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This article is about the music genre. Disco_sentence_0

For the entertainment venue, see nightclub. Disco_sentence_1

For other uses, see Disco (disambiguation). Disco_sentence_2


Stylistic originsDisco_header_cell_0_1_0 Disco_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsDisco_header_cell_0_2_0 Late 1960s – early 1970s, Philadelphia and New York CityDisco_cell_0_2_1
Derivative formsDisco_header_cell_0_3_0 Disco_cell_0_3_1
Fusion genresDisco_header_cell_0_5_0
Regional scenesDisco_header_cell_0_6_0
Local scenesDisco_header_cell_0_7_0
Other topicsDisco_header_cell_0_8_0

Disco is a genre of dance music and a subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene. Disco_sentence_3

Its sound is typified by four-on-the-floor beats, syncopated basslines, string sections, horns, electric piano, synthesizers, and electric rhythm guitars. Disco_sentence_4

Well-known disco artists include Donna Summer, Gloria Gaynor, Boney M., Earth Wind & Fire, the Bee Gees, Chaka Khan, Chic, KC and the Sunshine Band, Thelma Houston, Sister Sledge, The Trammps, the Village People, and Michael Jackson. Disco_sentence_5

While performers garnered public attention, record producers working behind the scenes played an important role in developing the genre. Disco_sentence_6

Films such as Saturday Night Fever (1977) and Thank God It's Friday (1978) contributed to disco's mainstream popularity. Disco_sentence_7

Disco started as a mixture of music from venues popular with African Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Italian Americans, and gay men in Philadelphia and New York City during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Disco_sentence_8

Disco can be seen as a reaction by the 1960s counterculture to both the dominance of rock music and the stigmatization of dance music at the time. Disco_sentence_9

Several dance styles were developed during the period of disco's popularity in the United States, including "the Bump" and "the Hustle". Disco_sentence_10

By the late 1970s, most major U.S. cities had thriving disco club scenes, and DJs would mix dance records at clubs such as Studio 54 in Manhattan, a venue popular among celebrities. Disco_sentence_11

Discothèque-goers often wore expensive, extravagant, and sexy fashions. Disco_sentence_12

There was also a thriving drug subculture in the disco scene, particularly for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud music and the flashing lights, such as cocaine and Quaaludes, the latter being so common in disco subculture that they were nicknamed "disco biscuits". Disco_sentence_13

Disco clubs were also associated with promiscuity as a reflection of the sexual revolution of this era in popular history. Disco_sentence_14

Disco was the last popular music movement driven by baby boomers, peaking in popularity during the mid-late 1970s. Disco_sentence_15

It declined as a major trend in popular music during the late 1970s to early 1980s, but remained a key influence in the development of electronic dance music, house music, hip-hop, new wave, and post-disco. Disco_sentence_16

While no new disco movement has dominated popular music since its decline, the style has had several revivals since the 1990s, and the influence of disco remains strong across American and European pop music. Disco_sentence_17

Etymology Disco_section_0

The term "disco" is shorthand for the word discothèque, a French word for "library of phonograph records" derived from "bibliothèque". Disco_sentence_18

The word "discothèque" had the same meaning in English in the 1950s. Disco_sentence_19

"Discothèque" became used in French for a type of nightclub in Paris, France, after these had resorted to playing records during the Nazi occupation in the early 1940s. Disco_sentence_20

Some clubs used it as their proper name. Disco_sentence_21

In 1960, it was also used to describe a Parisian nightclub in an English magazine. Disco_sentence_22

In the summer of 1964, a short sleeveless dress called "discotheque dress" was briefly very popular in the United States. Disco_sentence_23

The earliest known use for the abbreviated form "disco" described this dress and has been found in The Salt Lake Tribune on July 12, 1964, but Playboy magazine used it in September of the same year to describe Los Angeles nightclubs. Disco_sentence_24

Vince Aletti was one of the first to describe disco as a sound or a music genre. Disco_sentence_25

He wrote the feature article "Discotheque Rock Paaaaarty" that appeared in Rolling Stone magazine in September 1973. Disco_sentence_26

Musical characteristics Disco_section_1

The music typically layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals, often doubled by horns, over a background "pad" of electric pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars played on an electric guitar. Disco_sentence_27

Lead guitar features less frequently in disco than in rock. Disco_sentence_28

"The "chicken scratch" sound is achieved by lightly pressing the guitar strings against the fretboard and then quickly releasing them just enough to get a slightly muted poker [sound] while constantly strumming very close to the bridge." Disco_sentence_29

Other backing keyboard instruments include the piano, electric organ (during early years), string synthesizers, and electromechanical keyboards such as the Fender Rhodes electric piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, and Hohner Clavinet. Disco_sentence_30

Synthesizers are also fairly common in disco, especially in the late 1970s. Disco_sentence_31

The rhythm is laid down by prominent, syncopated basslines (with heavy use of broken octaves, that is, octaves with the notes sounded one after the other) played on the bass guitar and by drummers using a drum kit, African/Latin percussion, and electronic drums such as Simmons and Roland drum modules. Disco_sentence_32

The sound was enriched with solo lines and harmony parts played by a variety of orchestral instruments, such as harp, violin, viola, cello, trumpet, saxophone, trombone, clarinet, flugelhorn, French horn, tuba, English horn, oboe, flute (sometimes especially the alto flute and occasionally bass flute), piccolo, timpani and synth strings, string section or a full string orchestra. Disco_sentence_33

Most disco songs have a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, and a heavy, syncopated bass line. Disco_sentence_34

Other Latin rhythms such as the rhumba, the samba, and the cha-cha-cha are also found in disco recordings, and Latin polyrhythms, such as a rhumba beat layered over a merengue, are commonplace. Disco_sentence_35

The quaver pattern is often supported by other instruments such as the rhythm guitar and may be implied rather than explicitly present. Disco_sentence_36

Songs often use syncopation, which is the accenting of unexpected beats. Disco_sentence_37

In general, the difference between disco, or any dance song, and a rock or popular song is that in dance music the bass drum hits four to the floor, at least once a beat (which in 4/4 time is 4 beats per measure). Disco_sentence_38

Disco is further characterized by a 16th note division of the quarter notes as shown in the second drum pattern below, after a typical rock drum pattern. Disco_sentence_39

The orchestral sound is usually known as "disco sound" relies heavily on string sections and horns playing linear phrases, in unison with the soaring, often reverberated vocals or playing instrumental fills, while electric pianos and chicken-scratch guitars create the background "pad" sound defining the harmony progression. Disco_sentence_40

Typically, all of the doubling of parts and use of additional instruments creates a rich "wall of sound". Disco_sentence_41

There are, however, more minimalist flavors of disco with reduced, transparent instrumentation, pioneered by Chic. Disco_sentence_42

Harmonically, disco music typically contains major and minor seven chords, which are found more often in jazz than pop music. Disco_sentence_43

Production Disco_section_2

The "disco sound" was much more costly to produce than many of the other popular music genres from the 1970s. Disco_sentence_44

Unlike the simpler, four-piece-band sound of funk, soul music of the late 1960s, or the small jazz organ trios, disco music often included a large band, with several chordal instruments (guitar, keyboards, synthesizer), several drum or percussion instruments (drumkit, Latin percussion, electronic drums), a horn section, a string orchestra, and a variety of "classical" solo instruments (for example, flute, piccolo, and so on). Disco_sentence_45

Disco songs were arranged and composed by experienced arrangers and orchestrators, and record producers added their creative touches to the overall sound using multitrack recording techniques and effects units. Disco_sentence_46

Recording complex arrangements with such a large number of instruments and sections required a team that included a conductor, copyists, record producers, and mixing engineers. Disco_sentence_47

Mixing engineers had an important role in the disco production process, because disco songs used as many as 64 tracks of vocals and instruments. Disco_sentence_48

Mixing engineers and record producers, under the direction of arrangers, compiled these tracks into a fluid composition of verses, bridges, and refrains, complete with builds and breaks. Disco_sentence_49

Mixing engineers and record producers helped to develop the "disco sound" by creating a distinctive-sounding, sophisticated disco mix. Disco_sentence_50

Early records were the "standard" three-minute version until Tom Moulton came up with a way to make songs longer so that he could take a crowd of dancers at a club to another level and keep them dancing longer. Disco_sentence_51

He found that it was impossible to make the 45-RPM vinyl singles of the time longer, as they could usually hold no more than five minutes of good-quality music. Disco_sentence_52

With the help of José Rodriguez, his remaster/mastering engineer, he pressed a single on a 10" disc instead of 7". Disco_sentence_53

They cut the next single on a 12" disc, the same format as a standard album. Disco_sentence_54

Moulton and Rodriguez discovered that these larger records could have much longer songs and remixes. Disco_sentence_55

12" single records, also known as "Maxi singles", quickly became the standard format for all DJs of the disco genre. Disco_sentence_56

Club culture Disco_section_3

Nightclubs Disco_section_4

See also: Circuit parties Disco_sentence_57

By the late 1970s most major US cities had thriving disco club scenes. Disco_sentence_58

The largest scenes were most notably in New York City but also in Philadelphia, San Francisco, Miami, and Washington, D.C. The scene was centered on discotheques, nightclubs, and private loft parties. Disco_sentence_59

In the 1970s, notable discos included "Crisco Disco", "The Sanctuary", "Leviticus", "Studio 54" and "Paradise Garage" in New York, "Artemis" in Philadelphia, "Studio One" in Los Angeles, "Dugan's Bistro" in Chicago, and "The Library" in Atlanta. Disco_sentence_60

In the late '70s, Studio 54 in Midtown Manhattan was arguably the best known nightclub in the world. Disco_sentence_61

This club played a major formative role in the growth of disco music and nightclub culture in general. Disco_sentence_62

It was operated by Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager and was notorious for the hedonism that went on within; the balconies were known for sexual encounters, and drug use was rampant. Disco_sentence_63

Its dance floor was decorated with an image of the "Man in the Moon" that included an animated cocaine spoon. Disco_sentence_64

The "Copacabana", another New York nightclub dating to the 1940s, had a revival in the late 1970s when it embraced disco; it would become the setting of a Barry Manilow song of the same name. Disco_sentence_65

In Washington, D.C., large disco clubs such as "The Pier" ("Pier 9") and "The Other Side," originally regarded exclusively as "gay bars," became particularly popular among the capital area's gay and straight college students in the late '70s. Disco_sentence_66

Sound and light equipment Disco_section_5

Powerful, bass-heavy, hi-fi sound systems were viewed as a key part of the disco club experience. Disco_sentence_67

"Mancuso introduced the technologies of tweeter arrays (clusters of small loudspeakers, which emit high-end frequencies, positioned above the floor) and bass reinforcements (additional sets of subwoofers positioned at ground level) at the start of the 1970s to boost the treble and bass at opportune moments, and by the end of the decade sound engineers such as Richard Long had multiplied the effects of these innovations in venues such as the Garage." Disco_sentence_68

Typical lighting designs for disco dance floors could include multi-coloured lights that swirl around or flash to the beat, strobe light, an illuminated dance floor and a mirror ball. Disco_sentence_69

DJs Disco_section_6

Disco-era disc jockeys (DJs) would often remix existing songs using reel-to-reel tape machines, and add in percussion breaks, new sections, and new sounds. Disco_sentence_70

DJs would select songs and grooves according to what the dancers wanted, transitioning from one song to another with a DJ mixer and using a microphone to introduce songs and speak to the audiences. Disco_sentence_71

Other equipment was added to the basic DJ setup, providing unique sound manipulations, such as reverb, equalization, and echo effects unit. Disco_sentence_72

Using this equipment, a DJ could do effects such as cutting out all but the bassline of a song and then slowly mixing in the beginning of another song using the DJ mixer's crossfader. Disco_sentence_73

Notable U.S. disco DJs include Francis Grasso of The Sanctuary, David Mancuso of The Loft, Frankie Knuckles of the Chicago Warehouse, Larry Levan of the Paradise Garage, Nicky Siano, Walter Gibbons, Karen Mixon Cook, Jim Burgess, John "Jellybean" Benitez, Richie Kulala of Studio 54 and Rick Salsalini. Disco_sentence_74

Some DJs were also record producers who created and produced disco songs in the recording studio. Disco_sentence_75

Larry Levan, for example, was a prolific record producer as well as a DJ. Disco_sentence_76

Because record sales were often dependent on dance floor play by DJs in leading nightclubs, DJs were also influential for the development and popularization of certain types of disco music being produced for record labels. Disco_sentence_77

Dance Disco_section_7

In the early years, dancers in discos danced in a "hang loose" or "freestyle" approach. Disco_sentence_78

At first, many dancers improvised their own dance styles and dance steps. Disco_sentence_79

Later in the disco era, popular dance styles were developed, including the "Bump", "Penguin", "Boogaloo", "Watergate" and "Robot". Disco_sentence_80

By October 1975 the Hustle reigned. Disco_sentence_81

It was highly stylized, sophisticated and overtly sexual. Disco_sentence_82

Variations included the Brooklyn Hustle, New York Hustle and Latin Hustle. Disco_sentence_83

During the disco era, many nightclubs would commonly host disco dance competitions or offer free dance lessons. Disco_sentence_84

Some cities had disco dance instructors or dance schools, which taught people how to do popular disco dances such as "touch dancing", "the hustle", and "the cha cha". Disco_sentence_85

The pioneer of disco dance instruction was Karen Lustgarten in San Francisco in 1973. Disco_sentence_86

Her book The Complete Guide to Disco Dancing (Warner Books 1978) was the first to name, break down and codify popular disco dances as dance forms and distinguish between disco freestyle, partner and line dances. Disco_sentence_87

The book topped the New York Times bestseller list for 13 weeks and was translated into Chinese, German and French. Disco_sentence_88

In Chicago, the Step By Step disco dance TV show was launched with the sponsorship support of the Coca-Cola company. Disco_sentence_89

Produced in the same studio that Don Cornelius used for the nationally syndicated dance/music television show, Soul Train, Step by Step's audience grew and the show became a success. Disco_sentence_90

The dynamic dance duo of Robin and Reggie led the show. Disco_sentence_91

The pair spent the week teaching disco dancing to dancers in the disco clubs. Disco_sentence_92

The instructional show aired on Saturday mornings and had a strong following. Disco_sentence_93

The viewers of this would stay up all night on Fridays so they could be on the set the next morning, ready to return to the disco on Saturday night knowing with the latest personalized dance steps. Disco_sentence_94

The producers of the show, John Reid and Greg Roselli, routinely made appearances at disco functions with Robin and Reggie to scout out new dancing talent and promote upcoming events such as "Disco Night at White Sox Park". Disco_sentence_95

In Sacramento, California, Disco King Paul Dale Roberts danced for the Guinness Book of World Records. Disco_sentence_96

Roberts danced for 205 hours which is the equivalent of 8 ½ days. Disco_sentence_97

Other dance marathons took place after Roberts held the world's record for disco dancing for a short period of time. Disco_sentence_98

Some notable professional dance troupes of the 1970s included Pan's People and Hot Gossip. Disco_sentence_99

For many dancers, a key source of inspiration for 1970s disco dancing was the film Saturday Night Fever (1977). Disco_sentence_100

This developed into the music and dance style of such films as Fame (1980), Disco Dancer (1982), Flashdance (1983), and The Last Days of Disco (1998). Disco_sentence_101

Interest in disco dancing also helped spawn dance competition TV shows such as Dance Fever (1979). Disco_sentence_102

Fashion Disco_section_8

Disco fashions were very trendy in the late 1970s. Disco_sentence_103

Discothèque-goers often wore glamorous, expensive, and extravagant fashions for nights out at their local disco club. Disco_sentence_104

Some women would wear sheer, flowing dresses, such as Halston dresses or loose, flared pants. Disco_sentence_105

Other women wore tight, revealing, sexy clothes, such as backless halter tops, disco pants, "hot pants", or body-hugging spandex bodywear or "catsuits". Disco_sentence_106

Men would wear shiny polyester Qiana shirts with colorful patterns and pointy, extra wide collars, preferably open at the chest. Disco_sentence_107

Men often wore Pierre Cardin suits, three piece suits with a vest and double-knit polyester shirt jackets with matching trousers known as the leisure suit. Disco_sentence_108

Men's leisure suits were typically form-fitted in some parts of the body, such as the waist and bottom, but the lower part of the pants were flared in a bell bottom style, to permit freedom of movement. Disco_sentence_109

During the disco era, men engaged in elaborate grooming rituals and spent time choosing fashion clothing, both activities that would have been considered "feminine" according to the gender stereotypes of the era. Disco_sentence_110

Women dancers wore glitter makeup, sequins, or gold lamé clothing that would shimmer under the lights. Disco_sentence_111

Bold colors were popular for both genders. Disco_sentence_112

Platform shoes and boots for both genders and high heels for women were popular footwear. Disco_sentence_113

Necklaces and medallions were a common fashion accessory. Disco_sentence_114

Less commonly, some disco dancers wore outlandish costumes, dressed in drag, covered their bodies with gold or silver paint, or wore very skimpy outfits leaving them nearly nude; these uncommon get-ups were more likely to be seen at invitation-only New York City loft parties and disco clubs. Disco_sentence_115

Drug subculture Disco_section_9

In addition to the dance and fashion aspects of the disco club scene, there was also a thriving club drug subculture, particularly for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud, bass-heavy music and the flashing colored lights, such as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite ("poppers"), and the "... other quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and gave the sensation that one's arms and legs had turned to 'Jell-O.'" Disco_sentence_116

Quaaludes were so popular at disco clubs that the drug was nicknamed "disco biscuits". Disco_sentence_117

Paul Gootenberg states that "[t]he relationship of cocaine to 1970s disco culture cannot be stressed enough..." During the 1970s, the use of cocaine by well-to-do celebrities led to its "glamorization" and to the widely held view that it was a "soft drug". Disco_sentence_118

LSD, marijuana, and "speed" (amphetamines) were also popular in disco clubs, and the use of these drugs "...contributed to the hedonistic quality of the dance floor experience." Disco_sentence_119

Since disco dances were typically held in liquor licensed-nightclubs and dance clubs, alcoholic drinks were also consumed by dancers; some users intentionally combined alcohol with the consumption of other drugs, such as Quaaludes, for a stronger effect. Disco_sentence_120

Eroticism and sexual liberation Disco_section_10

According to Peter Braunstein, the "massive quantities of drugs ingested in discothèques produced the next cultural phenomenon of the disco era: rampant promiscuity and public sex. Disco_sentence_121

While the dance floor was the central arena of seduction, actual sex usually took place in the nether regions of the disco: bathroom stalls, exit stairwells, and so on. Disco_sentence_122

In other cases the disco became a kind of 'main course' in a hedonist's menu for a night out." Disco_sentence_123

At The Saint nightclub, a high percentage of the gay male dancers and patrons would have sex in the club; they typically had unprotected sex, because in 1980, HIV-AIDS had not yet been identified. Disco_sentence_124

At The Saint, "dancers would elope to an un[monitored] upstairs balcony to engage in sex." Disco_sentence_125

The promiscuity and public sex at discos was part of a broader trend towards exploring a freer sexual expression in the 1970s, an era that is also associated with "swingers clubs, hot tubs, [and] key parties." Disco_sentence_126

In his paper, "In Defense of Disco" (1979), Richard Dyer claims eroticism as one of the three main characteristics of disco. Disco_sentence_127

As opposed to rock music which has a very phallic centered eroticism focusing on the sexual pleasure of men over other persons, Dyer describes disco as featuring a non-phallic full body eroticism. Disco_sentence_128

Through a range of percussion instruments, a willingness to play with rhythm, and the endless repeating of phrases without cutting the listener off, disco achieved this full body eroticism by restoring eroticism to the whole body for both sexes. Disco_sentence_129

This allowed for the potential expression of sexualities not defined by the cock/penis, and the erotic pleasure of bodies that are not defined by a relationship to a penis. Disco_sentence_130

The sexual liberation expressed through the rhythm of disco is further represented in the club spaces that disco grew within. Disco_sentence_131

In Peter Shapiro's Modulations: A History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound, he discusses eroticism through the technology disco utilizes to create it's audacious sound. Disco_sentence_132

The music, Shapiro states, is adjunct to "the pleasure-is-politics ethos of post-Stonewall culture." Disco_sentence_133

He explains how "mechano-eroticism," which links the technology used to create the unique mechanical sound of disco to eroticism, sets the genre in a new dimension of reality living outside of naturalism and heterosexuality. Disco_sentence_134

He uses Donna Summer's singles "Love to Love You Baby" (1975) and "I Feel Love" (1977) as examples of the ever present relationship between the synthesized bass lines and backgrounds to the simulated sounds of orgasms Summers echoes in the tracks, and likens them to the drug-fervent, sexually liberated fans of disco who sought to free themselves through disco's "aesthetic of machine sex." Disco_sentence_135

Shapiro sees this as an influence that creates sub-genres like hi-NRG and dub-disco, which allowed for eroticism and technology to be further explored through intense synth bass lines and alternative rhythmic techniques that tap into the entire body rather than the obvious erotic parts of the body. Disco_sentence_136

The New York nightclub The Sanctuary under resident DJ Francis Grasso is a prime example of this sexual liberty. Disco_sentence_137

In their history of the disc jockey and club culture, Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton describe the Sanctuary as "poured full of newly liberated gay men, then shaken (and stirred) by a weighty concoction of dance music and pharmacoia of pills and potions, the result is a festivaly of carnality." Disco_sentence_138

The Sanctuary was the "first totally uninhibited gay discotheque in America" and while sex was not allowed on the dancefloor, the dark corners, the bathrooms and the hallwasy of the adjacent buildings were all utilized for orgy like sexual engagements. Disco_sentence_139

By describing the music, drugs and liberated mentality as a trifecta coming together to create the festival of carnality, Brewster and Broughton are inciting all three as stimuli for the dancing, sex and other embodied movements that contributed to the corporeal vibrations within the Sanctuary. Disco_sentence_140

This supports the argument that the disco music took a role in facilitating this sexual liberation that was experienced in the discotheques. Disco_sentence_141

Further, this coupled with the recent legalization of abortions, the introduction of antibiotics and the pill all facilitated a culture shift around sex from one of procreation to pleasure and enjoyment fostering a very sex positive framework around discotheques. Disco_sentence_142

Given that at this time all instances of oral and anal gay sex were considered deviant and illegal acts in New York state, this sexual freedom can be considered quite liberatory and resistant to dominant oppressive structures. Disco_sentence_143

Further, in addition to gay sex being illegal in New York state, until 1973 the American Psychiatric Association classified homosexuality as an illness. Disco_sentence_144

This law and classification coupled together can be understood to have heavily dissuaded the expression of queerness in public, as such the liberatory dynamics of discotheques can be seen as having provided space for self-realization for queer persons. Disco_sentence_145

David Mancuso's club/house party, The Loft, was described as having a "pansexual attitude [that] was revolutionary in a country where up until recently it had been illegal for two men to dance together unless there was a woman present; where women were legally obliged to wear at least one recognizable item of female clothing in public; and where men visiting gay bars usually carried bail money with them." Disco_sentence_146

History Disco_section_11

First discotheques Disco_section_12

Disco was mostly developed from music that was popular on the dance floor in clubs that started playing records instead of having a live band. Disco_sentence_147

The first discotheques mostly played swing music. Disco_sentence_148

Later on uptempo rhythm and blues became popular in American clubs and northern soul and glam rock records in the UK. Disco_sentence_149

In the early 1940s nightclubs in Paris resorted to playing (jazz) records during the Nazi occupation. Disco_sentence_150

Régine Zylberberg claimed to have started the first discotheque and to have been the first club DJ in 1953 in the "Whisky à Go-Go" in Paris. Disco_sentence_151

She installed a dance floor with coloured lights and two turntables so she could play records without having a gap in the music. Disco_sentence_152

In October 1959 the owner of the Scotch Club in Aachen, West Germany chose to install a record player for the opening night instead of hiring a live band. Disco_sentence_153

The patrons were unimpressed until a young reporter, who happened to be covering the opening of the club, impulsively took control of the record player and introduced the records that he chose to play. Disco_sentence_154

Klaus Quirini later claimed to thus have been the world's first nightclub DJ. Disco_sentence_155

Discotheque dancing became a European trend that was enthusiastically picked up by the American press. Disco_sentence_156

The birth of disco is often claimed to be found in the private dance parties held by New York City DJ David Mancuso's home that became known as The Loft, an invitation-only non-commercial underground club that inspired many others. Disco_sentence_157

He organized the first major party in his Manhattan home on Valentine's Day 1970 with the name "Love Saves The Day". Disco_sentence_158

After some months the parties became weekly events and Mancuso continued to give regular parties into the 1990s. Disco_sentence_159

Mancuso required that the music played had to be soulful, rhythmic, and impart words of hope, redemption, or pride. Disco_sentence_160

Timeframe and social context for the rise of disco culture in New York Disco_section_13

In the 1970s, the key counterculture of the 1960s, the hippie movement, was fading away. Disco_sentence_161

The economic prosperity of the previous decade had declined, and unemployment, inflation and crime rates had soared. Disco_sentence_162

Political issues like the backlash from the Civil Rights Movement culminating in the form of race riots, the Vietnam War, the assassinations of Dr. Martin Luther King and John F. Kennedy and the Watergate scandal left many feeling disillusioned and hopeless. Disco_sentence_163

The start of the '70s was marked by a shift in the consciousness of the American people: the rise of the feminist movement, identity politics, gangs, etc. very much shaped this era. Disco_sentence_164

Disco music and disco dancing provided an escape from negative social and economic issues. Disco_sentence_165

In Beautiful Things in Popular Culture, Simon Frith highlights the sociability of disco and its roots in 1960s counterculture. Disco_sentence_166

"The driving force of the New York underground dance scene in which disco was forged was not simply that city's complex ethnic and sexual culture but also a 1960s notion of community, pleasure and generosity that can only be described as hippie", he says. Disco_sentence_167

"The best disco music contained within it a remarkably powerful sense of collective euphoria." Disco_sentence_168

When Mancuso threw his first informal house parties, the gay community (which made up much of The Loft's attendee roster) was often harassed in the gay bars and dance clubs, with many gay men carrying bail money with them to gay bars. Disco_sentence_169

But at The Loft and many other early, private discotheques, they could dance together without fear of police action thanks to Mancuso's underground, yet legal, policies. Disco_sentence_170

Vince Aletti described it "like going to party, completely mixed, racially and sexually, where there wasn't any sense of someone being more important than anyone else," and Alex Rosner reiterated this saying "It was probably about sixty percent black and seventy percent gay...There was a mix of sexual orientation, there was a mix of races, mix of economic groups. Disco_sentence_171

A real mix, where the common denominator was music." Disco_sentence_172

Film critic Roger Ebert called the popular embrace of disco's exuberant dance moves an escape from "the general depression and drabness of the political and musical atmosphere of the late seventies." Disco_sentence_173

Pauline Kael, writing about the disco-themed film Saturday Night Fever, said the film and disco itself touched on "something deeply romantic, the need to move, to dance, and the need to be who you'd like to be. Disco_sentence_174

Nirvana is the dance; when the music stops, you return to being ordinary." Disco_sentence_175

1960s–1974: Proto-disco and early history of disco music Disco_section_14

During the 1960s, when the discotheque culture from Europe became popular in the United States, several music genres with dance-able rhythms rose to popularity and evolved into different sub-genres: rhythm and blues (originated in the 1940s), soul (late 1950s and 1960s), funk (mid-1960s) and go-go (mid-1960s and 1970s; more than "disco", the word "go-go" originally indicated a music club). Disco_sentence_176

Those genres, mainly African-American ones, would influence much of early disco music. Disco_sentence_177

During the 1960s, the Motown record label developed a popular and influential own sound, described as having "1) simply structured songs with sophisticated melodies and chord changes, 2) a relentless four-beat drum pattern, 3) a gospel use of background voices, vaguely derived from the style of the Impressions, 4) a regular and sophisticated use of both horns and strings, 5) lead singers who were half way between pop and gospel music, 6) a group of accompanying musicians who were among the most dextrous, knowledgeable, and brilliant in all of popular music (Motown bassists have long been the envy of white rock bassists) and 7) a trebly style of mixing that relied heavily on electronic limiting and equalizing (boosting the high range frequencies) to give the overall product a distinctive sound, particularly effective for broadcast over AM radio." Disco_sentence_178

Motown had many hits with early disco elements by acts like the Supremes (for instance "You Keep Me Hangin' On" in 1966), Stevie Wonder (for instance "Superstition" in 1972), The Jackson 5 and Eddie Kendricks ("Keep on Truckin'" in 1973). Disco_sentence_179

In the mid-1960s and early 1970s, Philadelphia soul and New York soul developed as sub-genres that also had lavish percussion, lush string orchestra arrangements and expensive record production processes. Disco_sentence_180

At the end of the 1960s, musicians and audiences from the Black, Italian and Latino communities adopted several traits from the hippie and psychedelia subcultures. Disco_sentence_181

They included using music venues with a loud, overwhelming sound, free-form dancing, trippy lighting, colorful costumes, and the use of hallucinogenic drugs. Disco_sentence_182

In addition, the perceived positivity, lack of irony, and earnestness of the hippies informed proto-disco music like MFSB's album Love Is the Message. Disco_sentence_183

Partly through the success of Jimi Hendrix, psychedelic elements that were popular in rock music of the late 1960s found their way into soul and early funk music and formed the subgenre psychedelic soul. Disco_sentence_184

Examples can be found in the music of the Chambers Brothers, George Clinton with his Parliament-Funkadelic collective, Sly and the Family Stone and the productions of Norman Whitfield with The Temptations. Disco_sentence_185

The long instrumental introductions and detailed orchestration found in psychedelic soul tracks by the Temptations are also considered as cinematic soul. Disco_sentence_186

In the early 1970s, Curtis Mayfield and Isaac Hayes scored hits with cinematic soul songs that were actually composed for movie soundtracks: "Superfly" (1972) and "Theme from Shaft" (1971). Disco_sentence_187

The latter is sometimes regarded as an early disco song. Disco_sentence_188

Psychedelic soul influenced proto-disco acts such as Willie Hutch and Philadelphia soul. Disco_sentence_189

In the early 1970s, the Philadelphia soul productions by Gamble and Huff evolved from the simpler arrangements of the late-1960s into a style featuring lush strings, thumping basslines, and sliding hi-hat rhythms. Disco_sentence_190

These elements would become typical for disco music and are found in several of the hits they produced in the early 1970s: Disco_sentence_191


Other early disco tracks that helped shape disco and became popular on the dance floors of (underground) discotheque clubs and parties include: Disco_sentence_192


Early disco was dominated by record producers and labels such as Salsoul Records (Ken, Stanley, and Joseph Cayre), West End Records (Mel Cheren), Casablanca (Neil Bogart), and Prelude (Marvin Schlachter), to name a few. Disco_sentence_193

The genre was also shaped by Tom Moulton, who wanted to extend the enjoyment of dance songs — thus creating the extended mix or "remix", going from a three-minute 45 rpm single to the much longer 12" record. Disco_sentence_194

Other influential DJs and remixers who helped to establish what became known as the "disco sound" included David Mancuso, Nicky Siano, Shep Pettibone, Larry Levan, Walter Gibbons, and Chicago-based Frankie Knuckles. Disco_sentence_195

Frankie Knuckles was not only an important disco DJ; he also helped to develop house music in the 1980s. Disco_sentence_196

Disco hit the television airwaves as part of the music/dance variety show Soul Train in 1971 hosted by Don Cornelius, then Marty Angelo's Disco Step-by-Step Television Show in 1975, Steve Marcus' Disco Magic/Disco 77, Eddie Rivera's Soap Factory, and Merv Griffin's Dance Fever, hosted by Deney Terrio, who is credited with teaching actor John Travolta to dance for his role in the film Saturday Night Fever, as well as DANCE, based out of Columbia, South Carolina. Disco_sentence_197

In 1974, New York City's WPIX-FM premiered the first disco radio show. Disco_sentence_198

Disco culture in the United Kingdom in the early to mid-1970s Disco_section_15

In the late 1960s, uptempo soul with heavy beats and some associated dance styles and fashion were picked up in the British mod scene and formed the northern soul movement. Disco_sentence_199

Originating at venues such as the Twisted Wheel in Manchester, it quickly spread to other UK dancehalls and nightclubs like the Chateau Impney (Droitwich), Catacombs (Wolverhampton), the Highland Rooms at Blackpool Mecca, Golden Torch (Stoke-on-Trent) and Wigan Casino. Disco_sentence_200

As the favoured beat became more uptempo and frantic in the early 1970s, northern soul dancing became more athletic, somewhat resembling the later dance styles of disco and break dancing. Disco_sentence_201

Featuring spins, flips, karate kicks and backdrops, club dancing styles were often inspired by the stage performances of touring American soul acts such as Little Anthony & the Imperials and Jackie Wilson. Disco_sentence_202

In 1974, there were an estimated 25,000 mobile discos and 40,000 professional disc jockeys in the United Kingdom. Disco_sentence_203

Mobile discos were hired deejays that brought their own equipment to provide music for special events. Disco_sentence_204

Glam rock tracks were popular, with for example Gary Glitter's 1972 single "Rock and Roll Part 2" becoming popular on UK dance floors while it did not get any radio airplay. Disco_sentence_205

1974–1977: Rise to mainstream Disco_section_16

From 1974 to 1977, disco music continued to increase in popularity as many disco songs topped the charts. Disco_sentence_206

The Hues Corporation's 1974 "Rock the Boat", a US number-one single and million-seller, was another one of the early disco songs to reach number one. Disco_sentence_207

The same year saw the release of "Kung Fu Fighting", performed by Carl Douglas and produced by Biddu, which reached number one in both the UK and US, and became the best-selling single of the year and one of the best-selling singles of all time with 11 million records sold worldwide, helping to popularize disco to a great extent. Disco_sentence_208

Another notable disco success that year was George McCrae's "Rock Your Baby": it became the United Kingdom's first number one chart disco single. Disco_sentence_209

In the northwestern sections of the United Kingdom, the northern soul explosion, which started in the late 1960s and peaked in 1974, made the region receptive to disco, which the region's disc jockeys were bringing back from New York City. Disco_sentence_210

The shift by some DJs to the newer sounds coming from the U.S.A. resulted in a split in the scene, whereby some abandoned the 1960s soul and pushed a modern soul sound which tended to be more closely aligned with disco than soul. Disco_sentence_211

In 1975, Gloria Gaynor released her first side-long vinyl album, which included a remake of the Jackson 5's "Never Can Say Goodbye" (which, in fact, is also the album title) and two other songs, "Honey Bee" and her disco version of "Reach Out (I'll Be There)", first topped the Billboard disco/dance charts in November 1974. Disco_sentence_212

Later in 1978, Gaynor's number-one disco song was "I Will Survive", which was seen as a symbol of female strength and a gay anthem, like her further disco hit, a 1983 remake of "I Am What I Am"; in 1979 she released "Let Me Know (I Have a Right)", a single which gained popularity in the civil rights movements. Disco_sentence_213

Also in 1975, Vincent Montana Jr.'s Salsoul Orchestra contributed with their Latin-flavored orchestral dance song "Salsoul Hustle", reaching number four on the Billboard Dance Chart and their 1976 hits "Tangerine" and "Nice 'n' Naasty", the first being a cover of a 1941 song. Disco_sentence_214

Songs such as Van McCoy's 1975 "The Hustle" and the humorous Joe Tex 1977 "Ain't Gonna Bump No More (With No Big Fat Woman)" gave names to the popular disco dances "the Bump" and "the Hustle". Disco_sentence_215

Other notable early successful disco songs include Barry White's "You're the First, the Last, My Everything" (1974), Labelle's "Lady Marmalade" (1974), Disco-Tex and the Sex-O-Lettes' "Get Dancin'" (1974), Silver Convention's "Fly, Robin, Fly" (1975) and "Get Up and Boogie" (1976) and Johnny Taylor's "Disco Lady" (1976). Disco_sentence_216

Formed by Harry Wayne Casey (a.k.a. "KC") and Richard Finch, Miami's KC and the Sunshine Band had a string of disco-definitive top-five singles between 1975 and 1977, including "Get Down Tonight", "That's the Way (I Like It)", "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty", "I'm Your Boogie Man" and "Keep It Comin' Love". Disco_sentence_217

In this period, rock bands like the English Electric Light Orchestra featured in their songs a violin sound that became a staple of disco music, as in the 1975 hit "Evil Woman", although the genre was correctly described as orchestral rock. Disco_sentence_218

Other disco producers such as Tom Moulton took ideas and techniques from dub music (which came with the increased Jamaican migration to New York City in the 1970s) to provide alternatives to the "four on the floor" style that dominated. Disco_sentence_219

DJ Larry Levan utilized styles from dub and jazz and remixing techniques to create early versions of house music that sparked the genre. Disco_sentence_220

Motown turning disco (early to late 1970s) Disco_section_17

Norman Whitfield was an influential producer and songwriter at Motown records, renowned for creating innovative "psychedelic soul" songs with many hits for Marvin Gaye, the Velvelettes, the Temptations and Gladys Knight & The Pips. Disco_sentence_221

From around the production of the Temptations' album Cloud Nine in 1968, he incorporated some psychedelic influences and started to produce longer, dance-friendly tracks, with more room for elaborate rhythmic instrumental parts. Disco_sentence_222

An example of such a long psychedelic soul track is "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone", which appeared as a single edit of almost seven minutes and an approximately 12-minute-long 12" version in 1972. Disco_sentence_223

By the early 70s, many of Whitfield's productions evolved more and more towards funk and disco, as heard on albums by the Undisputed Truth and the 1973 album G.I.T. Disco_sentence_224

Get It Together by The Jackson 5. Disco_sentence_225

The Undisputed Truth, a Motown recording act assembled by Whitfield to experiment with his psychedelic soul production techniques, found success with their 1971 song "Smiling Faces Sometimes". Disco_sentence_226

Their disco single "You + Me = Love" (number 43) was produced by Whitfield and made number 2 on the US Dance Charts in 1976 . Disco_sentence_227

In 1975, Whitfield left Motown and founded his own label Whitfield records, on which also "You + Me = Love" was released. Disco_sentence_228

Whitfield produced some more disco hits, including "Car Wash" (1976) by Rose Royce from the album soundtrack to the 1976 film Car Wash. Disco_sentence_229

In 1977, singer, songwriter and producer Willie Hutch, who had been signed to Motown since 1970, now signed with Whitfield's new label, and scored a successful disco single with his song [[In and Out (Willie Hutch song)|"In and Out"] in 1982. Disco_sentence_230

Other Motown artists turned to disco as well. Disco_sentence_231

Diana Ross embraced the disco sound with her successful 1976 outing "Love Hangover" from her self-titled album. Disco_sentence_232

Her 1980 dance classics "Upside Down" and "I'm Coming Out" were written and produced by Nile Rodgers and Bernard Edwards of the group Chic. Disco_sentence_233

The Supremes, the group that made Ross famous, scored a handful of hits in the disco clubs without her, most notably 1976's "I'm Gonna Let My Heart Do the Walking" and, their last charted single before disbanding, 1977's "You're My Driving Wheel". Disco_sentence_234

At the request of Motown that he produce songs in the disco genre, Marvin Gaye released "Got to Give It Up" in 1978, despite his dislike of disco. Disco_sentence_235

He vowed not to record any songs in the genre, and actually wrote the song as a parody. Disco_sentence_236

However, several of Gaye's songs have disco elements, including "I Want You" (1975). Disco_sentence_237

Stevie Wonder released the disco single "Sir Duke" in 1977 as a tribute to Duke Ellington, the influential jazz legend who had died in 1974. Disco_sentence_238

Smokey Robinson left the Motown group the Miracles for a solo career in 1972 and released his third solo album A Quiet Storm in 1975, which spawned and lent its name to the "Quiet Storm" musical programming format and subgenre of R&B. Disco_sentence_239

It contained the disco single "Baby That's Backatcha". Disco_sentence_240

Other Motown artists who scored disco hits include: Robinson's former group, the Miracles, with "Love Machine" (1975), Eddie Kendricks with "Keep On Truckin'" (1973), the Originals with "Down to Love Town" (1976) and Thelma Houston with her cover of the Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes song "Don't Leave Me This Way" (1976). Disco_sentence_241

The label continued to release successful disco songs into the 1980s with Rick James' "Super Freak" (1981), and the Commodores' "Lady (You Bring Me Up)" (1981). Disco_sentence_242

Several of Motown's solo artists who left the label went on to have successful disco songs. Disco_sentence_243

Mary Wells, Motown's first female superstar with her signature song "My Guy" (written by Smokey Robinson), abruptly left the label in 1964. Disco_sentence_244

She briefly reappeared on the charts with the disco song "Gigolo" in 1980. Disco_sentence_245

Jimmy Ruffin, the elder brother of the Temptations lead singer David Ruffin, was also signed to Motown, and released his most successful and well-known song "What Becomes of the Brokenhearted" as a single in 1966. Disco_sentence_246

Ruffin eventually left the record label in the mid-1970s, but saw success with the 1980 disco song "Hold On (To My Love)", which was written and produced by Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees, for his album Sunrise. Disco_sentence_247

Edwin Starr, known for his Motown protest song "War" (1970), reentered the charts in 1979 with a pair of disco songs, "Contact" and "H.A.P.P.Y. Disco_sentence_248

Radio". Disco_sentence_249

Kiki Dee became the first white British singer to sign with Motown in the US, and released one album, Great Expectations (1970), and two singles "The Day Will Come Between Sunday and Monday" (1970) and "Love Makes the World Go Round" (1971), the latter giving her first ever chart entry (number 87 on the US Chart). Disco_sentence_250

She soon left the company and signed with Elton John's The Rocket Record Company, and in 1976 had her biggest and best-known single, "Don't Go Breaking My Heart", a disco duet with John. Disco_sentence_251

The song was intended as an affectionate disco-style pastiche of the Motown sound, in particular the various duets recorded by Marvin Gaye with Tammi Terrell and Kim Weston. Disco_sentence_252

Many Motown groups who had left the record label charted with disco songs. Disco_sentence_253

The Jackson 5, one of Motown's premier acts in the early 1970s, left the record company in 1975 (Jermaine Jackson, however, remained with the label) after successful songs like "I Want You Back" (1969) and "ABC" (1970), and even the disco song "Dancing Machine" (1974). Disco_sentence_254

Renamed as 'the Jacksons' (as Motown owned the name 'the Jackson 5'), they went on to find success with disco songs like "Blame It on the Boogie" (1978), "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)" (1979) and "Can You Feel It?" Disco_sentence_255

(1981) on the Epic label. Disco_sentence_256

The Jacksons' former lead singer, Michael Jackson, who had also released many successful solo singles under the Motown label, like "Got To Be There" (1971), "Ben" (1972) and a cover of Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin" (1972), went on to score hits in the disco genre with "Rock with You" (1979), "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough" (1979) and "Billie Jean" (1983) for Epic Records. Disco_sentence_257

The Isley Brothers, whose short tenure at the company had produced the song "This Old Heart of Mine (Is Weak for You)" in 1966, went on release successful disco songs like "That Lady" (1973) and "It's a Disco Night (Rock Don't Stop)" (1979). Disco_sentence_258

Gladys Knight and the Pips, who recorded the most successful version of "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" (1967) before Marvin Gaye, scored commercially successful singles such as "Baby, Don't Change Your Mind" (1977) and "Bourgie, Bourgie" (1980) in the disco era. Disco_sentence_259

The Detroit Spinners were also signed to the Motown label and saw success with the Stevie Wonder-produced song "It's a Shame" in 1970. Disco_sentence_260

They left soon after, on the advice of fellow Detroit native Aretha Franklin, to Atlantic Records, and there had disco songs like "The Rubberband Man" (1976). Disco_sentence_261

In 1979, they released a successful cover of Elton John's "Are You Ready for Love", as well as a medley of the Four Seasons' song "Working My Way Back to You" and Michael Zager's "Forgive Me, Girl". Disco_sentence_262

The Four Seasons themselves were briefly signed to Motown's MoWest label, a short-lived subsidiary for R&B and soul artists based on the West Coast, and there the group produced one album, Chameleon (1972) – to little commercial success in the US. Disco_sentence_263

However, one single, "The Night", was released in Britain in 1975, and thanks to popularity from the Northern Soul circuit, reached number seven on the UK Singles Chart. Disco_sentence_264

The Four Seasons left Motown in 1974 and went on to have a disco hit with their song "December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)" (1975) for Warner Curb Records. Disco_sentence_265

Disco in Europe: Euro disco (1974–1980s) Disco_section_18

Main article: Euro disco Disco_sentence_266

By far the most successful Euro disco act was ABBA (1972–1982). Disco_sentence_267

This Swedish quartet, which sang primarily in English, found success with singles such as "Waterloo" (1974), "Fernando" (1976), "Take a Chance on Me" (1978), "Gimme! Disco_sentence_268

Gimme! Disco_sentence_269

Gimme! Disco_sentence_270

(A Man After Midnight)" (1979), and their signature smash hit "Dancing Queen" (1976)—ranks as the Fourth best-selling act of all time. Disco_sentence_271

In 1970s Munich, West Germany, music producers Giorgio Moroder and Pete Bellotte made a decisive contribution to disco music with a string of hits for Donna Summer, which became known as the "Munich Sound". Disco_sentence_272

In 1975, Summer suggested the lyric "Love to Love You Baby" to Moroder and Bellotte, who turned the lyric into a full disco song. Disco_sentence_273

The final product, which contained a series of simulated orgasms, initially was not intended for release, but when Moroder played it in the clubs it caused a sensation and he released it. Disco_sentence_274

The song became an international hit, reaching the charts in many European countries and the US (No. Disco_sentence_275

2). Disco_sentence_276

It has been described as the arrival of the expression of raw female sexual desire in pop music. Disco_sentence_277

A 17-minute 12-inch single was released. Disco_sentence_278

The 12" single became and remains a standard in discos today. Disco_sentence_279

In 1976 Donna Summer's version of "Could It Be Magic" brought disco further into the mainstream. Disco_sentence_280

In 1977 Summer, Moroder and Bellotte further released "I Feel Love", as the B-side of "Can't We Just Sit Down (And Talk It Over)", which revolutionized dance music with its mostly electronic production and was a massive worldwide success, spawning the Hi-NRG subgenre. Disco_sentence_281

Giorgio Moroder was described by AllMusic as "one of the principal architects of the disco sound". Disco_sentence_282

Another successful disco music project by Moroder at that time was Munich Machine (1976–1980). Disco_sentence_283

Boney M. (1974–1986) was a West German disco group of four West Indian singers and dancers masterminded by record producer Frank Farian. Disco_sentence_284

Boney M. charted worldwide with such songs as "Daddy Cool" (1976) "Ma Baker" (1977) and "Rivers Of Babylon" (1978). Disco_sentence_285

Another successful West German disco recording act was Silver Convention (1974–1979). Disco_sentence_286

The German group Kraftwerk also had an influence on Euro disco. Disco_sentence_287

In France, Dalida released "J'attendrai" ("I Will Wait") in 1975, which also became successful in Canada, Europe and Japan. Disco_sentence_288

Dalida successfully adjusted herself to disco era and released at least a dozen of songs that charted among top number 10 in whole Europe and wider. Disco_sentence_289

Claude François, who re-invented himself as the king of French disco, released "La plus belle chose du monde", a French version of the Bee Gees song "Massachusetts", which became successful in Canada and Europe and "Alexandrie Alexandra" was posthumously released on the day of his burial and became a worldwide success. Disco_sentence_290

Cerrone's early songs, "Love in C Minor" (1976), "Supernature" (1977) and "Give Me Love" (1978) were successful in the US and Europe. Disco_sentence_291

Another Euro disco act was the French diva Amanda Lear, where Euro disco sound is most heard in "Enigma (Give a Bit of Mmh to Me)" (1978). Disco_sentence_292

French producer Alec Costandinos assembled the disco group Love and Kisses (1977–1982). Disco_sentence_293

In Italy Raffaella Carrà is the most successful disco act, alongside La Bionda, Hermanas Goggi and Oliver Onions. Disco_sentence_294

Her greatest international single was "Tanti Auguri" ("Best Wishes"), which has become a popular song with gay audiences. Disco_sentence_295

The song is also known under its Spanish title "Para hacer bien el amor hay que venir al sur" (which refers to Southern Europe, since the song was recorded and taped in Spain). Disco_sentence_296

The Estonian version of the song "Jätke võtmed väljapoole" was performed by Anne Veski. Disco_sentence_297

"A far l'amore comincia tu" ("To make love, your move first") was another success for her internationally, known in Spanish as "En el amor todo es empezar", in German as "Liebelei", in French as "Puisque tu l'aimes dis le lui", and in English as "Do It, Do It Again". Disco_sentence_298

It was her only entry to the UK Singles Chart, reaching number 9, where she remains a one-hit wonder. Disco_sentence_299

In 1977, she recorded another successful single, "Fiesta" ("The Party" in English) originally in Spanish, but then recorded it in French and Italian after the song hit the charts. Disco_sentence_300

"A far l'amore comincia tu" has also been covered in Turkish by a Turkish popstar Ajda Pekkan as "Sakın Ha" in 1977. Disco_sentence_301

Recently, Carrà has gained new attention for her appearance as the female dancing soloist in a 1974 TV performance of the experimental gibberish song "Prisencolinensinainciusol" (1973) by Adriano Celentano. Disco_sentence_302

A remixed video featuring her dancing went viral on the internet in 2008. Disco_sentence_303

In 2008 a video of a performance of her only successful UK single, "Do It, Do It Again", was featured in the Doctor Who episode "Midnight". Disco_sentence_304

Rafaella Carrà worked with Bob Sinclar on the new single "Far l'Amore" which was released on YouTube on March 17, 2011. Disco_sentence_305

The song charted in different European countries.Another prominent European disco act was the pop group Luv' from the Netherlands. Disco_sentence_306

Euro disco continued evolving within the broad mainstream pop music scene, even when disco's popularity sharply declined in the United States, abandoned by major U.S. record labels and producers. Disco_sentence_307

Through the influence of Italo disco, it also played a role in the evolution of early house music in the early 1980s and later forms of electronic dance music, including early 1990s' Eurodance. Disco_sentence_308

1977–1979: Pop preeminence Disco_section_19

In December 1977, the film Saturday Night Fever was released. Disco_sentence_309

It was a huge success and its soundtrack became one of the best-selling albums of all time. Disco_sentence_310

The idea for the film was sparked by a 1976 New York magazine article titled "Tribal Rites of the New Saturday Night" which supposedly chronicled the disco culture in mid-1970s New York City, but was later revealed to have been fabricated. Disco_sentence_311

Some critics said the film "mainstreamed" disco, making it more acceptable to heterosexual white males. Disco_sentence_312

The Bee Gees used Barry Gibb's falsetto to garner hits such as "You Should Be Dancing", "Stayin' Alive", "Night Fever", "More Than A Woman" and "Love You Inside Out". Disco_sentence_313

Andy Gibb, a younger brother to the Bee Gees, followed with similarly styled solo singles such as "I Just Want to Be Your Everything", "(Love Is) Thicker Than Water" and "Shadow Dancing". Disco_sentence_314

In 1978, Donna Summer's multi-million selling vinyl single disco version of "MacArthur Park" was number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart for three weeks and was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. Disco_sentence_315

The recording, which was included as part of the "MacArthur Park Suite" on her double live album Live and More, was eight minutes and 40 seconds long on the album. Disco_sentence_316

The shorter seven-inch vinyl single version of MacArthur Park was Summer's first single to reach number one on the Hot 100; it does not include the balladic second movement of the song, however. Disco_sentence_317

A 2013 remix of "MacArthur Park" by Summer topped the Billboard Dance Charts marking five consecutive decades with a number-one song on the charts. Disco_sentence_318

From mid-1978 to late 1979, Summer continued to release singles such as "Last Dance", "Heaven Knows" (with Brooklyn Dreams), "Hot Stuff", "Bad Girls", "Dim All the Lights" and "On the Radio", all very successful songs, landing in the top five or better, on the Billboard pop charts. Disco_sentence_319

The band Chic was formed mainly by guitarist Nile Rodgers—a self-described "street hippie" from late 1960s New York—and bassist Bernard Edwards. Disco_sentence_320

Their popular 1978 single, "Le Freak", is regarded as an iconic song of the genre. Disco_sentence_321

Other successful songs by Chic include the often-sampled "Good Times" (1979) and "Everybody Dance" (1979). Disco_sentence_322

The group regarded themselves as the disco movement's rock band that made good on the hippie movement's ideals of peace, love, and freedom. Disco_sentence_323

Every song they wrote was written with an eye toward giving it "deep hidden meaning" or D.H.M. Disco_sentence_324

Sylvester, a flamboyant and openly gay singer famous for his soaring falsetto voice, scored his biggest disco hit in late 1978 with "You Make Me Feel (Mighty Real)". Disco_sentence_325

His singing style was said to have influenced the singer Prince. Disco_sentence_326

At that time, disco was one of the forms of music most open to gay performers. Disco_sentence_327

The Village People were a singing/dancing group created by Jacques Morali and Henri Belolo to target disco's gay audience. Disco_sentence_328

They were known for their onstage costumes of typically male-associated jobs and ethnic minorities and achieved mainstream success with their 1978 hit song "Macho Man". Disco_sentence_329

Other songs include "Y.M.C.A." Disco_sentence_330

(1979) and "In the Navy" (1979). Disco_sentence_331

The Jacksons (formerly the Jackson 5) released many disco songs from 1977 to 1981, including "Blame It on the Boogie" (1978), "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)" (1979), "Lovely One" (1980) and "Can You Feel It" (1981): all of them were sung by Michael Jackson, whose 1979 solo album, Off the Wall, also included several disco hits, such as the album's title song, "Rock with You", "Workin' Day and Night" and his second chart-topping solo disco hit, "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough". Disco_sentence_332

Also noteworthy are The Trammps' "Disco Inferno" (1978, reissue due to the popularity gained from the Saturday Night Fever soundtrack), Cheryl Lynn's "Got to Be Real" (1978), Evelyn "Champagne" King's "Shame" (1978), Alicia Bridges' "I Love the Nightlife" (1978), Patrick Hernandez' "Born to Be Alive" (1978), Sister Sledge's "We Are Family" (1979), Anita Ward's "Ring My Bell" (1979), Lipps Inc.'s "Funkytown" (1979), George Benson's "Give Me the Night" (1980) and Walter Murphy's various attempts to bring classical music to the mainstream, most notably his disco song "A Fifth of Beethoven" (1976), which was inspired by Beethoven's fifth symphony. Disco_sentence_333

At the height of its popularity, many non-disco artists recorded songs with disco elements, such as Rod Stewart with his "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?" Disco_sentence_334

in 1979. Disco_sentence_335

Even mainstream rock artists adopted elements of disco. Disco_sentence_336

Progressive rock group Pink Floyd used disco-like drums and guitar in their song "Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2" (1979), which became their only number-one single in both the US and UK. Disco_sentence_337

The Eagles referenced disco with "One of These Nights" (1975) and "Disco Strangler" (1979), Paul McCartney & Wings with "Silly Love Songs" (1976) and "Goodnight Tonight" (1979), Queen with "Another One Bites the Dust" (1980), the Rolling Stones with "Miss You" (1978) and "Emotional Rescue" (1980), Stephen Stills with his album Thoroughfare Gap (1978), Electric Light Orchestra with "Shine a Little Love" and "Last Train to London" (both 1979), Chicago with "Street Player" (1979), the Kinks with "(Wish I Could Fly Like) Superman" (1979), the Grateful Dead with "Shakedown Street", The Who with "Eminence Front" (1982), and the J. Disco_sentence_338

Geils Band with "Come Back" (1980). Disco_sentence_339

Even hard rock group KISS jumped in with "I Was Made For Lovin' You" (1979), and Ringo Starr's album Ringo the 4th (1978) features a strong disco influence. Disco_sentence_340

The disco sound was also adopted by "non-pop" artists, including the 1979 U.S. number one hit "No More Tears (Enough Is Enough)" by easy listening singer Barbra Streisand in a duet with Donna Summer. Disco_sentence_341

In country music, artists like Connie Smith covered Andy Gibb's "I Just Want to Be Your Everything" in 1977, Bill Anderson recorded "Double S" in 1978, and Ronnie Milsap released "Get It Up" and covered blues singer Tommy Tucker's song "Hi-Heel Sneakers" in 1979. Disco_sentence_342

Pre-existing non-disco songs, standards, and TV themes were frequently "disco-ized" in the 1970s, such as the I Love Lucy theme or Mike Post's "Theme from Magnum P.I." Disco_sentence_343

The rich orchestral accompaniment that became identified with the disco era conjured up the memories of the big band era—which brought out several artists that recorded and disco-ized some big-band arrangements, including Perry Como, who re-recorded his 1945 song "Temptation", in 1975, as well as Ethel Merman, who released an album of disco songs entitled The Ethel Merman Disco Album in 1979. Disco_sentence_344

Myron Floren, second-in-command on The Lawrence Welk Show, released a recording of the "Clarinet Polka" entitled "Disco Accordion." Disco_sentence_345

Similarly, Bobby Vinton adapted "The Pennsylvania Polka" into a song named "Disco Polka". Disco_sentence_346

Easy listening icon Percy Faith, in one of his last recordings, released an album entitled Disco Party (1975) and recorded a disco version of his "Theme from A Summer Place" in 1976. Disco_sentence_347

Classical music was even adapted for disco, notably Walter Murphy's "A Fifth of Beethoven" (1976, based on the first movement of Beethoven's 5th Symphony) and "Flight 76" (1976, based on Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight of the Bumblebee"), and Louis Clark's Hooked On Classics series of albums and singles. Disco_sentence_348

Many original television theme songs of the era also showed a strong disco influence, such as Star Wars, "Star Wars Theme/Cantina Band" (1977) by Meco, and "Twilight Zone/Twilight Tone" (1979) by the Manhattan Transfer. Disco_sentence_349

Other examples include S.W.A.T. Disco_sentence_350

(1975), Wonder Woman (1975), Charlie's Angels (1976), NBC Saturday Night At The Movies (1976), The Love Boat (1977), The Donahue Show (1977), CHiPs (1977), The Professionals (1977), Dallas (1978), NBC Sports broadcasts (1978), Kojak (1977), The Hollywood Squares (1979). Disco_sentence_351

Disco jingles also made their way into many TV commercials, including Purina's 1979 "Good Mews" cat food commercial and an "IC Light" commercial by Pittsburgh's Iron City Brewing Company. Disco_sentence_352

Parodies Disco_section_20

Several parodies of the disco style were created. Disco_sentence_353

Rick Dees, at the time a radio DJ in Memphis, Tennessee, recorded "Disco Duck" (1976) and "Dis-Gorilla" (1977); Frank Zappa parodied the lifestyles of disco dancers in "Disco Boy" on his 1976 Zoot Allures album and in "Dancin' Fool" on his 1979 Sheik Yerbouti album; "Weird Al" Yankovic's eponymous 1983 debut album includes a disco song called "Gotta Boogie", an extended pun on the similarity of the disco move to the American slang word "booger". Disco_sentence_354

Comedian Bill Cosby devoted his entire 1977 album Disco Bill to disco parodies. Disco_sentence_355

In 1980, Mad Magazine released a flexi-disc titled Mad Disco featuring six full-length parodies of the genre. Disco_sentence_356

Rock and roll songs critical of disco included Bob Seger's "Old Time Rock and Roll" and, especially, The Who's "Sister Disco" (both 1978)—although The Who's "Eminence Front" (four years later) had a disco feel. Disco_sentence_357

1979–1980s: "Disco sucks" and decline in popularity Disco_section_21

By the end of the 1970s, anti-disco sentiment developed among rock music fans and musicians, particularly in the United States. Disco_sentence_358

Disco was criticized as mindless, consumerist, overproduced and escapist. Disco_sentence_359

The slogans "Disco sucks" and "Death to disco" became common. Disco_sentence_360

Rock artists such as Rod Stewart and David Bowie who added disco elements to their music were accused of selling out. Disco_sentence_361

The punk subculture in the United States and United Kingdom was often hostile to disco, although in the UK, many early Sex Pistols fans such as the Bromley Contingent and Jordan liked disco, often congregating at nightclubs such as Louise's in Soho and the Sombrero in Kensington. Disco_sentence_362

The track "Love Hangover" by Diana Ross, the house anthem at the former, was cited as a particular favourite by many early UK punks. Disco_sentence_363

The film The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle and its soundtrack album contained a disco medley of Sex Pistols songs, entitled Black Arabs and credited to a group of the same name. Disco_sentence_364

Jello Biafra of the Dead Kennedys, in the song "Saturday Night Holocaust", likened disco to the cabaret culture of Weimar-era Germany for its apathy towards government policies and its escapism. Disco_sentence_365

Mark Mothersbaugh of Devo said that disco was "like a beautiful woman with a great body and no brains", and a product of political apathy of that era. Disco_sentence_366

New Jersey rock critic Jim Testa wrote "Put a Bullet Through the Jukebox", a vitriolic screed attacking disco that was considered a punk call to arms. Disco_sentence_367

Steve Hillage, shortly prior to his transformation from a progressive rock musician into an electronic artist at the end of the 1970s with the inspiration of disco, disappointed his rockist fans by admitting his love for disco, with Hillage recalling "it's like I'd killed their pet cat." Disco_sentence_368

Anti-disco sentiment was expressed in some television shows and films. Disco_sentence_369

A recurring theme on the show WKRP in Cincinnati was a hostile attitude towards disco music. Disco_sentence_370

In one scene of the 1980 comedy film Airplane! Disco_sentence_371

, a wayward airplane slices a radio tower with its wing, knocking out an all-disco radio station. Disco_sentence_372

July 12, 1979, became known as "the day disco died" because of the Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco demonstration in a baseball double-header at Comiskey Park in Chicago. Disco_sentence_373

Rock station DJs Steve Dahl and Garry Meier, along with Michael Veeck, son of Chicago White Sox owner Bill Veeck, staged the promotional event for disgruntled rock fans between the games of a White Sox doubleheader which involved exploding disco records in centerfield. Disco_sentence_374

As the second game was about to begin, the raucous crowd stormed onto the field and proceeded by setting fires, tearing out seats and pieces of turf, and other damage. Disco_sentence_375

The Chicago Police Department made numerous arrests, and the extensive damage to the field forced the White Sox to forfeit the second game to the Detroit Tigers, who had won the first game. Disco_sentence_376

Disco's decline in popularity after Disco Demolition Night was rapid. Disco_sentence_377

On July 21, 1979, the top six records on the U.S. music charts were disco songs. Disco_sentence_378

By September 22, there were no disco songs in the US Top 10 chart, with the exception of Herb Alpert's instrumental "Rise," a smooth jazz composition with some disco overtones. Disco_sentence_379

Some in the media, in celebratory tones, declared disco "dead" and rock revived. Disco_sentence_380

Karen Mixon Cook, the first female disco DJ, stated that people still pause every July 12 for a moment of silence in honor of disco. Disco_sentence_381

Dahl stated in a 2004 interview that disco was "probably on its way out [at the time]. Disco_sentence_382

But I think it [Disco Demolition Night] hastened its demise". Disco_sentence_383

Impact on music industry Disco_section_22

The anti-disco movement, combined with other societal and radio industry factors, changed the face of pop radio in the years following Disco Demolition Night. Disco_sentence_384

Starting in the 1980s, country music began a slow rise in American main pop charts. Disco_sentence_385

Emblematic of country music's rise to mainstream popularity was the commercially successful 1980 movie Urban Cowboy. Disco_sentence_386

The continued popularity of power pop and the revival of oldies in the late 1970s was also related to disco's decline; the 1978 film Grease was emblematic of this trend. Disco_sentence_387

Coincidentally, the star of both films was John Travolta, who in 1977 had starred in Saturday Night Fever, which remains one of the most iconic disco films of the era. Disco_sentence_388

During this period of decline in disco's popularity, several record companies folded, were reorganized, or were sold. Disco_sentence_389

In 1979, MCA Records purchased ABC Records, absorbed some of its artists, and then shut the label down. Disco_sentence_390

Midsong International Records ceased operations in 1980. Disco_sentence_391

RSO Records founder Robert Stigwood left the label in 1981 and TK Records closed in the same year. Disco_sentence_392

Salsoul Records continues to exist in the 2000s, but primarily is used as a reissue brand. Disco_sentence_393

Casablanca Records had been releasing fewer records in the 1980s, and was shut down in 1986 by parent company PolyGram. Disco_sentence_394

Many groups that were popular during the disco period subsequently struggled to maintain their success—even those that tried to adapt to evolving musical tastes. Disco_sentence_395

The Bee Gees, for instance, had only one top-10 entry (1989's "One") and three more top-40 songs (despite recording and releasing far more than that and completely abandoning disco in their 1980s and 1990s songs) in the United States after the 1970s, even though numerous songs they wrote and had other artists perform were successful. Disco_sentence_396

Of the handful of groups not taken down by disco's fall from favor, Kool and the Gang, Donna Summer, the Jacksons—and Michael Jackson in particular—stand out: In spite of having helped define the disco sound early on, they continued to make popular and danceable, if more refined, songs for yet another generation of music fans in the 1980s and beyond. Disco_sentence_397

Earth, Wind & Fire also survived the anti-disco trend and continued to produce successful singles at roughly the same pace for several more years, in addition to an even longer string of R&B chart hits that lasted into the 1990s. Disco_sentence_398

Six months prior to the chaotic event (in December 1978), popular progressive rock radio station WDAI (WLS-FM) had suddenly switched to an all-disco format, disenfranchising thousands of Chicago rock fans and leaving Dahl unemployed. Disco_sentence_399

WDAI, who survived the change of public sentiment and still had good ratings at this point, continued to play disco until it flipped to a short-lived hybrid Top 40/rock format in May 1980. Disco_sentence_400

Another disco outlet that also competed against WDAI at the time, WGCI-FM, would later incorporate R&B and pop songs into the format, eventually evolving into an urban contemporary outlet that it continues with today. Disco_sentence_401

The latter also helped bring the Chicago house genre to the airwaves. Disco_sentence_402

Factors contributing to disco's decline Disco_section_23

Factors that have been cited as leading to the decline of disco in the United States include economic and political changes at the end of the 1970s, as well as burnout from the hedonistic lifestyles led by participants. Disco_sentence_403

In the years since Disco Demolition Night, some social critics have described the "Disco sucks" movement as implicitly macho and bigoted, and an attack on non-white and non-heterosexual cultures. Disco_sentence_404

It was also interpreted being part of a wider cultural "backlash" towards conservatism, that also made its way into US politics with the election of conservative president Ronald Reagan in 1980, which also led to Republican control of the United States Senate for the first time since 1954, plus the subsequent rise of the Religious Right around the same time. Disco_sentence_405

In January 1979, rock critic Robert Christgau argued that homophobia, and most likely racism, were reasons behind the movement, a conclusion seconded by John Rockwell. Disco_sentence_406

Craig Werner wrote: "The Anti-disco movement represented an unholy alliance of funkateers and feminists, progressives and puritans, rockers and reactionaries. Disco_sentence_407

Nonetheless, the attacks on disco gave respectable voice to the ugliest kinds of unacknowledged racism, sexism and homophobia." Disco_sentence_408

Legs McNeil, founder of the fanzine Punk, was quoted in an interview as saying, "the hippies always wanted to be black. Disco_sentence_409

We were going, 'fuck the blues, fuck the black experience'." Disco_sentence_410

He also said that disco was the result of an "unholy" union between homosexuals and blacks. Disco_sentence_411

Steve Dahl, who had spearheaded Disco Demolition Night, denied any racist or homophobic undertones to the promotion, saying, "It's really easy to look at it historically, from this perspective, and attach all those things to it. Disco_sentence_412

But we weren't thinking like that." Disco_sentence_413

It has been noted that British punk rock critics of disco were very supportive of the pro-black/anti-racist reggae genre as well as the more pro-gay new romantics movement. Disco_sentence_414

Christgau and Jim Testa have said that there were legitimate artistic reasons for being critical of disco. Disco_sentence_415

In 1979, the music industry in the United States underwent its worst slump in decades, and disco, despite its mass popularity, was blamed. Disco_sentence_416

The producer-oriented sound was having difficulty mixing well with the industry's artist-oriented marketing system. Disco_sentence_417

Harold Childs, senior vice president at A&M Records, told the Los Angeles Times that "radio is really desperate for rock product" and "they're all looking for some white rock-n-roll". Disco_sentence_418

Gloria Gaynor argued that the music industry supported the destruction of disco because rock music producers were losing money and rock musicians were losing the spotlight. Disco_sentence_419

Post-disco, boogie, HI-NRG and Italo disco (1980s) Disco_section_24

Main articles: Post-disco, boogie (genre), Hi-NRG, and Italo disco Disco_sentence_420

Despite its decline in popularity, disco music remained relatively successful in the early 1980s, with songs like Irene Cara's "Flashdance... What a Feeling" (theme to the film Flashdance) and the theme song to the film Fame (later re-sung by Erica Gimpel for the TV show of the same name), Michael Jackson's "Thriller" and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", and Madonna's first album–all which had strong disco influences. Disco_sentence_421

Record producer Giorgio Moroder's soundtracks to American Gigolo, Flashdance and Scarface (which also had a heavy disco influence) proved that the style was still very much embraced. Disco_sentence_422

Queen's 1982 album, Hot Space was inspired by the genre as well. Disco_sentence_423

To a significant extent, the transition from disco to 1980s dance music was one of relabeling. Disco_sentence_424

The word "disco" simply became unfashionable to use when describing new music. Disco_sentence_425

As late as 1983, K.C. Disco_sentence_426

and the Sunshine Band had a major hit single, "Give It Up", which was not considered disco, even though it would have been considered to be in the heart of the genre if it had been released four years earlier. Disco_sentence_427

In addition, dance music during the 1981–83 period borrowed elements from blues and jazz, creating a style different from the disco of the 1970s. Disco_sentence_428

This emerging music was still known as disco for a short time, as the word had become associated with any kind of dance music played in discothèques. Disco_sentence_429

Examples of early-1980s' dance sound performers include D. Disco_sentence_430

Train, Kashif, and Patrice Rushen. Disco_sentence_431

These changes were influenced by some of the notable R&B and jazz musicians of the 1970s, such as Stevie Wonder, Kashif and Herbie Hancock, who had pioneered "one-man-band"-type keyboard techniques. Disco_sentence_432

Some of these influences had already begun to emerge during the mid-1970s, at the height of disco's popularity. Disco_sentence_433

During the first years of the 1980s, the disco sound began to be phased out, and faster tempos and synthesized effects, accompanied by guitar and simplified backgrounds, moved dance music toward the funk and pop genres. Disco_sentence_434

This trend can be seen in singer Billy Ocean's recordings between 1979 and 1981. Disco_sentence_435

Whereas Ocean's 1979 song American Hearts was backed with an orchestral arrangement played by the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra, his 1981 song "One of Those Nights (Feel Like Gettin' Down)" had a more bare, stripped-down sound, with no orchestration or symphonic arrangements. Disco_sentence_436

This drift from the original disco sound is called post-disco which also included boogie, Hi-NRG and Italo disco. Disco_sentence_437

It had an important influence on early alternative dance and dance-pop, and played a key role in the transition between disco and house music during the early 1980s and later forms of [electronic dance music]]. Disco_sentence_438

Musically, this transition was marked by the change from complex arrangements performed by large ensembles of studio session musicians (including a horn section and an orchestral string section), to a leaner sound, in which one or two singers would perform to the accompaniment of synthesizer keyboards and drum machines. Disco_sentence_439

In 1980s house music, and Chicago house in particular, a strong disco influence was constantly present, which is why house music, regarding its enormous success in shaping electronic dance music and contemporary club culture, is often described being "disco's revenge". Disco_sentence_440

1990s–2010s: Disco revivals and nu-disco Disco_section_25

Main article: Nu-disco Disco_sentence_441

In the 1990s, disco and its legacy became more accepted by pop music artists and listeners alike, as more songs and films were released that referenced disco. Disco_sentence_442

This was part of a wave of 1970s nostalgia that was taking place in popular culture at the time. Disco_sentence_443

Examples of songs during this time that were influenced by disco included Deee-Lite's "Groove Is in the Heart" (1990), U2's "Lemon" (1993), Blur's "Girls & Boys" (1994) & "Entertain Me" (1995), Pulp's "Disco 2000" (1995), and Jamiroquai's "Canned Heat" (1999), while films such as Boogie Nights (1997) and The Last Days of Disco (1998) featured primarily disco soundtracks. Disco_sentence_444

In the early 2000s, an updated genre of disco called "nu-disco" began breaking into the mainstream. Disco_sentence_445

A few examples like Daft Punk's "One More Time" and Kylie Minogue's "Love At First Sight" and "Can't Get You Out of My Head" became club favorites and commercial successes. Disco_sentence_446

Several nu-disco songs were crossovers with funky house, such as Spiller's "Groovejet (If This Ain't Love)" and Modjo's "Lady (Hear Me Tonight)", both songs sampling older disco songs and both reaching number one on the UK Singles Chart in 2000. Disco_sentence_447

Robbie Williams' disco single "Rock DJ" was the UK's fourth best-selling single the same year. Disco_sentence_448

Rock band Manic Street Preachers released a disco song, "Miss Europa Disco Dancer", in 2001. Disco_sentence_449

The song's disco influence, which appears on Know Your Enemy, was described as being "much-discussed". Disco_sentence_450

In 2005, Madonna immersed herself in the disco music of the 1970s, and released her album Confessions on a Dance Floor to rave reviews. Disco_sentence_451

In addition to that, her song "Hung Up" became a major top-10 song and club staple, and sampled ABBA's 1979 song "Gimme! Disco_sentence_452

Gimme! Disco_sentence_453

Gimme! Disco_sentence_454

(A Man After Midnight)". Disco_sentence_455

In addition to her disco-influenced attire to award shows and interviews, her Confessions Tour also incorporated various elements of the 1970s, such as disco balls, a mirrored stage design, and the roller derby. Disco_sentence_456

The success of the "nu-disco" revival of the early 2000s was described by music critic Tom Ewing as more interpersonal than the pop music of the 1990s: "The revival of disco within pop put a spotlight on something that had gone missing over the 90s: a sense of music not just for dancing, but for dancing with someone. Disco_sentence_457

Disco was a music of mutual attraction: cruising, flirtation, negotiation. Disco_sentence_458

Its dancefloor is a space for immediate pleasure, but also for promises kept and otherwise. Disco_sentence_459

It's a place where things start, but their resolution, let alone their meaning, is never clear. Disco_sentence_460

All of 2000s great disco number ones explore how to play this hand. Disco_sentence_461

Madison Avenue look to impose their will upon it, to set terms and roles. Disco_sentence_462

Spiller is less rigid. Disco_sentence_463

'Groovejet' accepts the night's changeability, happily sells out certainty for an amused smile and a few great one-liners." Disco_sentence_464

In 2013, several 1970s-style disco and funk songs charted, and the pop charts had more dance songs than at any other point since the late 1970s. Disco_sentence_465

The biggest disco song of the year as of June was "Get Lucky" by Daft Punk, featuring Nile Rodgers on guitar. Disco_sentence_466

Random Access Memories also ended up winning Album of the Year at the 2014 Grammys. Disco_sentence_467

Other disco-styled songs that made it into the top 40 were Robin Thicke's "Blurred Lines" (number one), Justin Timberlake's "Take Back the Night" (number 29), Bruno Mars' "Treasure" (number five) and Michael Jackson's posthumous release "Love Never Felt So Good" (number nine). Disco_sentence_468

In addition, Arcade Fire's Reflektor featured strong disco elements. Disco_sentence_469

In 2014, disco music could be found in Lady Gaga's Artpop and Katy Perry's "Birthday". Disco_sentence_470

Other disco songs from 2014 include "I Want It All" By Karmin, 'Wrong Club" by the Ting Tings and "Blow" by Beyoncé. Disco_sentence_471

In 2014 Brazilian Globo TV, the second biggest television network in the world, aired Boogie Oogie, a telenovela about the Disco Era that takes place between 1978 and 1979, from the hit fever to the decadence. Disco_sentence_472

The show's success was responsible for a Disco revival across the country, bringing back to stage, and to record charts, Discothèque Divas like Lady Zu and As Frenéticas. Disco_sentence_473

Other top-10 entries from 2015 like Mark Ronson's disco groove-infused "Uptown Funk", Maroon 5's "Sugar", the Weeknd's "Can't Feel My Face" and Jason Derulo's "Want To Want Me" also ascended the charts and have a strong disco influence. Disco_sentence_474

Disco mogul and producer Giorgio Moroder also re-appeared with his new album Déjà Vu in 2015 which has proved to be a modest success. Disco_sentence_475

Other songs from 2015 like "I Don't Like It, I Love It" by Flo Rida, "Adventure of a Lifetime" by Coldplay, "Back Together" by Robin Thicke and "Levels" by Nick Jonas feature disco elements as well. Disco_sentence_476

In 2016, disco songs or disco-styled pop songs are showing a strong presence on the music charts as a possible backlash to the 1980s-styled synthpop, electro house, and dubstep that have been dominating the current charts. Disco_sentence_477

Justin Timberlake's 2016 song "Can't Stop the Feeling! Disco_sentence_478 ", which shows strong elements of disco, became the 26th song to debut at number-one on the Billboard Hot 100 in the history of the chart. Disco_sentence_479

The Martian, a 2015 film, extensively uses disco music as a soundtrack, although for the main character, astronaut Mark Watney, there's only one thing worse than being stranded on Mars: it's being stranded on Mars with nothing but disco music. Disco_sentence_480

"Kill the Lights", featured on an episode of the HBO television series "Vinyl" (2016) and with Nile Rodgers' guitar licks, hit number one on the US Dance chart in July 2016. Disco_sentence_481

2020s: Resurgence in mainstream popularity Disco_section_26

In 2020, disco was revived in mainstream popularity and has become one of the main trends in popular music. Disco_sentence_482

In early 2020, disco-influenced hits such as Doja Cat's "Say So", Lady Gaga's "Stupid Love", and Dua Lipa's "Don't Start Now" experienced widespread success on global music charts, with the three songs charting at numbers 1, 5 and 2, respectively, on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. Disco_sentence_483

At the time, Billboard, declared that Dua Lipa was "leading the charge toward disco-influenced production" a day after her retro and disco-influenced album Future Nostalgia was released on March 27, 2020. Disco_sentence_484

By mid 2020, multiple disco albums and songs had been released and cultural phenomena associated with 1970s disco, specifically roller skating and roller discos, experienced a resurgence in mainstream popularity across the Western world. Disco_sentence_485

The resurgence of roller skating has been powered by social media apps like Instagram, TikTok and Snapchat which have seen an increase of roller skating-related content throughout 2020. Disco_sentence_486

In Hobart, Australia, it was reported that the popularity of roller skating was at its highest since the 1980s. Disco_sentence_487

In early September 2020, South Korean boy band BTS debuted at number 1 in the US with their English–language disco single "Dynamite" having sold 265,000 downloads in its first week in the US, marking the biggest pure sales week since Taylor Swift's "Look What You Made Me Do" (2017). Disco_sentence_488

Some analysts have suggested that the social and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have played a role in the resurgence of disco as people find ways to escape from reality as a result of the ongoing pandemic. Disco_sentence_489

In July 2020, Australian singer Kylie Minogue announced she would be releasing her fifteenth studio album, Disco on November 6, 2020. Disco_sentence_490

The album was preceded by two singles, the lead single from the album, "Say Something", was released on 23 July of the same year and premiered on BBC Radio 2. Disco_sentence_491

The second single, "Magic", was released on 24 September. Disco_sentence_492

Both singles received critical acclaim, with critics praising Minogue for returning to disco roots, which were prominent in her albums Fever (2001) and Aphrodite (2010). Disco_sentence_493

Legacy Disco_section_27

DJ culture Disco_section_28

The rising popularity of disco came in tandem with developments in the role of the DJ. Disco_sentence_494

DJing developed from the use of multiple record turntables and DJ mixers to create a continuous, seamless mix of songs, with one song transitioning to another with no break in the music to interrupt the dancing. Disco_sentence_495

The resulting DJ mix differed from previous forms of dance music in the 1960s, which were oriented towards live performances by musicians. Disco_sentence_496

This in turn affected the arrangement of dance music, since songs in the disco era typically contained beginnings and endings marked by a simple beat or riff that could be easily used to transition to a new song. Disco_sentence_497

The development of DJing was also influenced by new turntablism techniques, such as beatmatching and scratching, a process facilitated by the introduction of new turntable technologies such as the Technics SL-1200 MK 2, first sold in 1978, which had a precise variable pitch control and a direct drive motor. Disco_sentence_498

DJs were often avid record collectors, who would hunt through used record stores for obscure soul records and vintage funk recordings. Disco_sentence_499

DJs helped to introduce rare records and new artists to club audiences. Disco_sentence_500

In the 1970s, individual DJs became more prominent, and some DJs, such as Larry Levan, the resident at Paradise Garage, Jim Burgess, Tee Scott and Francis Grasso became famous in the disco scene. Disco_sentence_501

Levan, for example, developed a cult following among club-goers, who referred to his DJ sets as "Saturday Mass". Disco_sentence_502

Some DJs would use reel-to-reel tape recorders to make remixes and tape edits of songs. Disco_sentence_503

Some DJs who were making remixes made the transition from the DJ booth to becoming a record producer, notably Burgess. Disco_sentence_504

Scott developed several innovations. Disco_sentence_505

He was the first disco DJ to use three turntables as sound sources, the first to simultaneously play two beat matched records, the first user of electronic effects units in his mixes and an innovator in mixing dialogue in from well-known movies into his mixes, typically over a percussion break. Disco_sentence_506

These mixing techniques were also applied to radio DJs, such as Ted Currier of WKTU and WBLS. Disco_sentence_507

Grasso is particularly notable for taking the DJ "profession out of servitude and [making] the DJ the musical head chef". Disco_sentence_508

Once he entered the scene, the DJ was no longer responsible for waiting on the crowd hand and foot, meeting their every song request. Disco_sentence_509

Instead, with increased agency and visibility, the DJ was now able to use his own technical and creative skills to whip up a nightly special of innovative mixes, refining his personal sound and aesthetic, and building his own reputation. Disco_sentence_510

Known as the first DJ to create a take his audience on a narrative, musical journey, Grasso discovered that music could effectively shift the energy of the crowd, and even more, that he had all this power at his fingertips. Disco_sentence_511

Early hip hop Disco_section_29

Main article: Hip hop music Disco_sentence_512

The disco sound had a strong influence on early hip hop. Disco_sentence_513

Most of the early hip hop songs were created by isolating existing disco bass-guitar lines and dubbing over them with MC rhymes. Disco_sentence_514

The Sugarhill Gang used Chic's "Good Times" as the foundation for their 1979 song "Rapper's Delight", generally considered to be the song that first popularized rap music in the United States and around the world. Disco_sentence_515

With synthesizers and Krautrock influences, that replaced the previous disco foundation, a new genre was born when Afrika Bambaataa released the single "Planet Rock," spawning a hip hop electronic dance trend that includes songs such as Planet Patrol's "Play at Your Own Risk" (1982), C-Bank's "One More Shot" (1982), Cerrone's "Club Underworld" (1984), Shannon's "Let the Music Play" (1983), Freeez's "I.O.U." Disco_sentence_516

(1983), Midnight Star's "Freak-a-Zoid" (1983), Chaka Khan's "I Feel For You" (1984). Disco_sentence_517

House music and rave culture Disco_section_30

Main articles: House music and rave Disco_sentence_518

House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago in the early 1980s (also see: Chicago house). Disco_sentence_519

It quickly spread to other American cities such as Detroit, where it developed into the harder and more industrial techno, New York City (also see: garage house) and Newark – all of which developed their own regional scenes. Disco_sentence_520

In the mid- to late 1980s, house music became popular in Europe as well as major cities in South America, and Australia. Disco_sentence_521

Early house music commercial success in Europe saw songs such as "Pump Up The Volume" by MARRS (1987), "House Nation" by House Master Boyz and the Rude Boy of House (1987), "Theme from S'Express" by S'Express (1988) and "Doctorin' the House" by Coldcut (1988) in the pop charts. Disco_sentence_522

Since the early to mid-1990s, house music has been infused in mainstream pop and dance music worldwide. Disco_sentence_523

Early house music was generally dance-based music characterized by repetitive four on the floor beats, rhythms mainly provided by drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines. Disco_sentence_524

While house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, it was more electronic and minimalist, and the repetitive rhythm of house was more important than the song itself. Disco_sentence_525

As well, house did not use the lush string sections that were a key part of the disco sound. Disco_sentence_526

House music in the 2010s, while keeping several of these core elements, notably the prominent kick drum on every beat, varies widely in style and influence, ranging from the soulful and atmospheric deep house to the more aggressive acid house or the minimalist microhouse. Disco_sentence_527

House music has also fused with several other genres creating fusion subgenres, such as euro house, tech house, electro house and jump house. Disco_sentence_528

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, rave culture began to emerge from the house and acid house scene. Disco_sentence_529

Like house, it incorporated disco culture's same love of dance music played by DJs over powerful sound systems, recreational drug and club drug exploration, sexual promiscuity, and hedonism. Disco_sentence_530

Although disco culture started out underground, it eventually thrived in the mainstream by the late 1970s, and major labels commodified and packaged the music for mass consumption. Disco_sentence_531

In contrast, the rave culture started out underground and stayed (mostly) underground. Disco_sentence_532

In part this was to avoid the animosity that was still surrounding disco and dance music. Disco_sentence_533

The rave scene also stayed underground to avoid law enforcement attention that was directed at the rave culture due to its use of secret, unauthorized warehouses for some dance events and its association with illegal club drugs like ecstasy. Disco_sentence_534

Post-punk Disco_section_31

Main articles: Post-punk and dance-punk Disco_sentence_535

The post-punk movement that originated in the late 1970s both supported punk rock's rule breaking while rejecting its move back to raw rock music. Disco_sentence_536

Post-punk's mantra of constantly moving forward lent itself to both openness to and experimentation with elements of disco and other styles. Disco_sentence_537

Public Image Limited is considered the first post-punk group. Disco_sentence_538

The group's second album Metal Box fully embraced the "studio as instrument" methodology of disco. Disco_sentence_539

The group's founder John Lydon, the former lead singer for the Sex Pistols, told the press that disco was the only music he cared for at the time. Disco_sentence_540

No wave was a subgenre of post-punk centered in New York City. Disco_sentence_541

For shock value, James Chance, a notable member of the no wave scene, penned an article in the East Village Eye urging his readers to move uptown and get "trancin' with some superradioactive disco voodoo funk". Disco_sentence_542

His band James White and the Blacks wrote a disco album titled Off White. Disco_sentence_543

Their performances resembled those of disco performers (horn section, dancers and so on). Disco_sentence_544

In 1981 ZE Records led the transition from no wave into the more subtle mutant disco (post-disco/punk) genre. Disco_sentence_545

Mutant disco acts such as Kid Creole and the Coconuts, Was Not Was, ESG and Liquid Liquid influenced several British post-punk acts such as New Order, Orange Juice and A Certain Ratio. Disco_sentence_546

Nu-disco Disco_section_32

Main article: Nu-disco Disco_sentence_547

Nu-disco is a 21st-century dance music genre associated with the renewed interest in 1970s and early 1980s disco, mid-1980s Italo disco, and the synthesizer-heavy Euro disco aesthetics. Disco_sentence_548

The moniker appeared in print as early as 2002, and by mid-2008 was used by record shops such as the online retailers Juno and Beatport. Disco_sentence_549

These vendors often associate it with re-edits of original-era disco music, as well as with music from European producers who make dance music inspired by original-era American disco, electro and other genres popular in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Disco_sentence_550

It is also used to describe the music on several American labels that were previously associated with the genres electroclash and French house. Disco_sentence_551

See also Disco_section_33


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disco.