Dominican Republic

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other uses, see Dominican (disambiguation). Dominican Republic_sentence_0

Not to be confused with Dominica. Dominican Republic_sentence_1

Dominican Republic_table_infobox_0

Dominican Republic

República Dominicana  (Spanish)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityDominican Republic_header_cell_0_1_0

Santo DomingoDominican Republic_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesDominican Republic_header_cell_0_2_0 SpanishDominican Republic_cell_0_2_1
Ethnic groups (2014)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_3_0 Dominican Republic_cell_0_3_1
Religion (2017)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_4_0 Dominican Republic_cell_0_4_1
Demonym(s)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_5_0 Dominican

Quisqueyan (colloquial)Dominican Republic_cell_0_5_1

GovernmentDominican Republic_header_cell_0_6_0 Unitary presidential republicDominican Republic_cell_0_6_1
PresidentDominican Republic_header_cell_0_7_0 Luis AbinaderDominican Republic_cell_0_7_1
Vice PresidentDominican Republic_header_cell_0_8_0 Raquel Peña de AntuñaDominican Republic_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureDominican Republic_header_cell_0_9_0 CongressDominican Republic_cell_0_9_1
Upper houseDominican Republic_header_cell_0_10_0 SenateDominican Republic_cell_0_10_1
Lower houseDominican Republic_header_cell_0_11_0 Chamber of DeputiesDominican Republic_cell_0_11_1
FormationDominican Republic_header_cell_0_12_0
Captaincy General of Santo DomingoDominican Republic_header_cell_0_13_0 1492-1795Dominican Republic_cell_0_13_1
French Santo DomingoDominican Republic_header_cell_0_14_0 1795–1809Dominican Republic_cell_0_14_1
Spanish reconquest of Santo DomingoDominican Republic_header_cell_0_15_0 1809-1821Dominican Republic_cell_0_15_1
Ephemeral IndependenceDominican Republic_header_cell_0_16_0 1821-1822Dominican Republic_cell_0_16_1
Unification of HispaniolaDominican Republic_header_cell_0_17_0 1822-1844Dominican Republic_cell_0_17_1
First RepublicDominican Republic_header_cell_0_18_0 1844-1861Dominican Republic_cell_0_18_1
Spanish occupationDominican Republic_header_cell_0_19_0 1861-1865Dominican Republic_cell_0_19_1
Second RepublicDominican Republic_header_cell_0_20_0 1865-1916Dominican Republic_cell_0_20_1
United States occupationDominican Republic_header_cell_0_21_0 1916-1924Dominican Republic_cell_0_21_1
Third RepublicDominican Republic_header_cell_0_22_0 1924-1965Dominican Republic_cell_0_22_1
Fourth RepublicDominican Republic_header_cell_0_23_0 1966-presentDominican Republic_cell_0_23_1
Area Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_24_0
TotalDominican Republic_header_cell_0_25_0 48,671 km (18,792 sq mi) (128th)Dominican Republic_cell_0_25_1
Water (%)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_26_0 0.7Dominican Republic_cell_0_26_1
PopulationDominican Republic_header_cell_0_27_0
2018 estimateDominican Republic_header_cell_0_28_0 10,878,246 (86th)Dominican Republic_cell_0_28_1
2010 censusDominican Republic_header_cell_0_29_0 9,445,281Dominican Republic_cell_0_29_1
DensityDominican Republic_header_cell_0_30_0 220/km (569.8/sq mi) (65th)Dominican Republic_cell_0_30_1
GDP (PPP)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_31_0 2020 estimateDominican Republic_cell_0_31_1
TotalDominican Republic_header_cell_0_32_0 $215.999 billionDominican Republic_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaDominican Republic_header_cell_0_33_0 $20,625Dominican Republic_cell_0_33_1
GDP (nominal)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_34_0 2020 estimateDominican Republic_cell_0_34_1
TotalDominican Republic_header_cell_0_35_0 $96.291 billionDominican Republic_cell_0_35_1
Per capitaDominican Republic_header_cell_0_36_0 $9,195Dominican Republic_cell_0_36_1
Gini (2018)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_37_0 43.7

mediumDominican Republic_cell_0_37_1

HDI (2018)Dominican Republic_header_cell_0_38_0 0.745

high · 89thDominican Republic_cell_0_38_1

CurrencyDominican Republic_header_cell_0_39_0 Peso (DOP)Dominican Republic_cell_0_39_1
Time zoneDominican Republic_header_cell_0_40_0 UTC  – 4:00 (Atlantic Standard Time)Dominican Republic_cell_0_40_1
Driving sideDominican Republic_header_cell_0_41_0 rightDominican Republic_cell_0_41_1
Calling codeDominican Republic_header_cell_0_42_0 +1-809, +1-829, +1-849Dominican Republic_cell_0_42_1
ISO 3166 codeDominican Republic_header_cell_0_43_0 DODominican Republic_cell_0_43_1
Internet TLDDominican Republic_header_cell_0_44_0 .doDominican Republic_cell_0_44_1

The Dominican Republic (/dəˈmɪnɪkən/ də-MIN-ik-ən; Spanish: República Dominicana, pronounced [reˈpuβlika ðominiˈkana (listen)) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. Dominican Republic_sentence_2

It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with Haiti, making Hispaniola one of only two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two sovereign states. Dominican Republic_sentence_3

The Dominican Republic is the second-largest nation in the Antilles by area (after Cuba) at 48,671 square kilometers (18,792 sq mi), and third-largest by population with approximately 10.8 million people (2020 est.), of whom approximately 3.3 million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city. Dominican Republic_sentence_4

The official language of the country is Spanish. Dominican Republic_sentence_5

The native Taíno people had inhabited Hispaniola before the arrival of Europeans, dividing it into five chiefdoms. Dominican Republic_sentence_6

The Taíno people had eventually moved north over many years, and lived around the Caribbean islands. Dominican Republic_sentence_7

The Taíno natives had done quite well for themselves and were on their way to being an organized civilization. Dominican Republic_sentence_8

Christopher Columbus explored and claimed the island, landing here on his first voyage in 1492. Dominican Republic_sentence_9

The colony of Santo Domingo became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas and the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. Dominican Republic_sentence_10

Meanwhile, France occupied the western third of Hispaniola, naming their colony Saint-Domingue, which became the independent state of Haiti in 1804 after the Haitian Revolution. Dominican Republic_sentence_11

After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule, the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821. Dominican Republic_sentence_12

The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended the Dominican nation to unite with the country of Gran Colombia, but the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed by Haiti in February 1822. Dominican Republic_sentence_13

Independence came 22 years later in 1844, after victory in the Dominican War of Independence. Dominican Republic_sentence_14

Over the next 72 years, the Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal conflicts, several failed (and successful) invasions by its neighbour, Haiti, and brief return to Spanish colonial status, before permanently ousting the Spanish during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1863–1865. Dominican Republic_sentence_15

The United States occupied the country between 1916 and 1924; a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez followed. Dominican Republic_sentence_16

From 1930 the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo ruled until 1961. Dominican Republic_sentence_17

A civil war in 1965, the country's last, was ended by U.S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer (1966–1978 and 1986–1996). Dominican Republic_sentence_18

Since 1978, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy, and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time after 1996. Dominican Republic_sentence_19

Danilo Medina succeeded Fernández in 2012, winning 51% of the electoral vote over his opponent ex-president Hipólito Mejía. Dominican Republic_sentence_20

He was later succeeded by Luis Abinader in the 2020 presidential election. Dominican Republic_sentence_21

The Dominican Republic has the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region and is the eighth-largest economy in Latin America. Dominican Republic_sentence_22

Over the last 25 years, the Dominican Republic has had the fastest-growing economy in the Western Hemisphere – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.3% between 1992 and 2018. Dominican Republic_sentence_23

GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0%, respectively, the highest in the Western Hemisphere. Dominican Republic_sentence_24

In the first half of 2016, the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Dominican Republic_sentence_25

Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing, tourism, and mining. Dominican Republic_sentence_26

The country is the site of the second largest gold mine in the world, the Pueblo Viejo mine. Dominican Republic_sentence_27

Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation (under 1% on average in 2015), job creation, and a high level of remittances. Dominican Republic_sentence_28

The Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. Dominican Republic_sentence_29

The year-round golf courses are major attractions. Dominican Republic_sentence_30

A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, and the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_31

The island has an average temperature of 26 °C (78.8 °F) and great climatic and biological diversity. Dominican Republic_sentence_32

The country is also the site of the first cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress built in the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Dominican Republic_sentence_33

Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with merengue and bachata as the national dance and music, and baseball as the most popular sport. Dominican Republic_sentence_34

Etymology Dominican Republic_section_0

The "Dominican" word comes from the Latin Dominicus, meaning Sunday. Dominican Republic_sentence_35

However, the island has this name by Santo Domingo de Guzmán (Saint Dominic), founder of the Order of the Dominicans. Dominican Republic_sentence_36

The Dominicans established a house of high studies on the island of Santo Domingo that is now known as the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo and dedicated themselves to the protection of the native Taíno people, who were subjected to slavery, and to the education of the inhabitants of the island. Dominican Republic_sentence_37

For most of its history, up until independence, the country was known as Santo Domingo – the name of its present capital and patron saint, Saint Dominic – and continued to be commonly known as such in English until the early 20th century. Dominican Republic_sentence_38

The residents were called "Dominicans" (Dominicanos), the adjectival form of "Domingo", and the revolutionaries named their newly independent country "Dominican Republic" (República Dominicana). Dominican Republic_sentence_39

In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic (himno nacional de la República Dominicana), the term "Dominicans" does not appear. Dominican Republic_sentence_40

The author of its lyrics, Emilio Prud'Homme, consistently uses the poetic term "Quisqueyans" (Quisqueyanos). Dominican Republic_sentence_41

The word "Quisqueya" derives from a native tongue of the Taíno Indians and means "Mother of the lands" (Madre de las tierras). Dominican Republic_sentence_42

It is often used in songs as another name for the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_43

The name of the country is often shortened to "the D.R." (la R.D.) Dominican Republic_sentence_44

History Dominican Republic_section_1

Main article: History of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_45

Pre-European history Dominican Republic_section_2

Main article: Chiefdoms of Hispaniola Dominican Republic_sentence_46

The Arawakan-speaking Taíno moved into Hispaniola from the north east region of what is now known as South America, displacing earlier inhabitants, c. 650 C.E. Dominican Republic_sentence_47

They engaged in farming and fishing, and hunting and gathering. Dominican Republic_sentence_48

The fierce Caribs drove the Taíno to the northeastern Caribbean, during much of the 15th century. Dominican Republic_sentence_49

The estimates of Hispaniola's population in 1492 vary widely, including one hundred thousand, three hundred thousand, and four hundred thousand to two million. Dominican Republic_sentence_50

Determining precisely how many people lived on the island in pre-Columbian times is next to impossible, as no accurate records exist. Dominican Republic_sentence_51

By 1492, the island was divided into five Taíno chiefdoms. Dominican Republic_sentence_52

The Taíno name for the entire island was either Ayiti or Quisqueya. Dominican Republic_sentence_53

The Spaniards arrived in 1492. Dominican Republic_sentence_54

Initially, after friendly relationships, the Taínos resisted the conquest, led by the female Chief Anacaona of Xaragua and her ex-husband Chief Caonabo of Maguana, as well as Chiefs Guacanagaríx, Guamá, Hatuey, and Enriquillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_55

The latter's successes gained his people an autonomous enclave for a time on the island. Dominican Republic_sentence_56

Within a few years after 1492, the population of Taínos had declined drastically, due to smallpox, measles, and other diseases that arrived with the Europeans. Dominican Republic_sentence_57

The first recorded smallpox outbreak, in the Americas, occurred on Hispaniola in 1507. Dominican Republic_sentence_58

The last record of pure Taínos in the country was from 1864. Dominican Republic_sentence_59

Still, Taíno biological heritage survived to an important extent, due to intermixing. Dominican Republic_sentence_60

Census records from 1514 reveal that 40% of Spanish men in Santo Domingo were married to Taíno women, and some present-day Dominicans have Taíno ancestry. Dominican Republic_sentence_61

Remnants of the Taíno culture include their cave paintings, such as the Pomier Caves, as well as pottery designs, which are still used in the small artisan village of Higüerito, Moca. Dominican Republic_sentence_62

European colonization Dominican Republic_section_3

Christopher Columbus arrived on the island on December 5, 1492, during the first of his four voyages to the Americas. Dominican Republic_sentence_63

He claimed the land for Spain and named it La Española, due to its diverse climate and terrain, which reminded him of the Spanish landscape. Dominican Republic_sentence_64

Traveling further east, Columbus came across the Yaque del Norte River, in the Cibao region, which he named Rio de Oro after discovering gold deposits nearby. Dominican Republic_sentence_65

On Columbus's return during his second voyage, he established the settlement of La Isabela in what is now Puerto Plata in January 1494, while he sent Alonso de Ojeda to search for gold in the region. Dominican Republic_sentence_66

In 1496, Bartholomew Columbus, Christopher's brother, built the city of Santo Domingo, Western Europe's first permanent settlement in the "New World". Dominican Republic_sentence_67

The colony thus became the springboard for the further Spanish conquest of the Americas, and for decades, the headquarters of Spanish colonial power in the hemisphere. Dominican Republic_sentence_68

Soon after, the largest discovery of gold in the island was made in the cordillera central region, which led to a mining boom. Dominican Republic_sentence_69

By 1501, Columbus's cousin Giovanni Columbus had also discovered gold near Buenaventura; the deposits were later known as Minas Nuevas. Dominican Republic_sentence_70

Two major mining areas resulted, one along San Cristóbal-Buenaventura and another in Cibao within the La Vega-Cotuy-Bonao triangle, while Santiago de los Caballeros, Concepcion, and Bonao became mining towns. Dominican Republic_sentence_71

The gold rush of 1500–1508 ensued. Dominican Republic_sentence_72

Ferdinand II of Aragon "ordered gold from the richest mines reserved for the Crown." Dominican Republic_sentence_73

Thus, Ovando expropriated the gold mines of Miguel Diaz and Francisco de Garay in 1504, as pit mines became royal mines, though placers were open to private prospectors. Dominican Republic_sentence_74

Furthermore, Ferdinand wanted the "best Indians" working his royal mines, and kept 967 in the San Cristóbal mining area, supervised by salaried miners. Dominican Republic_sentence_75

Under Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres' governorship, the Indians were made to work in the gold mines, "where they were grossly overworked, mistreated, and underfed," according to Pons. Dominican Republic_sentence_76

By 1503, the Spanish Crown legalized the distribution of Indians to work the mines, as part of the encomienda system. Dominican Republic_sentence_77

According to Pons, "Once the Indians entered the mines, hunger and disease literally wiped them out." Dominican Republic_sentence_78

By 1508, the Indian population of about 400,000 was reduced to 60,000, and by 1514, only 26,334 remained. Dominican Republic_sentence_79

About half were located in the mining towns of Concepción, Santiago, Santo Domingo, and Buenaventura. Dominican Republic_sentence_80

The repartimiento of 1514 accelerated emigration of the Spanish colonists, coupled with the exhaustion of the mines. Dominican Republic_sentence_81

In 1516, a smallpox epidemic killed an additional 8,000 of the remaining 11,000 Indians, in one month. Dominican Republic_sentence_82

By 1519, according to Pons, "Both the gold economy and the Indian population became extinct at the same time." Dominican Republic_sentence_83

In 1501, the Catholic Monarchs first granted permission to the colonists of the Caribbean to import African slaves, who began arriving to the island in 1503. Dominican Republic_sentence_84

Sugar cane was introduced to Hispaniola from the Canary Islands, and the first sugar mill in the New World was established in 1516, on Hispaniola. Dominican Republic_sentence_85

The need for a labor force to meet the growing demands of sugar cane cultivation led to an exponential increase in the importation of slaves, over the following two decades. Dominican Republic_sentence_86

The sugar mill owners soon formed a new colonial elite and convinced the Spanish king to allow them to elect the members of the Real Audiencia from their ranks. Dominican Republic_sentence_87

Poorer colonists subsisted by hunting the herds of wild cattle that roamed throughout the island and selling their leather. Dominican Republic_sentence_88

With the conquest of the American mainland, Hispaniola's sugar plantation economy quickly declined. Dominican Republic_sentence_89

Most Spanish colonists left for the silver-mines of Mexico and Peru, while new immigrants from Spain bypassed the island. Dominican Republic_sentence_90

Agriculture dwindled, new imports of slaves ceased, and white colonists, free blacks, and slaves alike lived in poverty, weakening the racial hierarchy and aiding intermixing, resulting in a population of predominantly mixed Spaniard, Taíno, and African descent. Dominican Republic_sentence_91

Except for the city of Santo Domingo, which managed to maintain some legal exports, Dominican ports were forced to rely on contraband trade, which, along with livestock, became one of the main sources of livelihood for the island's inhabitants. Dominican Republic_sentence_92

In the mid-17th century, France sent colonists and privateers to settle the northwestern coast of Hispaniola due to its strategic position in the region. Dominican Republic_sentence_93

In order to entice the pirates, France supplied them with women who had been taken from prisons, accused of prostitution and thieving. Dominican Republic_sentence_94

After decades of armed struggles with the French settlers, Spain ceded the western coast of the island to France with the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick, whilst the Central Plateau remained under Spanish domain. Dominican Republic_sentence_95

France created a wealthy colony on the island, while the Spanish colony continued to suffer economic decline. Dominican Republic_sentence_96

On April 17, 1655, English forces landed on Hispaniola and marched 30 miles overland to Santo Domingo, the main Spanish stronghold on the island. Dominican Republic_sentence_97

Mounted lancers attacked the invaders, sending them careening back toward the beach in utter confusion. Dominican Republic_sentence_98

Their commander hid behind a tree where, in the words of one disgusted observer, he was "so much possessed with terror that he could hardly speak." Dominican Republic_sentence_99

The elite defenders of Santo Domingo were amply rewarded with titles from the Spanish Crown. Dominican Republic_sentence_100

French forces attacked Santiago in 1667, and this was followed by a devastating hurricane the next year and a smallpox epidemic that killed about 1,500 in 1669. Dominican Republic_sentence_101

In 1687, the Spaniards captured the fort at Petit-Goave, but the French fought back and hanged their leaders. Dominican Republic_sentence_102

Two years later, in the Nine Years' War, the French sacked Santiago. Dominican Republic_sentence_103

In 1691, the Spaniards attacked the north and sacked Cap-François. Dominican Republic_sentence_104

Island tensions subsided once peace was restored, and Spain's last Habsburg monarch — the deformed invalid Charles II — died on November 1, 1700, being succeeded by the sixteen-year-old French Bourbon princeling Philip of Anjou. Dominican Republic_sentence_105

18th century Dominican Republic_section_4

The House of Bourbon replaced the House of Habsburg in Spain in 1700, and introduced economic reforms that gradually began to revive trade in Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic_sentence_106

The crown progressively relaxed the rigid controls and restrictions on commerce between Spain and the colonies and among the colonies. Dominican Republic_sentence_107

The last flotas sailed in 1737; the monopoly port system was abolished shortly thereafter. Dominican Republic_sentence_108

By the middle of the century, the population was bolstered by the emigration of Spaniards from the Canary Islands, resettling the northern part of the colony and planting tobacco in the Cibao Valley, and importation of slaves was renewed. Dominican Republic_sentence_109

The colony of Santo Domingo saw a population increase during the 18th century, as it rose to about 91,272 in 1750. Dominican Republic_sentence_110

Of this number, approximately 38,272 were white landowners, 38,000 were free mixed people of color, and some 15,000 were slaves. Dominican Republic_sentence_111

This contrasted sharply with the population of the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) – the wealthiest colony in the Caribbean and whose population of one-half a million was 90% enslaved and overall, seven times as numerous as the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic_sentence_112

The 'Spanish' settlers, whose blood by now was mixed with that of Taínos, Africans, and Canary Guanches, proclaimed: 'It does not matter if the French are richer than us, we are still the true inheritors of this island. Dominican Republic_sentence_113

In our veins runs the blood of the heroic conquistadores who won this island of ours with sword and blood.' Dominican Republic_sentence_114

When the War of Jenkins' Ear between Spain and Britain broke out in 1739, Spanish privateers, particularly from Santo Domingo, began to patrol the Caribbean Sea, a development that lasted until the end of the eighteenth century. Dominican Republic_sentence_115

During this period, Spanish privateers from Santo Domingo sailed into enemy ports looking for ships to plunder, thus disrupting commerce between Britain and New York. Dominican Republic_sentence_116

As a result, the Spanish obtained stolen merchandise—foodstuffs, ships, enslaved persons—that were sold in Hispaniola's ports, with profits accruing to individual sea raiders. Dominican Republic_sentence_117

The revenue acquired in these acts of piracy was invested in the economic expansion of the colony and led to repopulation from Europe. Dominican Republic_sentence_118

Between 1720 and 1774, Dominican privateers captured merchant and warships in the waters around Santo Domingo and Puerto Rico. Dominican Republic_sentence_119

They were responsible for bringing hundreds of African slaves to the island. Dominican Republic_sentence_120

The most common type of ship used by the privateers was a sloop. Dominican Republic_sentence_121

As restrictions on colonial trade were relaxed, the colonial elites of St. Domingue offered the principal market for Santo Domingo's exports of beef, hides, mahogany, and tobacco. Dominican Republic_sentence_122

With the outbreak of the Haitian Revolution in 1791, the rich urban families linked to the colonial bureaucracy fled the island, while most of the rural hateros (cattle ranchers) remained, even though they lost their principal market. Dominican Republic_sentence_123

Although the population of Spanish Santo Domingo was perhaps one-fourth that of French Saint-Domingue, this did not prevent the Spanish king from launching an invasion of the French side of the island in 1793, attempting to take advantage of the chaos sparked by the French Revolution. Dominican Republic_sentence_124

French forces checked Spanish progress toward Port-au-Prince in the south, but the Spanish pushed rapidly through the north, most of which they occupied by 1794. Dominican Republic_sentence_125

Although the Spanish military effort went well on Hispaniola, it did not in Europe (see War of the Pyrenees). Dominican Republic_sentence_126

As a consequence, Spain was forced to cede Santo Domingo to the French under the terms of the Treaty of Basel (July 22, 1795) in order to get the French to withdraw from Spain. Dominican Republic_sentence_127

French rule Dominican Republic_section_5

Main article: Era de Francia Dominican Republic_sentence_128

Independence from Spain (1821) Dominican Republic_section_6

Main articles: España Boba and Republic of Spanish Haiti Dominican Republic_sentence_129

After a dozen years of discontent and failed independence plots by various opposing groups, Santo Domingo's former Lieutenant-Governor (top administrator), José Núñez de Cáceres, declared the colony's independence from the Spanish crown as Spanish Haiti, on November 30, 1821. Dominican Republic_sentence_130

This period is also known as the Ephemeral independence. Dominican Republic_sentence_131

Unification of Hispaniola (1822–44) Dominican Republic_section_7

Main article: Unification of Hispaniola Dominican Republic_sentence_132

The newly independent republic ended two months later under the Haitian government led by Jean-Pierre Boyer. Dominican Republic_sentence_133

As Toussaint Louverture had done two decades earlier, the Haitians abolished slavery. Dominican Republic_sentence_134

In order to raise funds for the huge indemnity of 150 million francs that Haiti agreed to pay the former French colonists, and which was subsequently lowered to 60 million francs, the Haitian government imposed heavy taxes on the Dominicans. Dominican Republic_sentence_135

Since Haiti was unable to adequately provision its army, the occupying forces largely survived by commandeering or confiscating food and supplies at gunpoint. Dominican Republic_sentence_136

Attempts to redistribute land conflicted with the system of communal land tenure (terrenos comuneros), which had arisen with the ranching economy, and some people resented being forced to grow cash crops under Boyer and Joseph Balthazar Inginac's Code Rural. Dominican Republic_sentence_137

In the rural and rugged mountainous areas, the Haitian administration was usually too inefficient to enforce its own laws. Dominican Republic_sentence_138

It was in the city of Santo Domingo that the effects of the occupation were most acutely felt, and it was there that the movement for independence originated. Dominican Republic_sentence_139

The Haitians associated the Roman Catholic Church with the French slave-masters who had exploited them before independence and confiscated all church property, deported all foreign clergy, and severed the ties of the remaining clergy to the Vatican. Dominican Republic_sentence_140

All levels of education collapsed; the university was shut down, as it was starved both of resources and students, with young Dominican men from 16 to 25 years old being drafted into the Haitian army. Dominican Republic_sentence_141

Boyer's occupation troops, who were largely Dominicans, were unpaid and had to "forage and sack" from Dominican civilians. Dominican Republic_sentence_142

Haiti imposed a "heavy tribute" on the Dominican people. Dominican Republic_sentence_143

Haiti's constitution forbade white elites from owning land, and Dominican major landowning families were forcibly deprived of their properties. Dominican Republic_sentence_144

During this time, many white elites in Santo Domingo did not consider owning slaves due to the economic crisis that Santo Domingo faced during the España Boba period. Dominican Republic_sentence_145

The few landowners that wanted slavery established in Santo Domingo had to emigrate to other colonies such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, or Gran Colombia. Dominican Republic_sentence_146

Many landowning families stayed on the island, with a heavy concentration of landowners settling in the cibao region. Dominican Republic_sentence_147

After independence, and eventually being under Spanish rule once again in 1861, many families returned to Santo Domingo including new waves of immigration from Spain. Dominican Republic_sentence_148

Dominican War of Independence (1844–56) Dominican Republic_section_8

See also: Dominican War of Independence Dominican Republic_sentence_149

In 1838, Juan Pablo Duarte founded a secret society called La Trinitaria, which sought the complete independence of Santo Domingo without any foreign intervention. Dominican Republic_sentence_150

Also Francisco del Rosario Sánchez and Ramon Matias Mella, despite not being among the founding members of La Trinitaria, were decisive in the fight for independence. Dominican Republic_sentence_151

Duarte, Mella, and Sánchez are considered the three Founding Fathers of the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_152

The Trinitarios took advantage of a Haitian rebellion against the dictator Jean-Pierre Boyer. Dominican Republic_sentence_153

They rose up on January 27, 1843, ostensibly in support of the Haitian Charles Hérard who was challenging Boyer for the control of Haiti. Dominican Republic_sentence_154

However, the movement soon discarded its pretext of support for Hérard and now championed Dominican independence. Dominican Republic_sentence_155

After overthrowing Boyer, Hérard executed some Dominicans, and threw many others into prison; Duarte escaped. Dominican Republic_sentence_156

After subduing the Dominicans, Hérard, a mulatto, faced a rebellion by blacks in Port-au-Prince. Dominican Republic_sentence_157

Haiti had formed two regiments composed of Dominicans from the city of Santo Domingo; these were used by Hérard to suppress the uprising. Dominican Republic_sentence_158

In 1844, the surviving members of La Trinitaria, now led by Tomás Bobadilla, chose El Conde, the prominent "Gate of the Count" in the old city walls, as the rallying point for their insurrection against the Haitian government. Dominican Republic_sentence_159

On the morning of February 27, 1844, El Conde rang with the shots of the plotters, who had emerged from their secret meetings to openly challenge the Haitians. Dominican Republic_sentence_160

Their efforts were successful, and for the next ten years, Dominican military strongmen fought to preserve their country's independence from their Haitian neighbors. Dominican Republic_sentence_161

The Trinitarios were backed by Pedro Santana, a wealthy cattle rancher from El Seibo, who became general of the army of the nascent republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_162

The Dominican Republic's first Constitution was adopted on November 6, 1844, and was modeled after the United States Constitution. Dominican Republic_sentence_163

The decades that followed were filled with tyranny, factionalism, economic difficulties, rapid changes of government, and exile for political opponents. Dominican Republic_sentence_164

Archrivals Santana and Buenaventura Báez held power most of the time, both ruling arbitrarily. Dominican Republic_sentence_165

They promoted competing plans to annex the new nation to another power: Santana favored Spain, and Báez the United States. Dominican Republic_sentence_166

Threatening the nation's independence were renewed Haitian invasions. Dominican Republic_sentence_167

On March 19, 1844, the Haitian army, under the personal command of President Hérard, invaded the eastern province from the north and progressed as far as Santiago, but was soon forced to withdraw after suffering disproportionate losses. Dominican Republic_sentence_168

According to José María Imbert's (the General defending Santiago) report of April 5, 1844 to Santo Domingo, "in Santiago, the enemy did not leave behind in the battlefield less than six hundred dead and...the number of wounded was very superior...[while on] our part we suffered not one casualty." Dominican Republic_sentence_169

The Dominicans repelled the Haitian forces, on both land and sea, by December 1845. Dominican Republic_sentence_170

The Haitians invaded again in 1849 after France recognized the Dominican Republic as an independent nation. Dominican Republic_sentence_171

Santana being called upon to assume command of the troops, met the enemy at Ocoa, April 21, 1849, with only 400 men, and succeeded in utterly defeating the Haitian army. Dominican Republic_sentence_172

In November 1849, Báez launched a naval offensive against Haiti to forestall the threat of another invasion. Dominican Republic_sentence_173

His seamen under the French adventurer, Fagalde, raided the Haitian coasts, plundered seaside villages, as far as Cape Dame Marie, and butchered crews of captured enemy ships. Dominican Republic_sentence_174

In 1855, Haiti invaded again, but its forces were repulsed at the Battle of Santomé in December 1855 and the Battle of Sabana Larga in January 1856. Dominican Republic_sentence_175

First Republic Dominican Republic_section_9

The Dominican Republic's first constitution was adopted on November 6, 1844. Dominican Republic_sentence_176

The state was commonly known as Santo Domingo in English until the early 20th century. Dominican Republic_sentence_177

It featured a presidential form of government with many liberal tendencies, but it was marred by Article 210, imposed by Pedro Santana on the constitutional assembly by force, giving him the privileges of a dictatorship until the war of independence was over. Dominican Republic_sentence_178

These privileges not only served him to win the war but also allowed him to persecute, execute and drive into exile his political opponents, among which Duarte was the most important. Dominican Republic_sentence_179

In Haiti after the fall of Boyer, black leaders had ascended to the power once enjoyed exclusively by the mulatto elite. Dominican Republic_sentence_180

Without adequate roads, the regions of the Dominican Republic developed in isolation from one another. Dominican Republic_sentence_181

In the south, also known at the time as Ozama, the economy was dominated by cattle-ranching (particularly in the southeastern savannah) and cutting mahogany and other hardwoods for export. Dominican Republic_sentence_182

This region retained a semi-feudal character, with little commercial agriculture, the hacienda as the dominant social unit, and the majority of the population living at a subsistence level. Dominican Republic_sentence_183

In the north (better-known as Cibao), the nation's richest farmland, peasants supplemented their subsistence crops by growing tobacco for export, mainly to Germany. Dominican Republic_sentence_184

Tobacco required less land than cattle ranching and was mainly grown by smallholders, who relied on itinerant traders to transport their crops to Puerto Plata and Monte Cristi. Dominican Republic_sentence_185

Santana antagonized the Cibao farmers, enriching himself and his supporters at their expense by resorting to multiple peso printings that allowed him to buy their crops for a fraction of their value. Dominican Republic_sentence_186

In 1848, he was forced to resign and was succeeded by his vice-president, Manuel Jimenes. Dominican Republic_sentence_187

After defeating a new Haitian invasion in 1849, Santana marched on Santo Domingo and deposed Jimenes in a coup d'état. Dominican Republic_sentence_188

At his behest, Congress elected Buenaventura Báez as President, but Báez was unwilling to serve as Santana's puppet, challenging his role as the country's acknowledged military leader. Dominican Republic_sentence_189

In 1853, Santana was elected president for his second term, forcing Báez into exile. Dominican Republic_sentence_190

Three years later, after repulsing another Haitian invasion, he negotiated a treaty leasing a portion of Samaná Peninsula to a U.S. company; popular opposition forced him to abdicate, enabling Báez to return and seize power. Dominican Republic_sentence_191

With the treasury depleted, Báez printed eighteen million uninsured pesos, purchasing the 1857 tobacco crop with this currency and exporting it for hard cash at immense profit to himself and his followers. Dominican Republic_sentence_192

Cibao tobacco planters, who were ruined when hyperinflation ensued, revolted and formed a new government headed by José Desiderio Valverde and headquartered in Santiago de los Caballeros. Dominican Republic_sentence_193

In July 1857 General Juan Luis Franco Bidó besieged Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic_sentence_194

The Cibao-based government declared an amnesty to exiles and Santana returned and managed to replace Franco Bidó in September 1857. Dominican Republic_sentence_195

After a year of civil war, Santana captured Santo Domingo in June 1858, overthrew both Báez and Valverde and installed himself as president. Dominican Republic_sentence_196

Restoration republic Dominican Republic_section_10

See also: Dominican Restoration War Dominican Republic_sentence_197

In 1861, after imprisoning, silencing, exiling, and executing many of his opponents and due to political and economic reasons, Santana signed a pact with the Spanish Crown and reverted the Dominican nation to colonial status. Dominican Republic_sentence_198

This action was supported by the cattlemen of the south while the northern elites opposed it. Dominican Republic_sentence_199

Spanish rule finally came to an end with the War of Restoration in 1865, after four years of conflict between Dominican nationalists and Spanish sympathizers. Dominican Republic_sentence_200

The war claimed more than 50,000 lives. Dominican Republic_sentence_201

Political strife again prevailed in the following years; warlords ruled, military revolts were extremely common, and the nation amassed debt. Dominican Republic_sentence_202

In 1869, President Ulysses S. Grant ordered U.S. Marines to the island for the first time. Dominican Republic_sentence_203

Pirates operating from Haiti had been raiding U.S. commercial shipping in the Caribbean, and Grant directed the Marines to stop them at their source. Dominican Republic_sentence_204

Following the virtual takeover of the island, Báez offered to sell the country to the United States. Dominican Republic_sentence_205

Grant desired a naval base at Samaná and also a place for resettling newly freed Blacks. Dominican Republic_sentence_206

The treaty, which included U.S. payment of $1.5 million for Dominican debt repayment, was defeated in the United States Senate in 1870 on a vote of 28–28, two-thirds being required. Dominican Republic_sentence_207

Báez was toppled in 1874, returned, and was toppled for good in 1878. Dominican Republic_sentence_208

A new generation was thence in charge, with the passing of Santana (he died in 1864) and Báez from the scene. Dominican Republic_sentence_209

Relative peace came to the country in the 1880s, which saw the coming to power of General Ulises Heureaux. Dominican Republic_sentence_210

"Lilís", as the new president was nicknamed, enjoyed a period of popularity. Dominican Republic_sentence_211

He was, however, "a consummate dissembler", who put the nation deep into debt while using much of the proceeds for his personal use and to maintain his police state. Dominican Republic_sentence_212

Heureaux became rampantly despotic and unpopular. Dominican Republic_sentence_213

In 1899, he was assassinated. Dominican Republic_sentence_214

However, the relative calm over which he presided allowed improvement in the Dominican economy. Dominican Republic_sentence_215

The sugar industry was modernized, and the country attracted foreign workers and immigrants. Dominican Republic_sentence_216

20th century (1900–30) Dominican Republic_section_11

See also: United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916–24) Dominican Republic_sentence_217

From 1902 on, short-lived governments were again the norm, with their power usurped by caudillos in parts of the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_218

Furthermore, the national government was bankrupt and, unable to pay Heureaux's debts, faced the threat of military intervention by France and other European creditor powers. Dominican Republic_sentence_219

United States President Theodore Roosevelt sought to prevent European intervention, largely to protect the routes to the future Panama Canal, as the canal was already under construction. Dominican Republic_sentence_220

He made a small military intervention to ward off European powers, to proclaim his famous Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, and also to obtain his 1905 Dominican agreement for U.S. administration of Dominican customs, which was the chief source of income for the Dominican government. Dominican Republic_sentence_221

A 1906 agreement provided for the arrangement to last 50 years. Dominican Republic_sentence_222

The United States agreed to use part of the customs proceeds to reduce the immense foreign debt of the Dominican Republic and assumed responsibility for said debt. Dominican Republic_sentence_223

After six years in power, President Ramón Cáceres (who had himself assassinated Heureaux) was assassinated in 1911. Dominican Republic_sentence_224

The result was several years of great political instability and civil war. Dominican Republic_sentence_225

U.S. mediation by the William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson administrations achieved only a short respite each time. Dominican Republic_sentence_226

A political deadlock in 1914 was broken after an ultimatum by Wilson telling the Dominicans to choose a president or see the U.S. impose one. Dominican Republic_sentence_227

A provisional president was chosen, and later the same year relatively free elections put former president (1899–1902) Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra back in power. Dominican Republic_sentence_228

To achieve a more broadly supported government, Jimenes named opposition individuals to his cabinet. Dominican Republic_sentence_229

But this brought no peace and, with his former Secretary of War Desiderio Arias maneuvering to depose him and despite a U.S. offer of military aid against Arias, Jimenes resigned on May 7, 1916. Dominican Republic_sentence_230

Wilson thus ordered the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_231

U.S. Dominican Republic_sentence_232 Marines landed on May 16, 1916, and had control of the country two months later. Dominican Republic_sentence_233

The military government established by the U.S., led by Vice Admiral Harry Shepard Knapp, was widely repudiated by the Dominicans, with many factions within the country leading guerrilla campaigns against U.S. forces. Dominican Republic_sentence_234

The occupation regime kept most Dominican laws and institutions and largely pacified the general population. Dominican Republic_sentence_235

The occupying government also revived the Dominican economy, reduced the nation's debt, built a road network that at last interconnected all regions of the country, and created a professional National Guard to replace the warring partisan units. Dominican Republic_sentence_236

Vigorous opposition to the occupation continued, nevertheless, and after World War I it increased in the U.S. as well. Dominican Republic_sentence_237

There, President Warren G. Harding (1921–23), Wilson's successor, worked to put an end to the occupation, as he had promised to do during his campaign. Dominican Republic_sentence_238

The U.S. government's rule ended in October 1922, and elections were held in March 1924. Dominican Republic_sentence_239

The victor was former president (1902–03) Horacio Vásquez, who had cooperated with the U.S. Dominican Republic_sentence_240

He was inaugurated on July 13, 1924 and the last U.S. forces left in September. Dominican Republic_sentence_241

In six years, the Marines were involved in at least 467 engagements, with 950 insurgents killed or wounded in action. Dominican Republic_sentence_242

Vásquez gave the country six years of stable governance, in which political and civil rights were respected and the economy grew strongly, in a relatively peaceful atmosphere. Dominican Republic_sentence_243

During the government of Horacio Vásquez, Rafael Trujillo held the rank of lieutenant colonel and was chief of police. Dominican Republic_sentence_244

This position helped him launch his plans to overthrow the government of Vásquez. Dominican Republic_sentence_245

Trujillo had the support of Carlos Rosario Peña, who formed the Civic Movement, which had as its main objective to overthrow the government of Vásquez. Dominican Republic_sentence_246

In February 1930, when Vásquez attempted to win another term, his opponents rebelled in secret alliance with the commander of the National Army (the former National Guard), General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina. Dominican Republic_sentence_247

Trujillo secretly cut a deal with rebel leader Rafael Estrella Ureña; in return for letting Ureña take power, Trujillo would be allowed to run for president in new elections. Dominican Republic_sentence_248

As the rebels marched toward Santo Domingo, Vásquez ordered Trujillo to suppress them. Dominican Republic_sentence_249

However, feigning "neutrality," Trujillo kept his men in barracks, allowing Ureña's rebels to take the capital virtually uncontested. Dominican Republic_sentence_250

On March 3, Ureña was proclaimed acting president with Trujillo confirmed as head of the police and the army. Dominican Republic_sentence_251

As per their agreement, Trujillo became the presidential nominee of the newly formed Patriotic Coalition of Citizens (Spanish: Coalición patriotica de los ciudadanos), with Ureña as his running mate. Dominican Republic_sentence_252

During the election campaign, Trujillo used the army to unleash his repression, forcing his opponents to withdraw from the race. Dominican Republic_sentence_253

Trujillo stood to elect himself, and in May he was elected president virtually unopposed after a violent campaign against his opponents, ascending to power on August 16, 1930. Dominican Republic_sentence_254

Trujillo Era (1930–61) Dominican Republic_section_12

There was considerable economic growth during Rafael Trujillo's long and iron-fisted regime, although a great deal of the wealth was taken by the dictator and other regime elements. Dominican Republic_sentence_255

There was progress in healthcare, education, and transportation, with the building of hospitals and clinics, schools, and roads and harbors. Dominican Republic_sentence_256

Trujillo also carried out an important housing construction program and instituted a pension plan. Dominican Republic_sentence_257

He finally negotiated an undisputed border with Haiti in 1935 and achieved the end of the 50-year customs agreement in 1941, instead of 1956. Dominican Republic_sentence_258

He made the country debt-free in 1947. Dominican Republic_sentence_259

This was accompanied by absolute repression and the copious use of murder, torture, and terrorist methods against the opposition. Dominican Republic_sentence_260

Trujillo's henchmen did not hesitate to use intimidation, torture, or assassination of political foes both at home and abroad. Dominican Republic_sentence_261

In 1930, Hurricane San Zenon destroyed Santo Domingo and killed 8,000 people. Dominican Republic_sentence_262

During the rebuilding process, Trujillo renamed Santo Domingo to "Ciudad Trujillo" (Trujillo City), and the nation's – and the Caribbean's – highest mountain La Pelona Grande (Spanish for: The Great Bald) to "Pico Trujillo" (Spanish for: Trujillo Peak). Dominican Republic_sentence_263

By the end of his first term in 1934 he was the country's wealthiest person, and one of the wealthiest in the world by the early 1950s; near the end of his regime his fortune was an estimated $800 million. Dominican Republic_sentence_264

Although one-quarter Haitian, Trujillo promoted propaganda against Haitian people. Dominican Republic_sentence_265

In 1937, he ordered what became known as the Parsley Massacre or, in the Dominican Republic, as El Corte (The Cutting), directing the army to kill Haitians living on the Dominican side of the border. Dominican Republic_sentence_266

The army killed an estimated 17,000 to 35,000 Haitian men, women, and children over six days, from the night of October 2, 1937, through October 8, 1937. Dominican Republic_sentence_267

To avoid leaving evidence of the army's involvement, the soldiers used edged weapons rather than guns. Dominican Republic_sentence_268

The soldiers were said to have interrogated anyone with dark skin, using the shibboleth perejil (parsley) to distinguish Haitians from Afro-Dominicans when necessary; the 'r' of perejil was of difficult pronunciation for Haitians. Dominican Republic_sentence_269

As a result of the massacre, the Dominican Republic agreed to pay Haiti US$750,000, later reduced to US$525,000. Dominican Republic_sentence_270

In 1938, reports from the Dominican Republic revealed hundreds more Haitians had been killed and thousands deported. Dominican Republic_sentence_271

Trujillo's dictatorship was marred by botched invasions, international scandals and assassination attempts. Dominican Republic_sentence_272

1947 brought the failure of a planned invasion by leftist Dominican exiles from the Cuban island of Cayo Confites. Dominican Republic_sentence_273

July 1949 was the year of a failed invasion from Guatemala, and on June 14, 1959, there was a failed invasion at Constanza, Maimón and Estero Hondo by Dominican rebels from Cuba. Dominican Republic_sentence_274

On November 25, 1960, Trujillo killed three of the four Mirabal sisters, nicknamed Las Mariposas (The Butterflies). Dominican Republic_sentence_275

The victims were Patria Mercedes Mirabal (born on February 27, 1924), Argentina Minerva Mirabal (born on March 12, 1926), and Antonia María Teresa Mirabal (born on October 15, 1935). Dominican Republic_sentence_276

Along with their husbands, the sisters were conspiring to overthrow Trujillo in a violent revolt. Dominican Republic_sentence_277

The Mirabals had communist ideological leanings, as did their husbands. Dominican Republic_sentence_278

The sisters have received many honors posthumously and have many memorials in various cities in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_279

Salcedo, their home province, changed its name to Provincia Hermanas Mirabal (Mirabal Sisters Province). Dominican Republic_sentence_280

The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is observed on the anniversary of their deaths. Dominican Republic_sentence_281

For a long time, the U.S. and the Dominican elite supported the Trujillo government. Dominican Republic_sentence_282

This support persisted despite the assassinations of political opposition, the massacre of Haitians, and Trujillo's plots against other countries. Dominican Republic_sentence_283

The U.S. believed Trujillo was the lesser of two or more evils. Dominican Republic_sentence_284

The U.S. finally broke with Trujillo in 1960, after Trujillo's agents attempted to assassinate the Venezuelan president, Rómulo Betancourt, a fierce critic of Trujillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_285

Trujillo had become expendable. Dominican Republic_sentence_286

Dissidents inside the Dominican Republic argued that assassination was the only certain way to remove Trujillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_287

According to Chester Bowles, the U.S. Dominican Republic_sentence_288

Undersecretary of State, internal Department of State discussions in 1961 on the topic were vigorous. Dominican Republic_sentence_289

Richard N. Goodwin, Assistant Special Counsel to the President, who had direct contacts with the rebel alliance, argued for intervention against Trujillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_290

Quoting Bowles directly: The next morning I learned that in spite of the clear decision against having the dissident group request our assistance Dick Goodwin following the meeting sent a cable to CIA people in the Dominican Republic without checking with State or CIA; indeed, with the protest of the Department of State. Dominican Republic_sentence_291

The cable directed the CIA people in the Dominican Republic to get this request at any cost. Dominican Republic_sentence_292

When Allen Dulles found this out the next morning, he withdrew the order. Dominican Republic_sentence_293

We later discovered it had already been carried out. Dominican Republic_sentence_294

Post-Trujillo (1962–1996) Dominican Republic_section_13

Trujillo was assassinated on May 30, 1961 with weapons supplied by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Dominican Republic_sentence_295

In February 1963, a democratically elected government under leftist Juan Bosch took office but it was overthrown in September. Dominican Republic_sentence_296

On April 24, 1965, after 19 months of military rule, a pro-Bosch revolt broke out. Dominican Republic_sentence_297

Days later U.S. President Lyndon Johnson, concerned that communists might take over the revolt and create a "second Cuba," sent the Marines, followed immediately by the U.S. Army's 82nd Airborne Division and other elements of the XVIIIth Airborne Corps, in Operation Powerpack. Dominican Republic_sentence_298

"We don't propose to sit here in a rocking chair with our hands folded and let the Communist set up any government in the Western Hemisphere," Johnson said. Dominican Republic_sentence_299

The forces were soon joined by comparatively small contingents from the Organization of American States. Dominican Republic_sentence_300

All these remained in the country for over a year and left after supervising elections in 1966 won by Joaquín Balaguer. Dominican Republic_sentence_301

He had been Trujillo's last puppet-president. Dominican Republic_sentence_302

The Dominican death toll for the entire period of civil war and occupation totaled more than 3,000, many of them black civilians killed when the US-backed military junta engaged in a campaign of ethnic cleansing in the northern (also the industrial) part of Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic_sentence_303

Balaguer remained in power as president for 12 years. Dominican Republic_sentence_304

His tenure was a period of repression of human rights and civil liberties, ostensibly to keep pro-Castro or pro-communist parties out of power; 11,000 persons were killed. Dominican Republic_sentence_305

His rule was criticized for a growing disparity between rich and poor. Dominican Republic_sentence_306

It was, however, praised for an ambitious infrastructure program, which included the construction of large housing projects, sports complexes, theaters, museums, aqueducts, roads, highways, and the massive Columbus Lighthouse, completed in 1992 during a later tenure. Dominican Republic_sentence_307

During Balaguer's administration, the Dominican military forced Haitians to cut sugarcane on Dominican sugar plantations (bateyes). Dominican Republic_sentence_308

Hurricane David hit the Dominican Republic in August 1979 and killed more than 2,000 people. Dominican Republic_sentence_309

In 1978, Balaguer was succeeded in the presidency by opposition candidate Antonio Guzmán Fernández, of the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD). Dominican Republic_sentence_310

Another PRD win in 1982 followed, under Salvador Jorge Blanco. Dominican Republic_sentence_311

Balaguer regained the presidency in 1986 and was re-elected in 1990 and 1994, this last time just defeating PRD candidate José Francisco Peña Gómez, a former mayor of Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic_sentence_312

During this period, the international community condemned the Dominican government for their continued exploitation of Haitian sugar cane workers; it had been alleged that 50,000 of these workers had essentially been put into slavery, forced to do backbreaking work under the supervision of armed guards. Dominican Republic_sentence_313

The 1994 elections were flawed, bringing on international pressure, to which Balaguer responded by scheduling another presidential contest in 1996. Dominican Republic_sentence_314

Balaguer was not a candidate. Dominican Republic_sentence_315

The PSRC candidate was his Vice President Jacinto Peynado Garrigosa. Dominican Republic_sentence_316

1996–present Dominican Republic_section_14

In the 1996, with the support of Joaquín Balaguer and the Social Christian Reform Party in a coalition called the Patriotic Front, Leonel Fernández achieved the first-ever win for the Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), which Bosch had founded in 1973 after leaving the PRD (which he also had founded). Dominican Republic_sentence_317

Fernández oversaw a fast-growing economy: growth averaged 7.7% per year, unemployment fell, and there were stable exchange and inflation rates. Dominican Republic_sentence_318

His administration supported the process of modernizing the judicial system, making transparent the creation of an independent Supreme Court of Justice. Dominican Republic_sentence_319

Efforts were also made to reform and modernize the other state bodies. Dominican Republic_sentence_320

In addition, relations with Cuba were reestablished and the Free Trade Agreement with Central America was signed, which was the genesis for the signing of DR-CAFTA. Dominican Republic_sentence_321

In 2000, the PRD's Hipólito Mejía won the election. Dominican Republic_sentence_322

This was a time of economic troubles. Dominican Republic_sentence_323

Neverthelss, his government was marked by major economic and social reforms, apart from a decentralization of the national budget. Dominican Republic_sentence_324

Among the laws created in this period are the Social Security, the Monetary and Financial Code, the Stock Market, Electricity, Electronic Commerce, the Police Law, the Environment, Public Health, the Chamber of Accounts, the Insurance Law, Administrative Independence and Budgetary of the Legislative Power and Judicial Power; in addition, creation of the Santo Domingo Province and its municipalities, a larger budget for municipalities, as well as other laws. Dominican Republic_sentence_325

This meant in the 2002 elections, obtaining a congressional and municipal majority. Dominican Republic_sentence_326

During this period, great sports structures were built for the 2003 Pan American Games. Dominican Republic_sentence_327

Under Mejía, the Dominican Republic participated in the US-led coalition, as part of the Multinational Brigade Plus Ultra, during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, suffering no casualties. Dominican Republic_sentence_328

In 2004 , the country withdrew its approximately 300 soldiers from Iraq. Dominican Republic_sentence_329

The government of President Mejía had to negotiate the Free Trade Agreement with the United States, the main trading partner. Dominican Republic_sentence_330

He also promoted various commercial measures, popularly called "Economic Package". Dominican Republic_sentence_331

This "package" was accompanied by a series of social measures, such as aid to agricultural producers, subsidies to electricity rates, construction of streets, sidewalks, local roads, etc., as well as subsidies to poor families whose children attended schools, as well as the creation of new taxes and increases in existing ones. Dominican Republic_sentence_332

In 2003 the effects of the bankruptcy of three banking entities whose savers were protected by the government who financed this situation by creating inflation. Dominican Republic_sentence_333

This caused a strong economic crisis accompanied by the devaluation of the currency and capital outflows, instability that led to the bankruptcy of many companies. Dominican Republic_sentence_334

With the congressional majority obtained in 2002, President Mejía promoted a constitutional reform that restored the possibility of presidential reelection, which had been abolished in 1994 at the request of his own party. Dominican Republic_sentence_335

This reform caused problems within his party causing a division within its main leaders. Dominican Republic_sentence_336

Mejía was defeated in his re-election effort in 2004 by Leonel Fernández of the PLD who won with 57.11% of the votes the presidential elections. Dominican Republic_sentence_337

At the beginning of his second presidential term, he made an effort to combat the economic crisis, reestablishing macroeconomic stability, manifesting among other things through the reduction of the dollar exchange rate and the return of confidence in the economy. Dominican Republic_sentence_338

On the other hand, his administrations was accused of corruption. Dominican Republic_sentence_339

President Fernández's management consisted of improving Santo Domingo's collective transport system, the first Metro line was built; the completion of the main communication routes to the country's tourist poles; the construction of new schools or the construction of more classrooms, as well as the provision of computer centers with modern computers and Internet to the communities in coordination with schools, churches or clubs. Dominican Republic_sentence_340

It continued its program of modernization of the state, strengthening the formulation and execution of the budget and promoting laws to make the public acquisition of goods and services transparent. Dominican Republic_sentence_341

In 2008, Fernández was as elected for a third term. Dominican Republic_sentence_342

Fernández and the PLD are credited with initiatives that have moved the country forward technologically, on the other hand, his administrations have been accused of corruption. Dominican Republic_sentence_343

Danilo Medina of the PLD was elected president in 2012 and re-elected in 2016. Dominican Republic_sentence_344

On the other hand, a significant increase in crime, government corruption and a weak justice system threaten to overshadow their administrative period. Dominican Republic_sentence_345

He was succeeded by Luis Abinader in the 2020 election. Dominican Republic_sentence_346

The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Dominican Republic_sentence_347

Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic has had one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.4% between 1992 and 2014. Dominican Republic_sentence_348

GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0%, respectively, the highest in the Western Hemisphere. Dominican Republic_sentence_349

In the first half of 2016, the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Dominican Republic_sentence_350

Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing, tourism, and mining. Dominican Republic_sentence_351

Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation (under 1% on average in 2015), job creation, as well as a high level of remittances. Dominican Republic_sentence_352

Geography Dominican Republic_section_15

Main article: Geography of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_353

The Dominican Republic comprises the eastern five-eighths of Hispaniola, the second-largest island in the Greater Antilles, with the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Caribbean Sea to the south. Dominican Republic_sentence_354

It shares the island roughly at a 2:1 ratio with Haiti, the north-to-south (though somewhat irregular) border between the two countries being 376 km (234 mi). Dominican Republic_sentence_355

To the north and north-west lie The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands, and to the east, across the Mona Passage, the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Dominican Republic_sentence_356

The country's area is reported variously as 48,442 km (18,704 sq mi) (by the embassy in the United States) and 48,670 km (18,792 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Antilles, after Cuba. Dominican Republic_sentence_357

The Dominican Republic's capital and largest city Santo Domingo is on the southern coast. Dominican Republic_sentence_358

The Dominican Republic has four important mountain ranges. Dominican Republic_sentence_359

The most northerly is the Cordillera Septentrional ("Northern Mountain Range"), which extends from the northwestern coastal town of Monte Cristi, near the Haitian border, to the Samaná Peninsula in the east, running parallel to the Atlantic coast. Dominican Republic_sentence_360

The highest range in the Dominican Republic – indeed, in the whole of the West Indies – is the Cordillera Central ("Central Mountain Range"). Dominican Republic_sentence_361

It gradually bends southwards and finishes near the town of Azua, on the Caribbean coast. Dominican Republic_sentence_362

In the Cordillera Central are the four highest peaks in the Caribbean: Pico Duarte (3,098 metres or 10,164 feet above sea level), La Pelona (3,094 metres or 10,151 feet), La Rucilla (3,049 metres or 10,003 feet), and Pico Yaque (2,760 metres or 9,055 feet). Dominican Republic_sentence_363

In the southwest corner of the country, south of the Cordillera Central, there are two other ranges: the more northerly of the two is the Sierra de Neiba, while in the south the Sierra de Bahoruco is a continuation of the Massif de la Selle in Haiti. Dominican Republic_sentence_364

There are other, minor mountain ranges, such as the Cordillera Oriental ("Eastern Mountain Range"), Sierra Martín García, Sierra de Yamasá, and Sierra de Samaná. Dominican Republic_sentence_365

Between the Central and Northern mountain ranges lies the rich and fertile Cibao valley. Dominican Republic_sentence_366

This major valley is home to the cities of Santiago and La Vega and most of the farming areas of the nation. Dominican Republic_sentence_367

Rather less productive are the semi-arid San Juan Valley, south of the Central Cordillera, and the Neiba Valley, tucked between the Sierra de Neiba and the Sierra de Bahoruco. Dominican Republic_sentence_368

Much of the land around the Enriquillo Basin is below sea level, with a hot, arid, desert-like environment. Dominican Republic_sentence_369

There are other smaller valleys in the mountains, such as the Constanza, Jarabacoa, Villa Altagracia, and Bonao valleys. Dominican Republic_sentence_370

The Llano Costero del Caribe ("Caribbean Coastal Plain") is the largest of the plains in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_371

Stretching north and east of Santo Domingo, it contains many sugar plantations in the savannahs that are common there. Dominican Republic_sentence_372

West of Santo Domingo its width is reduced to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) as it hugs the coast, finishing at the mouth of the Ocoa River. Dominican Republic_sentence_373

Another large plain is the Plena de Azua ("Azua Plain"), a very arid region in Azua Province. Dominican Republic_sentence_374

A few other small coastal plains are on the northern coast and in the Pedernales Peninsula. Dominican Republic_sentence_375

Four major rivers drain the numerous mountains of the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_376

The Yaque del Norte is the longest and most important Dominican river. Dominican Republic_sentence_377

It carries excess water down from the Cibao Valley and empties into Monte Cristi Bay, in the northwest. Dominican Republic_sentence_378

Likewise, the Yuna River serves the Vega Real and empties into Samaná Bay, in the northeast. Dominican Republic_sentence_379

Drainage of the San Juan Valley is provided by the San Juan River, tributary of the Yaque del Sur, which empties into the Caribbean, in the south. Dominican Republic_sentence_380

The Artibonito is the longest river of Hispaniola and flows westward into Haiti. Dominican Republic_sentence_381

There are many lakes and coastal lagoons. Dominican Republic_sentence_382

The largest lake is Enriquillo, a salt lake at 45 metres (148 ft) below sea level, the lowest elevation in the Caribbean. Dominican Republic_sentence_383

Other important lakes are Laguna de Rincón or Cabral, with fresh water, and Laguna de Oviedo, a lagoon with brackish water. Dominican Republic_sentence_384

There are many small offshore islands and cays that form part of the Dominican territory. Dominican Republic_sentence_385

The two largest islands near shore are Saona, in the southeast, and Beata, in the southwest. Dominican Republic_sentence_386

Smaller islands include the Cayos Siete Hermanos, Isla Cabra, Cayo Jackson, Cayo Limón, Cayo Levantado, Cayo la Bocaina, Catalanita, Cayo Pisaje and Isla Alto Velo. Dominican Republic_sentence_387

To the north, at distances of 100–200 kilometres (62–124 mi), are three extensive, largely submerged banks, which geographically are a southeast continuation of the Bahamas: Navidad Bank, Silver Bank, and Mouchoir Bank. Dominican Republic_sentence_388

Navidad Bank and Silver Bank have been officially claimed by the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_389

Isla Cabritos lies within Lago Enriquillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_390

The Dominican Republic is located near fault action in the Caribbean. Dominican Republic_sentence_391

In 1946, it suffered a magnitude 8.1 earthquake off the northeast coast, triggering a tsunami that killed about 1,800, mostly in coastal communities. Dominican Republic_sentence_392

Caribbean countries and the United States have collaborated to create tsunami warning systems and are mapping high-risk low-lying areas. Dominican Republic_sentence_393

Climate Dominican Republic_section_16

Main article: Climate of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_394

The Dominican Republic has a tropical rainforest climate in the coastal and lowland areas. Dominican Republic_sentence_395

Some areas, such as most of the Cibao region, have a tropical savanna climate. Dominican Republic_sentence_396

Due to its diverse topography, Dominican Republic's climate shows considerable variation over short distances and is the most varied of all the Antilles. Dominican Republic_sentence_397

The annual average temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). Dominican Republic_sentence_398

At higher elevations the temperature averages 18 °C (64.4 °F) while near sea level the average temperature is 28 °C (82.4 °F). Dominican Republic_sentence_399

Low temperatures of 0 °C (32 °F) are possible in the mountains while high temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) are possible in protected valleys. Dominican Republic_sentence_400

January and February are the coolest months of the year while August is the hottest month. Dominican Republic_sentence_401

Snowfall can be seen on rare occasions on the summit of Pico Duarte. Dominican Republic_sentence_402

The wet season along the northern coast lasts from November through January. Dominican Republic_sentence_403

Elsewhere the wet season stretches from May through November, with May being the wettest month. Dominican Republic_sentence_404

Average annual rainfall is 1,500 millimetres (59.1 in) countrywide, with individual locations in the Valle de Neiba seeing averages as low as 350 millimetres (13.8 in) while the Cordillera Oriental averages 2,740 millimetres (107.9 in). Dominican Republic_sentence_405

The driest part of the country lies in the west. Dominican Republic_sentence_406

Tropical cyclones strike the Dominican Republic every couple of years, with 65% of the impacts along the southern coast. Dominican Republic_sentence_407

Hurricanes are most likely between June and October. Dominican Republic_sentence_408

The last major hurricane that struck the country was Hurricane Georges in 1998. Dominican Republic_sentence_409

Government and politics Dominican Republic_section_17

Main article: Politics of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_410

The Dominican Republic is a representative democracy or democratic republic, with three branches of power: executive, legislative, and judicial. Dominican Republic_sentence_411

The president of the Dominican Republic heads the executive branch and executes laws passed by the congress, appoints the cabinet, and is commander in chief of the armed forces. Dominican Republic_sentence_412

The president and vice-president run for office on the same ticket and are elected by direct vote for 4-year terms. Dominican Republic_sentence_413

The national legislature is bicameral, composed of a senate, which has 32 members, and the Chamber of Deputies, with 178 members. Dominican Republic_sentence_414

Judicial authority rests with the Supreme Court of Justice's 16 members. Dominican Republic_sentence_415

They are appointed by a council composed of the president, the leaders of both houses of Congress, the President of the Supreme Court, and an opposition or non–governing-party member. Dominican Republic_sentence_416

The court "alone hears actions against the president, designated members of his Cabinet, and members of Congress when the legislature is in session." Dominican Republic_sentence_417

The Dominican Republic has a multi-party political system. Dominican Republic_sentence_418

Elections are held every two years, alternating between the presidential elections, which are held in years evenly divisible by four, and the congressional and municipal elections, which are held in even-numbered years not divisible by four. Dominican Republic_sentence_419

"International observers have found that presidential and congressional elections since 1996 have been generally free and fair." Dominican Republic_sentence_420

The Central Elections Board (JCE) of nine members supervises elections, and its decisions are unappealable. Dominican Republic_sentence_421

Starting from 2016, elections will be held jointly, after a constitutional reform. Dominican Republic_sentence_422

Political culture Dominican Republic_section_18

The three major parties are the conservative Social Christian Reformist Party (Spanish: Partido Reformista Social Cristiano (PRSC)), in power 1966–78 and 1986–96; and the social democratic Dominican Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Dominicano (PRD)), in power in 1963, 1978–86, and 2000–04; and the Dominican Liberation Party (Spanish: Partido de la Liberación Dominicana (PLD)), in power 1996–2000 and since 2004. Dominican Republic_sentence_423

The presidential elections of 2008 were held on May 16, 2008, with incumbent Leonel Fernández winning 53% of the vote. Dominican Republic_sentence_424

He defeated Miguel Vargas Maldonado, of the PRD, who achieved a 40.48% share of the vote. Dominican Republic_sentence_425

Amable Aristy, of the PRSC, achieved 4.59% of the vote. Dominican Republic_sentence_426

Other minority candidates, which included former Attorney General Guillermo Moreno from the Movement for Independence, Unity and Change (Spanish: Movimiento Independencia, Unidad y Cambio (MIUCA)), and PRSC former presidential candidate and defector Eduardo Estrella, obtained less than 1% of the vote. Dominican Republic_sentence_427

In the 2012 presidential elections, the incumbent president Leonel Fernández (PLD) declined his aspirations and instead the PLD elected Danilo Medina as its candidate. Dominican Republic_sentence_428

This time the PRD presented ex-president Hipolito Mejia as its choice. Dominican Republic_sentence_429

The contest was won by Medina with 51.21% of the vote, against 46.95% in favor of Mejia. Dominican Republic_sentence_430

Candidate Guillermo Moreno obtained 1.37% of the votes. Dominican Republic_sentence_431

In 2014, the Modern Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido revolucionario Moderno) was created by a faction of leaders from the PRD and has since become the predominant opposition party, polling in second place for the upcoming May 2016 general elections. Dominican Republic_sentence_432

Foreign relations Dominican Republic_section_19

Further information: Foreign relations of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_433

The Dominican Republic has a close relationship with the United States, and has close cultural ties with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and other states and jurisdictions of the United States. Dominican Republic_sentence_434

The Dominican Republic's relationship with neighbouring Haiti is strained over mass Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, with citizens of the Dominican Republic blaming the Haitians for increased crime and other social problems. Dominican Republic_sentence_435

The Dominican Republic is a regular member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Dominican Republic_sentence_436

The Dominican Republic has a Free Trade Agreement with the United States, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua via the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement. Dominican Republic_sentence_437

And an Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union and the Caribbean Community via the Caribbean Forum. Dominican Republic_sentence_438

Military Dominican Republic_section_20

Main article: Military of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_439

Congress authorizes a combined military force of 44,000 active duty personnel. Dominican Republic_sentence_440

Actual active duty strength is approximately 32,000. Dominican Republic_sentence_441

Approximately 50% of those are used for non-military activities such as security providers for government-owned non-military facilities, highway toll stations, prisons, forestry work, state enterprises, and private businesses. Dominican Republic_sentence_442

The commander in chief of the military is the president. Dominican Republic_sentence_443

The army is larger than the other services combined with approximately 56,780 active duty personnel, consisting of six infantry brigades, a combat support brigade, and a combat service support brigade. Dominican Republic_sentence_444

The air force operates two main bases, one in the southern region near Santo Domingo and one in the northern region near Puerto Plata. Dominican Republic_sentence_445

The navy operates two major naval bases, one in Santo Domingo and one in Las Calderas on the southwestern coast, and maintains 12 operational vessels. Dominican Republic_sentence_446

The Dominican Republic has the largest military in the Caribbean region surpassing Cuba. Dominican Republic_sentence_447

The armed forces have organized a Specialized Airport Security Corps (CESA) and a Specialized Port Security Corps (CESEP) to meet international security needs in these areas. Dominican Republic_sentence_448

The secretary of the armed forces has also announced plans to form a specialized border corps (CESEF). Dominican Republic_sentence_449

The armed forces provide 75% of personnel to the National Investigations Directorate (DNI) and the Counter-Drug Directorate (DNCD). Dominican Republic_sentence_450

The Dominican National Police force contains 32,000 agents. Dominican Republic_sentence_451

The police are not part of the Dominican armed forces but share some overlapping security functions. Dominican Republic_sentence_452

Sixty-three percent of the force serve in areas outside traditional police functions, similar to the situation of their military counterparts. Dominican Republic_sentence_453

In 2018, Dominican Republic signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Dominican Republic_sentence_454

Administrative divisions Dominican Republic_section_21

Main articles: Provinces of the Dominican Republic and Municipalities of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_455

The Dominican Republic is divided into 31 provinces. Dominican Republic_sentence_456

Santo Domingo, the capital, is designated Distrito Nacional (National District). Dominican Republic_sentence_457

The provinces are divided into municipalities (municipios; singular municipio). Dominican Republic_sentence_458

They are the second-level political and administrative subdivisions of the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_459

The president appoints the governors of the 31 provinces. Dominican Republic_sentence_460

Mayors and municipal councils administer the 124 municipal districts and the National District (Santo Domingo). Dominican Republic_sentence_461

They are elected at the same time as congressional representatives. Dominican Republic_sentence_462

Economy Dominican Republic_section_22

Main article: Economy of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_463

The Dominican Republic is the largest economy (according to the U.S. State Department and the World Bank) in the Caribbean and Central American region. Dominican Republic_sentence_464

It is an upper middle-income developing country, with a 2015 GDP per capita of US$14,770, in PPP terms. Dominican Republic_sentence_465

Over the last 25 years, the Dominican Republic has had the fastest-growing economy in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.53% between 1992 and 2018. Dominican Republic_sentence_466

GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0%, respectively, the highest in the Western Hemisphere. Dominican Republic_sentence_467

In the first half of 2016, the Dominican economy grew 7.4%. Dominican Republic_sentence_468

As of 2015, the average wage in nominal terms is US$392 per month (RD$17,829). Dominican Republic_sentence_469

The country is the site of the second largest gold mine in the world, the Pueblo Viejo mine. Dominican Republic_sentence_470

During the last three decades, the Dominican economy, formerly dependent on the export of agricultural commodities (mainly sugar, cocoa and coffee), has transitioned to a diversified mix of services, manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and trade. Dominican Republic_sentence_471

The service sector accounts for almost 60% of GDP; manufacturing, for 22%; tourism, telecommunications and finance are the main components of the service sector; however, none of them accounts for more than 10% of the whole. Dominican Republic_sentence_472

The Dominican Republic has a stock market, Bolsa de Valores de la Republica Dominicana (BVRD). Dominican Republic_sentence_473

and advanced telecommunication system and transportation infrastructure. Dominican Republic_sentence_474

High unemployment and income inequality are long-term challenges. Dominican Republic_sentence_475

International migration affects the Dominican Republic greatly, as it receives and sends large flows of migrants. Dominican Republic_sentence_476

Mass illegal Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues. Dominican Republic_sentence_477

A large Dominican diaspora exists, mostly in the United States, contributes to development, sending billions of dollars to Dominican families in remittances. Dominican Republic_sentence_478

Remittances in Dominican Republic increased to US$4571.30 million in 2014 from US$3333 million in 2013 (according to data reported by the Inter-American Development Bank). Dominican Republic_sentence_479

Economic growth takes place in spite of a chronic energy shortage, which causes frequent blackouts and very high prices. Dominican Republic_sentence_480

Despite a widening merchandise trade deficit, tourism earnings and remittances have helped build foreign exchange reserves. Dominican Republic_sentence_481

Following economic turmoil in the late 1980s and 1990, during which the gross domestic product (GDP) fell by up to 5% and consumer price inflation reached an unprecedented 100%, the Dominican Republic entered a period of growth and declining inflation until 2002, after which the economy entered a recession. Dominican Republic_sentence_482

This recession followed the collapse of the second-largest commercial bank in the country, Baninter, linked to a major incident of fraud valued at US$3.5 billion. Dominican Republic_sentence_483

The Baninter fraud had a devastating effect on the Dominican economy, with GDP dropping by 1% in 2003 as inflation ballooned by over 27%. Dominican Republic_sentence_484

All defendants, including the star of the trial, Ramón Báez Figueroa (the great-grandson of President Buenaventura Báez), were convicted. Dominican Republic_sentence_485

According to the 2005 Annual Report of the United Nations Subcommittee on Human Development in the Dominican Republic, the country is ranked No. Dominican Republic_sentence_486

71 in the world for resource availability, No. Dominican Republic_sentence_487

79 for human development, and No. Dominican Republic_sentence_488

14 in the world for resource mismanagement. Dominican Republic_sentence_489

These statistics emphasize national government corruption, foreign economic interference in the country, and the rift between the rich and poor. Dominican Republic_sentence_490

The Dominican Republic has a noted problem of child labor in its coffee, rice, sugarcane, and tomato industries. Dominican Republic_sentence_491

The labor injustices in the sugarcane industry extend to forced labor according to the U.S. Dominican Republic_sentence_492 Department of Labor. Dominican Republic_sentence_493

Three large groups own 75% of the land: the State Sugar Council (Consejo Estatal del Azúcar, CEA), Grupo Vicini, and Central Romana Corporation. Dominican Republic_sentence_494

According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an estimated 104,800 people are enslaved in the modern day Dominican Republic, or 1.00% of the population. Dominican Republic_sentence_495

Some slaves in the Dominican Republic are held on sugar plantations, guarded by men on horseback with rifles, and forced to work. Dominican Republic_sentence_496

Currency Dominican Republic_section_23

Main article: Dominican peso Dominican Republic_sentence_497

The Dominican peso (abbreviated $ or RD$; ISO 4217 code is "DOP") is the national currency, with the United States dollar, the Euro, the Canadian dollar and the Swiss franc also accepted at most tourist sites. Dominican Republic_sentence_498

The exchange rate to the U.S. dollar, liberalized by 1985, stood at 2.70 pesos per dollar in August 1986, 14.00 pesos in 1993, and 16.00 pesos in 2000. Dominican Republic_sentence_499

As of September 2018 the rate was 50.08 pesos per dollar. Dominican Republic_sentence_500

Tourism Dominican Republic_section_24

Main article: Tourism in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_501

The Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. Dominican Republic_sentence_502

The year-round golf courses are major attractions. Dominican Republic_sentence_503

A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, and the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_504

The island has an average temperature of 26 °C (78.8 °F) and great climatic and biological diversity. Dominican Republic_sentence_505

The country is also the site of the first cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress built in the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Dominican Republic_sentence_506

Tourism is one of the fueling factors in the Dominican Republic's economic growth. Dominican Republic_sentence_507

The Dominican Republic is the most popular tourist destination in the Caribbean. Dominican Republic_sentence_508

With the construction of projects like Cap Cana, San Souci Port in Santo Domingo, Casa De Campo and the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino (ancient Moon Palace Resort) in Punta Cana, the Dominican Republic expects increased tourism activity in the upcoming years. Dominican Republic_sentence_509

Ecotourism has also been a topic increasingly important in this nation, with towns like Jarabacoa and neighboring Constanza, and locations like the Pico Duarte, Bahia de las Aguilas, and others becoming more significant in efforts to increase direct benefits from tourism. Dominican Republic_sentence_510

Most residents from other countries are required to get a tourist card, depending on the country they live in. Dominican Republic_sentence_511

In the last 10 years the Dominican Republic has become one of the worlds notably progressive states in terms of recycling and waste disposal. Dominican Republic_sentence_512

A UN report cited there was a 221.3% efficiency increase in the previous 10 years due, in part, to the opening of the largest open air landfill site located in the north 10 km from the Haitian border. Dominican Republic_sentence_513

Infrastructure Dominican Republic_section_25

Transportation Dominican Republic_section_26

Main article: Transportation in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_514

The country has three national trunk highways, which connect every major town. Dominican Republic_sentence_515

These are DR-1, DR-2, and DR-3, which depart from Santo Domingo toward the northern (Cibao), southwestern (Sur), and eastern (El Este) parts of the country respectively. Dominican Republic_sentence_516

These highways have been consistently improved with the expansion and reconstruction of many sections. Dominican Republic_sentence_517

Two other national highways serve as spur (DR-5) or alternative routes (DR-4). Dominican Republic_sentence_518

In addition to the national highways, the government has embarked on an expansive reconstruction of spur secondary routes, which connect smaller towns to the trunk routes. Dominican Republic_sentence_519

In the last few years the government constructed a 106-kilometer toll road that connects Santo Domingo with the country's northeastern peninsula. Dominican Republic_sentence_520

Travelers may now arrive in the Samaná Peninsula in less than two hours. Dominican Republic_sentence_521

Other additions are the reconstruction of the DR-28 (Jarabacoa – Constanza) and DR-12 (Constanza – Bonao). Dominican Republic_sentence_522

Despite these efforts, many secondary routes still remain either unpaved or in need of maintenance. Dominican Republic_sentence_523

There is currently a nationwide program to pave these and other commonly used routes. Dominican Republic_sentence_524

Also, the Santiago light rail system is in planning stages but currently on hold. Dominican Republic_sentence_525

Bus services Dominican Republic_section_27

There are two main bus transportation services in the Dominican Republic: one controlled by the government, through the Oficina Técnica de Transito Terrestre (OTTT) and the Oficina Metropolitana de Servicios de Autobuses (OMSA), and the other controlled by private business, among them, Federación Nacional de Transporte La Nueva Opción (FENATRANO) and the Confederacion Nacional de Transporte (CONATRA). Dominican Republic_sentence_526

The government transportation system covers large routes in metropolitan areas such as Santo Domingo and Santiago. Dominican Republic_sentence_527

There are many privately owned bus companies, such as Metro Servicios Turísticos and Caribe Tours, that run daily routes. Dominican Republic_sentence_528

Santo Domingo Metro Dominican Republic_section_28

Main article: Santo Domingo Metro Dominican Republic_sentence_529

The Dominican Republic has a rapid transit system in Santo Domingo, the country's capital. Dominican Republic_sentence_530

It is the most extensive metro system in the insular Caribbean and Central American region by length and number of stations. Dominican Republic_sentence_531

The Santo Domingo Metro is part of a major "National Master Plan" to improve transportation in Santo Domingo as well as the rest of the nation. Dominican Republic_sentence_532

The first line was planned to relieve traffic congestion in the Máximo Gómez and Hermanas Mirabal Avenue. Dominican Republic_sentence_533

The second line, which opened in April 2013, is meant to relieve the congestion along the Duarte-Kennedy-Centenario Corridor in the city from west to east. Dominican Republic_sentence_534

The current length of the Metro, with the sections of the two lines open as of August 2013, is 27.35 kilometres (16.99 mi). Dominican Republic_sentence_535

Before the opening of the second line, 30,856,515 passengers rode the Santo Domingo Metro in 2012. Dominican Republic_sentence_536

With both lines opened, ridership increased to 61,270,054 passengers in 2014. Dominican Republic_sentence_537

Communications Dominican Republic_section_29

Main article: Telecommunications in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_538

The Dominican Republic has a well developed telecommunications infrastructure, with extensive mobile phone and landline services. Dominican Republic_sentence_539

Cable Internet and DSL are available in most parts of the country, and many Internet service providers offer 3G wireless internet service. Dominican Republic_sentence_540

The Dominican Republic became the second country in Latin America to have 4G LTE wireless service. Dominican Republic_sentence_541

The reported speeds are from 1 Mbit/s up to 100 Mbit/s for residential services. Dominican Republic_sentence_542

For commercial service there are speeds from 256 kbit/s up to 154 Mbit/s. Dominican Republic_sentence_543

(Each set of numbers denotes downstream/upstream speed; that is, to the user/from the user.) Dominican Republic_sentence_544

Projects to extend Wi-Fi hot spots have been made in Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic_sentence_545

The country's commercial radio stations and television stations are in the process of transferring to the digital spectrum, via HD Radio and HDTV after officially adopting ATSC as the digital medium in the country with a switch-off of analog transmission by September 2015. Dominican Republic_sentence_546

The telecommunications regulator in the country is INDOTEL (Instituto Dominicano de Telecomunicaciones). Dominican Republic_sentence_547

The largest telecommunications company is Claro – part of Carlos Slim's América Móvil – which provides wireless, landline, broadband, and IPTV services. Dominican Republic_sentence_548

In June 2009 there were more than 8 million phone line subscribers (land and cell users) in the D.R., representing 81% of the country's population and a fivefold increase since the year 2000, when there were 1.6 million. Dominican Republic_sentence_549

The communications sector generates about 3.0% of the GDP. Dominican Republic_sentence_550

There were 2,439,997 Internet users in March 2009. Dominican Republic_sentence_551

In November 2009, the Dominican Republic became the first Latin American country to pledge to include a "gender perspective" in every information and communications technology (ICT) initiative and policy developed by the government. Dominican Republic_sentence_552

This is part of the regional eLAC2010 plan. Dominican Republic_sentence_553

The tool the Dominicans have chosen to design and evaluate all the public policies is the APC Gender Evaluation Methodology (GEM). Dominican Republic_sentence_554

Electricity Dominican Republic_section_30

Main article: Electricity sector in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_555

Electric power service has been unreliable since the Trujillo era, and as much as 75% of the equipment is that old. Dominican Republic_sentence_556

The country's antiquated power grid causes transmission losses that account for a large share of billed electricity from generators. Dominican Republic_sentence_557

The privatization of the sector started under a previous administration of Leonel Fernández. Dominican Republic_sentence_558

The recent investment in a 345 kilovolt "Santo Domingo–Santiago Electrical Highway" with reduced transmission losses, is being heralded as a major capital improvement to the national grid since the mid-1960s. Dominican Republic_sentence_559

During the Trujillo regime electrical service was introduced to many cities. Dominican Republic_sentence_560

Almost 95% of usage was not billed at all. Dominican Republic_sentence_561

Around half of the Dominican Republic's 2.1 million houses have no meters and most do not pay or pay a fixed monthly rate for their electric service. Dominican Republic_sentence_562

Household and general electrical service is delivered at 110 volts alternating at 60 Hz. Dominican Republic_sentence_563

Electrically powered items from the United States work with no modifications. Dominican Republic_sentence_564

The majority of the Dominican Republic has access to electricity. Dominican Republic_sentence_565

Tourist areas tend to have more reliable power, as do business, travel, healthcare, and vital infrastructure. Dominican Republic_sentence_566

Concentrated efforts were announced to increase efficiency of delivery to places where the collection rate reached 70%. Dominican Republic_sentence_567

The electricity sector is highly politicized. Dominican Republic_sentence_568

Some generating companies are undercapitalized and at times unable to purchase adequate fuel supplies. Dominican Republic_sentence_569

Society Dominican Republic_section_31

Demographics Dominican Republic_section_32

Main article: Demographics of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_570

The Dominican Republic's population was 10,627,141 in 2018. Dominican Republic_sentence_571

In 2010, 31.2% of the population was under 15 years of age, with 6% of the population over 65 years of age. Dominican Republic_sentence_572

There were an estimated 102.3 males for every 100 females in 2020. Dominican Republic_sentence_573

The annual population growth rate for 2006–2007 was 1.5%, with the projected population for the year 2015 being 10,121,000. Dominican Republic_sentence_574

The population density in 2007 was 192 per km (498 per sq mi), and 63% of the population lived in urban areas. Dominican Republic_sentence_575

The southern coastal plains and the Cibao Valley are the most densely populated areas of the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_576

The capital city Santo Domingo had a population of 2,907,100 in 2010. Dominican Republic_sentence_577

Other important cities are Santiago de los Caballeros (pop. Dominican Republic_sentence_578

745,293), La Romana (pop. Dominican Republic_sentence_579

214,109), San Pedro de Macorís (pop. Dominican Republic_sentence_580

185,255), Higüey (153,174), San Francisco de Macorís (pop. Dominican Republic_sentence_581

132,725), Puerto Plata (pop. Dominican Republic_sentence_582

118,282), and La Vega (pop. Dominican Republic_sentence_583

104,536). Dominican Republic_sentence_584

Per the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 2.3%. Dominican Republic_sentence_585

Ethnic groups Dominican Republic_section_33

Main article: People of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_586

In a 2014 population survey, 70.4% self-identified as mixed (mestizo/indio 58%, mulatto 12.4%), 15.8% as black, 13.5% as white, and 0.3% as "other". Dominican Republic_sentence_587

Ethnic immigrant groups in the country include West Asians—mostly Lebanese, Syrians, and Palestinians; the current president, Luis Abinader, is of Lebanese descent. Dominican Republic_sentence_588

East Asians, primarily ethnic Chinese and Japanese, can also be found. Dominican Republic_sentence_589

Europeans are represented mostly by Spanish whites but also with smaller populations of German Jews, Italians, Portuguese, British, Dutch, Danes, and Hungarians. Dominican Republic_sentence_590

Some converted Sephardic Jews from Spain were part of early expeditions; only Catholics were allowed to come to the New World. Dominican Republic_sentence_591

Later there were Jewish migrants coming from the Iberian peninsula and other parts of Europe in the 1700s. Dominican Republic_sentence_592

Some managed to reach the Caribbean as refugees during and after the Second World War. Dominican Republic_sentence_593

Some Sephardic Jews reside in Sosúa while others are dispersed throughout the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_594

Self-identified Jews number about 3,000; other Dominicans may have some Jewish ancestry because of marriages among converted Jewish Catholics and other Dominicans since the colonial years. Dominican Republic_sentence_595

Some Dominicans born in the United States now reside in the Dominican Republic, creating a kind of expatriate community. Dominican Republic_sentence_596

Languages Dominican Republic_section_34

Main articles: Dominican Spanish and Samaná English Dominican Republic_sentence_597

The population of the Dominican Republic is mostly Spanish-speaking. Dominican Republic_sentence_598

The local variant of Spanish is called Dominican Spanish, which closely resembles other Spanish vernaculars in the Caribbean and has similarities to Canarian Spanish. Dominican Republic_sentence_599

In addition, it has influences from African languages and borrowed words from indigenous Caribbean languages particular to the island of Hispaniola. Dominican Republic_sentence_600

Schools are based on a Spanish educational model; English and French are mandatory foreign languages in both private and public schools, although the quality of foreign languages teaching is poor. Dominican Republic_sentence_601

Some private educational institutes provide teaching in other languages, notably Italian, Japanese and Mandarin. Dominican Republic_sentence_602

Haitian Creole is the largest minority language in the Dominican Republic and is spoken by Haitian immigrants and their descendants. Dominican Republic_sentence_603

There is a community of a few thousand people whose ancestors spoke Samaná English in the Samaná Peninsula. Dominican Republic_sentence_604

They are the descendants of formerly enslaved African Americans who arrived in the nineteenth century, but only a few elders speak the language today. Dominican Republic_sentence_605

Tourism, American pop culture, the influence of Dominican Americans, and the country's economic ties with the United States motivate other Dominicans to learn English. Dominican Republic_sentence_606

The Dominican Republic is ranked 2nd in Latin America and 23rd in the World on English proficiency. Dominican Republic_sentence_607

Dominican Republic_table_general_1

Mother tongue of the Dominican population, 1950 CensusDominican Republic_table_caption_1
LanguageDominican Republic_header_cell_1_0_0 Total %Dominican Republic_header_cell_1_0_1 Urban %Dominican Republic_header_cell_1_0_2 Rural %Dominican Republic_header_cell_1_0_3
SpanishDominican Republic_cell_1_1_0 98.00Dominican Republic_cell_1_1_1 97.82Dominican Republic_cell_1_1_2 98.06Dominican Republic_cell_1_1_3
FrenchDominican Republic_cell_1_2_0 1.19Dominican Republic_cell_1_2_1 0.39Dominican Republic_cell_1_2_2 1.44Dominican Republic_cell_1_2_3
EnglishDominican Republic_cell_1_3_0 0.57Dominican Republic_cell_1_3_1 0.96Dominican Republic_cell_1_3_2 0.45Dominican Republic_cell_1_3_3
ArabicDominican Republic_cell_1_4_0 0.09Dominican Republic_cell_1_4_1 0.35Dominican Republic_cell_1_4_2 0.01Dominican Republic_cell_1_4_3
ItalianDominican Republic_cell_1_5_0 0.03Dominican Republic_cell_1_5_1 0.10Dominican Republic_cell_1_5_2 0.006Dominican Republic_cell_1_5_3
Other languageDominican Republic_cell_1_6_0 0.12Dominican Republic_cell_1_6_1 0.35Dominican Republic_cell_1_6_2 0.04Dominican Republic_cell_1_6_3

Population centres Dominican Republic_section_35

Further information: List of cities in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_608

Religion Dominican Republic_section_36

Main article: Religion in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_609

95.0% Christians 2.6% No religion 2.2% Other religions Dominican Republic_sentence_610

As of 2014, 57% of the population (5.7 million) identified themselves as Roman Catholics and 23% (2.3 million) as Protestants (in Latin American countries, Protestants are often called Evangelicos because they emphasize personal and public evangelising and many are Evangelical Protestant or of a Pentecostal group). Dominican Republic_sentence_611

From 1896 to 1907 missionaries from the Episcopal, Free Methodist, Seventh-day Adventist and Moravians churches began work in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_612

Three percent of the 10.63 million Dominican Republic population are Seventh-day Adventists. Dominican Republic_sentence_613

Recent immigration as well as proselytizing efforts have brought in other religious groups, with the following shares of the population: Spiritist: 2.2%, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: 1.3%, Buddhist: 0.1%, Baháʼí: 0.1%, Chinese Folk Religion: 0.1%, Islam: 0.02%, Judaism: 0.01%. Dominican Republic_sentence_614

The Catholic Church began to lose its strong dominance in the late 19th century. Dominican Republic_sentence_615

This was due to a lack of funding, priests, and support programs. Dominican Republic_sentence_616

During the same time, Protestant Evangelicalism began to gain a wider support "with their emphasis on personal responsibility and family rejuvenation, economic entrepreneurship, and biblical fundamentalism". Dominican Republic_sentence_617

The Dominican Republic has two Catholic patroness saints: Nuestra Señora de la Altagracia (Our Lady Of High Grace) and Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes (Our Lady Of Mercy). Dominican Republic_sentence_618

The Dominican Republic has historically granted extensive religious freedom. Dominican Republic_sentence_619

According to the United States Department of State, "The constitution specifies that there is no state church and provides for freedom of religion and belief. Dominican Republic_sentence_620

A concordat with the Vatican designates Catholicism as the official religion and extends special privileges to the Catholic Church not granted to other religious groups. Dominican Republic_sentence_621

These include the legal recognition of church law, use of public funds to underwrite some church expenses, and complete exoneration from customs duties." Dominican Republic_sentence_622

In the 1950s restrictions were placed upon churches by the government of Trujillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_623

Letters of protest were sent against the mass arrests of government adversaries. Dominican Republic_sentence_624

Trujillo began a campaign against the Catholic Church and planned to arrest priests and bishops who preached against the government. Dominican Republic_sentence_625

This campaign ended before it was put into place, with his assassination. Dominican Republic_sentence_626

During World War II a group of Jews escaping Nazi Germany fled to the Dominican Republic and founded the city of Sosúa. Dominican Republic_sentence_627

It has remained the center of the Jewish population since. Dominican Republic_sentence_628

20th century immigration Dominican Republic_section_37

Main articles: Japanese settlement in the Dominican Republic, Ethnic Chinese in the Dominican Republic, and History of the Jews in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_629

In the 20th century, many Arabs (from Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine), Japanese, and, to a lesser degree, Koreans settled in the country as agricultural laborers and merchants. Dominican Republic_sentence_630

The Chinese companies found business in telecom, mining, and railroads. Dominican Republic_sentence_631

The Arab community is rising at an increasing rate and is estimated at 80,000. Dominican Republic_sentence_632

In addition, there are descendants of immigrants who came from other Caribbean islands, including St. Dominican Republic_sentence_633 Kitts and Nevis, Antigua, St. Vincent, Montserrat, Tortola, St. Dominican Republic_sentence_634 Croix, St. Dominican Republic_sentence_635 Thomas, and Guadeloupe. Dominican Republic_sentence_636

They worked on sugarcane plantations and docks and settled mainly in the cities of San Pedro de Macorís and Puerto Plata. Dominican Republic_sentence_637

Puerto Rican, and to a lesser extent, Cuban immigrants fled to the Dominican Republic from the mid-1800s until about 1940 due to a poor economy and social unrest in their respective home countries. Dominican Republic_sentence_638

Many Puerto Rican immigrants settled in Higüey, among other cities, and quickly assimilated due to similar culture. Dominican Republic_sentence_639

Before and during World War II, 800 Jewish refugees moved to the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_640

Numerous immigrants have come from other Caribbean countries, as the country has offered economic opportunities. Dominican Republic_sentence_641

There is an increasing number of Puerto Rican immigrants, especially in and around Santo Domingo; they are believed to number around 10,000. Dominican Republic_sentence_642

There are over 700,000 people of Haitian descent, including a generation born in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_643

Haitian immigration Dominican Republic_section_38

Main article: Haitians in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_644

Haiti is the neighboring nation to the Dominican Republic and is considerably poorer, less developed and is additionally the least developed country in the western hemisphere. Dominican Republic_sentence_645

In 2003, 80% of all Haitians were poor (54% living in abject poverty) and 47.1% were illiterate. Dominican Republic_sentence_646

The country of nine million people also has a fast growing population, but over two-thirds of the labor force lack formal jobs. Dominican Republic_sentence_647

Haiti's per capita GDP (PPP) was $1,800 in 2017, or just over one-tenth of the Dominican figure. Dominican Republic_sentence_648

As a result, hundreds of thousands of Haitians have migrated to the Dominican Republic, with some estimates of 800,000 Haitians in the country, while others put the Haitian-born population as high as one million. Dominican Republic_sentence_649

They usually work at low-paying and unskilled jobs in building construction and house cleaning and in sugar plantations. Dominican Republic_sentence_650

There have been accusations that some Haitian immigrants work in slavery-like conditions and are severely exploited. Dominican Republic_sentence_651

Due to the lack of basic amenities and medical facilities in Haiti a large number of Haitian women, often arriving with several health problems, cross the border to Dominican soil. Dominican Republic_sentence_652

They deliberately come during their last weeks of pregnancy to obtain medical attention for childbirth, since Dominican public hospitals do not refuse medical services based on nationality or legal status. Dominican Republic_sentence_653

Statistics from a hospital in Santo Domingo report that over 22% of childbirths are by Haitian mothers. Dominican Republic_sentence_654

Haiti also suffers from severe environmental degradation. Dominican Republic_sentence_655

Deforestation is rampant in Haiti; today less than 4 percent of Haiti's forests remain, and in many places the soil has eroded right down to the bedrock. Dominican Republic_sentence_656

Haitians burn wood charcoal for 60% of their domestic energy production. Dominican Republic_sentence_657

Because of Haiti running out of plant material to burn, some Haitian bootleggers have created an illegal market for charcoal on the Dominican side. Dominican Republic_sentence_658

Conservative estimates calculate the illegal movement of 115 tons of charcoal per week from the Dominican Republic to Haiti. Dominican Republic_sentence_659

Dominican officials estimate that at least 10 trucks per week are crossing the border loaded with charcoal. Dominican Republic_sentence_660

In 2005, Dominican President Leonel Fernández criticized collective expulsions of Haitians as having taken place "in an abusive and inhuman way." Dominican Republic_sentence_661

After a UN delegation issued a preliminary report stating that it found a profound problem of racism and discrimination against people of Haitian origin, Dominican Foreign Minister Carlos Morales Troncoso issued a formal statement denouncing it, asserting that "our border with Haiti has its problems[;] this is our reality and it must be understood. Dominican Republic_sentence_662

It is important not to confuse national sovereignty with indifference, and not to confuse security with xenophobia." Dominican Republic_sentence_663

The children of Haitian immigrants are eligible for Haitian nationality, are denied it by Haiti because of a lack of proper documents or witnesses. Dominican Republic_sentence_664

Emigration Dominican Republic_section_39

Main articles: Dominican Americans and Dominican Republic immigration to Puerto Rico Dominican Republic_sentence_665

The first of three late-20th century emigration waves began in 1961 after the assassination of dictator Trujillo, due to fear of retaliation by Trujillo's allies and political uncertainty in general. Dominican Republic_sentence_666

In 1965, the United States began a military occupation of the Dominican Republic to end a civil war. Dominican Republic_sentence_667

Upon this, the U.S. eased travel restrictions, making it easier for Dominicans to obtain U.S. visas. Dominican Republic_sentence_668

From 1966 to 1978, the exodus continued, fueled by high unemployment and political repression. Dominican Republic_sentence_669

Communities established by the first wave of immigrants to the U.S. created a network that assisted subsequent arrivals. Dominican Republic_sentence_670

In the early 1980s, underemployment, inflation, and the rise in value of the dollar all contributed to a third wave of emigration from the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_671

Today, emigration from the Dominican Republic remains high. Dominican Republic_sentence_672

In 2012, there were approximately 1.7 million people of Dominican descent in the U.S., counting both native- and foreign-born. Dominican Republic_sentence_673

There was also a growing Dominican immigration to Puerto Rico, with nearly 70,000 Dominicans living there as of 2010. Dominican Republic_sentence_674

Although that number is slowly decreasing and immigration trends have reversed because of Puerto Rico's economic crisis as of 2016. Dominican Republic_sentence_675

There is a significant Dominican population in Spain. Dominican Republic_sentence_676

Health Dominican Republic_section_40

Main article: Health in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_677

In 2020, the Dominican Republic had an estimated birth rate of 18.5 per 1000 and a death rate of 6.3 per 1000. Dominican Republic_sentence_678

Education Dominican Republic_section_41

Main article: Education in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_679

Primary education is regulated by the Ministry of Education, with education being a right of all citizens and youth in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_680

Preschool education is organized in different cycles and serves the 2–4 age group and the 4–6 age group. Dominican Republic_sentence_681

Preschool education is not mandatory except for the last year. Dominican Republic_sentence_682

Basic education is compulsory and serves the population of the 6–14 age group. Dominican Republic_sentence_683

Secondary education is not compulsory, although it is the duty of the state to offer it for free. Dominican Republic_sentence_684

It caters to the 14–18 age group and is organized in a common core of four years and three modes of two years of study that are offered in three different options: general or academic, vocational (industrial, agricultural, and services), and artistic. Dominican Republic_sentence_685

The higher education system consists of institutes and universities. Dominican Republic_sentence_686

The institutes offer courses of a higher technical level. Dominican Republic_sentence_687

The universities offer technical careers, undergraduate and graduate; these are regulated by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. Dominican Republic_sentence_688

Crime Dominican Republic_section_42

Further information: Crime in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_689

In 2012, the Dominican Republic had a murder rate of 22.1 per 100,000 population. Dominican Republic_sentence_690

There was a total of 2,268 murders in the Dominican Republic in 2012. Dominican Republic_sentence_691

The Dominican Republic has become a trans-shipment point for Colombian drugs destined for Europe as well as the United States and Canada. Dominican Republic_sentence_692

Money-laundering via the Dominican Republic is favored by Colombian drug cartels for the ease of illicit financial transactions. Dominican Republic_sentence_693

In 2004, it was estimated that 8% of all cocaine smuggled into the United States had come through the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_694

The Dominican Republic responded with increased efforts to seize drug shipments, arrest and extradite those involved, and combat money-laundering. Dominican Republic_sentence_695

The often light treatment of violent criminals has been a continuous source of local controversy. Dominican Republic_sentence_696

In April 2010, five teenagers, aged 15 to 17, shot and killed two taxi drivers and killed another five by forcing them to drink drain-cleaning acid. Dominican Republic_sentence_697

On September 24, 2010, the teens were sentenced to prison terms of three to five years, despite the protests of the taxi drivers' families. Dominican Republic_sentence_698

Culture Dominican Republic_section_43

Main article: Culture of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_699

Due to cultural syncretism, the culture and customs of the Dominican people have a European cultural basis, influenced by both African and native Taíno elements, although endogenous elements have emerged within Dominican culture; culturally the Dominican Republic is among the most-European countries in Spanish America, alongside Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. Dominican Republic_sentence_700

Spanish institutions in the colonial era were able to predominate in the Dominican culture's making-of as a relative success in the acculturation and cultural assimilation of African slaves diminished African cultural influence in comparison to other Caribbean countries. Dominican Republic_sentence_701

Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, and baseball as the favorite sport. Dominican Republic_sentence_702

Visual arts Dominican Republic_section_44

Dominican art is perhaps most commonly associated with the bright, vibrant colors and images that are sold in every tourist gift shop across the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_703

However, the country has a long history of fine art that goes back to the middle of the 1800s when the country became independent and the beginnings of a national art scene emerged. Dominican Republic_sentence_704

Historically, the painting of this time were centered around images connected to national independence, historical scenes, portraits but also landscapes and images of still life. Dominican Republic_sentence_705

Styles of painting ranged between neoclassicism and romanticism. Dominican Republic_sentence_706

Between 1920 and 1940 the art scene was influenced by styles of realism and impressionism. Dominican Republic_sentence_707

Dominican artists were focused on breaking from previous, academic styles in order to develop more independent and individual styles. Dominican Republic_sentence_708

Literature Dominican Republic_section_45

Main article: Literature of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_709

The 20th century brought many prominent Dominican writers, and saw a general increase in the perception of Dominican literature. Dominican Republic_sentence_710

Writers such as Juan Bosch (one of the greatest storytellers in Latin America), Pedro Mir (national poet of the Dominican Republic), Aida Cartagena Portalatin (poetess par excellence who spoke in the Era of Rafael Trujillo), Emilio Rodríguez Demorizi (the most important Dominican historian, with more than 1000 written works), Manuel del Cabral (main Dominican poet featured in black poetry), Hector Inchustegui Cabral (considered one of the most prominent voices of the Caribbean social poetry of the twentieth century), Miguel Alfonseca (poet belonging to Generation 60), Rene del Risco (acclaimed poet who was a participant in the June 14 Movement), Mateo Morrison (excellent poet and writer with numerous awards), among many more prolific authors, put the island in one of the most important in Literature in the twentieth century. Dominican Republic_sentence_711

New 21st century Dominican writers have not yet achieved the renown of their 20th century counterparts. Dominican Republic_sentence_712

However, writers such as Frank Báez (won the 2006 Santo Domingo Book Fair First Prize), Junot Díaz (2008 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for his novel The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao) and Emil Cerda (won the Premio Joven Destacado Award 2019 for his novel Más allá de lo espiritual Vol. 1), lead Dominican literature in the 21st century. Dominican Republic_sentence_713

Architecture Dominican Republic_section_46

The architecture in the Dominican Republic represents a complex blend of diverse cultures. Dominican Republic_sentence_714

The deep influence of the European colonists is the most evident throughout the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_715

Characterized by ornate designs and baroque structures, the style can best be seen in the capital city of Santo Domingo, which is home to the first cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress in all of the Americas, located in the city's Colonial Zone, an area declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Dominican Republic_sentence_716

The designs carry over into the villas and buildings throughout the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_717

It can also be observed on buildings that contain stucco exteriors, arched doors and windows, and red tiled roofs. Dominican Republic_sentence_718

The indigenous peoples of the Dominican Republic have also had a significant influence on the architecture of the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_719

The Taíno people relied heavily on the mahogany and guano (dried palm tree leaf) to put together crafts, artwork, furniture, and houses. Dominican Republic_sentence_720

Utilizing mud, thatched roofs, and mahogany trees, they gave buildings and the furniture inside a natural look, seamlessly blending in with the island's surroundings. Dominican Republic_sentence_721

Lately, with the rise in tourism and increasing popularity as a Caribbean vacation destination, architects in the Dominican Republic have now begun to incorporate cutting-edge designs that emphasize luxury. Dominican Republic_sentence_722

In many ways an architectural playground, villas and hotels implement new styles, while offering new takes on the old. Dominican Republic_sentence_723

This new style is characterized by simplified, angular corners and large windows that blend outdoor and indoor spaces. Dominican Republic_sentence_724

As with the culture as a whole, contemporary architects embrace the Dominican Republic's rich history and various cultures to create something new. Dominican Republic_sentence_725

Surveying modern villas, one can find any combination of the three major styles: a villa may contain angular, modernist building construction, Spanish Colonial-style arched windows, and a traditional Taíno hammock in the bedroom balcony. Dominican Republic_sentence_726

Cuisine Dominican Republic_section_47

Music and dance Dominican Republic_section_48

Main article: Music of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_727

Musically, the Dominican Republic is known for the world popular musical style and genre called merengue, a type of lively, fast-paced rhythm and dance music consisting of a tempo of about 120 to 160 beats per minute (though it varies) based on musical elements like drums, brass, chorded instruments, and accordion, as well as some elements unique to the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, such as the tambora and güira. Dominican Republic_sentence_728

Its syncopated beats use Latin percussion, brass instruments, bass, and piano or keyboard. Dominican Republic_sentence_729

Between 1937 and 1950 merengue music was promoted internationally by Dominican groups like Billo's Caracas Boys, Chapuseaux and Damiron "Los Reyes del Merengue," Joseito Mateo, and others. Dominican Republic_sentence_730

Radio, television, and international media popularized it further. Dominican Republic_sentence_731

Some well known merengue performers are Wilfrido Vargas, Johnny Ventura, singer-songwriter Los Hermanos Rosario, Juan Luis Guerra, Fernando Villalona, Eddy Herrera, Sergio Vargas, Toño Rosario, Milly Quezada, and Chichí Peralta. Dominican Republic_sentence_732

Merengue became popular in the United States, mostly on the East Coast, during the 1980s and 1990s, when many Dominican artists residing in the U.S. (particularly New York) started performing in the Latin club scene and gained radio airplay. Dominican Republic_sentence_733

They included Victor Roque y La Gran Manzana, Henry Hierro, Zacarias Ferreira, Aventura, and Milly Jocelyn Y Los Vecinos. Dominican Republic_sentence_734

The emergence of bachata, along with an increase in the number of Dominicans living among other Latino groups in New York, New Jersey, and Florida, has contributed to Dominican music's overall growth in popularity. Dominican Republic_sentence_735

Bachata, a form of music and dance that originated in the countryside and rural marginal neighborhoods of the Dominican Republic, has become quite popular in recent years. Dominican Republic_sentence_736

Its subjects are often romantic; especially prevalent are tales of heartbreak and sadness. Dominican Republic_sentence_737

In fact, the original name for the genre was amargue ("bitterness," or "bitter music,"), until the rather ambiguous (and mood-neutral) term bachata became popular. Dominican Republic_sentence_738

Bachata grew out of, and is still closely related to, the pan-Latin American romantic style called bolero. Dominican Republic_sentence_739

Over time, it has been influenced by merengue and by a variety of Latin American guitar styles. Dominican Republic_sentence_740

Palo is an Afro-Dominican sacred music that can be found throughout the island. Dominican Republic_sentence_741

The drum and human voice are the principal instruments. Dominican Republic_sentence_742

Palo is played at religious ceremonies—usually coinciding with saints' religious feast days—as well as for secular parties and special occasions. Dominican Republic_sentence_743

Its roots are in the Congo region of central-west Africa, but it is mixed with European influences in the melodies. Dominican Republic_sentence_744

Salsa music has had a great deal of popularity in the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_745

During the late 1960s Dominican musicians like Johnny Pacheco, creator of the Fania All Stars, played a significant role in the development and popularization of the genre. Dominican Republic_sentence_746

Dominican rock and Reggaeton are also popular. Dominican Republic_sentence_747

Many, if not the majority, of its performers are based in Santo Domingo and Santiago. Dominican Republic_sentence_748

Fashion Dominican Republic_section_49

The country boasts one of the ten most important design schools in the region, La Escuela de Diseño de Altos de Chavón, which is making the country a key player in the world of fashion and design. Dominican Republic_sentence_749

Noted fashion designer Oscar de la Renta was born in the Dominican Republic in 1932, and became a US citizen in 1971. Dominican Republic_sentence_750

He studied under the leading Spaniard designer Cristóbal Balenciaga and then worked with the house of Lanvin in Paris. Dominican Republic_sentence_751

By 1963, he had designs bearing his own label. Dominican Republic_sentence_752

After establishing himself in the US, de la Renta opened boutiques across the country. Dominican Republic_sentence_753

His work blends French and Spaniard fashion with American styles. Dominican Republic_sentence_754

Although he settled in New York, de la Renta also marketed his work in Latin America, where it became very popular, and remained active in his native Dominican Republic, where his charitable activities and personal achievements earned him the Juan Pablo Duarte Order of Merit and the Order of Cristóbal Colón. Dominican Republic_sentence_755

De la Renta died of complications from cancer on October 20, 2014. Dominican Republic_sentence_756

National symbols Dominican Republic_section_50

Some of the Dominican Republic's important symbols are the flag, the coat of arms, and the national anthem, titled Himno Nacional. Dominican Republic_sentence_757

The flag has a large white cross that divides it into four quarters. Dominican Republic_sentence_758

Two quarters are red and two are blue. Dominican Republic_sentence_759

Red represents the blood shed by the liberators. Dominican Republic_sentence_760

Blue expresses God's protection over the nation. Dominican Republic_sentence_761

The white cross symbolizes the struggle of the liberators to bequeath future generations a free nation. Dominican Republic_sentence_762

An alternative interpretation is that blue represents the ideals of progress and liberty, whereas white symbolizes peace and unity among Dominicans. Dominican Republic_sentence_763

In the center of the cross is the Dominican coat of arms, in the same colors as the national flag. Dominican Republic_sentence_764

The coat of arms pictures a red, white, and blue flag-draped shield with a Bible, a gold cross, and arrows; the shield is surrounded by an olive branch (on the left) and a palm branch (on the right). Dominican Republic_sentence_765

The Bible traditionally represents the truth and the light. Dominican Republic_sentence_766

The gold cross symbolizes the redemption from slavery, and the arrows symbolize the noble soldiers and their proud military. Dominican Republic_sentence_767

A blue ribbon above the shield reads, "Dios, Patria, Libertad" (meaning "God, Fatherland, Liberty"). Dominican Republic_sentence_768

A red ribbon under the shield reads, "República Dominicana" (meaning "Dominican Republic"). Dominican Republic_sentence_769

Out of all the flags in the world, the depiction of a Bible is unique to the Dominican flag. Dominican Republic_sentence_770

The national flower is the Bayahibe Rose and the national tree is the West Indian Mahogany. Dominican Republic_sentence_771

The national bird is the Cigua Palmera or Palmchat ("Dulus dominicus"). Dominican Republic_sentence_772

The Dominican Republic celebrates Dia de la Altagracia on January 21 in honor of its patroness, Duarte's Day on January 26 in honor of one of its founding fathers, Independence Day on February 27, Restoration Day on August 16, Virgen de las Mercedes on September 24, and Constitution Day on November 6. Dominican Republic_sentence_773

Sports Dominican Republic_section_51

Main article: Sports in the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic_sentence_774

Baseball is by far the most popular sport in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic_sentence_775

The country has a baseball league of six teams. Dominican Republic_sentence_776

Its season usually begins in October and ends in January. Dominican Republic_sentence_777

After the United States, the Dominican Republic has the second highest number of Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Dominican Republic_sentence_778

Ozzie Virgil Sr. became the first Dominican-born player in the MLB on September 23, 1956. Dominican Republic_sentence_779

Juan Marichal, Pedro Martínez, and Vladimir Guerrero are the only Dominican-born players in the Baseball Hall of Fame. Dominican Republic_sentence_780

Other notable baseball players born in the Dominican Republic are José Bautista, Adrián Beltré, George Bell, Robinson Canó, Rico Carty, Bartolo Colón, Nelson Cruz, Edwin Encarnación, Ubaldo Jiménez, Francisco Liriano, David Ortiz, Plácido Polanco, Albert Pujols, Hanley Ramírez, Manny Ramírez, José Reyes, Sammy Sosa, and Miguel Tejada. Dominican Republic_sentence_781

Felipe Alou has also enjoyed success as a manager and Omar Minaya as a general manager. Dominican Republic_sentence_782

In 2013, the Dominican team went undefeated en route to winning the World Baseball Classic. Dominican Republic_sentence_783

In boxing, the country has produced scores of world-class fighters and several world champions, such as Carlos Cruz, his brother Leo, Juan Guzman, and Joan Guzman. Dominican Republic_sentence_784

Basketball also enjoys a relatively high level of popularity. Dominican Republic_sentence_785

Tito Horford, his son Al, Felipe Lopez, and Francisco Garcia are among the Dominican-born players currently or formerly in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Dominican Republic_sentence_786

Olympic gold medalist and world champion hurdler Félix Sánchez hails from the Dominican Republic, as does NFL defensive end Luis Castillo. Dominican Republic_sentence_787

Other important sports are volleyball, introduced in 1916 by U.S. Marines and controlled by the Dominican Volleyball Federation, taekwondo, in which Gabriel Mercedes won an Olympic silver medal in 2008, and judo. Dominican Republic_sentence_788

See also Dominican Republic_section_52

Dominican Republic_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Republic.