Donald Trump

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For other uses, see Donald Trump (disambiguation). Donald Trump_sentence_0

Donald Trump_table_infobox_0

Donald TrumpDonald Trump_header_cell_0_0_0
45th President of the United StatesDonald Trump_header_cell_0_1_0
Vice PresidentDonald Trump_header_cell_0_2_0 Mike PenceDonald Trump_cell_0_2_1
Preceded byDonald Trump_header_cell_0_3_0 Barack ObamaDonald Trump_cell_0_3_1
Personal detailsDonald Trump_header_cell_0_4_0
BornDonald Trump_header_cell_0_5_0 Donald John Trump
(1946-06-14) June 14, 1946 (age 74)

Queens, New York CityDonald Trump_cell_0_5_1

Political partyDonald Trump_header_cell_0_6_0 Republican ()Donald Trump_cell_0_6_1
Other political

affiliationsDonald Trump_header_cell_0_7_0

Donald Trump_cell_0_7_1
Spouse(s)Donald Trump_header_cell_0_8_0 Ivana Zelníčková

​ ​(m. 1977; div. 1992)​

Marla Maples ​ ​(m. 1993; div. 1999)​

Melania Knauss

​ ​(m. 2005)​Donald Trump_cell_0_8_1

ChildrenDonald Trump_header_cell_0_9_0 Donald Trump_cell_0_9_1
ParentsDonald Trump_header_cell_0_10_0 Donald Trump_cell_0_10_1
RelativesDonald Trump_header_cell_0_11_0 Family of Donald TrumpDonald Trump_cell_0_11_1
ResidenceDonald Trump_header_cell_0_12_0 Donald Trump_cell_0_12_1
Alma materDonald Trump_header_cell_0_13_0 Wharton School (BS in Econ.)Donald Trump_cell_0_13_1
AwardsDonald Trump_header_cell_0_14_0 List of honors and awardsDonald Trump_cell_0_14_1
SignatureDonald Trump_header_cell_0_15_0 Donald Trump_cell_0_15_1
WebsiteDonald Trump_header_cell_0_16_0 Donald Trump_cell_0_16_1

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current president of the United States. Donald Trump_sentence_1

Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. Donald Trump_sentence_2

Born and raised in Queens, New York City, Trump attended Fordham University for two years and received a bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Donald Trump_sentence_3

He became president of his father Fred Trump's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, and expanded its operations to building or renovating skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. Donald Trump_sentence_4

Trump later started various side ventures, mostly by licensing his name. Donald Trump_sentence_5

Trump and his businesses have been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, including six bankruptcies. Donald Trump_sentence_6

He owned the Miss Universe brand of beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, and produced and hosted the reality television series The Apprentice from 2004 to 2015. Donald Trump_sentence_7

Trump's political positions have been described as populist, protectionist, isolationist, and nationalist. Donald Trump_sentence_8

He entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and was elected in a surprise electoral college victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton while losing the popular vote. Donald Trump_sentence_9

He became the oldest first-term U.S. president and the first without prior military or government service. Donald Trump_sentence_10

His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Donald Trump_sentence_11

Trump has made many false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_12

The statements have been documented by fact-checkers, and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Donald Trump_sentence_13

Many of his comments and actions have been characterized as racially charged or racist. Donald Trump_sentence_14

During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. Donald Trump_sentence_15

He enacted a tax-cut package for individuals and businesses, rescinding the individual health insurance mandate penalty of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), but has failed to repeal and replace the ACA as a whole. Donald Trump_sentence_16

He appointed Neil Gorsuch, Brett Kavanaugh and Amy Coney Barrett to the Supreme Court. Donald Trump_sentence_17

In foreign policy, Trump has pursued an America First agenda, renegotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA) and withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal. Donald Trump_sentence_18

He imposed import tariffs which triggered a trade war with China, moved the U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem and withdrew U.S. troops from northern Syria. Donald Trump_sentence_19

He met three times with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, but talks on denuclearization broke down in 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_20

He reacted slowly to the COVID-19 pandemic, downplayed the threat, ignored or contradicted many recommendations from health officials, and promoted false information about unproven treatments and the availability of testing. Donald Trump_sentence_21

A special counsel investigation led by Robert Mueller found that Trump and his campaign benefited from Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, but did not find sufficient evidence to press charges of criminal conspiracy or coordination with Russia. Donald Trump_sentence_22

Mueller also investigated Trump for obstruction of justice, and his report neither indicted nor exonerated Trump on that offense. Donald Trump_sentence_23

After Trump solicited Ukraine to investigate his political rival Joe Biden, the House of Representatives impeached him in December 2019 for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. Donald Trump_sentence_24

The Senate acquitted him of both charges in February 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_25

Trump lost the 2020 presidential election to Biden but refused to concede defeat. Donald Trump_sentence_26

He made unsubstantiated accusations of electoral fraud, mounted a series of unsuccessful legal challenges to the results, and ordered government officials not to cooperate in the presidential transition. Donald Trump_sentence_27

Personal life Donald Trump_section_0

Early life Donald Trump_section_1

Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City. Donald Trump_sentence_28

His father was Frederick Christ Trump, a Bronx-born real estate developer whose parents were German immigrants. Donald Trump_sentence_29

His mother was Scottish-born housewife Mary Anne MacLeod Trump. Donald Trump_sentence_30

Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens and attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. Donald Trump_sentence_31

At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school. Donald Trump_sentence_32

In 1964, he enrolled at Fordham University. Donald Trump_sentence_33

Two years later he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, graduating in May 1968 with a B.S. Donald Trump_sentence_34

in economics. Donald Trump_sentence_35

Profiles of Trump published in The New York Times in 1973 and 1976 erroneously reported that he had graduated first in his class at Wharton, but he had never made the school's honor roll. Donald Trump_sentence_36

In 2015, Trump's lawyer Michael Cohen threatened Fordham University and the New York Military Academy with legal action if they released Trump's academic records. Donald Trump_sentence_37

Military deferment Donald Trump_section_2

While in college, Trump obtained four student draft deferments. Donald Trump_sentence_38

In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination, and in July 1968 a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. Donald Trump_sentence_39

In October 1968, he was medically deferred and classified 1-Y (unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency). Donald Trump_sentence_40

In 1972, he was reclassified 4-F due to bone spurs, which permanently disqualified him from service. Donald Trump_sentence_41

Family Donald Trump_section_3

Main article: Family of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_42

Further information: Trump family Donald Trump_sentence_43

Parents and siblings Donald Trump_section_4

Main articles: Fred Trump and Mary Anne MacLeod Trump Donald Trump_sentence_44

Fred Trump started working in real estate with his mother Elizabeth when he was 15, after his father Friedrich had died in the 1918 flu pandemic. Donald Trump_sentence_45

By 1926, their company, "E. Donald Trump_sentence_46 Trump & Son", was active in the New York boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. Donald Trump_sentence_47

It would grow to build and sell tens of thousands of houses, barracks, and apartments. Donald Trump_sentence_48

Fred claimed to be Swedish amid the anti-German sentiment sparked by World War II; Trump also claimed Swedish heritage until 1990. Donald Trump_sentence_49

Trump's mother Mary Anne MacLeod was born in Scotland. Donald Trump_sentence_50

Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in Queens. Donald Trump_sentence_51

Trump grew up with three elder siblings – Maryanne, Fred Jr., and Elizabeth – and younger brother Robert. Donald Trump_sentence_52

Wives and children Donald Trump_section_5

In 1977, Trump married Czech model Ivana Zelníčková. Donald Trump_sentence_53

They have three children, Donald Jr. (born 1977), Ivanka (born 1981), and Eric (born 1984), and ten grandchildren. Donald Trump_sentence_54

Ivana became a naturalized United States citizen in 1988. Donald Trump_sentence_55

The couple divorced in 1992, following Trump's affair with actress Marla Maples. Donald Trump_sentence_56

Maples and Trump married in 1993 and had one daughter, Tiffany (born 1993). Donald Trump_sentence_57

They were divorced in 1999, and Tiffany was raised by Marla in California. Donald Trump_sentence_58

In 2005, Trump married Slovenian model Melania Knauss. Donald Trump_sentence_59

They have one son, Barron (born 2006). Donald Trump_sentence_60

Melania gained U.S. citizenship in 2006. Donald Trump_sentence_61

Religion Donald Trump_section_6

Trump went to Sunday school and was confirmed in 1959 at the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens. Donald Trump_sentence_62

In the 1970s, his parents joined the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan, which belongs to the Reformed Church. Donald Trump_sentence_63

The pastor at Marble, Norman Vincent Peale, ministered to Trump's family until Peale's death in 1993. Donald Trump_sentence_64

Trump has described Peale as a mentor. Donald Trump_sentence_65

In 2015, after Trump said he attends Marble, the church stated he "is not an active member" of the church. Donald Trump_sentence_66

In November 2019, Trump appointed his personal pastor, televangelist Paula White, to the White House Office of Public Liaison. Donald Trump_sentence_67

In October 2020, Trump said that he identified as a non-denominational Christian. Donald Trump_sentence_68

Health Donald Trump_section_7

Trump has called golfing his "primary form of exercise" but usually does not walk the course. Donald Trump_sentence_69

He considers exercise a waste of energy, because he believes the body is "like a battery, with a finite amount of energy" which is depleted by exercise. Donald Trump_sentence_70

In 2015, Harold Bornstein, who had been Trump's personal physician since 1980, wrote that Trump would "be the healthiest individual ever elected to the presidency" in a letter released by the Trump campaign. Donald Trump_sentence_71

In 2018, Bornstein said Trump had dictated the contents of the letter and that three agents of Trump had removed his medical records in February 2017 without authorization. Donald Trump_sentence_72

Statements by White House physicians Ronny Jackson and Sean Conley in 2018, 2019, and 2020 said Trump was healthy overall, but was obese. Donald Trump_sentence_73

Several outside cardiologists commented that Trump's 2018 LDL cholesterol level of 143 did not indicate excellent health. Donald Trump_sentence_74

Trump's 2019 coronary CT calcium scan score indicates he suffers from a common form of coronary artery disease. Donald Trump_sentence_75

Trump was hospitalized with COVID-19 on October 2, 2020, and treated with the antiviral drug remdesivir, the steroid dexamethasone, and an unapproved experimental antibody drug made by Regeneron. Donald Trump_sentence_76

He was discharged on October 5. Donald Trump_sentence_77

Wealth Donald Trump_section_8

Main article: Wealth of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_78

See also: Tax returns of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_79

In 1982, Trump was listed on the initial Forbes list of wealthy individuals as having a share of his family's estimated $200 million net worth. Donald Trump_sentence_80

His financial losses in the 1980s caused him to be dropped from the list between 1990 and 1995. Donald Trump_sentence_81

In its 2020 billionaires ranking, Forbes estimated Trump's net worth at $2.1 billion (1,001st in the world, 275th in the U.S.), making him one of the richest politicians in American history and the first billionaire American president. Donald Trump_sentence_82

Forbes estimated that his net worth declined 31% and his ranking fell 138 spots between 2015 and 2018. Donald Trump_sentence_83

When he filed mandatory financial disclosure forms with the Federal Elections Commission in July 2015, Trump claimed a net worth of about $10 billion; however, FEC figures cannot corroborate this estimate because they only show each of his largest buildings as being worth over $50 million, yielding total assets worth more than $1.4 billion and debt over $265 million. Donald Trump_sentence_84

Journalist Jonathan Greenberg reported in 2018 that Trump, using the pseudonym "John Barron" and claiming to be a Trump Organization official, called him in 1984 to falsely assert that he owned "in excess of ninety percent" of the Trump family's business, to secure a higher ranking on the Forbes 400 list of wealthy Americans. Donald Trump_sentence_85

Greenberg also wrote that Forbes had vastly overestimated Trump's wealth and wrongly included him on the Forbes 400 rankings of 1982, 1983, and 1984. Donald Trump_sentence_86

Trump has often said he began his career with "a small loan of one million dollars" from his father, and that he had to pay it back with interest. Donald Trump_sentence_87

In October 2018, The New York Times reported that Trump "was a millionaire by age 8", borrowed at least $60 million from his father, largely failed to reimburse him, and had received $413 million (adjusted for inflation) from his father's business empire over his lifetime. Donald Trump_sentence_88

According to the report, Trump and his family committed tax fraud, which a lawyer for Trump denied. Donald Trump_sentence_89

The tax department of New York said it is investigating. Donald Trump_sentence_90

Trump's investments underperformed the stock market and the New York property market. Donald Trump_sentence_91

Forbes estimated in October 2018 that the value of Trump's personal brand licensing business had declined by 88% since 2015, to $3 million. Donald Trump_sentence_92

Trump's tax returns from 1985 to 1994 show net losses totaling $1.17 billion over the ten-year period, in contrast to his claims about his financial health and business abilities. Donald Trump_sentence_93

The New York Times reported that "year after year, Mr. Trump appears to have lost more money than nearly any other individual American taxpayer," and Trump's "core business losses in 1990 and 1991 – more than $250 million each year – were more than double those of the nearest taxpayers in the I.R.S. Donald Trump_sentence_94

information for those years". Donald Trump_sentence_95

In 1995 his reported losses were $915.7 million. Donald Trump_sentence_96

According to a September 2020 analysis by The New York Times of twenty years of data from Trump's tax returns, Trump had accumulated hundreds of millions of U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_97 dollars in losses, and deferred declaring $287 million in forgiven debt as taxable income. Donald Trump_sentence_98

According to the analysis, Trump's main sources of income were his share of revenue from The Apprentice and income from businesses in which he was a minority partner, while his majority-owned businesses were largely running at losses. Donald Trump_sentence_99

A significant portion of Trump's income was in tax credits due to his losses, which enables him to avoid paying income tax, or paying as little as $750, for several years. Donald Trump_sentence_100

Over the past decade, Trump has been balancing his businesses' losses by selling and taking out loans against assets, including a $100 million mortgage on Trump Tower (due in 2022) and the liquidation of over $200 million in stocks and bonds. Donald Trump_sentence_101

Trump has personally guaranteed $421 million in debt, most of which is due to be repaid by 2024. Donald Trump_sentence_102

If he is re-elected and unable to repay or refinance the debt, the lenders may consider foreclosing on a sitting president, an unprecedented situation. Donald Trump_sentence_103

The tax records also showed Trump had unsuccessfully pursued business deals in China, including by developing a partnership with a major government-controlled company. Donald Trump_sentence_104

Trump has a total of over $1 billion in debts, borrowed to finance his assets, reported Forbes in October 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_105

Around $640 million or more was owed to various banks and trust organizations. Donald Trump_sentence_106

Around $450 million was owed to unknown creditors. Donald Trump_sentence_107

However, Trump's assets still outvalue his debts, reported Forbes. Donald Trump_sentence_108

Business career Donald Trump_section_9

Main article: Business career of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_109

Further information: Business projects of Donald Trump in Russia Donald Trump_sentence_110

Real estate Donald Trump_section_10

While a student at Wharton and after graduating in 1968, Trump worked at his father Fred's real estate company, Trump Management, which owned middle-class rental housing in New York City's outer boroughs. Donald Trump_sentence_111

In 1971, he became president of the company and began using The Trump Organization as an umbrella brand. Donald Trump_sentence_112

The business had previously used the names Fred C. Trump Organization, Fred Trump Organization, and Trump Organization, but had not had a single formal name. Donald Trump_sentence_113

It was registered as a corporation in 1981. Donald Trump_sentence_114

Manhattan developments Donald Trump_section_11

Trump attracted public attention in 1978 with the launch of his family's first Manhattan venture, the renovation of the derelict Commodore Hotel, adjacent to Grand Central Terminal. Donald Trump_sentence_115

The financing was facilitated by a $400 million city property tax abatement arranged by Fred Trump, who also joined Hyatt in guaranteeing $70 million in bank construction financing. Donald Trump_sentence_116

The hotel reopened in 1980 as the Grand Hyatt Hotel, and that same year, Trump obtained rights to develop Trump Tower, a mixed-use skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan. Donald Trump_sentence_117

The building houses the headquarters of the Trump Organization and was Trump's primary residence until 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_118

In 1988, Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan with a loan of $425 million from a consortium of banks. Donald Trump_sentence_119

Two years later, the hotel filed for bankruptcy protection, and a reorganization plan was approved in 1992. Donald Trump_sentence_120

In 1995, Trump lost the hotel to Citibank and investors from Singapore and Saudi Arabia, who assumed $300 million of the debt. Donald Trump_sentence_121

In 1996, Trump acquired a vacant 71-story skyscraper at 40 Wall Street. Donald Trump_sentence_122

After an extensive renovation, the high-rise was renamed the Trump Building. Donald Trump_sentence_123

In the early 1990s, Trump won the right to develop a 70-acre (28 ha) tract in the Lincoln Square neighborhood near the Hudson River. Donald Trump_sentence_124

Struggling with debt from other ventures in 1994, Trump sold most of his interest in the project to Asian investors who were able to finance completion of the project, Riverside South. Donald Trump_sentence_125

Palm Beach estate Donald Trump_section_12

Main article: Mar-a-Lago Donald Trump_sentence_126

In 1985, Trump acquired the Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida. Donald Trump_sentence_127

Trump used a wing of the estate as a home, while converting the remainder into a private club with an initiation fee and annual dues. Donald Trump_sentence_128

In 2019, Trump declared Mar-a-Lago his primary residence. Donald Trump_sentence_129

Atlantic City casinos Donald Trump_section_13

In 1984, Trump opened Harrah's at Trump Plaza hotel and casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey, with financing from the Holiday Corporation, who also managed the operation. Donald Trump_sentence_130

Gambling had been legalized there in 1977 to revitalize the once-popular seaside destination. Donald Trump_sentence_131

The property's poor financial results worsened tensions between Holiday and Trump, who paid Holiday $70 million in May 1986 to take sole control of the property. Donald Trump_sentence_132

Earlier, Trump had also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for $320 million. Donald Trump_sentence_133

Upon its completion in 1985, that hotel and casino were called Trump Castle. Donald Trump_sentence_134

Trump's then-wife Ivana managed it until 1988. Donald Trump_sentence_135

Trump acquired a third casino in Atlantic City, the Trump Taj Mahal, in 1988 in a highly leveraged transaction. Donald Trump_sentence_136

It was financed with $675 million in junk bonds and completed at a cost of $1.1 billion, opening in April 1990. Donald Trump_sentence_137

The project went bankrupt the following year, and the reorganization left Trump with only half his initial ownership stake and required him to pledge personal guarantees of future performance. Donald Trump_sentence_138

Facing "enormous debt", he gave up control of his money-losing airline, Trump Shuttle, and sold his megayacht, the Trump Princess, which had been indefinitely docked in Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy gamblers. Donald Trump_sentence_139

In 1995, Trump founded Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts (THCR), which assumed ownership of Trump Plaza, Trump Castle, and the Trump Casino in Gary, Indiana. Donald Trump_sentence_140

THCR purchased the Taj Mahal in 1996 and underwent successive bankruptcies in 2004, 2009, and 2014, leaving Trump with only ten percent ownership. Donald Trump_sentence_141

He remained chairman of THCR until 2009. Donald Trump_sentence_142

Golf courses Donald Trump_section_14

Main article: Donald Trump and golf Donald Trump_sentence_143

The Trump Organization began acquiring and constructing golf courses in 1999. Donald Trump_sentence_144

It owned 16 golf courses and resorts worldwide and operated another two as of December 2016. Donald Trump_sentence_145

From his inauguration until the end of 2019, Trump spent around one of every five days at one of his golf clubs. Donald Trump_sentence_146

Branding and licensing Donald Trump_section_15

See also: List of things named after Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_147

The Trump name has been licensed for various consumer products and services, including foodstuffs, apparel, adult learning courses, and home furnishings. Donald Trump_sentence_148

According to an analysis by The Washington Post, there are more than fifty licensing or management deals involving Trump's name, which have generated at least $59 million in yearly revenue for his companies. Donald Trump_sentence_149

By 2018, only two consumer goods companies continued to license his name. Donald Trump_sentence_150

Legal affairs and bankruptcies Donald Trump_section_16

Main articles: Legal affairs of Donald Trump and List of lawsuits involving Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_151

Fixer Roy Cohn served as Trump's lawyer and mentor for 13 years in the 1970s and 1980s. Donald Trump_sentence_152

According to Trump, Cohn sometimes waived fees due to their friendship. Donald Trump_sentence_153

In 1973, Cohn helped Trump counter-sue the United States government for $100 million over its charges that Trump's properties had racial discriminatory practices; in 1975 an agreement was struck for Trump's properties to change their practices. Donald Trump_sentence_154

Cohn introduced political consultant Roger Stone to Trump, who enlisted Stone's services to deal with the federal government. Donald Trump_sentence_155

As of April 2018, Trump and his businesses had been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, according to a running tally by USA Today. Donald Trump_sentence_156

While Trump has not filed for personal bankruptcy, his over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection six times between 1991 and 2009. Donald Trump_sentence_157

They continued to operate while the banks restructured debt and reduced Trump's shares in the properties. Donald Trump_sentence_158

During the 1980s, more than 70 banks had lent Trump $4 billion, but in the aftermath of his corporate bankruptcies of the early 1990s, most major banks declined to lend to him, with only Deutsche Bank still willing to lend money. Donald Trump_sentence_159

In April 2019, the House Oversight Committee issued subpoenas seeking financial details from Trump's banks, Deutsche Bank and Capital One, and his accounting firm, Mazars USA. Donald Trump_sentence_160

In response, Trump sued the banks, Mazars, and committee chairman Elijah Cummings to prevent the disclosures. Donald Trump_sentence_161

In May, DC District Court judge Amit Mehta ruled that Mazars must comply with the subpoena, and judge Edgardo Ramos of the Southern District Court of New York ruled that the banks must also comply. Donald Trump_sentence_162

Trump's attorneys appealed the rulings, arguing that Congress was attempting to usurp the "exercise of law-enforcement authority that the Constitution reserves to the executive branch". Donald Trump_sentence_163

Side ventures Donald Trump_section_17

In September 1983, Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals, a team in the United States Football League. Donald Trump_sentence_164

After the 1985 season, the league folded, largely due to Trump's strategy of moving games to a fall schedule (where they competed with the NFL for audience) and trying to force a merger with the NFL by bringing an antitrust suit against the organization. Donald Trump_sentence_165

Trump's businesses have hosted several boxing matches at the Atlantic City Convention Hall adjacent to and promoted as taking place at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City. Donald Trump_sentence_166

In 1989 and 1990, Trump lent his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race, which was an attempt to create an American equivalent of European races such as the Tour de France or the Giro d'Italia. Donald Trump_sentence_167

In the late 1980s, Trump mimicked the actions of Wall Street's so-called corporate raiders, whose tactics had attracted wide public attention. Donald Trump_sentence_168

Trump began to purchase significant blocks of shares in various public companies, leading some observers to think he was engaged in the practice called greenmail, or feigning the intent to acquire the companies and then pressuring management to repurchase the buyer's stake at a premium. Donald Trump_sentence_169

The New York Times found that Trump initially made millions of dollars in such stock transactions, but later "lost most, if not all, of those gains after investors stopped taking his takeover talk seriously". Donald Trump_sentence_170

In 1988, Trump purchased the defunct Eastern Air Lines shuttle, with 21 planes and landing rights in New York City, Boston, and Washington, D.C. Donald Trump_sentence_171

He financed the purchase with $380 million from 22 banks, rebranded the operation the Trump Shuttle, and operated it until 1992. Donald Trump_sentence_172

Trump failed to earn a profit with the airline and sold it to USAir. Donald Trump_sentence_173

In 1992, Trump, his siblings Maryanne, Elizabeth, and Robert, and cousin John W. Walter, each with a 20 percent share, formed All County Building Supply & Maintenance Corp. Donald Trump_sentence_174

The company had no offices and is alleged to have been a shell company for paying the vendors providing services and supplies for Trump's rental units, and then billing those services and supplies to Trump Management with markups of 20–50 percent and more. Donald Trump_sentence_175

The proceeds generated by the markups were shared by the owners. Donald Trump_sentence_176

The increased costs were used as justification to get state approval for increasing the rents of Trump's rent-stabilized units. Donald Trump_sentence_177

From 1996 to 2015, Trump owned all or part of the Miss Universe pageants, including Miss USA and Miss Teen USA. Donald Trump_sentence_178

Due to disagreements with CBS about scheduling, he took both pageants to NBC in 2002. Donald Trump_sentence_179

In 2007, Trump received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work as producer of Miss Universe. Donald Trump_sentence_180

After NBC and Univision dropped the pageants from their broadcasting lineups in June 2015, Trump bought NBC's share of the Miss Universe Organization and sold the entire company to the William Morris talent agency. Donald Trump_sentence_181

Trump University Donald Trump_section_18

Main article: Trump University Donald Trump_sentence_182

In 2004, Trump co-founded Trump University, a company that sold real estate training courses priced from $1,500 to $35,000. Donald Trump_sentence_183

After New York State authorities notified the company that its use of the word "university" violated state law, its name was changed to Trump Entrepreneur Initiative in 2010. Donald Trump_sentence_184

In 2013, the State of New York filed a $40 million civil suit against Trump University; the suit alleged that the company made false statements and defrauded consumers. Donald Trump_sentence_185

In addition, two class actions were filed in federal court against Trump and his companies. Donald Trump_sentence_186

Internal documents revealed that employees were instructed to use a hard-sell approach, and former employees testified that Trump University had defrauded or lied to its students. Donald Trump_sentence_187

Shortly after he won the presidency, Trump agreed to pay a total of $25 million to settle the three cases. Donald Trump_sentence_188

Foundation Donald Trump_section_19

Main article: Donald J. Trump Foundation Donald Trump_sentence_189

The Donald J. Trump Foundation was a private foundation established in 1988. Donald Trump_sentence_190

In the foundation's final years its funds mostly came from donors other than Trump, who did not donate any personal funds to the charity from 2009 until 2014. Donald Trump_sentence_191

The foundation gave to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups. Donald Trump_sentence_192

In 2016, The Washington Post reported that the charity had committed several potential legal and ethical violations, including alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion. Donald Trump_sentence_193

Also in 2016, the New York State attorney general's office said the foundation appeared to be in violation of New York laws regarding charities and ordered it to immediately cease its fundraising activities in New York. Donald Trump_sentence_194

Trump's team announced in December 2016 that the foundation would be dissolved. Donald Trump_sentence_195

In June 2018 the New York attorney general's office filed a civil suit against the foundation, Trump, and his adult children, seeking $2.8 million in restitution and additional penalties. Donald Trump_sentence_196

In December 2018, the foundation ceased operation and disbursed all its assets to other charities. Donald Trump_sentence_197

In November 2019, a New York state judge ordered Trump to pay $2 million to a group of charities for misusing the foundation's funds, in part to finance his presidential campaign. Donald Trump_sentence_198

Conflicts of interest Donald Trump_section_20

Before being inaugurated as president, Trump moved his businesses into a revocable trust run by his eldest sons and a business associate. Donald Trump_sentence_199

According to ethics experts, this measure does not help avoid conflicts of interest, because Trump continues to profit from his businesses. Donald Trump_sentence_200

Because Trump would have knowledge of how his administration's policies affect his businesses, ethics experts recommend selling the businesses. Donald Trump_sentence_201

Though Trump said he would eschew "new foreign deals", the Trump Organization has since pursued expansions of its operations in Dubai, Scotland, and the Dominican Republic. Donald Trump_sentence_202

Pending lawsuits allege that Trump is violating the Domestic and Foreign Emoluments Clauses of the U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_203 Constitution. Donald Trump_sentence_204

The plaintiffs say that Trump's business interests could allow foreign governments to influence him. Donald Trump_sentence_205

NBC News reported in 2019 that representatives of at least 22 foreign governments, including some facing charges of corruption or human rights abuses, appeared to have spent money at Trump Organization businesses during his presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_206

The litigation marks the first time that the Emoluments Clauses have been substantively litigated in court. Donald Trump_sentence_207

As president, Trump mocked the Emoluments Clause as "phony". Donald Trump_sentence_208

Media career Donald Trump_section_21

Main article: Media career of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_209

Books Donald Trump_section_22

Main article: Bibliography of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_210

Trump has written up to 19 books on business, financial, or political topics, though he has employed ghostwriters to actually write them. Donald Trump_sentence_211

Trump's first book, The Art of the Deal (1987), was a New York Times Best Seller. Donald Trump_sentence_212

While Trump was credited as co-author, the entire book was ghostwritten by Tony Schwartz. Donald Trump_sentence_213

According to The New Yorker, "The book expanded Trump's renown far beyond New York City, promoting an image of himself as a successful dealmaker and tycoon." Donald Trump_sentence_214

Trump has called the book his second favorite after the Bible. Donald Trump_sentence_215

WWF/WWE Donald Trump_section_23

Trump has had a sporadic relationship with the professional wrestling promotion WWE (World Wrestling Entertainment) since the late 1980s. Donald Trump_sentence_216

He was inducted into the celebrity wing of the WWE Hall of Fame in 2013. Donald Trump_sentence_217

Most notably, he shaved Vince McMahon's head bald after Bobby Lashley represented him in a Hair vs. Donald Trump_sentence_218

Hair match against Umaga at WWE's annual flagship event WrestleMania 23 in 2007. Donald Trump_sentence_219

The Apprentice Donald Trump_section_24

Main article: The Apprentice (American TV series) Donald Trump_sentence_220

In 2003, Trump became the co-producer and host of The Apprentice, a reality show in which Trump played the role of a powerful chief executive and contestants competed for a year of employment at the Trump Organization. Donald Trump_sentence_221

Trump winnowed out contestants with his famous catchphrase "You're fired". Donald Trump_sentence_222

He later co-hosted The Celebrity Apprentice, in which celebrities competed to win money for charities. Donald Trump_sentence_223

Acting Donald Trump_section_25

Main article: Donald Trump filmography Donald Trump_sentence_224

Trump has made cameo appearances in eight films and television shows. Donald Trump_sentence_225

Talk shows Donald Trump_section_26

Starting in the 1990s, Trump was a guest about 24 times on the nationally syndicated Howard Stern Show. Donald Trump_sentence_226

He also had his own short-form talk radio program called Trumped! Donald Trump_sentence_227

(one to two minutes on weekdays) from 2004 to 2008. Donald Trump_sentence_228

From 2011 until 2015, he was a weekly unpaid guest commentator on Fox & Friends. Donald Trump_sentence_229

Political career Donald Trump_section_27

Main article: Political career of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_230

Political activities up to 2015 Donald Trump_section_28

Trump's political party affiliation changed numerous times. Donald Trump_sentence_231

He registered as a Republican in Manhattan in 1987, switched to the Reform Party in 1999, the Democratic Party in 2001, and back to the Republican Party in 2009. Donald Trump_sentence_232

In 1987, Trump placed full-page advertisements in three major newspapers, advocating peace in Central America, accelerated nuclear disarmament talks with the Soviet Union, and reduction of the federal budget deficit by making American allies pay "their fair share" for military defense. Donald Trump_sentence_233

He ruled out running for local office but not for the presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_234

2000 presidential campaign Donald Trump_section_29

Main article: Donald Trump 2000 presidential campaign Donald Trump_sentence_235

In 1999, Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the nomination of the Reform Party for the 2000 presidential election. Donald Trump_sentence_236

A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support. Donald Trump_sentence_237

Trump dropped out of the race in February 2000. Donald Trump_sentence_238

2012 presidential speculation Donald Trump_section_30

Trump speculated about running against President Barack Obama in the 2012 election, making his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2011 and giving speeches in early primary states. Donald Trump_sentence_239

In May 2011 he announced he would not run. Donald Trump_sentence_240

Trump's presidential ambitions were generally not taken seriously at the time. Donald Trump_sentence_241

Before the 2016 election, The New York Times speculated that Trump "accelerated his ferocious efforts to gain stature within the political world" after Obama lampooned him at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner in April 2011. Donald Trump_sentence_242

In 2011, the superintendent of the New York Military Academy at the time, Jeffrey Coverdale, ordered the headmaster of the school, Evan Jones, to give him Trump's academic records so he could keep them secret, according to Jones. Donald Trump_sentence_243

Coverdale confirmed that he had been asked to hand the records over to members of the school's board of trustees who were Trump's friends, but he refused to and instead sealed them on campus. Donald Trump_sentence_244

The incident reportedly happened days after Trump demanded the release of Obama's academic records. Donald Trump_sentence_245

2013–2015 Donald Trump_section_31

In 2013, Trump spoke at CPAC again. Donald Trump_sentence_246

He railed against illegal immigration, bemoaned Obama's "unprecedented media protection", advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security, and suggested the government "take" Iraq's oil and use the proceeds to pay a million dollars each to families of dead soldiers. Donald Trump_sentence_247

He spent over $1 million that year to research a possible 2016 candidacy. Donald Trump_sentence_248

In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a memo suggesting that Trump run for governor in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo. Donald Trump_sentence_249

Trump responded that while New York had problems and its taxes were too high, he was not interested in the governorship. Donald Trump_sentence_250

A poll showed Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37 points in a hypothetical election. Donald Trump_sentence_251

Trump's attorney Michael Cohen said that he sent letters to the New York Military Academy and Fordham in May 2015, threatening legal action if the schools ever released Trump's grades or SAT scores. Donald Trump_sentence_252

Fordham confirmed receipt of the letter as well as a phone call from a member of the Trump team. Donald Trump_sentence_253

2016 presidential campaign Donald Trump_section_32

Main article: Donald Trump 2016 presidential campaign Donald Trump_sentence_254

Republican primaries Donald Trump_section_33

See also: 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries Donald Trump_sentence_255

On June 16, 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for President of the United States. Donald Trump_sentence_256

His campaign was initially not taken seriously by political analysts, but he quickly rose to the top of opinion polls. Donald Trump_sentence_257

On Super Tuesday, Trump received the most votes, and he remained the front-runner throughout the primaries. Donald Trump_sentence_258

After a landslide win in Indiana on May 3, 2016 – which prompted the remaining candidates Cruz and John Kasich to suspend their presidential campaigns – RNC chairman Reince Priebus declared Trump the presumptive Republican nominee. Donald Trump_sentence_259

General election campaign Donald Trump_section_34

Hillary Clinton had a significant lead over Trump in national polls throughout most of 2016. Donald Trump_sentence_260

In early July, her lead narrowed in national polling averages. Donald Trump_sentence_261

On July 15, 2016, Trump announced his selection of Indiana governor Mike Pence as his vice presidential running mate. Donald Trump_sentence_262

Four days later, the two were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the Republican National Convention. Donald Trump_sentence_263

Trump and Clinton faced off in three presidential debates in September and October 2016. Donald Trump_sentence_264

Trump's refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election, regardless of the outcome, drew particular attention, with some saying it undermined democracy. Donald Trump_sentence_265

Political positions Donald Trump_section_35

Main article: Political positions of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_266

Trump's campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China relations and free trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, strongly enforcing immigration laws, and building a new wall along the U.S.–Mexico border. Donald Trump_sentence_267

His other campaign positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change regulations such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement, modernizing and expediting services for veterans, repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, abolishing Common Core education standards, investing in infrastructure, simplifying the tax code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. Donald Trump_sentence_268

During the campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to foreign policy while increasing military spending, extreme vetting or banning immigrants from Muslim-majority countries to pre-empt domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military action against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Donald Trump_sentence_269

During the campaign Trump repeatedly called NATO "obsolete". Donald Trump_sentence_270

Trump's political positions and rhetoric are right-wing populist. Donald Trump_sentence_271

He supported or leaned toward varying political positions over time. Donald Trump_sentence_272

Politico has described his positions as "eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory", while NBC News counted "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues" during his campaign. Donald Trump_sentence_273

Campaign rhetoric Donald Trump_section_36

In his campaign, Trump said he disdained political correctness and frequently made claims of media bias. Donald Trump_sentence_274

His fame and provocative statements earned him an unprecedented amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries. Donald Trump_sentence_275

Trump made a record number of false statements compared to other candidates; the press reported on his campaign lies and falsehoods, with the Los Angeles Times saying, "Never in modern presidential politics has a major candidate made false statements as routinely as Trump has." Donald Trump_sentence_276

His campaign statements were often opaque or suggestive. Donald Trump_sentence_277

Trump adopted the phrase "truthful hyperbole", coined by his ghostwriter Tony Schwartz, to describe his public speaking style. Donald Trump_sentence_278

Support from the far right Donald Trump_section_37

According to Michael Barkun, the Trump campaign was remarkable for bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations into the mainstream. Donald Trump_sentence_279

During his presidential campaign, Trump was accused of pandering to white supremacists. Donald Trump_sentence_280

He retweeted open racists, and repeatedly refused to condemn David Duke, the Ku Klux Klan or white supremacists, in an interview on CNN's State of the Union, saying he would first need to "do research" because he knew nothing about Duke or white supremacists. Donald Trump_sentence_281

Duke himself enthusiastically supported Trump throughout the 2016 primary and election, and has said he and like-minded people voted for Trump because of his promises to "take our country back". Donald Trump_sentence_282

After repeated questioning by reporters, Trump said he disavowed Duke and the Klan. Donald Trump_sentence_283

The alt-right movement coalesced around and enthusiastically supported Trump's candidacy, due in part to its opposition to multiculturalism and immigration. Donald Trump_sentence_284

In August 2016, he appointed Steve Bannon – the executive chairman of Breitbart News – as his campaign CEO; Bannon described Breitbart News as "the platform for the alt-right". Donald Trump_sentence_285

In an interview days after the election, Trump condemned supporters who celebrated his victory with Nazi salutes. Donald Trump_sentence_286

Financial disclosures Donald Trump_section_38

As a candidate, Trump's FEC-required reports listed assets above $1.4 billion and outstanding debts of at least $315 million. Donald Trump_sentence_287

Trump has not released his tax returns, contrary to the practice of every major candidate since 1976 and his promises in 2014 and 2015 to do so if he ran for office. Donald Trump_sentence_288

He said his tax returns were being audited (in actuality, audits do not prevent release of tax returns), and his lawyers had advised him against releasing them. Donald Trump_sentence_289

Trump has told the press his tax rate is none of their business, and that he tries to pay "as little tax as possible". Donald Trump_sentence_290

In October 2016, portions of Trump's state filings for 1995 were leaked to a reporter from The New York Times. Donald Trump_sentence_291

They show that Trump had declared a loss of $916 million that year, which could have let him avoid taxes for up to 18 years. Donald Trump_sentence_292

During the second presidential debate, Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was applied. Donald Trump_sentence_293

On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income tax returns were leaked to MSNBC. Donald Trump_sentence_294

The document states that Trump had a gross adjusted income of $150 million and paid $38 million in federal taxes. Donald Trump_sentence_295

The White House confirmed the authenticity of the documents. Donald Trump_sentence_296

In 2019, the House Ways and Means Committee sought Trump's personal and business tax returns from 2013 to 2018 from the Internal Revenue Service. Donald Trump_sentence_297

Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin refused to turn over the documents, and ultimately defied a subpoena issued by the committee. Donald Trump_sentence_298

A fall 2018 draft IRS legal memo asserted that tax returns must be provided to Congress upon request, unless a president invokes executive privilege, contradicting the administration's position. Donald Trump_sentence_299

Election to the presidency Donald Trump_section_39

Main article: 2016 United States presidential election Donald Trump_sentence_300

On November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 pledged electoral votes versus 232 for Clinton. Donald Trump_sentence_301

The official counts were 304 and 227 respectively, after defections on both sides. Donald Trump_sentence_302

Trump received nearly 2.9 million fewer popular votes than Clinton, which made him the fifth person to be elected president while losing the popular vote. Donald Trump_sentence_303

Clinton was ahead nationwide, with 65,853,514 votes (48.18%) compared to Trump's 62,984,828 votes (46.09%). Donald Trump_sentence_304

Trump's victory was a political upset. Donald Trump_sentence_305

Polls had consistently shown Clinton with a nationwide – though diminishing – lead, as well as an advantage in most of the competitive states. Donald Trump_sentence_306

Trump's support had been modestly underestimated, while Clinton's had been overestimated. Donald Trump_sentence_307

The polls were relatively accurate, but media outlets and pundits alike showed overconfidence in a Clinton victory despite a large number of undecided voters and a favorable concentration of Trump's core constituencies in competitive states. Donald Trump_sentence_308

Trump won 30 states; included were Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, which had been part of what was considered a blue wall of Democratic strongholds since the 1990s. Donald Trump_sentence_309

Clinton won 20 states and the District of Columbia. Donald Trump_sentence_310

Trump's victory marked the return of an undivided Republican government – a Republican White House combined with Republican control of both chambers of Congress. Donald Trump_sentence_311

Trump is the oldest person to take office as president. Donald Trump_sentence_312

He is also the first president who did not serve in the military or hold any government office prior to becoming president. Donald Trump_sentence_313

Protests Donald Trump_section_40

Main article: Protests against Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_314

Some rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or violence, both inside and outside the venues. Donald Trump_sentence_315

Trump's election victory sparked protests across the United States, in opposition to his policies and his inflammatory statements. Donald Trump_sentence_316

Trump initially tweeted that these were "professional protesters, incited by the media" and "unfair", but later "Love the fact that the small groups of protesters last night have passion for our great country." Donald Trump_sentence_317

In the weeks following Trump's inauguration, massive anti-Trump demonstrations took place, such as the Women's Marches, which gathered 2.6 million people worldwide, including 500,000 in Washington alone. Donald Trump_sentence_318

Marches against his travel ban began across the country on January 29, 2017, just nine days after his inauguration. Donald Trump_sentence_319

Presidency (2017–present) Donald Trump_section_41

Main article: Presidency of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_320

For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Donald Trump presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_321

Early actions Donald Trump_section_42

See also: Presidential transition of Donald Trump and First 100 days of Donald Trump's presidency Donald Trump_sentence_322

Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States on January 20, 2017. Donald Trump_sentence_323

During his first week in office, he signed six executive orders: interim procedures in anticipation of repealing the Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare"), withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations, reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy, unlocking the Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipeline construction projects, reinforcing border security, and beginning the planning and design process to construct a wall along the U.S. border with Mexico. Donald Trump_sentence_324

Upon inauguration, Trump delegated the management of his real estate business to his sons Eric and Donald Jr. His daughter Ivanka and her husband Jared Kushner became Assistant to the President and Senior Advisor to the President, respectively. Donald Trump_sentence_325

Domestic policy Donald Trump_section_43

Economy and trade Donald Trump_section_44

Main article: Economic policy of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_326

See also: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 and Trump tariffs Donald Trump_sentence_327

The period of economic expansion that began in June 2009 continued until February 2020, when the COVID-19 recession began. Donald Trump_sentence_328

Throughout his presidency, Trump mischaracterized the economy as the best in American history. Donald Trump_sentence_329

In December 2017, Trump signed tax legislation that permanently cut the corporate tax rate to 21 percent, lowered personal income tax rates until 2025, increased child tax credits, doubled the estate tax exemption to $11.2 million, and limited the state and local tax deduction to $10,000. Donald Trump_sentence_330

Trump is a skeptic of multilateral trade agreements, believing they incentivize unfair commercial practices, favoring bilateral trade agreements, as they allow one party to withdraw if the other party is believed to be behaving unfairly. Donald Trump_sentence_331

Trump adopted his current skepticism of trade liberalization in the 1980s, and sharply criticized NAFTA during the Republican primary campaign in 2015. Donald Trump_sentence_332

He withdrew the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations, imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum imports, and launched a trade war with China by sharply increasing tariffs on 818 categories (worth $50 billion) of Chinese goods imported into the U.S. On several occasions, Trump has said incorrectly that these import tariffs are paid by China into the U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_333 Treasury. Donald Trump_sentence_334

Although Trump pledged during his 2016 campaign to significantly reduce the U.S.'s large trade deficits, the U.S. trade deficit reached its highest level in 12 years under his administration. Donald Trump_sentence_335

Despite a campaign promise to eliminate the national debt in eight years, Trump as president has approved large increases in government spending, as well as the 2017 tax cut. Donald Trump_sentence_336

As a result, the American government's budget deficit has increased by almost 50%, to nearly $1 trillion in 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_337

In 2016, the year before Trump took office, the U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_338 national debt was around $19 trillion; by mid-2020, it had increased to $26 trillion under the Trump administration. Donald Trump_sentence_339

In April 2020, the official unemployment rate rose to 14.7% due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Donald Trump_sentence_340

This was an underestimation of the actual unemployment rate, but still was the highest level of unemployment since 1939. Donald Trump_sentence_341

Analysis published by The Wall Street Journal in October 2020 found the trade war Trump initiated in early 2018 did not achieve the primary objective of reviving American manufacturing, nor did it result in the reshoring of factory production. Donald Trump_sentence_342

Energy and climate Donald Trump_section_45

Main articles: Environmental policy of the Donald Trump administration and Climate change in the United States Donald Trump_sentence_343

Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate change. Donald Trump_sentence_344

He made large budget cuts to programs that research renewable energy and rolled back Obama-era policies directed at curbing climate change. Donald Trump_sentence_345

In June 2017, Trump announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement, making the U.S. the only nation in the world to not ratify the agreement. Donald Trump_sentence_346

At the 2019 G7 summit, Trump skipped the sessions on climate change but said afterward during a press conference that he is an environmentalist. Donald Trump_sentence_347

Trump has rolled back federal regulations aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, water pollution, and the usage of toxic substances. Donald Trump_sentence_348

One example is the Clean Power Plan. Donald Trump_sentence_349

He relaxed environmental standards for federal infrastructure projects, while expanding permitted areas for drilling and resource extraction, such as allowing drilling in the Arctic Refuge. Donald Trump_sentence_350

Trump also weakened protections for animals. Donald Trump_sentence_351

Trump's energy policies aimed to boost the production and exports of coal, oil, and natural gas. Donald Trump_sentence_352

Deregulation Donald Trump_section_46

During his presidency, Trump has dismantled many federal regulations on health, labor, and the environment, among other topics. Donald Trump_sentence_353

Trump signed 15 Congressional Review Act resolutions repealing federal regulations, becoming the second president to sign a CRA resolution, and the first president to sign more than one CRA resolution. Donald Trump_sentence_354

During his first six weeks in office, he delayed, suspended or reversed ninety federal regulations. Donald Trump_sentence_355

On January 30, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13771, which directed that for every new regulation administrative agencies issue "at least two prior regulations be identified for elimination". Donald Trump_sentence_356

Agency defenders expressed opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying the bureaucracy exists to protect people against well-organized, well-funded interest groups. Donald Trump_sentence_357

Health care Donald Trump_section_47

During his campaign, Trump vowed to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, and shortly after taking office, Trump urged Congress to do so. Donald Trump_sentence_358

In May 2017, the Republican-controlled House of Representatives passed legislation to repeal the ACA in a party-line vote, but repeal proposals were narrowly voted down in the Senate after three Republicans joined all Democrats in opposing it. Donald Trump_sentence_359

Trump scaled back the implementation of the ACA through Executive Orders 13765 and 13813. Donald Trump_sentence_360

Trump has expressed a desire to "let Obamacare fail"; his administration cut the ACA enrollment period in half and drastically reduced funding for advertising and other ways to encourage enrollment. Donald Trump_sentence_361

The 2017 tax bill signed by Trump effectively repealed the ACA's individual health insurance mandate in 2019, and a budget bill Trump signed in 2019 repealed the Cadillac plan tax, medical device tax, and tanning tax. Donald Trump_sentence_362

As president, Trump has falsely claimed he saved the coverage of pre-existing conditions provided by the ACA; in fact, the Trump administration has joined a lawsuit seeking to strike down the entire ACA, including protections for those with pre-existing conditions. Donald Trump_sentence_363

If successful, the lawsuit would eliminate health insurance coverage for up to 23 million Americans. Donald Trump_sentence_364

As a 2016 candidate, Trump promised to protect funding for Medicare and other social safety-net programs, but in January 2020 he suggested he was willing to consider cuts to such programs. Donald Trump_sentence_365

Social issues Donald Trump_section_48

Main article: Social policy of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_366

Trump favored modifying the 2016 Republican platform opposing abortion, to allow for exceptions in cases of rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother. Donald Trump_sentence_367

He has said he is committed to appointing "pro-life" justices, pledging in 2016 to appoint justices who would "automatically" overturn Roe v. Wade. Donald Trump_sentence_368

He says he personally supports "traditional marriage" but considers the nationwide legality of same-sex marriage a "settled" issue. Donald Trump_sentence_369

Despite the statement by Trump and the White House saying they would keep in place a 2014 executive order from the Obama administration which created federal workplace protections for LGBT people, in March 2017, the Trump administration rolled back key components of the Obama administration's workplace protections for LGBT people. Donald Trump_sentence_370

Trump says he is opposed to gun control in general, although his views have shifted over time. Donald Trump_sentence_371

After several mass shootings during his term, Trump initially said he would propose legislation to curtail gun violence, but abandoned the idea in November 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_372

The Trump administration has taken an anti-marijuana position, revoking Obama-era policies that provided protections for states that legalized marijuana. Donald Trump_sentence_373

Trump favors capital punishment; under Trump, the first federal execution in 17 years took place. Donald Trump_sentence_374

Five more federal prisoners were executed, making the total number of federal executions under Trump higher than all of his predecessors combined going back to 1963. Donald Trump_sentence_375

In 2016, Trump said he supported the use of waterboarding and "a hell of a lot worse" methods but later apparently recanted, at least partially, his support for torture due to the opposition of Defense Secretary James Mattis. Donald Trump_sentence_376

Pardons and commutations Donald Trump_section_49

Main article: List of people granted executive clemency by Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_377

In 2017, Trump pardoned former Arizona sheriff Joe Arpaio who was convicted of contempt of court for disobeying a court order to halt the racial profiling of Latinos. Donald Trump_sentence_378

In 2018, Trump pardoned former Navy sailor Kristian Saucier, who was convicted of taking classified photographs of a submarine; Scooter Libby, a political aide to former vice president Dick Cheney, who was convicted of obstruction of justice, perjury, and making false statements to the FBI; conservative commentator Dinesh D'Souza, who had made illegal political campaign contributions; and he commuted the life sentence of Alice Marie Johnson, a non-violent drug trafficking offender, following a request by celebrity Kim Kardashian. Donald Trump_sentence_379

In February 2020, Trump pardoned white-collar criminals Michael Milken, Bernard Kerik, and Edward J. DeBartolo Jr., and commuted former Illinois governor Rod Blagojevich's 14-year corruption sentence. Donald Trump_sentence_380

In July 2020, Trump commuted the 40-month sentence for his friend and adviser Roger Stone, who had been soon due to report to prison for covering up for Trump during the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential elections. Donald Trump_sentence_381

In November 2020, Trump pardoned his former national security advisor Michael Flynn who had pleaded guilty of lying to the FBI. Donald Trump_sentence_382

Lafayette Square protester removal and photo op Donald Trump_section_50

Main article: Donald Trump photo op at St. John's Church Donald Trump_sentence_383

Donald Trump_table_infobox_1

External videoDonald Trump_header_cell_1_0_0

On June 1, 2020, federal law enforcement officials used batons, rubber bullets, pepper spray projectiles, stun grenades, and smoke to remove a largely peaceful crowd of protesters from Lafayette Square, outside the White House. Donald Trump_sentence_384

The removal had been ordered by Attorney General William Barr. Donald Trump_sentence_385

Trump then walked to St. Donald Trump_sentence_386 John's Episcopal Church. Donald Trump_sentence_387

He posed for photographs holding a Bible, with Cabinet members and other officials later joining him in photos. Donald Trump_sentence_388

Religious leaders condemned the treatment of protesters and the photo opportunity itself. Donald Trump_sentence_389

Many retired military leaders and defense officials condemned Trump's proposal to use the U.S. military against the protesters. Donald Trump_sentence_390

The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Mark A. Milley, later apologized for accompanying Trump on the walk and thereby "creat[ing] the perception of the military involved in domestic politics". Donald Trump_sentence_391

Immigration Donald Trump_section_51

Main article: Immigration policy of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_392

Trump's proposed immigration policies were a topic of bitter and contentious debate during the campaign. Donald Trump_sentence_393

He promised to build a more substantial wall on the Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants and vowed Mexico would pay for it. Donald Trump_sentence_394

He pledged to massively deport illegal immigrants residing in the United States, and criticized birthright citizenship for creating "anchor babies". Donald Trump_sentence_395

As president, he frequently described illegal immigration as an "invasion" and conflated immigrants with the gang MS-13, though research shows undocumented immigrants have a lower crime rate than native-born Americans. Donald Trump_sentence_396

Trump has attempted to drastically escalate immigration enforcement. Donald Trump_sentence_397

Some of the results are harsher immigration enforcement policies against asylum seekers from Central America than any modern U.S. president. Donald Trump_sentence_398

This was accompanied by the Trump administration's mandating in 2018 that immigration judges must complete 700 cases a year to be evaluated as performing satisfactorily. Donald Trump_sentence_399

Although Trump pledged to deport "millions of illegal aliens," that did not occur. Donald Trump_sentence_400

Under Trump, migrant apprehensions at the U.S.–Mexico border rose to their highest level in 12 years, but deportations remained below the record highs of fiscal years 2012–2014. Donald Trump_sentence_401

From 2018 onwards, Trump deployed nearly 6,000 troops to the U.S.–Mexico border, in 2019 was allowed by the Supreme Court to stop most Central American migrants from seeking U.S. asylum, and from 2020 used the public charge rule to restrict immigrants using government benefits from getting permanent residency via green cards. Donald Trump_sentence_402

Trump has reduced the number of refugees admitted into the U.S. to record lows. Donald Trump_sentence_403

When Trump took office, the annual limit was 110,000; Trump set a limit of 18,000 in the 2020 fiscal year and 15,000 in the 2021 fiscal year. Donald Trump_sentence_404

Additional restrictions implemented by the Trump administration caused (potentially long-lasting) bottlenecks in processing refugee applications, resulting in fewer refugees accepted compared to the allowed limits. Donald Trump_sentence_405

Travel ban Donald Trump_section_52

Main articles: Executive Order 13769 and Executive Order 13780 Donald Trump_sentence_406

Following the 2015 San Bernardino attack, Trump made a controversial proposal to ban Muslim foreigners from entering the United States until stronger vetting systems could be implemented. Donald Trump_sentence_407

He later reframed the proposed ban to apply to countries with a "proven history of terrorism". Donald Trump_sentence_408

On January 27, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13769, which suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days, citing security concerns. Donald Trump_sentence_409

The order took effect immediately and without warning. Donald Trump_sentence_410

Confusion and protests caused chaos at airports. Donald Trump_sentence_411

Sally Yates, the acting Attorney General, directed Justice Department lawyers not to defend the executive order, which she deemed unenforceable and unconstitutional; Trump immediately dismissed her. Donald Trump_sentence_412

Multiple legal challenges were filed against the order, and a federal judge blocked its implementation nationwide. Donald Trump_sentence_413

On March 6, Trump issued a revised order, which excluded Iraq, gave specific exemptions for permanent residents, and removed priorities for Christian minorities. Donald Trump_sentence_414

Again federal judges in three states blocked its implementation. Donald Trump_sentence_415

In a decision in June 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban could be enforced on visitors who lack a "credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States". Donald Trump_sentence_416

The temporary order was replaced by Presidential Proclamation 9645 on September 24, 2017, which permanently restricts travel from the originally targeted countries except Iraq and Sudan, and further bans travelers from North Korea and Chad, along with certain Venezuelan officials. Donald Trump_sentence_417

After lower courts partially blocked the new restrictions, the Supreme Court allowed the September version to go into full effect on December 4, 2017, and ultimately upheld the travel ban in a June 2019 ruling. Donald Trump_sentence_418

Family separation at border Donald Trump_section_53

Main article: Trump administration family separation policy Donald Trump_sentence_419

The Trump administration has separated more than 5,400 migrant children from their parents at the U.S.–Mexico border while the families attempted to enter the U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_420

The Trump administration sharply increased the number of family separations at the border starting from the summer of 2017, before an official policy was announced in 2018; this was not reported publicly until January 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_421

In April 2018, the Trump administration announced a "zero tolerance" policy whereby every adult suspected of illegal entry would be criminally prosecuted. Donald Trump_sentence_422

This resulted in family separations, as the migrant adults were put in criminal detention for prosecution, while their children were taken away as unaccompanied alien minors. Donald Trump_sentence_423

The children would be brought to immigration detention, immigrant shelters, tent camps, or metal cages, with the stated aim of releasing them to relatives or sponsors. Donald Trump_sentence_424

Administration officials described the policy as a way to deter illegal immigration. Donald Trump_sentence_425

The policy of family separations had no precedent in previous administrations and sparked public outrage, with Democrats, Republicans, Trump allies, and religious groups demanding that the policy be rescinded. Donald Trump_sentence_426

Trump falsely asserted that his administration was merely following the law, blaming Democrats, when in fact this was his administration's policy. Donald Trump_sentence_427

More than 2,300 children were separated as a result of the "zero tolerance policy", the Trump administration revealed in June 2018. Donald Trump_sentence_428

Although Trump originally argued that the issue could not be solved via executive order, he proceeded to sign an executive order on June 20, 2018, mandating that migrant families be detained together, unless the administration judged that doing so would harm the child. Donald Trump_sentence_429

On June 26, 2018, a federal judge concluded that the Trump administration had "no system in place to keep track of" the separated children, nor any effective measures for family communication and reunification; the judge ordered for the families to be reunited, and family separations stopped, except in the cases where the parent(s) are judged unfit to take care of the child, or if there is parental approval. Donald Trump_sentence_430

In 2019, the Trump administration reported that 4,370 children were separated from July 2017 to June 2018. Donald Trump_sentence_431

Even after the June 2018 federal court order, the Trump administration continued to practice family separations, with more than a thousand migrant children separated. Donald Trump_sentence_432

Migrant detentions Donald Trump_section_54

Main article: Trump administration migrant detentions Donald Trump_sentence_433

While the Obama administration detained and deported migrants at high rates, the Trump administration took it to a significantly higher level. Donald Trump_sentence_434

The Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General inspections of migrant detention centers in 2018 and 2019 found that U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_435 Customs and Border Protection (CBP) "in many instances" violated federal guidelines for detaining migrant children for too long before passing them to the Office of Refugee Resettlement and that migrants were detained for prolonged periods under dangerous conditions failing federal standards, enduring dangerous overcrowding and poor hygiene and food. Donald Trump_sentence_436

CBP Commissioner Kevin McAleenan said in 2019 that there was a "border security and a humanitarian crisis" and that the immigration system was at a "breaking point". Donald Trump_sentence_437

The treatment of the detained migrants resulted in a public outcry by July 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_438

That month, Trump reacted to criticism of the migrant detentions by saying if the migrants were unhappy about the conditions of the detention facilities, "just tell them not to come." Donald Trump_sentence_439

In August 2019, the administration attempted to change the 1997 Flores Agreement that limits detention of migrant families to 20 days; the new policy allowing indefinite detention was blocked before it would go into effect. Donald Trump_sentence_440

2018–2019 federal government shutdown Donald Trump_section_55

Main article: 2018–2019 United States federal government shutdown Donald Trump_sentence_441

On December 22, 2018, the federal government was partially shut down after Trump declared that any funding extension must include $5.6 billion in federal funds for a U.S.–Mexico border wall to partly fulfill his campaign promise. Donald Trump_sentence_442

The shutdown was caused by a lapse in funding for nine federal departments, affecting about one-fourth of federal government activities. Donald Trump_sentence_443

Trump said he would not accept any bill that did not include funding for the wall, and Democrats, who control the House, said they would not support any bill that does. Donald Trump_sentence_444

Senate Republicans have said they will not advance any legislation Trump would not sign. Donald Trump_sentence_445

In earlier negotiations with Democratic leaders, Trump commented that he would be "proud to shut down the government for border security". Donald Trump_sentence_446

As a result of the shutdown, about 380,000 government employees were furloughed and 420,000 government employees worked without pay. Donald Trump_sentence_447

According to a CBO estimate, the shutdown resulted in a permanent loss of $3 billion to the U.S. economy. Donald Trump_sentence_448

About half of Americans blamed Trump for the shutdown, and Trump's approval ratings dropped. Donald Trump_sentence_449

On January 25, 2019, Congress unanimously approved a temporary funding bill that provided no funds for the wall but would provide delayed paychecks to government workers. Donald Trump_sentence_450

Trump signed the bill that day, ending the shutdown at 35 days. Donald Trump_sentence_451

It was the longest U.S. government shutdown in history. Donald Trump_sentence_452

Since the government funding was temporary, another shutdown loomed. Donald Trump_sentence_453

On February 14, 2019, Congress approved a funding bill that included $1.375 billion for 55 miles of border fences, in lieu of Trump's intended wall. Donald Trump_sentence_454

Trump signed the bill the next day. Donald Trump_sentence_455

National emergency regarding the southern border Donald Trump_section_56

On February 15, 2019, after Trump received from Congress only $1.375 billion for border fencing after demanding $5.7 billion for the Trump wall, he declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States, in hopes of getting another $6.7 billion without congressional approval, using funds for military construction, drug interdiction, and money from the Treasury. Donald Trump_sentence_456

In doing so, Trump acknowledged that he "didn't need to" declare a national emergency, but he "would rather do it much faster". Donald Trump_sentence_457

Congress twice passed resolutions to block Trump's national emergency declarations, but Trump vetoed both and there were not enough votes in Congress for a veto override. Donald Trump_sentence_458

Trump's decision to divert other government funding to fund the wall resulted in legal challenges. Donald Trump_sentence_459

In July 2019, the Supreme Court allowed Trump to use $2.5 billion (originally meant for anti-drug programs) from the Department of Defense to build the Trump wall. Donald Trump_sentence_460

In December 2019, a federal judge stopped the Trump administration from using $3.6 billion of military construction funds for the Trump wall. Donald Trump_sentence_461

Trump wall Donald Trump_section_57

Main article: Trump wall Donald Trump_sentence_462

As a presidential candidate, Trump promised to construct a wall along the U.S.–Mexico border to prevent migration. Donald Trump_sentence_463

In 2017, the border had 654 miles of primary fencing, 37 miles of secondary fencing and 14 miles of tertiary fencing. Donald Trump_sentence_464

Trump's target, from 2015 to 2017, was 1,000 miles of wall. Donald Trump_sentence_465

The Trump administration set a target of 450 miles of new or renovated barriers by December 2020, with an ultimate goal of 509 miles of new or renovated barriers by August 2021. Donald Trump_sentence_466

Even into 2020, Trump has repeatedly provided false assertions that Mexico is paying for the Trump wall, although American taxpayers are footing the bill from funds being diverted from the U.S. Department of Defense. Donald Trump_sentence_467

In October 2018, the administration revealed two miles of replacement fences made of steel posts, which it called the first section of Trump's 'wall', although earlier that year Border Patrol had said the project was unrelated to the Trump wall and had been long planned (dating to 2009). Donald Trump_sentence_468

In December 2018 and January 2019, Trump tweeted out a design of a steel fence, and a picture of a fence, while declaring "the wall is coming." Donald Trump_sentence_469

By November 2019, the Trump administration had replaced around 78 miles of the Mexico–United States barrier along the border; these replacement barriers were not walls, but fences made of bollards. Donald Trump_sentence_470

The administration in November 2019 said it had "just started breaking ground" to build new barriers in areas where no structure existed. Donald Trump_sentence_471

By May 2020, the Trump administration had replaced 172 miles of dilapidated or outdated design barriers, and constructed 15 miles of new border barriers. Donald Trump_sentence_472

Foreign policy Donald Trump_section_58

Main article: Foreign policy of the Donald Trump administration Donald Trump_sentence_473

Trump describes himself as a "nationalist" and his foreign policy as "America First". Donald Trump_sentence_474

He has espoused isolationist, non-interventionist, and protectionist views. Donald Trump_sentence_475

His foreign policy has been marked by repeated praise and support of neo-nationalist and authoritarian strongmen and criticism of democratic governments. Donald Trump_sentence_476

Trump has cited Israel's Benjamin Netanyahu, the Philippines' Rodrigo Duterte, Egypt's Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Turkey's Tayyip Erdoğan, Russia's Vladimir Putin, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, Brazil's Jair Bolsonaro, Italy's Giuseppe Conte, India's Narendra Modi, Hungary's Viktor Orbán, and Poland's Andrzej Duda as examples of good leaders. Donald Trump_sentence_477

As a candidate, Trump questioned the need for NATO; as president, he repeatedly and publicly criticized NATO and the U.S.'s NATO allies, and has privately suggested on multiple occasions that the United States should withdraw from NATO. Donald Trump_sentence_478

Hallmarks of foreign relations during Trump's tenure include unpredictability and uncertainty, a lack of a consistent foreign policy, and strained and sometimes antagonistic relationships with the U.S.'s European allies. Donald Trump_sentence_479

Syria Donald Trump_section_59

Trump ordered missile strikes in April 2017 and in April 2018 against the Assad regime in Syria, in retaliation for the Khan Shaykhun and Douma chemical attacks, respectively. Donald Trump_sentence_480

In December 2018, Trump declared "we have won against ISIS," contradicting Department of Defense assessments, and ordered the withdrawal of all troops from Syria. Donald Trump_sentence_481

Mattis resigned the next day in opposition to Trump's foreign policy, calling his decision an abandonment of the U.S.'s Kurdish allies who played a key role in fighting ISIS. Donald Trump_sentence_482

One week after his announcement, Trump said he would not approve any extension of the American deployment in Syria. Donald Trump_sentence_483

In January 2019, national security advisor John Bolton announced America would remain in Syria until ISIS is eradicated and Turkey guarantees it will not strike the Kurds. Donald Trump_sentence_484

In October 2019, after Trump spoke to Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the White House acknowledged Turkey would carry out a military offensive into northern Syria, and U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_485 troops in northern Syria were withdrawn from the area. Donald Trump_sentence_486

The statement also passed responsibility for the area's captured ISIS fighters to Turkey. Donald Trump_sentence_487

As a result, Turkey launched an invasion, attacking and displacing American-allied Kurds in the area. Donald Trump_sentence_488

Later that month, the U.S. House of Representatives, in a rare bipartisan vote of 354 to 60, condemned Trump's withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria, for "abandoning U.S. allies, undermining the struggle against ISIS, and spurring a humanitarian catastrophe". Donald Trump_sentence_489

Saudi Arabia and Yemen Donald Trump_section_60

Trump actively supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and signed a $110 billion agreement to sell arms to Saudi Arabia. Donald Trump_sentence_490

Afghanistan Donald Trump_section_61

U.S. troop numbers in Afghanistan increased from 8,500 to 14,000, as of January 2017, reversing his pre-election position critical of further involvement in Afghanistan. Donald Trump_sentence_491

On February 29, 2020, the Trump administration signed a conditional peace agreement with the Taliban, which calls for the withdrawal of foreign troops in 14 months if the Taliban uphold the terms of the agreement. Donald Trump_sentence_492

Iran Donald Trump_section_62

See also: Iran–United States relations § 2017–present: Trump administration, United States withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, and 2019–20 Persian Gulf crisis Donald Trump_sentence_493

Trump has described the regime in Iran as "the rogue regime", although he has also asserted he does not seek regime change. Donald Trump_sentence_494

Trump repeatedly criticized the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), a nuclear deal negotiated with the United States, Iran, and five other world powers in 2015. Donald Trump_sentence_495

In May 2018, Trump announced the U.S.' unilateral departure from the JCPOA. Donald Trump_sentence_496

After withdrawing from the agreement, the Trump administration moved forward with a policy of "maximum pressure" on Iran via economic sanctions, but without support of other parties to the deal. Donald Trump_sentence_497

The Trump State Department had certified Iran's compliance with the deal in July 2017, but Iran began breaching its terms in May 2020, and by September the IAEA reported the country had ten times the amount of enriched uranium allowed under the deal. Donald Trump_sentence_498

During the summer of 2020 the United States attempted to "snap back" pre-deal sanctions by asserting to the UN Security Council that it remained a participant in the deal, but only the Dominican Republic voted with the United States on the proposal. Donald Trump_sentence_499

Following Iranian missile tests in January 2017, the Trump administration sanctioned 25 Iranian individuals and entities. Donald Trump_sentence_500

In August 2017, Trump signed legislation imposing additional sanctions against Iran, Russia, and North Korea. Donald Trump_sentence_501

In May 2017, strained relations between the U.S. and Iran escalated when Trump deployed military bombers and a carrier group to the Persian Gulf. Donald Trump_sentence_502

Trump hinted at war on social media, provoking a response from Iran for what Iranian foreign minister Javad Zarif called "genocidal taunts". Donald Trump_sentence_503

Trump and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman are allies in the conflict with Iran. Donald Trump_sentence_504

Trump approved the deployment of additional U.S. troops to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates following the attack on Saudi oil facilities which the United States has blamed on Iran. Donald Trump_sentence_505

On January 2, 2020, Trump ordered a U.S. airstrike that killed Iranian general and Quds Force commander Qasem Soleimani, Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces commander Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, and eight other people. Donald Trump_sentence_506

Trump publicly threatened to attack Iranian cultural sites, or react "in a disproportionate manner" if Iran retaliated; though such attacks by the U.S. would violate international law as war crimes. Donald Trump_sentence_507

Several days later, Iran retaliated with airstrikes against Al Asad Air Base in Iraq. Donald Trump_sentence_508

Initially, the Trump administration claimed no Americans suffered injuries and Trump said injuries were not "very serious", but by February 2020, more than a hundred traumatic brain injuries were diagnosed in U.S. troops. Donald Trump_sentence_509

Israel Donald Trump_section_63

See also: Israel–United States relations § Trump administration (2017–present), and Abraham Accords Donald Trump_sentence_510

Trump supported the policies of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Donald Trump_sentence_511

Under Trump, the U.S. recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel in 2017, and opened an embassy in Jerusalem in May 2018. Donald Trump_sentence_512

The United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution condemning the move. Donald Trump_sentence_513

In March 2019, Trump reversed decades of U.S. policy by recognizing Israel's annexation of the Golan Heights, a move condemned by the European Union and the Arab League. Donald Trump_sentence_514

China Donald Trump_section_64

See also: China–United States relations § Trump's presidency (2017–), and China–United States trade war Donald Trump_sentence_515

Before and during his presidency, Trump has repeatedly accused China of taking unfair advantage of the U.S. During his presidency, Trump has launched a trade war against China, sanctioned Huawei for its alleged ties to Iran, significantly increased visa restrictions on Chinese students and scholars, and classified China as a "currency manipulator". Donald Trump_sentence_516

Trump has also juxtaposed verbal attacks on China with praise of Chinese Communist Party leader Xi Jinping, which has been attributed to trade war negotiations with the leader. Donald Trump_sentence_517

After initially praising China for its handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, he began a campaign of criticism over its response starting in March. Donald Trump_sentence_518

Trump said he resisted punishing China for its human rights abuses against ethnic minorities in the northwestern Xinjiang region for fear of jeopardizing trade negotiations. Donald Trump_sentence_519

In July 2020, the Trump administration imposed sanctions and visa restrictions against senior Chinese officials, including Xinjiang Party Committee Secretary Chen Quanguo, a member of Communist Party's powerful Politburo, who expanded mass detention camps holding more than a million members of the country's Uyghur Muslim minority. Donald Trump_sentence_520

North Korea Donald Trump_section_65

See also: North Korea–United States relations Donald Trump_sentence_521

In 2017, North Korea's nuclear weapons were increasingly seen as a serious threat. Donald Trump_sentence_522

In August 2017, Trump escalated his rhetoric, warning that North Korean threats would be met with "fire and fury like the world has never seen". Donald Trump_sentence_523

North Korea responded by releasing plans for missile tests that would land near Guam. Donald Trump_sentence_524

In a September 2017 speech at the UN General Assembly, Trump said the U.S. would "totally destroy North Korea" if "forced" to defend itself or its allies. Donald Trump_sentence_525

Also in September 2017, Trump increased sanctions on North Korea, declared that he wanted North Korea's "complete denuclearization", and engaged in name-calling with leader Kim Jong-un. Donald Trump_sentence_526

After this period of tension in 2017, however, Trump and Kim exchanged at least 27 letters (described by Trump as "love letters"), in which the two men describe a warm personal friendship. Donald Trump_sentence_527

In March 2018, Trump immediately agreed to Kim's proposal for a meeting. Donald Trump_sentence_528

In June 2018, Trump and Kim met in Singapore. Donald Trump_sentence_529

Kim affirmed his intent "to work toward complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula," but a second Trump–Kim summit in Hanoi in February 2019 terminated abruptly without an agreement. Donald Trump_sentence_530

Both countries blamed each other and offered differing accounts of the negotiations. Donald Trump_sentence_531

In June 2019, Trump, Kim, and South Korean president Moon Jae-in held brief talks in the Korean Demilitarized Zone, marking the first time a sitting U.S. president had set foot in North Korea. Donald Trump_sentence_532

Trump and Kim agreed to resume negotiations. Donald Trump_sentence_533

Bilateral talks in October 2019 were unsuccessful. Donald Trump_sentence_534

Russia Donald Trump_section_66

See also: Russia–United States relations Donald Trump_sentence_535

During his campaign and as president, Trump has repeatedly asserted that he desires better relations with Russia. Donald Trump_sentence_536

According to Russian president Vladimir Putin and some political experts and diplomats, the U.S.–Russian relations, which were already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War, have further deteriorated since Trump took office in January 2017. Donald Trump_sentence_537

Trump has criticized Russia about the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline from Russia to Germany, and the Skripal poisoning, but remained silent on the Navalny poisoning, and sent mixed messages regarding Crimea. Donald Trump_sentence_538

Trump announced in October 2018 that he was withdrawing the U.S. from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, citing alleged Russian non-compliance. Donald Trump_sentence_539

In 2017, Trump signed the legislation imposing new sanctions on Russia; in 2018, however, the Trump administration lifted other U.S. sanctions imposed on Russia after its 2014 annexation of Crimea. Donald Trump_sentence_540

As a presidential candidate, Trump described Putin as a strong leader. Donald Trump_sentence_541

After he met Putin at the Helsinki Summit in July 2018, Trump drew bipartisan criticism for siding with Putin's denial of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, rather than accepting the findings of the U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_542 Intelligence Community. Donald Trump_sentence_543

Trump has repeatedly praised, and rarely criticized, Putin. Donald Trump_sentence_544

Personnel Donald Trump_section_67

Main articles: Political appointments by Donald Trump and Cabinet of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_545

See also: Formation of Donald Trump's Cabinet Donald Trump_sentence_546

The Trump administration has been characterized by high turnover, particularly among White House staff. Donald Trump_sentence_547

By the end of Trump's first year in office, 34 percent of his original staff had resigned, been fired, or been reassigned. Donald Trump_sentence_548

As of early July 2018, 61 percent of Trump's senior aides had left and 141 staffers had left in the past year. Donald Trump_sentence_549

Both figures set a record for recent presidents – more change in the first 13 months than his four immediate predecessors saw in their first two years. Donald Trump_sentence_550

Notable early departures included National Security Advisor Michael Flynn (after just 25 days in office), and Press Secretary Sean Spicer. Donald Trump_sentence_551

Close personal aides to Trump including Steve Bannon, Hope Hicks, John McEntee, and Keith Schiller have quit or been forced out. Donald Trump_sentence_552

Some, like Hicks and McEntee, later returned to the White House in different posts. Donald Trump_sentence_553

Trump has disparaged several of his former top officials as incompetent, stupid, or crazy. Donald Trump_sentence_554

Trump has had four White House chiefs of staff, marginalizing or pushing out several. Donald Trump_sentence_555

Reince Priebus was replaced after seven months by retired Marine general John F. Kelly. Donald Trump_sentence_556

Kelly resigned in December 2018 after a tumultuous tenure in which his influence waned, and Trump subsequently disparaged him. Donald Trump_sentence_557

Kelly was succeeded by Mick Mulvaney as acting chief of staff; he was replaced in March 2020 by Mark Meadows. Donald Trump_sentence_558

Trump's Cabinet nominations included U.S. senator from Alabama Jeff Sessions as Attorney General, financier Steve Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury, retired Marine Corps general James Mattis as Secretary of Defense, and ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State. Donald Trump_sentence_559

Trump also brought on board politicians who had opposed him during the presidential campaign, such as neurosurgeon Ben Carson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and South Carolina governor Nikki Haley as Ambassador to the United Nations. Donald Trump_sentence_560

Two of Trump's 15 original Cabinet members were gone within 15 months: Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price was forced to resign in September 2017 due to excessive use of private charter jets and military aircraft, and Trump replaced Tillerson as Secretary of State with Mike Pompeo in March 2018 over disagreements on foreign policy. Donald Trump_sentence_561

In 2018, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt and Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke resigned amid multiple investigations into their conduct. Donald Trump_sentence_562

Trump has been slow to appoint second-tier officials in the executive branch, saying many of the positions are unnecessary. Donald Trump_sentence_563

In October 2017, there were still hundreds of sub-cabinet positions without a nominee. Donald Trump_sentence_564

By January 8, 2019, of 706 key positions, 433 had been filled (61%) and Trump had no nominee for 264 (37%). Donald Trump_sentence_565

Dismissal of James Comey Donald Trump_section_68

Main article: Dismissal of James Comey Donald Trump_sentence_566

On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed FBI director James Comey. Donald Trump_sentence_567

He first attributed this action to recommendations from Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein, which criticized Comey's conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton's emails. Donald Trump_sentence_568

A few days later, Trump said he was concerned with the ongoing "Russia thing" and that he had intended to fire Comey earlier, regardless of DOJ advice. Donald Trump_sentence_569

According to a Comey memo of a private conversation on February 14, 2017, Trump said he "hoped" Comey would drop the investigation into National Security Advisor Michael Flynn. Donald Trump_sentence_570

In March and April, Trump had told Comey the ongoing suspicions formed a "cloud" impairing his presidency, and asked him to publicly state that he was not personally under investigation. Donald Trump_sentence_571

He also asked intelligence chiefs Dan Coats and Michael Rogers to issue statements saying there was no evidence that his campaign colluded with Russia during the 2016 election. Donald Trump_sentence_572

Both refused, considering this an inappropriate request, although not illegal. Donald Trump_sentence_573

Comey eventually testified on June 8 that, while he was director, the FBI investigations had not targeted Trump himself. Donald Trump_sentence_574

Impeachment Donald Trump_section_69

Main article: Impeachment of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_575

See also: Trump–Ukraine scandal Donald Trump_sentence_576

Impeachment by the House of Representatives Donald Trump_section_70

Further information: Impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_577

During much of Trump's presidency, Democrats were divided on the question of impeachment. Donald Trump_sentence_578

Fewer than 20 representatives in the House supported impeachment by January 2019; after the Mueller Report was released in April and special counsel Robert Mueller testified in July, this number grew to around 140 representatives. Donald Trump_sentence_579

In August 2019, a whistleblower filed a complaint with the Inspector General of the Intelligence Community about a July 25 phone call between Trump and President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky, during which Trump had pressured Zelensky to investigate CrowdStrike and Democratic presidential primary candidate Joe Biden and his son Hunter, adding that the White House had attempted to cover-up the incident. Donald Trump_sentence_580

The whistleblower further stated that the call was part of a wider pressure campaign by Trump's personal attorney Giuliani and the Trump administration which may have included withholding financial aid from Ukraine in July 2019 and canceling Vice President Pence's May 2019 Ukraine trip. Donald Trump_sentence_581

Trump later confirmed having withheld military aid from Ukraine and offered contradictory reasons for the decision. Donald Trump_sentence_582

House speaker Nancy Pelosi initiated a formal impeachment inquiry on September 24, 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_583

The Trump administration subsequently released a memorandum of the July 25 phone call, confirming that after Zelensky mentioned purchasing American anti-tank missiles, Trump asked Zelensky to investigate and to discuss these matters with Giuliani and Attorney General Barr. Donald Trump_sentence_584

The testimony of multiple administration officials and former officials confirmed that this was part of a broader effort to further Trump's personal interests by giving him an advantage in the upcoming presidential election. Donald Trump_sentence_585

In October 2019, William B. Taylor Jr., the chargé d'affaires for Ukraine, testified before congressional committees that soon after arriving in Ukraine in June 2019, he found that Zelensky was being subjected to pressure directed by Trump and led by Giuliani. Donald Trump_sentence_586

According to Taylor and others, the goal was to coerce Zelensky into making a public commitment to investigate the company that employed Hunter Biden, as well as rumors about Ukrainian involvement in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Donald Trump_sentence_587

He said it was made clear that until Zelensky made such an announcement, the administration would not release scheduled military aid for Ukraine and not invite Zelensky to the White House. Donald Trump_sentence_588

Zelensky denied that he felt pressured by Trump. Donald Trump_sentence_589

In December 2019, the House Intelligence Committee published a report authored by Democrats on the committee, stating that "the impeachment inquiry has found that President Trump, personally and acting through agents ... solicited the interference of a foreign government, Ukraine, to benefit his reelection." Donald Trump_sentence_590

The report said Trump had withheld military aid and a White House invitation to pressure Ukraine to announce investigations into Trump's political rivals. Donald Trump_sentence_591

Furthermore, the report stated that Trump "openly and indiscriminately" defied impeachment proceedings by telling his administration officials to ignore subpoenas. Donald Trump_sentence_592

House Republicans released a draft of a countering report the previous day, saying that the evidence "does not prove any of these Democrat allegations." Donald Trump_sentence_593

On December 13, 2019, the House Judiciary Committee voted along party lines to pass two articles of impeachment: abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. Donald Trump_sentence_594

After debate, the House of Representatives impeached Trump with both articles on December 18. Donald Trump_sentence_595

Impeachment trial in the Senate Donald Trump_section_71

Main article: Impeachment trial of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_596

The Senate impeachment trial began on January 16, 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_597

On January 22, the Republican Senate majority rejected amendments proposed by the Democratic minority to call witnesses and subpoena documents; evidence collected during the House impeachment proceedings was entered into the Senate record. Donald Trump_sentence_598

For three days, January 22–24, the impeachment managers for the House presented their case to the Senate. Donald Trump_sentence_599

They cited evidence to support charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress, and asserted that Trump's actions were exactly what the founding fathers had in mind when they created the Constitution's impeachment process. Donald Trump_sentence_600

Responding over the next three days, the Trump legal team did not deny the facts as presented in the charges but said Trump had not broken any laws or obstructed Congress. Donald Trump_sentence_601

They argued that the impeachment was "constitutionally and legally invalid" because Trump was not charged with a crime and that abuse of power is not an impeachable offense. Donald Trump_sentence_602

On January 31, the Senate voted against allowing subpoenas for witnesses or documents; 51 Republicans formed the majority for this vote. Donald Trump_sentence_603

Thus, this became the first impeachment trial in U.S. history without witness testimony. Donald Trump_sentence_604

On February 5, Trump was acquitted of both charges in a vote nearly along party lines, with Republican Mitt Romney voting to convict on one of the charges, "abuse of power". Donald Trump_sentence_605

Following his acquittal, Trump began removing impeachment witnesses and political appointees and career officials he deemed insufficiently loyal. Donald Trump_sentence_606

COVID-19 pandemic Donald Trump_section_72

Main articles: COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_607 federal government response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and Trump administration communication during the COVID-19 pandemic Donald Trump_sentence_608

In December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic erupted in Wuhan, China; the SARS-CoV-2 virus spread worldwide within weeks. Donald Trump_sentence_609

The first confirmed case in the United States was reported on January 20, 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_610

The outbreak was officially declared a public health emergency by Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Alex Azar on January 31, 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_611

Trump's public discussions of the risks of COVID-19 were at odds with his private understanding. Donald Trump_sentence_612

In February 2020, Trump publicly implied that the flu was more dangerous than COVID-19 and asserted that the outbreak in the U.S. was "very much under control" and would soon be over, yet he told Bob Woodward at the time that COVID-19 was "deadly", "more deadly than even your strenuous flus", and "tricky" to handle due to its airborne transmission. Donald Trump_sentence_613

In March 2020, Trump privately told Woodward, "I wanted to always play it down. Donald Trump_sentence_614

I still like playing it down, because I don't want to create a panic." Donald Trump_sentence_615

Trump's comments to Woodward were made public in September 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_616

A Cornell University study concluded that Trump was the "likely the largest driver" of COVID-19 misinformation in the first five months of 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_617

Initial response Donald Trump_section_73

Trump was slow to address the spread of the disease, initially dismissing the imminent threat and ignoring persistent public health warnings and calls for action from health officials within his administration and Secretary Azar. Donald Trump_sentence_618

Instead, throughout January and February he focused on economic and political considerations of the outbreak. Donald Trump_sentence_619

By mid-March, most global financial markets had severely contracted in response to the emerging pandemic. Donald Trump_sentence_620

Trump continued to claim that a vaccine was months away, although HHS and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials had repeatedly told him that vaccine development would take 12–18 months. Donald Trump_sentence_621

Trump also falsely claimed that "anybody that wants a test can get a test," despite the availability of tests being severely limited. Donald Trump_sentence_622

On March 6, Trump signed the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act into law, which provided $8.3 billion in emergency funding for federal agencies. Donald Trump_sentence_623

On March 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized the spread of COVID-19 as a pandemic, and Trump announced partial travel restrictions for most of Europe, effective March 13. Donald Trump_sentence_624

That same day, he gave his first serious assessment of the virus in a nationwide Oval Office address, calling the outbreak "horrible" but "a temporary moment" and saying there was no financial crisis. Donald Trump_sentence_625

On March 13, he declared a national emergency, freeing up federal resources. Donald Trump_sentence_626

On April 22, Trump signed an executive order restricting some forms of immigration to the United States. Donald Trump_sentence_627

In late spring and early summer, with infections and death counts continuing to rise, he adopted a strategy of blaming the states for the growing pandemic, rather than accepting that his initial assessments of the course of the pandemic were overly-optimistic or his failure to provide presidential leadership. Donald Trump_sentence_628

White House Coronavirus Task Force Donald Trump_section_74

Trump established the White House Coronavirus Task Force on January 29, 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_629

Beginning in mid-March, Trump held a daily task force press conference, joined by medical experts and other administration officials, sometimes disagreeing with them by promoting unproven treatments. Donald Trump_sentence_630

Trump was the main speaker at the briefings, where he praised his own response to the pandemic, frequently criticized rival presidential candidate Joe Biden, and denounced members of the White House press corps. Donald Trump_sentence_631

On March 16, he acknowledged for the first time that the pandemic was not under control and that months of disruption to daily lives and a recession might occur. Donald Trump_sentence_632

His repeated use of the terms "Chinese virus" and "China virus" to describe COVID-19 drew criticism from health experts. Donald Trump_sentence_633

By early April, as the pandemic worsened and amid criticism of his administration's response, Trump refused to admit any mistakes in his handling of the outbreak, instead blaming the media, Democratic state governors, the previous administration, China, and the WHO. Donald Trump_sentence_634

By mid-April 2020, some national news agencies began limiting live coverage of his daily press briefings, with The Washington Post reporting that "propagandistic and false statements from Trump alternate with newsworthy pronouncements from members of his White House Coronavirus Task Force, particularly coronavirus response coordinator Deborah Birx and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Director Anthony S. Donald Trump_sentence_635 Fauci." Donald Trump_sentence_636

The daily coronavirus task force briefings ended in late April, after a briefing at which Trump suggested the dangerous idea of ingesting bleach or injecting a disinfectant to treat COVID-19; the comment was widely condemned by medical professionals. Donald Trump_sentence_637

In early May, Trump proposed that the coronavirus task force should be phased out, to accommodate another group centered on reopening the economy. Donald Trump_sentence_638

Amid a backlash, Trump publicly said the task force would "indefinitely" continue. Donald Trump_sentence_639

By the end of May, the coronavirus task force's meetings were sharply reduced. Donald Trump_sentence_640

Pandemic response program terminated Donald Trump_section_75

In September 2019, the Trump administration terminated USAID's PREDICT program, a $200 million epidemiological research program initiated in 2009 to provide early warning of pandemics abroad. Donald Trump_sentence_641

The program trained scientists in sixty foreign laboratories to detect and respond to viruses that have the potential to cause pandemics. Donald Trump_sentence_642

One such laboratory was the Wuhan lab that first identified the virus that causes COVID-19. Donald Trump_sentence_643

After revival in April 2020, the program was given two 6-month extensions to help fight COVID-19 in the U.S. and other countries. Donald Trump_sentence_644

World Health Organization Donald Trump_section_76

Prior to the pandemic, Trump criticized the WHO and other international bodies, which he asserted were taking advantage of U.S. aid. Donald Trump_sentence_645

His administration's proposed 2021 federal budget, released in February, proposed reducing WHO funding by more than half. Donald Trump_sentence_646

In May and April, Trump accused the WHO of "severely mismanaging and covering up the spread of the coronavirus" and alleged without evidence that the organization was under Chinese control and had enabled the Chinese government's concealment of the origins of the pandemic. Donald Trump_sentence_647

He then announced that he was withdrawing funding for the organization. Donald Trump_sentence_648

Trump's criticisms and actions regarding the WHO were seen as attempts to distract attention from his own mishandling of the pandemic. Donald Trump_sentence_649

In July 2020, Trump announced the formal withdrawal of the United States from the WHO effective July 2021. Donald Trump_sentence_650

The decision was widely condemned by health and government officials as "short-sighted", "senseless", and "dangerous". Donald Trump_sentence_651

Controversy over face masks as strategy for pandemic mitigation Donald Trump_section_77

Trump has refused to wear a face mask at most public events, contrary to his own administration's April 2020 guidance that Americans should wear masks in public and despite nearly unanimous consensus by the medical community that masks are important to preventing the spread of the virus. Donald Trump_sentence_652

By June, Trump had said masks were a "double-edged sword"; ridiculed Biden for wearing masks; continually emphasized that mask-wearing was optional; and suggested that wearing a mask is a political statement against him personally. Donald Trump_sentence_653

Trump's contradictory example to medical recommendations weakened national efforts to mitigate the pandemic. Donald Trump_sentence_654

Testing Donald Trump_section_78

In June and July Trump said several times that the U.S. would have fewer cases of coronavirus if it did less testing, that having a large number of reported cases "makes us look bad". Donald Trump_sentence_655

The CDC guideline was that any person exposed to the virus should be "quickly identified and tested" even if they are not showing symptoms, because asymptomatic people can still spread the virus. Donald Trump_sentence_656

In August 2020, however, the CDC quietly lowered its recommendation for testing, advising that people who have been exposed to the virus, but are not showing symptoms, "do not necessarily need a test". Donald Trump_sentence_657

The change in guidelines was made by HHS political appointees under Trump administration pressure, against the wishes of CDC scientists. Donald Trump_sentence_658

The following day, the testing guideline was changed back to its original recommendation, stressing that anyone who has been in contact with an infected person should be tested. Donald Trump_sentence_659

Pressure to abandon pandemic shutdown mandates early Donald Trump_section_79

In April 2020, Republican-connected groups organized anti-lockdown protests against the measures state governments were taking to combat the pandemic; Trump encouraged the protests on Twitter, even though the targeted states did not meet the Trump administration's own guidelines for reopening. Donald Trump_sentence_660

He first supported, then later criticized, Georgia Governor Brian Kemp's plan to reopen some nonessential businesses, which was a key example of Trump often reversing his stances in his communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. Donald Trump_sentence_661

Throughout the spring he increasingly pushed for ending the restrictions as a way to reverse the damage to the country's economy. Donald Trump_sentence_662

Despite record numbers of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. from mid-June onward and an increasing percentage of positive test results, Trump continued to mostly downplay the pandemic, including his false claim in early July 2020 that 99% of COVID-19 cases are "totally harmless". Donald Trump_sentence_663

He also began insisting that all states should open schools to in-person education in the fall despite a July spike in reported cases. Donald Trump_sentence_664

Political pressure on health agencies Donald Trump_section_80

Main article: Trump administration political interference with science agencies Donald Trump_sentence_665

Trump repeatedly pressured federal health agencies to take particular actions that he favored, such as approving unproven treatments or speeding up the approval of vaccines. Donald Trump_sentence_666

Trump administration political appointees at HHS sought to control CDC communications to the public that undermined Trump's claims that the pandemic was under control. Donald Trump_sentence_667

CDC resisted many of the changes, but increasingly allowed HHS personnel to review articles and suggest changes before publication. Donald Trump_sentence_668

Trump alleged without evidence that FDA scientists were part of a "deep state" opposing him, and delaying approval of vaccines and treatments to hurt him politically. Donald Trump_sentence_669

Hospitalization with COVID-19 Donald Trump_section_81

Further information: White House COVID-19 outbreak Donald Trump_sentence_670

On October 2, 2020, Trump announced that he had tested positive for COVID-19. Donald Trump_sentence_671

He was admitted to Walter Reed National Military Medical Center that day and treated with the antiviral drug remdesevir, the steroid dexamethasone, and the unapproved experimental antibody REGN-COV2. Donald Trump_sentence_672

He was discharged on October 5. Donald Trump_sentence_673

White House physician Sean Conley announced on October 12 that Trump has tested negative for COVID-19 on consecutive days. Donald Trump_sentence_674

Trump, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the 2020 presidential campaign Donald Trump_section_82

By July 2020, Trump's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic became a major issue for the 2020 presidential election. Donald Trump_sentence_675

Democratic challenger Joe Biden sought to make the election a referendum on Trump's performance on the COVID-19 pandemic and the economy. Donald Trump_sentence_676

Polls indicated voters blamed Trump for his pandemic response and disbelieved his rhetoric concerning the virus, with an Ipsos/ABC News poll indicating 65% of Americans disapproving of his pandemic response. Donald Trump_sentence_677

In the final months of the campaign, Trump repeatedly claimed that the U.S. was "rounding the turn" in managing the pandemic, despite increasing numbers of reported cases and deaths. Donald Trump_sentence_678

A few days before the November 3 election, the United States reported more than 100,000 cases in a single day for the first time. Donald Trump_sentence_679

Investigations Donald Trump_section_83

Further information: Timeline of investigations into Trump and Russia (transition, January–June 2017, July–December 2017, January–June 2018, July–December 2018, 2019, and 2020–2021) Donald Trump_sentence_680

The Crossfire Hurricane FBI investigation into possible links between Russia and the Trump campaign was launched in mid-2016 during the campaign season. Donald Trump_sentence_681

Since he assumed the presidency, Trump has been the subject of increasing Justice Department and congressional scrutiny, with investigations covering his election campaign, transition and inauguration, actions taken during his presidency, along with his private businesses, personal taxes, and charitable foundation. Donald Trump_sentence_682

There are 30 open investigations of Trump, including ten federal criminal investigations, eight state and local investigations, and twelve Congressional investigations. Donald Trump_sentence_683

A book by Jeffrey Toobin, published in 2020, summarizes evidence against Trump as if he were on trial before a jury. Donald Trump_sentence_684

Hush payments Donald Trump_section_84

Main article: Stormy Daniels–Donald Trump scandal Donald Trump_sentence_685

See also: Legal affairs of Donald Trump § Payments related to alleged affairs, and Karen McDougal § Alleged affair with Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_686

American Media, Inc. (AMI) paid $150,000 to Playboy model Karen McDougal in August 2016, and Trump's attorney Michael Cohen paid $130,000 to adult film actress Stormy Daniels in October 2016. Donald Trump_sentence_687

Both women were paid for non-disclosure agreements regarding their alleged affairs with Trump between 2006 and 2007. Donald Trump_sentence_688

Cohen pleaded guilty in 2018 to breaking campaign finance laws, saying he had arranged both payments at the direction of Trump in order to influence the presidential election. Donald Trump_sentence_689

AMI admitted paying McDougal to prevent publication of stories that might damage Trump's electoral chances. Donald Trump_sentence_690

Trump denied the affairs, and claimed he was not aware of Cohen's payment to Daniels, but reimbursed him in 2017. Donald Trump_sentence_691

Federal prosecutors asserted that Trump had been involved in discussions regarding non-disclosure payments as early as 2014. Donald Trump_sentence_692

Court documents showed that the FBI believed Trump was directly involved in the payment to Daniels, based on calls he had with Cohen in October 2016. Donald Trump_sentence_693

Federal prosecutors closed the investigation, but days later the Manhattan District Attorney subpoenaed the Trump Organization and AMI for records related to the hush payments and in August subpoenaed eight years of tax returns for Trump and the Trump Organization. Donald Trump_sentence_694

Russian election interference Donald Trump_section_85

Main article: Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections Donald Trump_sentence_695

See also: Senate Intelligence Committee report on Russian interference in the 2016 United States presidential election, Links between Trump associates and Russian officials, Steele dossier, and Trump-Ukraine scandal Donald Trump_sentence_696

In January 2017, American intelligence agencies – the CIA, the FBI, and the NSA, represented by the Director of National Intelligence – jointly stated with "high confidence" that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election to favor the election of Trump. Donald Trump_sentence_697

In March 2017, FBI Director James Comey told Congress "the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election. Donald Trump_sentence_698

That includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump campaign and the Russian government, and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts." Donald Trump_sentence_699

The connections between Trump associates and Russia have been widely reported by the press. Donald Trump_sentence_700

One of Trump's campaign managers, Paul Manafort, had worked from December 2004 until February 2010 to help pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovych win the Ukrainian presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_701

Other Trump associates, including former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn and political consultant Roger Stone, have been connected to Russian officials. Donald Trump_sentence_702

Russian agents were overheard during the campaign saying they could use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump. Donald Trump_sentence_703

Members of Trump's campaign and later his White House staff, particularly Flynn, were in contact with Russian officials both before and after the November election. Donald Trump_sentence_704

On December 29, 2016, Flynn talked with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak about sanctions that had been imposed the same day; Flynn later resigned in the midst of controversy over whether he misled Pence. Donald Trump_sentence_705

Trump had told Kislyak and Sergei Lavrov in May 2017 he was unconcerned about Russian interference in U.S. elections. Donald Trump_sentence_706

Trump and his allies have promoted a conspiracy theory that Ukraine, rather than Russia, interfered in the 2016 election – which has also been promoted by Russia to frame Ukraine. Donald Trump_sentence_707

After the Democratic National Committee was hacked, Trump firstly claimed it withheld "its server" from the FBI (in actuality there were more than 140 servers, of which digital copies were given to the FBI); secondly that CrowdStrike, the company which investigated the servers, was Ukraine-based and Ukrainian-owned (in actuality, CrowdStrike is U.S.-based, with the largest owners being American companies); and thirdly that "the server" was hidden in Ukraine. Donald Trump_sentence_708

Members of the Trump administration have spoken out against the conspiracy theories. Donald Trump_sentence_709

On November 2, 2020, newly released passages from the Mueller report regarding Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections indicated that "federal prosecutors could not establish that the hacked emails amounted to campaign contributions benefitting Trump's election chances" and that publication of those emails are likely protected by the First Amendment. Donald Trump_sentence_710

2017 FBI counterintelligence inquiry Donald Trump_section_86

After Trump fired FBI director James Comey in May 2017, the FBI opened a counterintelligence investigation into Trump's personal and business dealings with Russia. Donald Trump_sentence_711

Within days of its opening, deputy attorney general Rod Rosenstein curtailed the inquiry, giving the bureau the impression that the incipient Mueller investigation would pursue it, though Rosenstein instructed Mueller not to, effectively ending the inquiry. Donald Trump_sentence_712

Special counsel investigation Donald Trump_section_87

Main articles: Special Counsel investigation (2017–2019) and Mueller report Donald Trump_sentence_713

On May 17, 2017, former Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller, a former director of the FBI, to serve as special counsel for the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) investigating "any links and/or coordination between Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump, and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation", thus taking over the existing "Crossfire Hurricane" FBI investigation into the matter. Donald Trump_sentence_714

The special counsel also investigated whether Trump's dismissal of James Comey as FBI director constituted obstruction of justice, and possible campaign ties to other national governments. Donald Trump_sentence_715

Trump repeatedly denied any collusion between his campaign and the Russian government. Donald Trump_sentence_716

Mueller also investigated the Trump campaign's possible ties to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Qatar, Israel, and China. Donald Trump_sentence_717

Trump sought to fire Mueller on several occasions – in June 2017, December 2017, and April 2018 – and close the investigation but backed down after his staff objected or after changing his mind. Donald Trump_sentence_718

He bemoaned the recusal of his first Attorney General Jeff Sessions regarding Russia matters, and believed Sessions should have stopped the investigation. Donald Trump_sentence_719

On March 22, 2019, Mueller concluded his investigation and gave his report to Attorney General William Barr. Donald Trump_sentence_720

On March 24, Barr sent a four-page letter to Congress summarizing the "principal conclusions" in the report. Donald Trump_sentence_721

He quoted Mueller as stating "while this report does not conclude that the President committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him." Donald Trump_sentence_722

Barr further wrote that he and Rosenstein did not see sufficient evidence to prove obstruction of justice. Donald Trump_sentence_723

Trump interpreted Mueller's report as a "complete exoneration", a phrase he repeated multiple times in the ensuing weeks. Donald Trump_sentence_724

Mueller privately complained to Barr on March 27 that his summary did not accurately reflect what the report said, and some legal analysts called the Barr letter misleading. Donald Trump_sentence_725

A redacted version of the report was released to the public on April 18, 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_726

The first volume found that Russia interfered to favor Trump's candidacy and hinder Clinton's. Donald Trump_sentence_727

Despite "numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump campaign", the prevailing evidence "did not establish" that Trump campaign members conspired or coordinated with Russian interference. Donald Trump_sentence_728

The report states that Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election was illegal and occurred "in sweeping and systematic fashion", and it details how Trump and his campaign welcomed and encouraged foreign interference believing they would politically benefit. Donald Trump_sentence_729

The second volume of the Mueller report dealt with possible obstruction of justice by Trump. Donald Trump_sentence_730

The report did not exonerate Trump of obstruction inasmuch as investigators were not confident of his innocence after examining his intent and actions. Donald Trump_sentence_731

Investigators decided they could not "apply an approach that could potentially result in a judgment that the President committed crimes" as an Office of Legal Counsel opinion stated that a sitting president could not be indicted, and investigators would not accuse him of a crime when he cannot clear his name in court. Donald Trump_sentence_732

The report concluded that Congress, having the authority to take action against a president for wrongdoing, "may apply the obstruction laws". Donald Trump_sentence_733

Congress subsequently launched an impeachment inquiry following the Trump–Ukraine scandal, albeit it ultimately did not press charges related to the Mueller investigation. Donald Trump_sentence_734

Associates Donald Trump_section_88

See also: Criminal charges brought in the Special Counsel investigation (2017–2019) Donald Trump_sentence_735

In August 2018, former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was convicted on eight felony counts of false tax filing and bank fraud. Donald Trump_sentence_736

Trump said he felt very badly for Manafort and praised him for resisting the pressure to make a deal with prosecutors. Donald Trump_sentence_737

According to Rudy Giuliani, Trump's personal attorney, Trump had sought advice about pardoning Manafort but was counseled against it. Donald Trump_sentence_738

In November 2018, Trump's former attorney Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to lying to Congress about Trump's 2016 attempts to reach a deal with Russia to build a Trump Tower in Moscow. Donald Trump_sentence_739

Cohen said he had made the false statements on behalf of Trump, who was identified as "Individual-1" in the court documents. Donald Trump_sentence_740

The five Trump associates who have pleaded guilty or have been convicted in Mueller's investigation or related cases include Paul Manafort, deputy campaign manager Rick Gates, foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos, Michael Flynn, and Michael Cohen. Donald Trump_sentence_741

In February 2020, Trump campaign adviser Roger Stone was sentenced to over three years in jail, after being convicted of lying to Congress and witness tampering regarding his attempts to learn more about hacked Democratic emails during the 2016 election. Donald Trump_sentence_742

The sentencing judge said Stone "was prosecuted for covering up for the president". Donald Trump_sentence_743

2019 congressional investigation Donald Trump_section_89

In March 2019, the House Judiciary Committee launched a broad investigation of Trump for possible obstruction of justice, corruption, and abuse of power. Donald Trump_sentence_744

Committee chairman Jerrold Nadler sent letters demanding documents to 81 individuals and organizations associated with Trump's presidency, business, and private life, saying it is "very clear that the president obstructed justice". Donald Trump_sentence_745

Three other committee chairmen wrote the White House and State Department requesting details of Trump's communications with Putin, including any efforts to conceal the content of those communications. Donald Trump_sentence_746

The White House refused to comply, asserting that presidential communications with foreign leaders are protected and confidential. Donald Trump_sentence_747

Judiciary Donald Trump_section_90

Main articles: List of federal judges appointed by Donald Trump and Donald Trump judicial appointment controversies Donald Trump_sentence_748

Trump has appointed more than 200 federal judges who were confirmed by the Senate. Donald Trump_sentence_749

Senate Republicans, led by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, have rapidly confirmed Trump's judicial appointees, usually against unified Democratic opposition. Donald Trump_sentence_750

Trump's appointments have shifted the federal judiciary to the right. Donald Trump_sentence_751

Trump's judicial appointments have been overwhelmingly white men, and are younger on average than appointees by Trump's predecessors. Donald Trump_sentence_752

Many are affiliated with the Federalist Society. Donald Trump_sentence_753

Trump has made three nominations to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch, Brett Kavanaugh, and Amy Coney Barrett. Donald Trump_sentence_754

Gorsuch was confirmed in 2017 in a mostly party-line vote of 54–45, after Republicans invoked the "nuclear option" (a historic change to Senate rules removing the 60-vote threshold for advancing Supreme Court nominations) to defeat a Democratic filibuster. Donald Trump_sentence_755

Trump's predecessor Obama had nominated Merrick Garland in 2016 to fill the vacancy, left by the death of Antonin Scalia, but Senate Republicans under McConnell refused to consider the nomination in the last year of Obama's presidency, angering Democrats. Donald Trump_sentence_756

Trump nominated Kavanaugh in 2018 to replace retiring Justice Anthony Kennedy; the Senate confirmed Kavanaugh in a mostly party-line vote of 50–48, after a bitter confirmation battle centered on Christine Blasey Ford's allegation that Kavanaugh had attempted to rape her when they were teenagers, which Kavanaugh denied. Donald Trump_sentence_757

In 2020, weeks before the elections, Trump nominated Amy Coney Barrett to fill the vacancy left by the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Donald Trump_sentence_758

On October 26, 2020, the Senate voted 52–48 to confirm her nomination. Donald Trump_sentence_759

As president, Trump has disparaged courts and judges whom he disagrees with, often in personal terms, and has questioned the judiciary's constitutional authority. Donald Trump_sentence_760

Trump's attacks on the courts have drawn rebukes from observers, including sitting federal judges, who are concerned with the effect of Trump's statements on the judicial independence and public confidence in the judiciary. Donald Trump_sentence_761

2020 presidential election Donald Trump_section_91

Main articles: Donald Trump 2020 presidential campaign and 2020 United States presidential election Donald Trump_sentence_762

See also: 2020 United States Postal Service crisis Donald Trump_sentence_763

Breaking with precedent, Trump filed to run for a second term as president by filing with the FEC within a few hours of assuming the presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_764

Trump held his first re-election rally less than a month after taking office. Donald Trump_sentence_765

In his first two years in office, Trump's reelection committee reported raising $67.5 million, allowing him to begin 2019 with $19.3 million cash on hand. Donald Trump_sentence_766

From the beginning of 2019 through July 2020, the Trump campaign and Republican Party raised $1.1 billion, but spent $800 million of that amount, evaporating their formerly large cash advantage over the Democratic nominee, former vice president Joe Biden. Donald Trump_sentence_767

The campaign's cash crunch forced a scale-back in advertising spending. Donald Trump_sentence_768

Starting in spring 2020, Trump began to sow doubts about the election, repeatedly claiming without evidence that the election would be "rigged" and expected widespread use of mail balloting would produce "massive election fraud". Donald Trump_sentence_769

In what The New York Times called an "extraordinary breach of presidential decorum", on July 30 Trump raised the idea of delaying the election. Donald Trump_sentence_770

When in August the House of Representatives voted for a $25 billion grant to the U.S. Donald Trump_sentence_771

Postal Service for the expected surge in mail voting, Trump blocked funding, saying he wanted to prevent any increase in voting by mail. Donald Trump_sentence_772

Trump became the Republican nominee on August 24, 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_773

He repeatedly refused to say whether he would accept the results of the election and commit to a peaceful transition of power if he lost. Donald Trump_sentence_774

Trump campaign advertisements focused on crime, claiming that cities would descend into lawlessness if his opponent, Biden, won the presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_775

Trump repeatedly misrepresented Biden's positions during the campaign. Donald Trump_sentence_776

Trump's campaign message shifted to racist rhetoric in an attempt to reclaim voters lost from his base. Donald Trump_sentence_777

The results of the election held on November 3 were unclear for several days. Donald Trump_sentence_778

On November 7, major news organizations projected Biden as the winner. Donald Trump_sentence_779

On December 5, Biden led Trump in the national vote count 81.3 million (51.3%) to 74.2 million (46.8%). Donald Trump_sentence_780

Biden is projected to win the electoral college 306 to 232. Donald Trump_sentence_781

U.S. election officials said the election was the "most secure" in U.S. history. Donald Trump_sentence_782

At 2 a.m. the morning after the election, with the results still unclear, Trump declared victory. Donald Trump_sentence_783

After Biden was projected the winner days later, Trump said, "this election is far from over" and alleged election fraud without providing evidence. Donald Trump_sentence_784

By the end of November he or his allies had filed over 50 legal challenges in key states, but most of them had been dismissed by the courts. Donald Trump_sentence_785

His legal team led by Rudy Giuliani made numerous false and unsubstantiated assertions about an international communist conspiracy, rigged voting machines and polling place fraud to claim the election had been stolen from Trump. Donald Trump_sentence_786

Trump blocked government officials from cooperating in the presidential transition of Joe Biden. Donald Trump_sentence_787

The misinformation spread by Trump and his allies and their unsubstantiated legal claims were aimed at causing chaos and confusion and also, according to some Trump allies, ensuring the continued loyalty of Trump supporters. Donald Trump_sentence_788

Trump's allegations of widespread voting fraud were refuted by judges, state election officials, and his own administration's Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). Donald Trump_sentence_789

After CISA director Chris Krebs contradicted Trump's voting fraud allegations, Trump fired him on November 17. Donald Trump_sentence_790

With his post-election legal challenges to the election of Biden failing, Trump withdrew from public activities, drawing criticism that, given the surge in the pandemic, his retreat constituted irresponsible sulking. Donald Trump_sentence_791

After two weeks of resistance, the administrator of the General Services Administration declared Biden the apparent winner of the election, allowing the disbursement of transition resources to his team. Donald Trump_sentence_792

Trump still did not formally concede while claiming he recommended the GSA begin transition protocols. Donald Trump_sentence_793

He later stated that he would leave the White House if the electoral college voted for Biden while he and his allies continued to pursue an aggressive effort to subvert the results of the election. Donald Trump_sentence_794

On December 11, 2020, the United States Supreme Court declined to hear a case filed by the Texas attorney general and supported by Trump and his Republican allies. Donald Trump_sentence_795

The plaintiffs had asked the court to overturn the election results in four states won by Biden. Donald Trump_sentence_796

Public profile Donald Trump_section_92

Approval ratings Donald Trump_section_93

Further information: Opinion polling on the Donald Trump administration Donald Trump_sentence_797

At the end of Trump's second year, his two-year average Gallup approval rating was the lowest of any president since World War II. Donald Trump_sentence_798

In January 2020, his Gallup rating reached 49%, the highest point since he took office, with 63% of those polled approving his handling of the economy. Donald Trump_sentence_799

His approval and disapproval ratings have been unusually stable. Donald Trump_sentence_800

In Gallup's end-of-year poll asking Americans to name the man they admire the most, Trump placed second to Obama in 2017 and 2018, and tied with Obama for most admired man in 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_801

Since Gallup started conducting the poll in 1948, Trump is the first elected president not to be named most admired in his first year in office. Donald Trump_sentence_802

Globally, a Gallup poll on 134 countries comparing the approval ratings of U.S. leadership between the years 2016 and 2017 found that only in 29 of them did Trump lead Obama in job approval, with more international respondents disapproving rather than approving of the Trump administration. Donald Trump_sentence_803

Overall ratings were similar to those in the last two years of the George W. Bush presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_804

Social media Donald Trump_section_94

Main article: Donald Trump on social media Donald Trump_sentence_805

Trump's presence on social media has attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in March 2009. Donald Trump_sentence_806

He frequently tweeted during the 2016 election campaign and has continued to do so as president. Donald Trump_sentence_807

As of October 2020, Trump has more than 85 million Twitter followers. Donald Trump_sentence_808

By the end of May 2020, Trump had written about 52,000 tweets. Donald Trump_sentence_809

These include 22,115 tweets over seven years before his presidential candidacy, 8,159 tweets during the ​1 ⁄2 years of his candidacy and transition period, and 14,186 tweets over the first three years of his presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_810

Trump has frequently used Twitter as a direct means of communication with the public, sidelining the press. Donald Trump_sentence_811

A White House press secretary said early in his presidency that Trump's tweets are official statements by the president of the United States, employed for announcing policy or personnel changes. Donald Trump_sentence_812

Trump used Twitter to fire Secretary of State Rex Tillerson in March 2018 and Secretary of Defense Mark Esper in November 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_813

Many of Trump's tweets contain false assertions. Donald Trump_sentence_814

In May 2020, Twitter began tagging some Trump tweets with fact-checking warnings and labels for violations of Twitter rules. Donald Trump_sentence_815

Trump responded by threatening to "strongly regulate" or "close down" social media platforms. Donald Trump_sentence_816

False statements Donald Trump_section_95

Main article: Veracity of statements by Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_817

As president, Trump has frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks. Donald Trump_sentence_818

The misinformation has been documented by fact-checkers; academics and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Donald Trump_sentence_819

This behavior was similarly observed when he was a presidential candidate. Donald Trump_sentence_820

His falsehoods have also become a distinctive part of his political identity. Donald Trump_sentence_821

Trump uttered "at least one false or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days" in office, according to The New York Times, and 1,318 total in his first 263 days in office, according to the "Fact Checker" political analysis column of The Washington Post. Donald Trump_sentence_822

By the Post's tally, it took Trump 601 days to reach 5,000 false or misleading statements and another 226 days to reach the 10,000 mark. Donald Trump_sentence_823

For the seven weeks leading up to the midterm elections, it rose to an average of thirty per day from 4.9 during his first hundred days in office. Donald Trump_sentence_824

The Post's reported tally is 22,247 as of August 27, 2020, with the 2019 total more than double the cumulative total of 2017 and 2018. Donald Trump_sentence_825

Some of Trump's falsehoods are inconsequential, such as his claims of a large crowd size during his inauguration. Donald Trump_sentence_826

Others have had more far-reaching effects, such as Trump's promotion of unproven antimalarial drugs as a treatment for COVID‑19 in a press conference and on Twitter in March 2020. Donald Trump_sentence_827

The claims had consequences worldwide, such as a shortage of these drugs in the United States and panic-buying in Africa and South Asia. Donald Trump_sentence_828

The state of Florida obtained nearly a million doses for its hospitals, even though most of them did not want the drug. Donald Trump_sentence_829

Other misinformation, such as Trump's retweet of unverified videos produced by far-right fascist Jayda Fransen in November 2017, serves Trump's domestic political purposes. Donald Trump_sentence_830

As a matter of principle, Trump does not apologize for his falsehoods. Donald Trump_sentence_831

Despite the frequency of Trump's falsehoods, the media rarely referred to them as "lies", a word that has in the past been avoided out of respect for the presidential office. Donald Trump_sentence_832

Nevertheless, in August 2018 The Washington Post declared for the first time that some of Trump's misstatements (statements concerning hush money paid to Stormy Daniels and Playboy model Karen McDougal) were lies. Donald Trump_sentence_833

In 2020, Trump was a significant source of disinformation on national voting practices and the COVID-19 virus. Donald Trump_sentence_834

Trump's attacks on mail-in ballots and other election practices served to weaken public faith in the integrity of the 2020 presidential election, while his disinformation about the pandemic dangerously delayed and weakened the national response to it. Donald Trump_sentence_835

Some view the nature and frequency of Trump's falsehoods as having profound and corrosive consequences on democracy. Donald Trump_sentence_836

James Pfiffner, professor of policy and government at George Mason University, wrote in 2019 that Trump lies differently from previous presidents, because he offers "egregious false statements that are demonstrably contrary to well-known facts"; these lies are the "most important" of all Trump lies. Donald Trump_sentence_837

By calling facts into question, people will be unable to properly evaluate their government, with beliefs or policy irrationally settled by "political power"; this erodes liberal democracy, wrote Pfiffner. Donald Trump_sentence_838

Promotion of conspiracy theories Donald Trump_section_96

Main article: List of conspiracy theories promoted by Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_839

Before and throughout his presidency, Trump has promoted numerous conspiracy theories, including "birtherism", the Clinton Body Count theory, QAnon and alleged Ukrainian interference in U.S. elections. Donald Trump_sentence_840

In October 2020, Trump retweeted a QAnon follower who asserted that Osama bin Laden was still alive, a body double had been killed in his place and "Biden and Obama may have had Seal Team 6 killed." Donald Trump_sentence_841

During and since the 2020 United States presidential election, Trump has promoted various conspiracy theories for his defeat including the “dead voter” conspiracy theory, and that without providing any evidence he has made other conspiracy theories such as that “some states allowed voters to turn in ballots after Election Day; that vote-counting machines were rigged to favour Mr Biden; and even that the FBI, the Justice Department and the federal court system were complicit in an attempt to cover up election fraud.” Donald Trump_sentence_842

Relationship with the press Donald Trump_section_97

Further information: Presidency of Donald Trump § Relationship with the news media Donald Trump_sentence_843

Throughout his career, Trump has sought media attention, with a "love-hate" relationship with the press. Donald Trump_sentence_844

Trump began promoting himself in the press in the 1970s. Donald Trump_sentence_845

Fox News anchor Bret Baier and former House speaker Paul Ryan have characterized Trump as a "troll" who makes controversial statements to see people's "heads explode". Donald Trump_sentence_846

In the 2016 campaign, Trump benefited from a record amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries. Donald Trump_sentence_847

New York Times writer Amy Chozick wrote in 2018 that Trump's media dominance, which enthralls the public and creates "can't miss" reality television-type coverage, was politically beneficial for him. Donald Trump_sentence_848

Throughout his 2016 presidential campaign and his presidency, Trump has accused the press of bias, calling it the "fake news media" and "the enemy of the people". Donald Trump_sentence_849

After winning the election, journalist Lesley Stahl recounted Trump's saying he intentionally demeaned and discredited the media "so when you write negative stories about me no one will believe you." Donald Trump_sentence_850

Trump has privately and publicly mused about revoking the press credentials of journalists he views as critical. Donald Trump_sentence_851

His administration moved to revoke the press passes of two White House reporters, which were restored by the courts. Donald Trump_sentence_852

In 2019, a member of the foreign press reported many of the same concerns as those of media in the U.S., expressing concern that a normalization process by reporters and media results in an inaccurate characterization of Trump. Donald Trump_sentence_853

The Trump White House held about a hundred formal press briefings in 2017, declining by half during 2018 and to two in 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_854

Trump has employed the legal system as an intimidation tactic against the press. Donald Trump_sentence_855

In early 2020, the Trump campaign sued The New York Times, The Washington Post, and CNN for alleged defamation. Donald Trump_sentence_856

These lawsuits lacked merit and were not likely to succeed, however. Donald Trump_sentence_857

Racial views Donald Trump_section_98

Main article: Racial views of Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_858

Many of Trump's comments and actions have been seen as racially charged. Donald Trump_sentence_859

He has repeatedly denied he is racist, asserting: "I am the least racist person there is anywhere in the world." Donald Trump_sentence_860

Many of his supporters say the way he speaks reflects his rejection of political correctness, while others accept it because they share such beliefs. Donald Trump_sentence_861

Scholars have discussed Trump's rhetoric in the context of white supremacy. Donald Trump_sentence_862

Several studies and surveys have found that racist attitudes fueled Trump's political ascendance and have been more important than economic factors in determining the allegiance of Trump voters. Donald Trump_sentence_863

Racist and Islamophobic attitudes have been shown to be a powerful indicator of support for Trump. Donald Trump_sentence_864

In national polling, about half of Americans say that Trump is racist; a greater proportion believe that he has emboldened racists. Donald Trump_sentence_865

In 1975, he settled a 1973 Department of Justice lawsuit that alleged housing discrimination against black renters. Donald Trump_sentence_866

He has also been accused of racism for insisting a group of black and Latino teenagers were guilty of raping a white woman in the 1989 Central Park jogger case, even after they were exonerated by DNA evidence in 2002. Donald Trump_sentence_867

He has maintained his position on the matter into 2019. Donald Trump_sentence_868

Trump relaunched his political career in 2011 as a leading proponent of "birther" conspiracy theories alleging that Barack Obama, the first black U.S. president, was not born in the United States. Donald Trump_sentence_869

In April 2011, Trump claimed credit for pressuring the White House to publish the "long-form" birth certificate, which he considered fraudulent, and later saying this made him "very popular". Donald Trump_sentence_870

In September 2016, amid pressure, he acknowledged that Obama was born in the U.S. and falsely claimed the rumors had been started by Hillary Clinton during her 2008 presidential campaign. Donald Trump_sentence_871

In 2017, he reportedly still expressed birther views in private. Donald Trump_sentence_872

According to an analysis in Political Science Quarterly, Trump made "explicitly racist appeals to whites" during his 2016 presidential campaign. Donald Trump_sentence_873

In particular, his campaign launch speech drew widespread criticism for claiming Mexican immigrants were "bringing drugs, they're bringing crime, they're rapists." Donald Trump_sentence_874

His later comments about a Mexican-American judge presiding over a civil suit regarding Trump University were also criticized as racist. Donald Trump_sentence_875

Trump's comments in reaction to the 2017 Charlottesville far-right rally were interpreted by some as implying a moral equivalence between white supremacist demonstrators and counter-protesters. Donald Trump_sentence_876

In a January 2018 Oval Office meeting to discuss immigration legislation, he reportedly referred to El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and African nations as "shithole countries". Donald Trump_sentence_877

His remarks were condemned as racist worldwide, as well as by many members of Congress. Donald Trump_sentence_878

In July 2019, Trump tweeted that four Democratic members of Congress – all four minority women, three of them native-born Americans – should "go back" to the countries they "came from". Donald Trump_sentence_879

Two days later the House of Representatives voted 240–187, mostly along party lines, to condemn his "racist comments". Donald Trump_sentence_880

White nationalist publications and social media sites praised his remarks, which continued over the following days. Donald Trump_sentence_881

Trump continued to make similar remarks during his 2020 campaign. Donald Trump_sentence_882

Misogyny and allegations of sexual assault and misconduct Donald Trump_section_99

Main article: Donald Trump sexual misconduct allegations Donald Trump_sentence_883

Trump has a history of insulting and belittling women when speaking to media and in tweet. Donald Trump_sentence_884

He made lewd comments, demeaned women's looks, and called them names like 'dog', 'crazed, crying lowlife', 'face of a pig', or 'horseface'. Donald Trump_sentence_885

In October 2016, two days before the second presidential debate, a 2005 "hot mic" recording surfaced in which Trump was heard bragging about kissing and groping women without their consent, saying "when you're a star, they let you do it, you can do anything ... grab 'em by the pussy." Donald Trump_sentence_886

The incident's widespread media exposure led to Trump's first public apology during the campaign and caused outrage across the political spectrum. Donald Trump_sentence_887

At least twenty-six women have publicly accused Trump of sexual misconduct as of September 2020, including his then-wife Ivana. Donald Trump_sentence_888

There were allegations of rape, violence, being kissed and groped without consent, looking under women's skirts, and walking in on naked women. Donald Trump_sentence_889

In 2016, he denied all accusations, calling them "false smears", and alleged there was a conspiracy against him. Donald Trump_sentence_890

Allegations of inciting violence Donald Trump_section_100

Some research suggests Trump's rhetoric causes an increased incidence of hate crimes. Donald Trump_sentence_891

During the 2016 campaign, he urged or praised physical attacks against protesters or reporters. Donald Trump_sentence_892

Since then, some defendants prosecuted for hate crimes or violent acts cited Trump's rhetoric in arguing that they were not culpable or should receive a lighter sentence. Donald Trump_sentence_893

In August 2019 it was reported that a man who allegedly assaulted a minor for perceived disrespect toward the national anthem had cited Trump's rhetoric in his own defense. Donald Trump_sentence_894

In August 2019, a nationwide review by ABC News identified at least 36 criminal cases in which Trump was invoked in direct connection with violence or threats of violence. Donald Trump_sentence_895

Of these, 29 were based around someone echoing presidential rhetoric, while the other seven were someone protesting it or not having direct linkage. Donald Trump_sentence_896

Popular culture Donald Trump_section_101

Main articles: Donald Trump in popular culture and Donald Trump in music Donald Trump_sentence_897

Trump has been the subject of parody, comedy, and caricature. Donald Trump_sentence_898

He has been parodied regularly on Saturday Night Live by Phil Hartman, Darrell Hammond, and Alec Baldwin, and in South Park as Mr. Donald Trump_sentence_899 Garrison. Donald Trump_sentence_900

The Simpsons episode "Bart to the Future" – written during his 2000 campaign for the Reform Party – anticipated a Trump presidency. Donald Trump_sentence_901

A parody series called The President Show debuted in April 2017 on Comedy Central, while another one called Our Cartoon President debuted on Showtime in February 2018. Donald Trump_sentence_902

Trump's wealth and lifestyle had been a fixture of hip-hop lyrics since the 1980s; he was named in hundreds of songs, most often in a positive tone. Donald Trump_sentence_903

Mentions of Trump in hip-hop turned negative and pejorative after he ran for office in 2015. Donald Trump_sentence_904

Recognition Donald Trump_section_102

Further information: List of honors and awards received by Donald Trump Donald Trump_sentence_905

In 1983, Trump received the Jewish National Fund Tree of Life Award, after he helped fund two playgrounds, a park, and a reservoir in Israel. Donald Trump_sentence_906

In 1986, he received the Ellis Island Medal of Honor in recognition of "patriotism, tolerance, brotherhood and diversity", and in 1995 was awarded the President's Medal from the Freedoms Foundation for his support of youth programs. Donald Trump_sentence_907

He has been awarded five honorary doctorates, but one was revoked by Robert Gordon University in 2015 after Trump called for a Muslim ban, citing Trump's speech being "wholly incompatible ... with the ethos and values of the university". Donald Trump_sentence_908

The remaining awards are Lehigh University's honorary doctorate of laws in 1988, Wagner College's honorary doctorate of humane letters in 2004, and Liberty University's honorary doctorates of business and law in 2012 and 2017 respectively. Donald Trump_sentence_909

In December 2016, Time named Trump as its "Person of the Year", but Trump took issue with the magazine for referring to him as the "President of the Divided States of America". Donald Trump_sentence_910

In the same month, he was named Financial Times Person of the Year and was ranked by Forbes the second most powerful person in the world after Vladimir Putin. Donald Trump_sentence_911

As president, Trump received the Collar of The Order of Abdulaziz al Saud from Saudi Arabia in 2017. Donald Trump_sentence_912


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald Trump.