From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Not to be confused with Bisection. Dissection_sentence_0

This article is about the biological examination process. Dissection_sentence_1

For other uses, see Dissection (disambiguation). Dissection_sentence_2


MeSHDissection_header_cell_0_2_0 Dissection_cell_0_2_1

Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure. Dissection_sentence_3

Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans. Dissection_sentence_4

Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine. Dissection_sentence_5

Consequently, dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab. Dissection_sentence_6

Dissection has been used for centuries to explore anatomy. Dissection_sentence_7

Objections to the use of cadavers have led to the use of alternatives including virtual dissection of computer models. Dissection_sentence_8

Overview Dissection_section_0

Plant and animal bodies are dissected to analyze the structure and function of its components. Dissection_sentence_9

Dissection is practised by students in courses of biology, botany, zoology, and veterinary science, and sometimes in arts studies. Dissection_sentence_10

In medical schools, students dissect human cadavers to learn anatomy. Dissection_sentence_11

Dissection is used to help to determine the cause of death in autopsy (called necropsy in other animals) and is an intrinsic part of forensic medicine. Dissection_sentence_12

A key principle in the dissection of human cadavers is the prevention of human disease to the dissector. Dissection_sentence_13

Prevention of transmission includes the wearing of protective gear, ensuring the environment is clean, dissection technique and pre-dissection tests to specimens for the presence of HIV and Hepatitis viruses. Dissection_sentence_14

Specimens are dissected in morgues or anatomy labs. Dissection_sentence_15

When provided, they are evaluated for use as a "fresh" or "prepared" specimen. Dissection_sentence_16

A "fresh" specimen may be dissected within some days, retaining the characteristics of a living specimen, for the purposes of training. Dissection_sentence_17

A "prepared" specimen may be preserved in solutions such as formalin and pre-dissected by an experienced anatomist, sometimes with the help of a diener. Dissection_sentence_18

This preparation is sometimes called prosection. Dissection_sentence_19

Most dissection involves the careful isolation and removal of individual organs, called the Virchow technique. Dissection_sentence_20

An alternative more cumbersome technique involves the removal of the entire organ body, called the Letulle technique. Dissection_sentence_21

This technique allows a body to be sent to a funeral director without waiting for the sometimes time-consuming dissection of individual organs. Dissection_sentence_22

The Rokitansky method involves an in situ dissection of the organ block, and the technique of Ghon involves dissection of three separate blocks of organs - the thorax and cervical areas, gastrointestinal and abdominal organs, and urogenital organs. Dissection_sentence_23

Dissection of individual organs involves accessing the area in which the organ is situated, and systematically removing the anatomical connections of that organ to its surroundings. Dissection_sentence_24

For example, when removing the heart, connects such as the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are separated. Dissection_sentence_25

If pathological connections exist, such as a fibrous pericardium, then this may be deliberately dissected along with the organ. Dissection_sentence_26

Dissection guides are often used to aid the dissector in the completion of the task. Dissection_sentence_27

Some dissection guides are authored for use by multiple audiences, however, recent research has shown that when the guide is customized to the specific group of learners they benefit more. Dissection_sentence_28

History Dissection_section_1

Classical antiquity Dissection_section_2

Human dissections were carried out by the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Chios in the early part of the third century BC. Dissection_sentence_29

During this period, the first exploration into full human anatomy was performed rather than a base knowledge gained from 'problem-solution' delving. Dissection_sentence_30

While there was a deep taboo in Greek culture concerning human dissection, there was at the time a strong push by the Ptolemaic government to build Alexandria into a hub of scientific study. Dissection_sentence_31

For a time, Roman law forbade dissection and autopsy of the human body, so physicians had to use other cadavers. Dissection_sentence_32

Galen, for example, dissected the Barbary macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans. Dissection_sentence_33

India Dissection_section_3

The ancient societies that were rooted in India left behind artwork on how to kill animals during a hunt. Dissection_sentence_34

The images showing how to kill most effectively depending on the game being hunted relay an intimate knowledge of both external and internal anatomy as well as the relative importance of organs. Dissection_sentence_35

The knowledge was mostly gained through hunters preparing the recently captured prey. Dissection_sentence_36

Once the roaming lifestyle was no longer necessary it was replaced in part by the civilization that formed in the Indus Valley. Dissection_sentence_37

Unfortunately, there is little that remains from this time to indicate whether or not dissection occurred, the civilization was lost to the Aryan people migrating. Dissection_sentence_38

Early in the history of India (2nd to 3rd century), the Arthashastra described the 4 ways that death can occur and their symptoms: drowning, hanging, strangling, or asphyxiation. Dissection_sentence_39

According to that source, an autopsy should be performed in any case of untimely demise. Dissection_sentence_40

The practice of dissection flourished during the 7th and 8th century. Dissection_sentence_41

It was under their rule that medical education was standardized. Dissection_sentence_42

This created a need to better understand human anatomy, so as to have educated surgeons. Dissection_sentence_43

Dissection was limited by the religious taboo on cutting the human body. Dissection_sentence_44

This changed the approach taken to accomplish the goal. Dissection_sentence_45

The process involved the loosening of the tissues in streams of water before the outer layers were sloughed off with soft implements to reach the musculature. Dissection_sentence_46

To perfect the technique of slicing, the prospective students used gourds and squash. Dissection_sentence_47

These techniques of dissection gave rise to an advanced understanding of the anatomy and the enabled them to complete procedures used today, such as rhinoplasty. Dissection_sentence_48

During medieval times the anatomical teachings from India spread throughout the known world; however, the practice of dissection was stunted by Islam. Dissection_sentence_49

The practice of dissection at a university level was not seen again until 1827, when it was performed by the student Pandit Madhusudan Gupta. Dissection_sentence_50

Through the 1900s, the University teachers had to continually push against the social taboos of dissection, until around 1850 when the universities decided that it was more cost effective to train Indian doctors than bring them in from Britain. Dissection_sentence_51

Indian medical schools were, however, training female doctors well before those in England. Dissection_sentence_52

The current state of dissection in India is deteriorating. Dissection_sentence_53

The number of hours spent in dissection labs during medical school has decreased substantially over the last twenty years. Dissection_sentence_54

The future of anatomy education will probably be an elegant mix of traditional methods and integrative computer learning. Dissection_sentence_55

The use of dissection in early stages of medical training has been shown more effective in the retention of the intended information than their simulated counterparts. Dissection_sentence_56

However, there is use for the computer-generated experience as review in the later stages. Dissection_sentence_57

The combination of these methods are intended to strengthen the students understanding and confidence of anatomy, a subject that is infamously difficult to master. Dissection_sentence_58

There is a growing need for anatomist—seeing as most anatomy labs are taught by graduates hoping to complete degrees in anatomy—to continue the long tradition of anatomy education. Dissection_sentence_59

Islamic world Dissection_section_4

From the beginning of the Islamic faith in 610 A.D. Dissection_sentence_60 , Shari'ah law has applied to a greater or lesser extent within Muslim countries, supported by Islamic scholars such as Al-Ghazali. Dissection_sentence_61

Islamic physicians such as Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) (1091–1161) in Al-Andalus, Saladin's physician Ibn Jumay during the 12th century, Abd el-Latif in Egypt c. 1200, and Ibn al-Nafis in Syria and Egypt in the 13th century may have practiced dissection, but it remains ambiguous whether or not human dissection was practiced. Dissection_sentence_62

Ibn al-Nafis, a physician and Muslim jurist, suggested that the "precepts of Islamic law have discouraged us from the practice of dissection, along with whatever compassion is in our temperament", indicating that while there was no law against it, it was nevertheless uncommon. Dissection_sentence_63

Islam dictates that the body be buried as soon as possible, barring religious holidays, and that there be no other means of disposal such as cremation. Dissection_sentence_64

Prior to the 10th century, dissection was not performed on human cadavers. Dissection_sentence_65

The book Al-Tasrif, written by Al-Zahrawi in 1000 A.D., details surgical procedure that differed from the previous standards. Dissection_sentence_66

The book was an educational text of medicine and surgery which included detailed illustrations. Dissection_sentence_67

It was later translated and took the place of Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine as the primary teaching tool in Europe from the 12th century to the 17th century. Dissection_sentence_68

There were some that were willing to dissect humans up to the 12th century, for the sake of learning, after which it was forbidden. Dissection_sentence_69

This attitude remained constant until 1952, when the Islamic School of Jurisprudence in Egypt ruled that "necessity permits the forbidden". Dissection_sentence_70

This decision allowed for the investigation of questionable deaths by autopsy. Dissection_sentence_71

In 1982, the decision was made by a fatwa that if it serves justice, autopsy is worth the disadvantages. Dissection_sentence_72

Though Islam now approves of autopsy, the Islamic public still disapproves. Dissection_sentence_73

Autopsy is prevalent in most Muslim countries for medical and judicial purposes. Dissection_sentence_74

In Egypt it holds an important place within the judicial structure, and is taught at all the country's medical universities. Dissection_sentence_75

In Saudi Arabia, whose law is completely dictated by Shari'ah, autopsy is viewed poorly by the population but can be compelled in criminal cases; human dissection is sometimes found at university level. Dissection_sentence_76

Autopsy is performed for judicial purposes in Qatar and Tunisia. Dissection_sentence_77

Human dissection is present in the modern day Islamic world, but is rarely published on due to the religious and social stigma. Dissection_sentence_78

Tibet Dissection_section_5

See also: Tree of physiology Dissection_sentence_79

Tibetan medicine developed a rather sophisticated knowledge of anatomy, acquired from long-standing experience with human dissection. Dissection_sentence_80

Tibetans had adopted the practice of sky burial because of the country's hard ground, frozen for most of the year, and the lack of wood for cremation. Dissection_sentence_81

A sky burial begins with a ritual dissection of the deceased, and is followed by the feeding of the parts to vultures on the hill tops. Dissection_sentence_82

Over time, Tibetan anatomical knowledge found its way into Ayurveda and to a lesser extent into Chinese medicine. Dissection_sentence_83

Christian Europe Dissection_section_6

Throughout the history of Christian Europe, the dissection of human cadavers for medical education has experienced various cycles of legalization and proscription in different countries. Dissection_sentence_84

Dissection was rare during the Middle Ages, but it was practised, with evidence from at least as early as the 13th century. Dissection_sentence_85

The practice of autopsy in Medieval Western Europe is "very poorly known" as few surgical texts or conserved human dissections have survived. Dissection_sentence_86

A modern Jesuit scholar has claimed that the Christian theology contributed significantly to the revival of human dissection and autopsy by providing a new socio-religious and cultural context in which the human cadaver was no longer seen as sacrosanct. Dissection_sentence_87

An edict of the 1163 Council of Tours, and an early 14th-century decree of Pope Boniface VIII have mistakenly been identified as prohibiting dissection and autopsy, misunderstanding or extrapolation from these edicts may have contributed to reluctance to perform such procedures. Dissection_sentence_88

The Middle Ages witnessed the revival of an interest in medical studies, including human dissection and autopsy. Dissection_sentence_89

Frederick II (1194–1250), the Holy Roman emperor, ruled that any that were studying to be a physician or a surgeon must attend a human dissection, which would be held no less than every five years. Dissection_sentence_90

Some European countries began legalizing the dissection of executed criminals for educational purposes in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. Dissection_sentence_91

Mondino de Luzzi carried out the first recorded public dissection around 1315. Dissection_sentence_92

At this time, autopsies were carried out by a team consisting of a Lector, who lectured, the Sector, who did the dissection, and the Ostensor who pointed to features of interest. Dissection_sentence_93

The Italian Galeazzo di Santa Sofia made the first public dissection north of the Alps in Vienna in 1404. Dissection_sentence_94

Vesalius in the 16th century carried out numerous dissections in his extensive anatomical investigations. Dissection_sentence_95

He was attacked frequently for his disagreement with Galen's opinions on human anatomy. Dissection_sentence_96

Vesalius was the first to lecture and dissect the cadaver simultaneously. Dissection_sentence_97

The Catholic Church is known to have ordered an autopsy on conjoined twins Joana and Melchiora Ballestero in Hispaniola in 1533 to determine whether they shared a soul. Dissection_sentence_98

They found that there were two distinct hearts, and hence two souls, based on the ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles, who believed the soul resided in the heart. Dissection_sentence_99

Human dissection was also practised by Renaissance artists. Dissection_sentence_100

Though most chose to focus on the external surfaces of the body, some like Michelangelo Buonarotti, Antonio del Pollaiolo, Baccio Bandinelli, and Leonardo da Vinci sought a deeper understanding. Dissection_sentence_101

However, there were no provisions for artists to obtain cadavers, so they had to resort to unauthorised means, as indeed anatomists sometimes did, such as grave robbing, body snatching, and murder. Dissection_sentence_102

Anatomization was sometimes ordered as a form of punishment, as, for example, in 1806 to James Halligan and Dominic Daley after their public hanging in Northampton, Massachusetts. Dissection_sentence_103

In modern Europe, dissection is routinely practised in biological research and education, in medical schools, and to determine the cause of death in autopsy. Dissection_sentence_104

It is generally considered a necessary part of learning and is thus accepted culturally. Dissection_sentence_105

It sometimes attracts controversy, as when Odense Zoo decided to dissect lion cadavers in public before a "self-selected audience". Dissection_sentence_106

Britain Dissection_section_7

In Britain, dissection remained entirely prohibited from the end of the Roman conquest and through the Middle Ages to the 16th century, when a series of royal edicts gave specific groups of physicians and surgeons some limited rights to dissect cadavers. Dissection_sentence_107

The permission was quite limited: by the mid-18th century, the Royal College of Physicians and Company of Barber-Surgeons were the only two groups permitted to carry out dissections, and had an annual quota of ten cadavers between them. Dissection_sentence_108

As a result of pressure from anatomists, especially in the rapidly growing medical schools, the Murder Act 1752 allowed the bodies of executed murderers to be dissected for anatomical research and education. Dissection_sentence_109

By the 19th century this supply of cadavers proved insufficient, as the public medical schools were growing, and the private medical schools lacked legal access to cadavers. Dissection_sentence_110

A thriving black market arose in cadavers and body parts, leading to the creation of the profession of body snatching, and the infamous Burke and Hare murders in 1828, when 16 people were murdered for their cadavers, to be sold to anatomists. Dissection_sentence_111

The resulting public outcry led to the passage of the Anatomy Act 1832, which increased the legal supply of cadavers for dissection. Dissection_sentence_112

By the 21st century, the availability of interactive computer programs and changing public sentiment led to renewed debate on the use of cadavers in medical education. Dissection_sentence_113

The Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry in the UK, founded in 2000, became the first modern medical school to carry out its anatomy education without dissection. Dissection_sentence_114

United States Dissection_section_8

In the United States, dissection of frogs became common in college biology classes from the 1920s, and were gradually introduced at earlier stages of education. Dissection_sentence_115

By 1988, some 75 to 80 percent of American high school biology students were participating in a frog dissection, with a trend towards introduction in elementary schools. Dissection_sentence_116

The frogs are most commonly from the genus Rana. Dissection_sentence_117

Other popular animals for high-school dissection at the time of that survey were, among vertebrates, fetal pigs, perch, and cats; and among invertebrates, earthworms, grasshoppers, crayfish, and starfish. Dissection_sentence_118

About six million animals are (2016) dissected each year in United States high schools, not counting medical training and research. Dissection_sentence_119

Most of these are purchased already dead from slaughterhouses and farms. Dissection_sentence_120

Dissection in U.S. high schools became prominent in 1987, when a California student, Jenifer Graham, sued to require her school to let her complete an alternative project. Dissection_sentence_121

The court ruled that mandatory dissections were permissible, but that Graham could ask to dissect a frog that had died of natural causes rather than one that was killed for the purposes of dissection; the practical impossibility of procuring a frog that had died of natural causes in effect let Graham opt out of the required dissection. Dissection_sentence_122

The suit gave publicity to anti-dissection advocates. Dissection_sentence_123

Graham appeared in a 1987 Apple Computer commercial for the virtual-dissection software Operation Frog. Dissection_sentence_124

The state of California passed a Student's Rights Bill in 1988 requiring that objecting students be allowed to complete alternative projects. Dissection_sentence_125

Opting out of dissection increased through the 1990s. Dissection_sentence_126

In the United States, 17 states along with Washington, D.C. have enacted dissection-choice laws or policies that allow students in primary and secondary education to opt out of dissection. Dissection_sentence_127

Other states including Arizona, Hawaii, Minnesota, Texas, and Utah have more general policies on opting out on moral, religious, or ethical grounds. Dissection_sentence_128

To overcome these concerns, J. Dissection_sentence_129 W. Mitchell High School in New Port Richey, Florida, in 2019 became the first US high school to use synthetic frogs for dissection in its science classes, instead of preserved real frogs. Dissection_sentence_130

As for the dissection of cadavers in undergraduate and medical school, traditional dissection is supported by professors and students, with some opposition, limiting the availability of dissection. Dissection_sentence_131

Upper-level students who have experienced this method along with their professors agree that "Studying human anatomy with colorful charts is one thing. Dissection_sentence_132

Using a scalpel and an actual, recently-living person is an entirely different matter." Dissection_sentence_133

Acquisition of cadavers Dissection_section_9

The way in which cadaveric specimens are obtained differs greatly according to country. Dissection_sentence_134

In the UK, donation of a cadaver is wholly voluntary. Dissection_sentence_135

Involuntary donation plays a role in about 20 percent of specimens in the US and almost all specimens donated in some countries such as South Africa and Zimbabwe. Dissection_sentence_136

Countries that practice involuntary donation may make available the bodies of dead criminals or unclaimed or unidentified bodies for the purposes of dissection. Dissection_sentence_137

Such practices may lead to a greater proportion of the poor, homeless and social outcasts being involuntarily donated. Dissection_sentence_138

Cadavers donated in one jurisdiction may also be used for the purposes of dissection in another, whether across states in the US, or imported from other countries, such as with Libya. Dissection_sentence_139

As an example of how a cadaver is donated voluntarily, a funeral home in conjunction with a voluntary donation program identifies a body who is part of the program. Dissection_sentence_140

After broaching the subject with relatives in a diplomatic fashion, the body is then transported to a registered facility. Dissection_sentence_141

The body is tested for the presence of HIV and Hepatitis viruses. Dissection_sentence_142

It is then evaluated for use as a "fresh" or "prepared" specimen. Dissection_sentence_143

Disposal of specimens Dissection_section_10

Cadaveric specimens for dissection are, in general, disposed of by cremation. Dissection_sentence_144

The deceased may then be interred at a local cemetery. Dissection_sentence_145

If the family wishes, the ashes of the deceased are then returned to the family. Dissection_sentence_146

Many institutes have local policies to engage, support and celebrate the donors. Dissection_sentence_147

This may include the setting up of local monuments at the cemetery. Dissection_sentence_148

Use in education Dissection_section_11

Human cadavers are often used in medicine to teach anatomy or surgical instruction. Dissection_sentence_149

Cadavers are selected according to their anatomy and availability. Dissection_sentence_150

They may be used as part of dissection courses involving a "fresh" specimen so as to be as realistic as possible—for example, when training surgeons. Dissection_sentence_151

Cadavers may also be pre-dissected by trained instructors. Dissection_sentence_152

This form of dissection involves the preparation and preservation of specimens for a longer time period and is generally used for the teaching of anatomy. Dissection_sentence_153

Alternatives Dissection_section_12

Some alternatives to dissection may present educational advantages over the use of animal cadavers, while eliminating perceived ethical issues. Dissection_sentence_154

These alternatives include computer programs, lectures, three dimensional models, films, and other forms of technology. Dissection_sentence_155

Concern for animal welfare is often at the root of objections to animal dissection. Dissection_sentence_156

Studies show that some students reluctantly participate in animal dissection out of fear of real or perceived punishment or ostracism from their teachers and peers, and many do not speak up about their ethical objections. Dissection_sentence_157

One alternative to the use of cadavers is computer technology. Dissection_sentence_158

At Stanford Medical School, software combines X-ray, ultrasound and MRI imaging for display on a screen as large as a body on a table. Dissection_sentence_159

In a variant of this, a "virtual anatomy" approach being developed at New York University, students wear three dimensional glasses and can use a pointing device to "[swoop] through the virtual body, its sections as brightly colored as living tissue." Dissection_sentence_160

This method is claimed to be "as dynamic as Imax [cinema]". Dissection_sentence_161

Advantages and disadvantages Dissection_section_13

Proponents of animal-free teaching methodologies argue that alternatives to animal dissection can benefit educators by increasing teaching efficiency and lowering instruction costs while affording teachers an enhanced potential for the customization and repeat-ability of teaching exercises. Dissection_sentence_162

Those in favor of dissection alternatives point to studies which have shown that computer-based teaching methods "saved academic and nonacademic staff time … were considered to be less expensive and an effective and enjoyable mode of student learning [and] … contributed to a significant reduction in animal use" because there is no set-up or clean-up time, no obligatory safety lessons, and no monitoring of misbehavior with animal cadavers, scissors, and scalpels. Dissection_sentence_163

With software and other non-animal methods, there is also no expensive disposal of equipment or hazardous material removal. Dissection_sentence_164

Some programs also allow educators to customize lessons and include built-in test and quiz modules that can track student performance. Dissection_sentence_165

Furthermore, animals (whether dead or alive) can be used only once, while non-animal resources can be used for many years—an added benefit that could result in significant cost savings for teachers, school districts, and state educational systems. Dissection_sentence_166

Several peer-reviewed comparative studies examining information retention and performance of students who dissected animals and those who used an alternative instruction method have concluded that the educational outcomes of students who are taught basic and advanced biomedical concepts and skills using non-animal methods are equivalent or superior to those of their peers who use animal-based laboratories such as animal dissection. Dissection_sentence_167

Some reports state that students’ confidence, satisfaction, and ability to retrieve and communicate information was much higher for those who participated in alternative activities compared to dissection. Dissection_sentence_168

Three separate studies at universities across the United States found that students who modeled body systems out of clay were significantly better at identifying the constituent parts of human anatomy than their classmates who performed animal dissection. Dissection_sentence_169

Another study found that students preferred using clay modeling over animal dissection and performed just as well as their cohorts who dissected animals. Dissection_sentence_170

In 2008, the National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) affirmed its support for classroom animal dissection stating that they "Encourage the presence of live animals in the classroom with appropriate consideration to the age and maturity level of the students …NABT urges teachers to be aware that alternatives to dissection have their limitations. Dissection_sentence_171

NABT supports the use of these materials as adjuncts to the educational process but not as exclusive replacements for the use of actual organisms." Dissection_sentence_172

The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) "supports including live animals as part of instruction in the K-12 science classroom because observing and working with animals firsthand can spark students' interest in science as well as a general respect for life while reinforcing key concepts" of biological sciences. Dissection_sentence_173

NSTA also supports offering dissection alternatives to students who object to the practice. Dissection_sentence_174

The NORINA database lists over 3,000 products which may be used as alternatives or supplements to animal use in education and training. Dissection_sentence_175

These include alternatives to dissection in schools. Dissection_sentence_176

InterNICHE has a similar database and a loans system. Dissection_sentence_177

See also Dissection_section_14


Additional images Dissection_section_15


  • Dissection_item_1_1
  • Dissection_item_1_2
  • Dissection_item_1_3
  • Dissection_item_1_4
  • Dissection_item_1_5
  • Dissection_item_1_6
  • Dissection_item_1_7

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissection.