terms are used under the prerequisite that the world is divided in rich and poor countries, while the fact is that the vast majority of countries are middle-income. Developing country_sentence_50

To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word "developing", international organizations have started to use the term less economically developed country for the poorest nations—which can, in no sense, be regarded as developing. Developing country_sentence_51

This highlights that the standard of living across the entire developing world varies greatly. Developing country_sentence_52

Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries, underdeveloped nations, low and middle income countries (LMICs) and non-industrialized nations. Developing country_sentence_53

Conversely, developed countries, most economically developed countries, industrialized nations are the opposite end of the spectrum. Developing country_sentence_54

At the development level, anthropologist and researcher Jason Hickel has challenged the narrative that the rich countries of the OECD help the poor countries develop their economies and eradicate poverty. Developing country_sentence_55

Hickel states that the rich countries "aren’t developing poor countries; poor countries are developing rich ones." Developing country_sentence_56

In 2015, the World Bank declared that the "developing / developed world categorization" is becoming less relevant, due to worldwide improvements in indices such as child mortality rates, fertility rates and extreme poverty rates. Developing country_sentence_57

Accordingly, World Bank is phasing out use of that descriptor. Developing country_sentence_58

Instead, the reports by Worldbank (such as the World Development Indicators (WDI) and the Global Monitoring Report) now include data aggregations for the whole world, for regions, and for income groups – but not for the “developing world”. Developing country_sentence_59

Third World Developing country_section_4

Main article: Third World Developing country_sentence_60

Over the past few decades since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the term Third World has been used interchangeably with developing countries, but the concept has become outdated in recent years as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world. Developing country_sentence_61

The three-world model arose during the Cold War to define countries aligned with NATO (the First World), the Communist Bloc (the Second World, although this term was less used), or neither (the Third World). Developing country_sentence_62

Strictly speaking, "Third World" was a political, rather than an economic, grouping. Developing country_sentence_63

Global South Developing country_section_5

Main article: Global South Developing country_sentence_64

The term "Global South" began to be used more widely since about 2004. Developing country_sentence_65

It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries. Developing country_sentence_66

The Global South refers to these countries' "interconnected histories of colonialism, neo-imperialism, and differential economic and social change through which large inequalities in living standards, life expectancy, and access to resources are maintained". Developing country_sentence_67

Associated theories Developing country_section_6

The term "developing countries" has many research theories associated with it (in chronological order): Developing country_sentence_68

Developing country_unordered_list_4

  • Modernization theory - to explain the process of modernization within societiesDeveloping country_item_4_15
  • Dependency theory – the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the formerDeveloping country_item_4_16
  • Development theory – a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved.Developing country_item_4_17
  • Post-Development theory – holds that the whole concept and practice of development is a reflection of Western-Northern hegemony over the rest of the worldDeveloping country_item_4_18

Common characteristics Developing country_section_7

Government, politics and administration Developing country_section_8

Many developing countries have only attained full self-determination and democracy after the second half of the 20th century. Developing country_sentence_69

Many were governed by an imperial European power until decolonization. Developing country_sentence_70

Political systems in developing countries are diverse, but most states had established some form of democratic governments by the early 21st century, with varying degrees of success and political liberty. Developing country_sentence_71

The inhabitants of developing countries were introduced to democratic systems later and more abruptly than their Northern counterparts and were sometimes targeted by governmental and non-governmental efforts to encourage participation. Developing country_sentence_72

'Effective citizenship' is defined by sociologist Patrick Heller as: "closing [the] gap between formal legal rights in the civil and political arena, and the actual capability to meaningfully practice those rights". Developing country_sentence_73

Beyond citizenship, the study of the politics of cross-border mobility in developing countries has also shed valuable light in migration debates, seen as a corrective to the traditional focus on developed countries. Developing country_sentence_74

Some political scientists identify a 'typology of nationalizing, developmental, and neoliberal migration management regimes' across developing countries. Developing country_sentence_75

Economy Developing country_section_9

Following independence and decolonization in the 20th century, most developing countries had dire need of new infrastructure, industry and economic stimulation. Developing country_sentence_76

Many relied on foreign investment. Developing country_sentence_77

This funding focused on improving infrastructure and industry, but led to a system of systemic exploitation. Developing country_sentence_78

They exported raw materials, such as rubber, for a bargain. Developing country_sentence_79

Companies based in the Western world have often used the cheaper labor in developing countries for production. Developing country_sentence_80

The West benefited significantly from this system, but left developing countries undeveloped. Developing country_sentence_81

This arrangement is sometimes called neocolonialism, meaning a system in which less-developed countries are taken advantage of by developed countries. Developing country_sentence_82

It does not necessarily mean that former colonies are still controlled by their former colonizer; it refers to colonial-like exploitation. Developing country_sentence_83

Developing countries are often helping further develop rich countries, rather than being developed themselves. Developing country_sentence_84

Several institutions have been established with the goal of putting an end to this system. Developing country_sentence_85

One of these institutions is the New International Economic Order. Developing country_sentence_86

They have a 'no-strings-attached' policy that promotes developing countries remaining or becoming self-sufficient. Developing country_sentence_87

More specifically, they advocate sovereignty over natural resources and industrialization. Developing country_sentence_88

Coalitions of developing nations, like the NIEO, frequently lobby for parity in the world stage. Developing country_sentence_89

The rise of China might imply the rise of the BRIC countries. Developing country_sentence_90

Common challenges Developing country_section_10

The global issues most often discussed by developing countries include globalisation, global health governance, health, and prevention needs. Developing country_sentence_91

This is contrasted by issues developed nations tend to address, such as innovations in science and technology. Developing country_sentence_92

Most developing countries have these criteria in common: Developing country_sentence_93

Developing country_unordered_list_5

  • High levels of poverty – measured based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. For example, if the GNI per capita is less than US $1,025 (as of 2018) the country is regarded as a least developed country.Developing country_item_5_19
  • Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy).Developing country_item_5_20
  • Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters).Developing country_item_5_21

Urban slums Developing country_section_11

Main article: Slum Developing country_sentence_94

According to UN-Habitat, around 33% of the urban population in the developing world in 2012, or about 863 million people, lived in slums. Developing country_sentence_95

In 2012, the proportion of urban population living in slums was highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (62%), followed by South Asia (35%), Southeast Asia (31%) and East Asia (28%). Developing country_sentence_96

The UN-Habitat reports that 43% of urban population in developing countries and 78% of those in the least developed countries are slum dwellers. Developing country_sentence_97

Slums form and grow in different parts of the world for many different reasons. Developing country_sentence_98

Causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, high unemployment, poverty, informal economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts. Developing country_sentence_99

For example, as populations expand in poorer countries, rural people are moving to cities in an extensive urban migration that is resulting in the creation of slums. Developing country_sentence_100

In some cities, especially in countries in Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, slums are not just marginalized neighborhoods holding a small population; slums are widespread, and are home to a large part of urban population. Developing country_sentence_101

These are sometimes called "slum cities". Developing country_sentence_102

Violence against women Developing country_section_12

Main article: Violence against women Developing country_sentence_103

Several forms of violence against women are more prevalent in developing countries than in other parts of the world. Developing country_sentence_104

For example, dowry violence and bride burning is associated with Bangladesh, and Nepal. Developing country_sentence_105

Acid throwing is also associated with these countries, as well as in Southeast Asia, including Cambodia. Developing country_sentence_106

Honor killing is associated with the Middle East and South Asia. Developing country_sentence_107

Marriage by abduction is found in Ethiopia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. Developing country_sentence_108

Abuse related to payment of bride price (such as violence, trafficking and forced marriage) is linked to parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Developing country_sentence_109

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is another form of violence against women which is still occurring in many developing countries. Developing country_sentence_110

It is found mostly in Africa, and to a lesser extent in the Middle East and some other parts of Asia. Developing country_sentence_111

Developing countries with the highest rate of women who have been cut are Somalia (with 98% of women affected), Guinea (96%), Djibouti (93%), Egypt (91%), Eritrea (89%), Mali (89%), Sierra Leone (88%), Sudan (88%), Gambia (76%), Burkina Faso (76%), and Ethiopia (74%). Developing country_sentence_112

Due to globalization and immigration, FGM is spreading beyond the borders of Africa and Middle East, to countries such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, New Zealand, the U.S., and UK. Developing country_sentence_113

The Istanbul Convention prohibits female genital mutilation (Article 38). Developing country_sentence_114

As of 2016, FGM has been legally banned in many African countries. Developing country_sentence_115

According to UN Women facts and figures on ending Violence against women, it is estimated that 35 percent of women world wide have experienced either physical and Sexual violence by intimate partners or Sexual violence by a non-partner(Not including Sexual harassment) at some point in their lives. Developing country_sentence_116

Evidence shows women who have had experienced physical or sexual Intimate partner violence report higher rates of depression, having an Abortion and acquiring HIV, compared to women who have not had experienced any physical or Sexual violence. Developing country_sentence_117

Data from multi-country from Middle East and North Africa shows that men who witnessed their fathers against their mothers, and men who experienced some form of violence as children, more likely have reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in their adult relationships. Developing country_sentence_118

Healthcare and public health Developing country_section_13

The comparison in healthcare between developing countries and developed countries is substantially different. Developing country_sentence_119

People in developing countries usually have a lower life expectancy than people in developed countries. Developing country_sentence_120

The burden of infectious diseases, maternal mortality, child mortality and infant mortality are typically substantially higher. Developing country_sentence_121

Undernutrition is more common in developing countries. Developing country_sentence_122

Certain groups have higher rates of undernutrition, including women—in particular while pregnant or breastfeeding—children under five years of age, and the elderly. Developing country_sentence_123

Malnutrition in children and stunted growth of children is the cause for more than 200 million children under five years of age in developing countries not reaching their developmental potential. Developing country_sentence_124

About 165 million children were estimated to have stunted growth from malnutrition in 2013. Developing country_sentence_125

In some developing countries, overnutrition in the form of obesity is beginning to present within the same communities as undernutrition. Developing country_sentence_126

The following list shows the further significant environmentally-related causes or conditions, as well as certain diseases with a strong environmental component: Developing country_sentence_127

Developing country_unordered_list_6

Water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH) Developing country_section_14

Further information: WASH and Water issues in developing countries Developing country_sentence_128

Access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is at very low levels in many developing countries. Developing country_sentence_129

In 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that "1 in 3 people, or 2.4 billion, are still without sanitation facilities" while 663 million people still lack access to safe and clean drinking water. Developing country_sentence_130

The estimate in 2017 by JMP states that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation. Developing country_sentence_131

The majority of these people live in developing countries. Developing country_sentence_132

About 892 million people or 12 per cent of the global population, practiced open defecation instead of using toilets in 2016. Developing country_sentence_133

Seventy-six per cent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world live in just seven countries. Developing country_sentence_134

Countries with a high number of people openly defecating are India (348 million), followed by Nigeria (38.1 million), Indonesia (26.4 million), Ethiopia (23.1 million), Pakistan (19.7 million), Niger (14.6 million) and Sudan (9.7 million). Developing country_sentence_135

Sustainable Development Goal 6 is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the UN in 2015. Developing country_sentence_136

It calls for clean water and sanitation for all people. Developing country_sentence_137

This is particularly relevant for people in developing countries. Developing country_sentence_138

Energy Developing country_section_15

Main articles: Energy poverty and Renewable energy in developing countries Developing country_sentence_139

In 2009, about 1.4 billion of people in the world lived without electricity. Developing country_sentence_140

2.7 billion relied on wood, charcoal, and dung (dry animal dung fuel) for home energy requirements. Developing country_sentence_141

This lack of access to modern energy technology limits income generation, blunts efforts to escape poverty, affects people's health due to indoor air pollution, and contributes to global deforestation and climate change. Developing country_sentence_142

Small-scale renewable energy technologies and distributed energy options, such as onsite solar power and improved cookstoves, offer rural households modern energy services. Developing country_sentence_143

Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries. Developing country_sentence_144

In rural and remote areas, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Developing country_sentence_145

Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Developing country_sentence_146

Renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty alleviation by providing the energy needed for creating businesses and employment. Developing country_sentence_147

Renewable energy technologies can also make indirect contributions to alleviating poverty by providing energy for cooking, space heating, and lighting. Developing country_sentence_148

Kenya is the world leader in the number of solar power systems installed per capita. Developing country_sentence_149

Pollution Developing country_section_16

Indoor air pollution Developing country_section_17

Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard. Developing country_sentence_150

A major source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass. Developing country_sentence_151

Three billion people in developing countries across the globe rely on biomass in the form of wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residue, as their domestic cooking fuel. Developing country_sentence_152

Because much of the cooking is carried out indoors in environments that lack proper ventilation, millions of people, primarily poor women and children face serious health risks. Developing country_sentence_153

Globally, 4.3 million deaths were attributed to exposure to IAP in developing countries in 2012, almost all in low and middle income countries. Developing country_sentence_154

The South East Asian and Western Pacific regions bear most of the burden with 1.69 and 1.62 million deaths, respectively. Developing country_sentence_155

Almost 600,000 deaths occur in Africa. Developing country_sentence_156

An earlier estimate from 2000 put the death toll between 1.5 million and 2 million deaths. Developing country_sentence_157

Finding an affordable solution to address the many effects of indoor air pollution is complex. Developing country_sentence_158

Strategies include improving combustion, reducing smoke exposure, improving safety and reducing labor, reducing fuel costs, and addressing sustainability. Developing country_sentence_159

Water pollution Developing country_section_18

Water pollution is a major problem in many developing countries. Developing country_sentence_160

It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). Developing country_sentence_161

It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. Developing country_sentence_162

India and China are two countries with high levels of water pollution: An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness (including waterborne diseases) every day. Developing country_sentence_163

About 90 percent of the water in the cities of China is polluted. Developing country_sentence_164

As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water. Developing country_sentence_165

Further details of water pollution in several countries, including many developing countries: Developing country_sentence_166

Climate change Developing country_section_19

Further information: Regional effects of climate change, Climate change in Africa, and Effects of climate change on South Asia Developing country_sentence_167

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has confirmed that warming of the climate system due to human intervention is 'unequivocal'. Developing country_sentence_168

The effects of climate change will be felt around the globe and will result in events such as extreme weather events, droughts, floods, biodiversity loss, disease and sea level rise, which are dangerous for societies and the environment. Developing country_sentence_169

Although developing countries have not been the major cause of climate change, they are the most at risk from the effects of these changes and may face challenges in adapting to climate change due to the intersecting issues of high climate vulnerability, low economic status, restricted access to technology, failing infrastructure and limited access to financial resources. Developing country_sentence_170

Where a country is particularly vulnerable to climate change they are called "highly climate vulnerable". Developing country_sentence_171

This applies to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, fragile states or failed states like Afghanistan, Haiti, Myanmar, and Somalia, as well as to Small Island Developing States. Developing country_sentence_172

In the cases where developing countries produce only small quantities of greenhouse gas emissions per capita but are very vulnerable to the negative effects of global warming, the term "forced riders" as opposed to the "free riders" has been used as a descriptor. Developing country_sentence_173

Such countries include Comoros, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Developing country_sentence_174

Climate vulnerability has been quantified in the Climate Vulnerability Monitor reports of 2010 and 2012. Developing country_sentence_175

Climate vulnerability in developing countries occurs in four impact areas: health, extreme weather, habitat loss, and economic stress. Developing country_sentence_176

A report by the Climate Vulnerability Monitor in 2012 estimated that climate change causes 400,000 deaths on average each year, mainly due to hunger and communicable diseases in developing countries. Developing country_sentence_177

These effects are most severe for the world's poorest countries. Developing country_sentence_178

Internationally there is recognition of the mismatch between those that have caused climate change and those which will suffer the most from climate change, termed "climate justice". Developing country_sentence_179

It has been a topic for discussion at some of the United Nations Climate Change Conferences (COP). Developing country_sentence_180

A changing climate also results in economic burdens. Developing country_sentence_181

The economies in Least Developed Countries have lost an average of 7% of their gross domestic product for the year 2010, mainly due to reduced labor productivity. Developing country_sentence_182

Rising sea levels cost 1% of GDP to the least developed countries in 2010 – 4% in the Pacific – with 65 billion dollars annually lost from the world economy. Developing country_sentence_183

Another example is the impact on fisheries: approximately 40 countries are acutely vulnerable to the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on fisheries. Developing country_sentence_184

Developing countries with large fisheries sectors are particularly affected. Developing country_sentence_185

During the Cancún COP16 in 2010, donor countries promised an annual $100 billion by 2020 through the Green Climate Fund for developing countries to adapt to climate change. Developing country_sentence_186

However, concrete pledges by developed countries have not been forthcoming. Developing country_sentence_187

Emmanuel Macron (President of France) said at the 2017 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bonn (COP 23): "Climate change adds further injustice to an already unfair world". Developing country_sentence_188

Economic development and climate are inextricably linked, particularly around poverty, gender equality, and energy. Developing country_sentence_189

Tackling climate change will only be possible if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are met, in particular Sustainable Development Goal 13 on climate action). Developing country_sentence_190

Climate stress is likely to add to existing migration patterns in developing countries and beyond but is not expected to generate entirely new flows of people. Developing country_sentence_191

A report by the World Bank in 2018 estimated that around 143 million people in three regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America) could be forced to move within their own countries to escape the slow-onset impacts of climate change. Developing country_sentence_192

They will migrate from less viable areas with lower water availability and crop productivity and from areas affected by rising sea level and storm surges. Developing country_sentence_193

In spite of the cumulative stressors and challenges faced by developing countries in adapting to the effects of climate change, there are those that are world leaders in the field such as Bangladesh. Developing country_sentence_194

Bangladesh created a national programme in 2009 focused on how the country would adapt to climate change (the first country to do so). Developing country_sentence_195

It established a fund to support these plans, spending on average $1 billion annually in this regard. Developing country_sentence_196

Population growth Developing country_section_20

See also: List of countries and territories by fertility rate Developing country_sentence_197

Over the last few decades, global population growth has largely been driven by developing countries, which often have higher birth rates (higher fecundity rate) than developed countries. Developing country_sentence_198

According to the United Nations, family planning can help to slow population growth and decrease poverty in these countries. Developing country_sentence_199

The violent herder–farmer conflicts in Nigeria, the march 2019 attacks against Fulani herders in Mali, the Sudanese nomadic conflicts and other conflicts in the countries of the Sahel region have been exacerbated by climate change, land degradation, and population growth. Developing country_sentence_200

Droughts and food shortages have been also linked to the Northern Mali conflict. Developing country_sentence_201

Poor governance Developing country_section_21

Many developing countries are considered un-free or flawed democracies by freedom indices such as the Democracy Index, Freedom in the World and Index of Freedom in the World and Following decolonization and independence, elites have often had oligarchic control of the government. Developing country_sentence_202

The establishment of a healthy democratic state has often been challenged by widespread corruption and nepotism and a low confidence and participation in democratic process. Developing country_sentence_203

Political instability and political corruption are common problems. Developing country_sentence_204

Others Developing country_section_22

Developing country_unordered_list_7

The economies of many developing nations are tried to primary products and a majority of their exports go to advanced nations. Developing country_sentence_205

When advanced nations encounter economic downturns, they can quickly transmitted to their developing country trading partners as seen in global economic downturn of 2008–2009. Developing country_sentence_206

Opportunities Developing country_section_23

Developing country_unordered_list_8

  • Human CapitalDeveloping country_item_8_39
  • Trade Policy: Countries with more restrictive policies have not grown as fast as countries with open and less distorted trade policies.Developing country_item_8_40
  • Investment: Investment has a positive effect on growth.Developing country_item_8_41
  • EducationDeveloping country_item_8_42
  • Aid for Trade: Included in Sustainable Development Goal 8 under Target 8.a.1 Increase aid for trade is an initiative to help developing countries practice trade and benefit. Aid for trade is to assist developing countries in trade related programmes, priotise trade and trade capacity, improve trade performance and reduce poverty.Developing country_item_8_43
  • Global partnership: A provision of Sustainable Development Goal 17 which advocates for international investment and support to achieve innovative technological development, access to market, and fair trade for developing countries.Developing country_item_8_44

Country lists Developing country_section_24

Developing countries according to International Monetary Fund Developing country_section_25

The following are considered developing economies according to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018. Developing country_sentence_207

Countries and regions that are graduated developed economies Developing country_section_26

The following list, including the Four Asian Tigers and new Eurozone European countries, were historically considered developing countries and regions until the 1990s, and are now listed as advanced economies (developed countries and regions) by the IMF. Developing country_sentence_208

Time in brackets is the time to be listed as advanced economies. Developing country_sentence_209

Developing country_unordered_list_9

  • Hong Kong (since 1997)Developing country_item_9_45
  • Israel (since 1997)Developing country_item_9_46
  • Singapore (since 1997)Developing country_item_9_47
  • South Korea (since 1997)Developing country_item_9_48
  • Taiwan (since 1997)Developing country_item_9_49
  • Cyprus (since 2001)Developing country_item_9_50
  • Slovenia (since 2007)Developing country_item_9_51
  • Malta (since 2008)Developing country_item_9_52
  • Czech Republic (since 2009, since 2006 by World Bank)Developing country_item_9_53
  • Slovakia (since 2009)Developing country_item_9_54
  • Estonia (since 2011)Developing country_item_9_55
  • Latvia (since 2014)Developing country_item_9_56
  • Lithuania (since 2015)Developing country_item_9_57

Three economies lack data before being listed as advanced economies. Developing country_sentence_210

However because of the lack of data, it is difficult to judge whether they were advanced economies or developing economies before being listed as advanced economies. Developing country_sentence_211

Developing country_unordered_list_10

  • San Marino (since 2012)Developing country_item_10_58
  • Macau (since 2016)Developing country_item_10_59
  • Puerto Rico (since 2016)Developing country_item_10_60

Newly industrialized countries Developing country_section_27

Ten countries belong to the "newly industrialized country" classification. Developing country_sentence_212

They are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed country's status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts: Developing country_sentence_213

Developing country_unordered_list_11

BRICS countries Developing country_section_28

Five countries belong to the "emerging markets" groups and are together called the BRICS countries: Developing country_sentence_214

Developing country_unordered_list_12

  • Brazil (since 2006)Developing country_item_12_71
  • Russia (since 2006)Developing country_item_12_72
  • India (since 2006)Developing country_item_12_73
  • China (since 2006)Developing country_item_12_74
  • South Africa (since 2010)Developing country_item_12_75

Society and culture Developing country_section_29

Media coverage Developing country_section_30

When looking at media coverage of developing countries, a generalized view has developed through Western media. Developing country_sentence_215

Negative images and coverage of the poverty are frequent in the mass media when talking about developing countries. Developing country_sentence_216

This common coverage has created a dominant stereotype of developing countries as: "the 'South' is characterized by socioeconomic and political backwardness, measured against Western values and standards." Developing country_sentence_217

Mass media's role often compares the Global South to the North and is thought to be an aid in the divide. Developing country_sentence_218

Mass media has also played a role in what information the people in developing countries receive. Developing country_sentence_219

The news often covers developed countries and creates an imbalance of information flow. Developing country_sentence_220

The people in developing countries do not often receive coverage of the other developing countries but instead gets generous amounts of coverage about developed countries. Developing country_sentence_221

See also Developing country_section_31

Developing country_unordered_list_13

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