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For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). Dresden_sentence_0


CountryDresden_header_cell_0_1_0 GermanyDresden_cell_0_1_1
StateDresden_header_cell_0_2_0 SaxonyDresden_cell_0_2_1
DistrictDresden_header_cell_0_3_0 Urban districtDresden_cell_0_3_1
Lord mayorDresden_header_cell_0_5_0 Dirk Hilbert (FDP)Dresden_cell_0_5_1
CityDresden_header_cell_0_7_0 328.8 km (127.0 sq mi)Dresden_cell_0_7_1
ElevationDresden_header_cell_0_8_0 113 m (371 ft)Dresden_cell_0_8_1
Population (2019-12-31)Dresden_header_cell_0_9_0
CityDresden_header_cell_0_10_0 556,780Dresden_cell_0_10_1
DensityDresden_header_cell_0_11_0 1,700/km (4,400/sq mi)Dresden_cell_0_11_1
UrbanDresden_header_cell_0_12_0 790,400Dresden_cell_0_12_1
MetroDresden_header_cell_0_13_0 1,343,305Dresden_cell_0_13_1
Time zoneDresden_header_cell_0_14_0 UTC+01:00 (CET)Dresden_cell_0_14_1
Summer (DST)Dresden_header_cell_0_15_0 UTC+02:00 (CEST)Dresden_cell_0_15_1
Vehicle registrationDresden_header_cell_0_16_0 DDDresden_cell_0_16_1
WebsiteDresden_header_cell_0_17_0 Dresden_cell_0_17_1
Former UNESCO World Heritage SiteDresden_header_cell_0_18_0
Official nameDresden_header_cell_0_19_0 Dresden Elbe ValleyDresden_cell_0_19_1
TypeDresden_header_cell_0_20_0 CulturalDresden_cell_0_20_1
CriteriaDresden_header_cell_0_21_0 ii, iii, iv, vDresden_cell_0_21_1
DesignatedDresden_header_cell_0_22_0 2004 (28th session)Dresden_cell_0_22_1
Reference no.Dresden_header_cell_0_23_0 Dresden_cell_0_23_1
RegionDresden_header_cell_0_24_0 EuropeDresden_cell_0_24_1
DelistedDresden_header_cell_0_25_0 2009 (33rd session)Dresden_cell_0_25_1

Dresden (/ˈdrɛzdən/, German: [ˈdʁeːsdn̩ (listen); Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany) is the capital city of the German state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. Dresden_sentence_1

It is the 12th most populous city of Germany, the fourth largest by area (following only Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne), and the third most populous city in the area of former East Germany, following only (East) Berlin and Leipzig. Dresden_sentence_2

Dresden's urban area comprises the towns of Freital, Pirna, Radebeul, Meissen and Coswig and has around 790,000 inhabitants. Dresden_sentence_3

The Dresden metropolitan area has approximately 1.34 million inhabitants. Dresden_sentence_4

Dresden is the second largest city on the River Elbe after Hamburg. Dresden_sentence_5

Most of the city's population lives in the Elbe Valley, but a large, albeit very sparsely populated area of the city east of the Elbe lies in the West Lusatian Hill Country and Uplands (the westernmost part of the Sudetes) and thus in Lusatia, while many boroughs west of the Elbe lie in the foreland of the Ore Mountains as well as in the valleys of the rivers rising there and flowing through Dresden, the longest of which are the Weißeritz and the Lockwitzbach. Dresden_sentence_6

The name of the city as well as the names of most of its boroughs and rivers are of Slavic origin. Dresden_sentence_7

Dresden is the second largest city in the Thuringian-Upper Saxon dialect area, following only Leipzig. Dresden_sentence_8

The Sorbian language area begins east of the city, in Lusatia. Dresden_sentence_9

Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, and was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs. Dresden_sentence_10

The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. Dresden_sentence_11

The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre. Dresden_sentence_12

After the war, restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city. Dresden_sentence_13

Since German reunification in 1990, Dresden has again become a cultural, educational and political centre of Germany and Europe. Dresden_sentence_14

The Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative. Dresden_sentence_15

The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. Dresden_sentence_16

It is dominated by high-tech branches, often called "Silicon Saxony". Dresden_sentence_17

According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut (HWWI) and Berenberg Bank, in 2019, Dresden had the seventh best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Dresden_sentence_18

Dresden is one of the most visited cities in Germany with 4.7 million overnight stays per year. Dresden_sentence_19

Its most prominent building is the Frauenkirche located at the Neumarkt. Dresden_sentence_20

Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II. Dresden_sentence_21

The remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Dresden_sentence_22

Other famous landmarks include the Zwinger, the Semperoper and the Dresden Castle. Dresden_sentence_23

Furthermore, the city is home to the renowned Dresden State Art Collections, originating from the collections of the Saxon electors in the 16th century. Dresden_sentence_24

Dresden's Striezelmarkt is one of the largest Christmas markets in Germany and is considered the first genuine Christmas market in the world. Dresden_sentence_25

Nearby sights include the National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle. Dresden_sentence_26

History Dresden_section_0

See also: Timeline of Dresden Dresden_sentence_27

Although Dresden is a relatively recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes c. 7500 BC. Dresden_sentence_28

Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, and the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Dresden_sentence_29

Its name etymologically derives from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the forest. Dresden_sentence_30

Dresden later evolved into the capital of Saxony. Dresden_sentence_31

Early history Dresden_section_1

Around the late 12th century, a Sorbian settlement called Drežďany (meaning either "woods" or "lowland forest-dweller") had developed on the southern bank. Dresden_sentence_32

Another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown. Dresden_sentence_33

It was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, and later as Altendresden, both literally "old Dresden". Dresden_sentence_34

Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". Dresden_sentence_35

After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate. Dresden_sentence_36

It was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. Dresden_sentence_37

It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319. Dresden_sentence_38

From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, and from 1547 the electors as well. Dresden_sentence_39

Early-modern age Dresden_section_2

The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in 1697. Dresden_sentence_40

He gathered many of the best musicians, architects and painters from all over Europe to Dresden. Dresden_sentence_41

His reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. Dresden_sentence_42

During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks were built. Dresden_sentence_43

These include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the Pillnitz Castle and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran Frauenkirche. Dresden_sentence_44

In addition, significant art collections and museums were founded. Dresden_sentence_45

Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints, Drawings and Photographs, the Grünes Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. Dresden_sentence_46

In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had recently converted from Catholicism. Dresden_sentence_47

In 1745, the Treaty of Dresden between Prussia, Saxony, and Austria ended the Second Silesian War. Dresden_sentence_48

Only a few years later, Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, and a failed Prussian siege in 1760. Dresden_sentence_49

Friedrich Schiller completed his Ode to Joy (the literary base of the European anthem) in Dresden in 1785. Dresden_sentence_50

19th and early 20th century Dresden_section_3

In 1806, Dresden became the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony established by Napoleon. Dresden_sentence_51

During the Napoleonic Wars the French Emperor made it a base of operations, winning there the Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813. Dresden_sentence_52

As a result of the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Saxony became part of the German Confederation in 1815. Dresden_sentence_53

Following the Polish uprisings of 1831, 1848 and 1863 many Poles fled to Dresden, among others composer Frédéric Chopin. Dresden_sentence_54

Dresden itself was a centre of the German Revolutions in 1848 with the May Uprising, which cost human lives and damaged the historic town of Dresden. Dresden_sentence_55

The uprising forced Frederick Augustus II of Saxony to flee from Dresden, but he soon after regained control over the city with the help of Prussia. Dresden_sentence_56

In 1852, the population of Dresden grew to 100,000 inhabitants, making it one of the biggest cities within the German Confederation. Dresden_sentence_57

As the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony, Dresden became part of the newly founded German Empire in 1871. Dresden_sentence_58

In the following years, the city became a major centre of economy, including motor car production, food processing, banking and the manufacture of medical equipment. Dresden_sentence_59

In the early 20th century, Dresden was particularly well known for its camera works and its cigarette factories. Dresden_sentence_60

During World War I, the city did not suffer any war damage, but lost many of its inhabitants. Dresden_sentence_61

Between 1918 and 1934, Dresden was the capital of the first Free State of Saxony as well as a cultural and economic centre of the Weimar Republic. Dresden_sentence_62

The city was also a centre of European modern art until 1933. Dresden_sentence_63

Military history Dresden_section_4

During the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, a large military facility called Albertstadt was built. Dresden_sentence_64

It had a capacity of up to 20,000 military personnel at the beginning of the First World War. Dresden_sentence_65

The garrison saw only limited use between 1918 and 1934, but was then reactivated in preparation for the Second World War. Dresden_sentence_66

Its usefulness was limited by attacks on 13–15 February and 17 April 1945, the former of which destroyed large areas of the city. Dresden_sentence_67

However, the garrison itself was not specifically targeted. Dresden_sentence_68

Soldiers had been deployed as late as March 1945 in the Albertstadt garrison. Dresden_sentence_69

The Albertstadt garrison became the headquarters of the Soviet 1st Guards Tank Army in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany after the war. Dresden_sentence_70

Apart from the German army officers' school (Offizierschule des Heeres), there have been no more military units in Dresden since the army merger during German reunification, and the withdrawal of Soviet forces in 1992. Dresden_sentence_71

Nowadays, the Bundeswehr operates the Military History Museum of the Federal Republic of Germany in the former Albertstadt garrison. Dresden_sentence_72

Second World War Dresden_section_5

During the Nazi era from 1933 to 1945, the Jewish community of Dresden was reduced from over 6,000 (7,100 people were persecuted as Jews) to 41, mostly as a result of emigration, but later also deportation and murder. Dresden_sentence_73

Non-Jews were also targeted, and over 1,300 people were executed by the Nazis at the Münchner Platz, a courthouse in Dresden, including labour leaders, undesirables, resistance fighters and anyone caught listening to foreign radio broadcasts. Dresden_sentence_74

The bombing stopped prisoners who were busy digging a large hole into which an additional 4,000 prisoners were to be disposed of. Dresden_sentence_75

Dresden in the 20th century was a major communications hub and manufacturing centre with 127 factories and major workshops and was designated by the German military as a defensive strongpoint, with which to hinder the Soviet advance. Dresden_sentence_76

Being the capital of the German state of Saxony, Dresden not only had garrisons but a whole military borough, the Albertstadt. Dresden_sentence_77

This military complex, named after Saxon King Albert, was not specifically targeted in the bombing of Dresden, though it was within the expected area of destruction and was extensively damaged. Dresden_sentence_78

During the final months of the Second World War, Dresden harboured some 600,000 refugees, with a total population of 1.2 million. Dresden_sentence_79

Dresden was attacked seven times between 1944 and 1945, and was occupied by the Red Army after the German capitulation. Dresden_sentence_80

The bombing of Dresden by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) between 13 and 15 February 1945 remains controversial. Dresden_sentence_81

On the night of 13–14 February 1945, 773 RAF Lancaster bombers dropped 1,181.6 tons of incendiary bombs and 1,477.7 tons of high explosive bombs on the city. Dresden_sentence_82

The inner city of Dresden was largely destroyed. Dresden_sentence_83

The high explosive bombs damaged buildings and exposed their wooden structures, while the incendiaries ignited them, denying their use by retreating German troops and refugees. Dresden_sentence_84

Widely quoted Nazi propaganda reports claimed 200,000 deaths, but the German Dresden Historians' Commission, made up of 13 prominent German historians, in an official 2010 report published after five years of research concluded that casualties numbered between 18,000 and 25,000. Dresden_sentence_85

The Allies described the operation as the legitimate bombing of a military and industrial target. Dresden_sentence_86

Several researchers have argued that the February attacks were disproportionate. Dresden_sentence_87

Mostly women and children died. Dresden_sentence_88

American author Kurt Vonnegut's novel Slaughterhouse Five is loosely based on his first-hand experience of the raid as a POW. Dresden_sentence_89

In remembrance of the victims, the anniversaries of the bombing of Dresden are marked with peace demonstrations, devotions and marches. Dresden_sentence_90

The destruction of Dresden allowed Hildebrand Gurlitt, a major Nazi museum director and art dealer, to hide a large collection of artwork worth over a billion dollars that had been stolen during the Nazi era, as he claimed it had been destroyed along with his house which was located in Dresden. Dresden_sentence_91

Post-war Dresden_section_6

After the Second World War, Dresden became a major industrial centre in the German Democratic Republic (former East Germany) with a great deal of research infrastructure. Dresden_sentence_92

It was the centre of Bezirk Dresden (Dresden District) between 1952 and 1990. Dresden_sentence_93

Many of the city's important historic buildings were reconstructed, including the Semper Opera House and the Zwinger Palace, although the city leaders chose to rebuild large areas of the city in a "socialist modern" style, partly for economic reasons, but also to break away from the city's past as the royal capital of Saxony and a stronghold of the German bourgeoisie. Dresden_sentence_94

Some of the ruins of churches, royal buildings and palaces, such as the Gothic Sophienkirche, the Alberttheater and the Wackerbarth-Palais, were razed by the Soviet and East German authorities in the 1950s and 1960s rather than being repaired. Dresden_sentence_95

Compared to West Germany, the majority of historic buildings were saved. Dresden_sentence_96

From 1985 to 1990, the future President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, was stationed in Dresden by the KGB, where he worked for Lazar Matveev, the senior KGB liaison officer there. Dresden_sentence_97

On 3 October 1989 (the so-called "battle of Dresden"), a convoy of trains carrying East German refugees from Prague passed through Dresden on its way to the Federal Republic of Germany. Dresden_sentence_98

Local activists and residents joined in the growing civil disobedience movement spreading across the German Democratic Republic, by staging demonstrations and demanding the removal of the communist government. Dresden_sentence_99

Post-reunification Dresden_section_7

Dresden has experienced dramatic changes since the reunification of Germany in the early 1990s. Dresden_sentence_100

The city still bears many wounds from the bombing raids of 1945, but it has undergone significant reconstruction in recent decades. Dresden_sentence_101

Restoration of the Dresden Frauenkirche, a Lutheran church, the rebuilding of which was started after the reunification of Germany in 1994, was completed in 2005, a year before Dresden's 800th anniversary, notably by privately raised funds. Dresden_sentence_102

The gold cross on the top of the church was funded officially by "the British people and the House of Windsor". Dresden_sentence_103

The urban renewal process, which includes the reconstruction of the area around the Neumarkt square on which the Frauenkirche is situated, will continue for many decades, but public and government interest remains high, and there are numerous large projects underway—both historic reconstructions and modern plans—that will continue the city's recent architectural renaissance. Dresden_sentence_104

Dresden remains a major cultural centre of historical memory, owing to the city's destruction in World War II. Dresden_sentence_105

Each year on 13 February, the anniversary of the British and American fire-bombing raid that destroyed most of the city, tens of thousands of demonstrators gather to commemorate the event. Dresden_sentence_106

Since reunification, the ceremony has taken on a more neutral and pacifist tone (after being used more politically during the Cold War). Dresden_sentence_107

Beginning in 1999, right-wing Neo-Nazi white nationalist groups have organised demonstrations in Dresden that have been among the largest of their type in the post-war history of Germany. Dresden_sentence_108

Each year around the anniversary of the city's destruction, people convene in the memory of those who died in the fire-bombing. Dresden_sentence_109

The completion of the reconstructed Dresden Frauenkirche in 2005 marked the first step in rebuilding the Neumarkt area. Dresden_sentence_110

The areas around the square have been divided into 8 "quarters", with each being rebuilt as a separate project, the majority of buildings to be rebuilt either to the original structure or at least with a facade similar to the original. Dresden_sentence_111

The quarters I, II, IV, V, VI and VIII have since been completed, with quarter III and quarter VII still partly under construction in 2020. Dresden_sentence_112

In 2002, torrential rains caused the Elbe to flood 9 metres (30 ft) above its normal height, i.e., even higher than the old record height from 1845, damaging many landmarks (see 2002 European floods). Dresden_sentence_113

The destruction from this "millennium flood" is no longer visible, due to the speed of reconstruction. Dresden_sentence_114

The United Nations' cultural organization UNESCO declared the Dresden Elbe Valley to be a World Heritage Site in 2004. Dresden_sentence_115

After being placed on the list of endangered World Heritage Sites in 2006, the city lost the title in June 2009, due to the construction of the Waldschlößchenbrücke, making it only the second ever World Heritage Site to be removed from the register. Dresden_sentence_116

UNESCO stated in 2006 that the bridge would destroy the cultural landscape. Dresden_sentence_117

The city council's legal moves, meant to prevent the bridge from being built, failed. Dresden_sentence_118

Geography Dresden_section_8

Main article: Geography and urban development of Dresden Dresden_sentence_119

Location Dresden_section_9

Dresden lies on both banks of the Elbe, mostly in the Dresden Basin, with the further reaches of the eastern Ore Mountains to the south, the steep slope of the Lusatian granitic crust to the north, and the Elbe Sandstone Mountains to the east at an altitude of about 113 metres (371 feet). Dresden_sentence_120

Triebenberg is the highest point in Dresden at 384 metres (1,260 feet). Dresden_sentence_121

With a pleasant location and a mild climate on the Elbe, as well as Baroque-style architecture and numerous world-renowned museums and art collections, Dresden has been called "Elbflorenz" (Florence of the Elbe). Dresden_sentence_122

The incorporation of neighbouring rural communities over the past 60 years has made Dresden the fourth largest urban district by area in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. Dresden_sentence_123

The nearest German cities are Chemnitz 62 kilometres (39 miles) to the southwest, Leipzig 100 kilometres (62 miles) to the northwest and Berlin 165 kilometres (103 miles) to the north. Dresden_sentence_124

Prague (Czech Republic) is about 150 kilometres (93 miles) to the south and Wrocław (Poland) 200 kilometres (120 miles) to the east. Dresden_sentence_125

Nature Dresden_section_10

Dresden is one of the greenest cities in all of Europe, with 62% of the city being green areas and forests. Dresden_sentence_126

The Dresden Heath (Dresdner Heide) to the north is a forest 50 km in size. Dresden_sentence_127

There are four nature reserves. Dresden_sentence_128

The additional Special Conservation Areas cover 18 km. Dresden_sentence_129

The protected gardens, parkways, parks and old graveyards host 110 natural monuments in the city. Dresden_sentence_130

The Dresden Elbe Valley is a former world heritage site which is focused on the conservation of the cultural landscape in Dresden. Dresden_sentence_131

One important part of that landscape is the Elbe meadows, which cross the city in a 20 kilometre swath. Dresden_sentence_132

Saxon Switzerland is located south-east of the city. Dresden_sentence_133

Climate Dresden_section_11

Like many places in the eastern parts of Germany, Dresden has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), with significant continental influences due to its inland location. Dresden_sentence_134

The summers are warm, averaging 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) in July. Dresden_sentence_135

The winters are slightly colder than the German average, with a January average temperature of 0.1 °C (32.18 °F), just preventing it from being a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). Dresden_sentence_136

The driest months are February, March and April, with precipitation of around 40 mm (1.6 in). Dresden_sentence_137

The wettest months are July and August, with more than 80 mm (3.1 in) per month. Dresden_sentence_138

The microclimate in the Elbe valley differs from that on the slopes and in the higher areas, where the Dresden district Klotzsche, at 227 metres above sea level, hosts the Dresden weather station. Dresden_sentence_139

The weather in Klotzsche is 1 to 3 °C (1.8 to 5.4 °F) colder than in the inner city at 112 metres above sea level. Dresden_sentence_140

Flood protection Dresden_section_12

City structuring Dresden_section_13

Mayor and city council Dresden_section_14

Main article: City Council of Dresden Dresden_sentence_141

The city council is the legislative branch of the city government. Dresden_sentence_142

The council gives orders to the mayor (German: Bürgermeister) via resolutions and decrees, and thus also has some degree of executive power. Dresden_sentence_143

The first freely elected mayor after German reunification was Herbert Wagner of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who served from 1990 to 2001. Dresden_sentence_144

The mayor was originally chosen by the city council, but since 1994 has been directly elected. Dresden_sentence_145

Ingolf Roßberg of the Free Democratic Party (FDP) served from 2001 until 2008. Dresden_sentence_146

He was succeeded by Helma Orosz (CDU). Dresden_sentence_147

Since 2015, the mayor has been Dirk Hilbert (FDP). Dresden_sentence_148

The most recent mayoral election was held on 7 June 2015, with a runoff held on 5 July, and the results were as follows: Dresden_sentence_149

The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows: Dresden_sentence_150


PartyDresden_header_cell_1_0_0 VotesDresden_header_cell_1_0_2 %Dresden_header_cell_1_0_3 +/-Dresden_header_cell_1_0_4 SeatsDresden_header_cell_1_0_5 +/-Dresden_header_cell_1_0_6
Dresden_cell_1_1_0 Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)Dresden_cell_1_1_1 171,630Dresden_cell_1_1_2 20.5Dresden_cell_1_1_3 4.8Dresden_cell_1_1_4 15Dresden_cell_1_1_5 4Dresden_cell_1_1_6
Dresden_cell_1_2_0 Christian Democratic Union (CDU)Dresden_cell_1_2_1 153,022Dresden_cell_1_2_2 18.3Dresden_cell_1_2_3 9.3Dresden_cell_1_2_4 13Dresden_cell_1_2_5 8Dresden_cell_1_2_6
Dresden_cell_1_3_0 Alternative for Germany (AfD)Dresden_cell_1_3_1 143,207Dresden_cell_1_3_2 17.2Dresden_cell_1_3_3 10.1Dresden_cell_1_3_4 12Dresden_cell_1_3_5 7Dresden_cell_1_3_6
Dresden_cell_1_4_0 The Left (Die Linke)Dresden_cell_1_4_1 135,613Dresden_cell_1_4_2 16.2Dresden_cell_1_4_3 4.7Dresden_cell_1_4_4 12Dresden_cell_1_4_5 3Dresden_cell_1_4_6
Dresden_cell_1_5_0 Social Democratic Party (SPD)Dresden_cell_1_5_1 73,627Dresden_cell_1_5_2 8.8Dresden_cell_1_5_3 4.0Dresden_cell_1_5_4 6Dresden_cell_1_5_5 3Dresden_cell_1_5_6
Dresden_cell_1_6_0 Free Democratic Party (FDP)Dresden_cell_1_6_1 62,613Dresden_cell_1_6_2 7.5Dresden_cell_1_6_3 2.5Dresden_cell_1_6_4 5Dresden_cell_1_6_5 2Dresden_cell_1_6_6
Dresden_cell_1_7_0 Free Voters Dresden (WV)Dresden_cell_1_7_1 44,725Dresden_cell_1_7_2 5.3Dresden_cell_1_7_3 5.2Dresden_cell_1_7_4 4Dresden_cell_1_7_5 4Dresden_cell_1_7_6
Dresden_cell_1_8_0 Die PARTEI (PARTEI)Dresden_cell_1_8_1 15,268Dresden_cell_1_8_2 1.8Dresden_cell_1_8_3 0.9Dresden_cell_1_8_4 1Dresden_cell_1_8_5 1Dresden_cell_1_8_6
Dresden_cell_1_9_0 Pirate Party Germany (Piraten)Dresden_cell_1_9_1 20,516Dresden_cell_1_9_2 2.4Dresden_cell_1_9_3 0.9Dresden_cell_1_9_4 1Dresden_cell_1_9_5 1Dresden_cell_1_9_6
Dresden_cell_1_10_0 Free Citizens Dresden (FBD)Dresden_cell_1_10_1 12,652Dresden_cell_1_10_2 1.5Dresden_cell_1_10_3 2.3Dresden_cell_1_10_4 1Dresden_cell_1_10_5 1Dresden_cell_1_10_6
Dresden_cell_1_11_0 National Democratic Party (NPD)Dresden_cell_1_11_1 4,744Dresden_cell_1_11_2 0.6Dresden_cell_1_11_3 2.2Dresden_cell_1_11_4 0Dresden_cell_1_11_5 2Dresden_cell_1_11_6
Valid votesDresden_header_cell_1_12_0 288,060Dresden_header_cell_1_12_2 98.7Dresden_header_cell_1_12_3 Dresden_header_cell_1_12_4 Dresden_header_cell_1_12_5 Dresden_header_cell_1_12_6
Invalid votesDresden_header_cell_1_13_0 3,937Dresden_header_cell_1_13_2 1.3Dresden_header_cell_1_13_3 Dresden_header_cell_1_13_4 Dresden_header_cell_1_13_5 Dresden_header_cell_1_13_6
TotalDresden_header_cell_1_14_0 291,997Dresden_header_cell_1_14_2 100.0Dresden_header_cell_1_14_3 Dresden_header_cell_1_14_4 70Dresden_header_cell_1_14_5 ±0Dresden_header_cell_1_14_6
Electorate/voter turnoutDresden_header_cell_1_15_0 436,179Dresden_header_cell_1_15_2 66.9Dresden_header_cell_1_15_3 17.9Dresden_header_cell_1_15_4 Dresden_header_cell_1_15_5 Dresden_header_cell_1_15_6

Public utilities Dresden_section_15

As the capital of Saxony, Dresden is home to the Saxon state parliament (Landtag) and the ministries of the Saxon Government. Dresden_sentence_151

The controlling Constitutional Court of Saxony is in Leipzig. Dresden_sentence_152

The highest Saxon court in civil and criminal law, the Higher Regional Court of Saxony, has its home in Dresden. Dresden_sentence_153

Most of the Saxon state authorities are located in Dresden. Dresden_sentence_154

Dresden is home to the Regional Commission of the Dresden Regierungsbezirk, which is a controlling authority for the Saxon Government. Dresden_sentence_155

It has jurisdiction over eight rural districts, two urban districts and the city of Dresden. Dresden_sentence_156

Like many cities in Germany, Dresden is also home to a local court, has a trade corporation and a Chamber of Industry and Trade and many subsidiaries of federal agencies (such as the Federal Labour Office or the Federal Agency for Technical Relief). Dresden_sentence_157

It hosts some divisions of the German Customs and the eastern Federal Waterways Directorate. Dresden_sentence_158

Dresden is home to a military subdistrict command, but no longer has large military units as it did in the past. Dresden_sentence_159

Dresden is the traditional location for army officer schooling in Germany, today carried out in the Offizierschule des Heeres. Dresden_sentence_160

Local affairs Dresden_section_16

Local affairs in Dresden often centre around the urban development of the city and its spaces. Dresden_sentence_161

Architecture and the design of public places is a controversial subject. Dresden_sentence_162

Discussions about the Waldschlößchenbrücke, a bridge under construction across the Elbe, received international attention because of its position across the Dresden Elbe Valley World Heritage Site. Dresden_sentence_163

The city held a public referendum in 2005 on whether to build the bridge, prior to UNESCO expressing doubts about the compatibility between bridge and heritage. Dresden_sentence_164

Its construction caused loss of World Heritage site status in 2009. Dresden_sentence_165

In 2006, the city of Dresden sold its publicly subsidized housing organization, WOBA Dresden GmbH, to the US-based private investment company Fortress Investment Group. Dresden_sentence_166

The city received 987.1 million euro and paid off its remaining loans, making it the first large city in Germany to become debt-free. Dresden_sentence_167

Opponents of the sale were concerned about Dresden's loss of control over the subsidized housing market. Dresden_sentence_168

Dresden has been the center of groups and activities of far-right movements. Dresden_sentence_169

Politicians and politics of Alternative for Germany (AfD) have a strong backing. Dresden_sentence_170

Starting in October 2014, PEGIDA, a nationalistic political movement based in Dresden has been organizing weekly demonstrations against what it perceives as the Islamization of Europe at the height of the European migrant crisis. Dresden_sentence_171

As the number of demonstrators increased to 15,000 in December 2014, so has the international media coverage of it. Dresden_sentence_172

However, since 2015, the number of demonstrators has decreased significantly. Dresden_sentence_173

In 2019, the Dresden City Council passed a policy statement against "anti-democratic, anti-pluralist, misanthropic and right-wing-extremist developments". Dresden_sentence_174

The motion was originally put forward by the satirical political party Die Partei. Dresden_sentence_175

Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, Die Linke, SPD and Die Partei voted in favour of the statement. Dresden_sentence_176

The CDU and AfD voted against it. Dresden_sentence_177

Among other things, the statement calls on strengthening democracy, protecting human rights and raising spending on (political) education. Dresden_sentence_178

Twin towns – sister cities Dresden_section_17

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Dresden_sentence_179

Dresden and Coventry became twins after the Second World War in an act of reconciliation, as both had suffered near-total destruction from massive aerial bombing. Dresden_sentence_180

Similar symbolism occurred in 1988, when Dresden twinned with the Dutch city of Rotterdam. Dresden_sentence_181

The Coventry Blitz and Rotterdam Blitz bombardments by the German Luftwaffe are also considered to be disproportional. Dresden_sentence_182

Dresden has had a triangular partnership with Saint Petersburg and Hamburg since 1987. Dresden_sentence_183

Dresden has 13 twin cities: Dresden_sentence_184

Cityscape Dresden_section_18

Architecture Dresden_section_19

Although Dresden is often said to be a Baroque city, its architecture is influenced by more than one style. Dresden_sentence_185

Other eras of importance are the Renaissance and Historicism, as well as the contemporary styles of Modernism and Postmodernism. Dresden_sentence_186

Dresden has some 13 000 listed cultural monuments and eight districts under general preservation orders. Dresden_sentence_187

Royal household Dresden_section_20

The Dresden Castle was the seat of the royal household from 1485. Dresden_sentence_188

The wings of the building have been renewed, built upon and restored many times. Dresden_sentence_189

Due to this integration of styles, the castle is made up of elements of the Renaissance, Baroque and Classicist styles. Dresden_sentence_190

The Zwinger Palace is across the road from the castle. Dresden_sentence_191

It was built on the old stronghold of the city and was converted to a centre for the royal art collections and a place to hold festivals. Dresden_sentence_192

Its gate by the moat is surmounted by a golden crown. Dresden_sentence_193

Other royal buildings and ensembles: Dresden_sentence_194


Sacred buildings Dresden_section_21

The Hofkirche was the church of the royal household. Dresden_sentence_195

Augustus the Strong, who desired to be King of Poland, converted to Catholicism, as Polish kings had to be Catholic. Dresden_sentence_196

At that time Dresden was strictly Protestant. Dresden_sentence_197

Augustus the Strong ordered the building of the Hofkirche, the Roman Catholic Cathedral, to establish a sign of Roman Catholic religious importance in Dresden. Dresden_sentence_198

The church is the cathedral "Sanctissimae Trinitatis" since 1980. Dresden_sentence_199

The crypt of the Wettin Dynasty is located within the church. Dresden_sentence_200

King Augustus III of Poland is buried in the cathedral, as one of very few Polish Kings to be buried outside the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków. Dresden_sentence_201

In contrast to the Hofkirche, the Lutheran Frauenkirche located at the Neumarkt was built almost contemporaneously by the citizens of Dresden. Dresden_sentence_202

The city's historic Kreuzkirche was reconsecrated in 1388. Dresden_sentence_203

There are also other churches in Dresden, for example the Russian Orthodox St. Dresden_sentence_204 Simeon of the Wonderful Mountain Church in the Südvorstadt district. Dresden_sentence_205

Historicism Dresden_section_22

Historicist buildings made their presence felt on the cityscape until the 1920s. Dresden_sentence_206

Notable examples of Renaissance Revival architecture in Dresden include the Albertinum located at Brühl's Terrace as well as the Saxon State Chancellery and the Saxon State Ministery of Finance located on the northern Elbe river banks. Dresden_sentence_207

Yenidze is a former cigarette factory building built in the style of a mosque between 1907 and 1909. Dresden_sentence_208

The most recent historicist buildings in Dresden date from the short era of Stalinist architecture in the 1950s, e.g. at the Altmarkt. Dresden_sentence_209

Modernism Dresden_section_23

The Garden City of Hellerau, at that time a suburb of Dresden, was founded in 1909. Dresden_sentence_210

It was Germany's first garden city. Dresden_sentence_211

In 1911, Heinrich Tessenow built the Hellerau Festspielhaus (festival theatre). Dresden_sentence_212

Until the outbreak of World War I, Hellerau was a centre for European modernism with international standing. Dresden_sentence_213

In 1950, Hellerau was incorporated into the city of Dresden. Dresden_sentence_214

Today, the Hellerau reform architecture is recognized as exemplary. Dresden_sentence_215

In the 1990s, the garden city of Hellerau became a conservation area. Dresden_sentence_216

The German Hygiene Museum (built 1928-1930) is a signal example of modern architecture in Dresden in the interwar period. Dresden_sentence_217

The building is designed in an impressively monumental style, but employs plain façades and simple structures. Dresden_sentence_218

Important modernist buildings erected between 1945 and 1990 are the Centrum-Warenhaus (a large department store), representing the international Style, and the multi-purpose hall Kulturpalast. Dresden_sentence_219

Contemporary architecture Dresden_section_24

After 1990 and German reunification, new styles emerged. Dresden_sentence_220

Important contemporary buildings include the New Synagogue, a postmodern building with few windows, the Transparent Factory, the Saxon State Parliament and the New Terrace, the UFA-Kristallpalast cinema by Coop Himmelb(l)au (one of the biggest buildings of Deconstructivism in Germany), and the Saxon State Library. Dresden_sentence_221

Daniel Libeskind and Norman Foster both modified existing buildings. Dresden_sentence_222

Foster roofed the main railway station with translucent Teflon-coated synthetics. Dresden_sentence_223

Libeskind changed the whole structure of the Bundeswehr Military History Museum by placing a wedge through the historical arsenal building. Dresden_sentence_224

According to Libeskind's studio, "[t]he façade’s openness and transparency is intended to contrast with the opacity and rigidity of the existing building." Dresden_sentence_225

Bridges Dresden_section_25

Important bridges crossing the Elbe river are the Blaues Wunder bridge and the Augustus Bridge. Dresden_sentence_226

Statues Dresden_section_26

Jean-Joseph Vinache's golden equestrian statue of August the Strong, the Goldener Reiter (Golden Cavalier), is on the Neustädter Markt square. Dresden_sentence_227

It shows August at the beginning of the Hauptstraße (Main street) on his way to Warsaw, where he was King of Poland in personal union. Dresden_sentence_228

Another statue is the memorial of Martin Luther in front of the Frauenkirche. Dresden_sentence_229

Parks and gardens Dresden_section_27

Großer Garten is a Baroque garden in central Dresden. Dresden_sentence_230

It includes the Dresden Zoo and the Dresden Botanical Garden. Dresden_sentence_231

The Dresden Heath is a large forest located in the northeast of Dresden and one of the city's most important recreation areas. Dresden_sentence_232

The park of Pillnitz Palace is famous for its botanical treasures, including a more than 230-year-old Japanese camellia and about 400 potted plants. Dresden_sentence_233

Main sights Dresden_section_28


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Culture Dresden_section_29

Main article: Culture in Dresden Dresden_sentence_234

Carl Maria von Weber and Richard Wagner had a number of their works performed for the first time in Dresden. Dresden_sentence_235

Other artists, such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Otto Dix, Oskar Kokoschka, Richard Strauss, Gottfried Semper and Gret Palucca, were also active in the city. Dresden_sentence_236

Dresden is also home to several art collections and musical ensembles. Dresden_sentence_237

Entertainment Dresden_section_30

The Saxon State Opera descends from the opera company of the former electors and Kings of Saxony. Dresden_sentence_238

Their first opera house was the Opernhaus am Taschenberg, opened in 1667. Dresden_sentence_239

The Opernhaus am Zwinger presented opera from 1719 to 1756, when the Seven Years' War began. Dresden_sentence_240

The later Semperoper was completely destroyed during the bombing of Dresden during the second world war. Dresden_sentence_241

The opera's reconstruction was completed exactly 40 years later, on 13 February 1985. Dresden_sentence_242

Its musical ensemble is the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden, founded in 1548. Dresden_sentence_243

The Dresden State Theatre runs a number of smaller theatres. Dresden_sentence_244

The Dresden State Operetta is the only independent operetta in Germany. Dresden_sentence_245

The Herkuleskeule (Hercules club) is an important site in German-speaking political cabaret. Dresden_sentence_246

There are several choirs in Dresden, the best-known of which is the Dresdner Kreuzchor (Choir of The Holy Cross). Dresden_sentence_247

It is a boys' choir drawn from pupils of the Kreuzschule, and was founded in the 13th century. Dresden_sentence_248

The Dresdner Kapellknaben are not related to the Staatskapelle, but to the former Hofkapelle, the Catholic cathedral, since 1980. Dresden_sentence_249

The Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra is the orchestra of the city of Dresden. Dresden_sentence_250

Throughout the summer, the outdoor concert series "Zwingerkonzerte und Mehr" is held in the Zwingerhof. Dresden_sentence_251

Performances include dance and music. Dresden_sentence_252

There are several small cinemas presenting cult films and low-budget or low-profile films chosen for their cultural value. Dresden_sentence_253

Dresden also has a few multiplex cinemas, of which the Rundkino is the oldest. Dresden_sentence_254

Dresden's Striezelmarkt is one of the largest Christmas markets in Germany. Dresden_sentence_255

Founded as a one-day market in 1434, it is considered the first genuine Christmas market in the world. Dresden_sentence_256

A big event each year in June is the Bunte Republik Neustadt, a culture festival lasting three days in the city district of Dresden-Neustadt. Dresden_sentence_257

Bands play live concerts for free in the streets and there are refreshments and food. Dresden_sentence_258

Museums Dresden_section_31

Dresden hosts the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (Dresden State Art Collections) which, according to the institution's own statements, place it among the most important museums presently in existence. Dresden_sentence_259

The art collections consist of twelve museums, including the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Gallery) and the Grünes Gewölbe (Green Vault) and the Japanese Palace (Japanisches Palais). Dresden_sentence_260

Also known are Galerie Neue Meister (New Masters Gallery), Rüstkammer (Armoury) with the Turkish Chamber, and the Museum für Völkerkunde Dresden (Museum of Ethnology). Dresden_sentence_261

Other museums and collections owned by the Free State of Saxony in Dresden are: Dresden_sentence_262


  • The Deutsche Hygiene-Museum, founded for mass education in hygiene, health, human biology and medicineDresden_item_2_20
  • The Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte (State Museum of Prehistory)Dresden_item_2_21
  • The Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden (Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden)Dresden_item_2_22
  • The Universitätssammlung Kunst + Technik (Collection of Art and Technology of the Dresden University of Technology)Dresden_item_2_23
  • Verkehrsmuseum Dresden (Transport Museum)Dresden_item_2_24
  • Festung Dresden (Dresden Fortress)Dresden_item_2_25
  • Panometer Dresden (Dresden Panometer) (Panorama museum)Dresden_item_2_26

The Dresden City Museum is run by the city of Dresden and focused on the city's history. Dresden_sentence_263

The Bundeswehr Military History Museum is placed in the former garrison in the Albertstadt. Dresden_sentence_264

The book museum of the Saxon State Library presents the Dresden Codex. Dresden_sentence_265

The Kraszewski Museum is a museum dedicated to the most prolific Polish writer Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, who lived in Dresden from 1863 to 1883. Dresden_sentence_266

Transport Dresden_section_32

Main article: Transportation in Dresden Dresden_sentence_267

Roads Dresden_section_33

The Bundesautobahn 4 (European route E40) crosses Dresden in the northwest from west to east. Dresden_sentence_268

The Bundesautobahn 17 leaves the A4 in a south-eastern direction. Dresden_sentence_269

In Dresden it begins to cross the Ore Mountains towards Prague. Dresden_sentence_270

The Bundesautobahn 13 leaves from the three-point interchange "Dresden-Nord" and goes to Berlin. Dresden_sentence_271

The A13 and the A17 are on the European route E55. Dresden_sentence_272

In addition, several Bundesstraßen (federal highways) run through Dresden. Dresden_sentence_273

Rail Dresden_section_34

There are two main inter-city transit hubs in the railway network in Dresden: Dresden Hauptbahnhof and Dresden-Neustadt railway station. Dresden_sentence_274

The most important railway lines run to Berlin, Prague, Leipzig and Chemnitz. Dresden_sentence_275

A commuter train system (Dresden S-Bahn) operates on three lines alongside the long-distance routes. Dresden_sentence_276

Aviation Dresden_section_35

Dresden Airport is the city's international airport, located at the north-western outskirts of the city. Dresden_sentence_277

After German reunification the airport's infrastructure has been considerably improved. Dresden_sentence_278

In 1998, a motorway access route was opened. Dresden_sentence_279

In March 2001, a new terminal building was opened along with the underground S-Bahn station Dresden Flughafen, a multi-storey car park and a new aircraft handling ramp. Dresden_sentence_280

Trams Dresden_section_36

Dresden has a large tramway network operated by Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe, the municipal transport company. Dresden_sentence_281

The Transport Authority operates twelve lines on a 200 km (124 mi) network. Dresden_sentence_282

Many of the new low-floor vehicles are up to 45 metres long and produced by Bombardier Transportation in Bautzen. Dresden_sentence_283

While about 30% of the system's lines are on reserved track (often sown with grass to avoid noise), many tracks still run on the streets, especially in the inner city. Dresden_sentence_284

The CarGoTram is a tram that supplies Volkswagen's Transparent Factory, crossing the city. Dresden_sentence_285

The transparent factory is located not far from the city centre next to the city's largest park. Dresden_sentence_286

The districts of Loschwitz and Weisser Hirsch are connected by the Dresden Funicular Railway, which has been carrying passengers back and forth since 1895. Dresden_sentence_287

Economy Dresden_section_37

Education and science Dresden_section_38

Universities Dresden_section_39

Dresden is home to a number of renowned universities, but among German cities it is a more recent location for academic education. Dresden_sentence_288


Other universities include the Hochschule für Kirchenmusik, a school specialising in church music, and the Evangelische Hochschule für Sozialarbeit, an education institution for social work. Dresden_sentence_289

The Dresden International University is a private postgraduate university, founded in 2003 in cooperation with the Dresden University of Technology. Dresden_sentence_290

Research institutes Dresden_section_40

Dresden hosts many research institutes, some of which have gained an international standing. Dresden_sentence_291

The domains of most importance are micro- and nanoelectronics, transport and infrastructure systems, material and photonic technology, and bio-engineering. Dresden_sentence_292

The institutes are well connected among one other as well as with the academic education institutions. Dresden_sentence_293

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is the largest complex of research facilities in Dresden, a short distance outside the urban areas. Dresden_sentence_294

It focuses on nuclear medicine and physics. Dresden_sentence_295

As part of the Helmholtz Association it is one of the German Big Science research centres. Dresden_sentence_296

The Max Planck Society focuses on fundamental research. Dresden_sentence_297

In Dresden there are three Max Planck Institutes (MPI); the MPI of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, the MPI for Chemical Physics of Solids and the MPI for the Physics of Complex Systems. Dresden_sentence_298

The Fraunhofer Society hosts institutes of applied research that also offer mission-oriented research to enterprises. Dresden_sentence_299

With eleven institutions or parts of institutes, Dresden is the largest location of the Fraunhofer Society worldwide. Dresden_sentence_300

The Fraunhofer Society has become an important factor in location decisions and is seen as a useful part of the "knowledge infrastructure". Dresden_sentence_301

The Leibniz Community is a union of institutes with science covering fundamental research and applied research. Dresden_sentence_302

In Dresden there are three Leibniz Institutes. Dresden_sentence_303

The Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research and the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research are both in the material and high-technology domain, while the Leibniz Institute for Ecological and Regional Development is focused on more fundamental research into urban planning. Dresden_sentence_304

The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf was member of the Leibniz Community until the end of 2010. Dresden_sentence_305

Higher secondary education Dresden_section_41

Dresden has more than 20 gymnasia which prepare for a tertiary education, five of which are private. Dresden_sentence_306

The Sächsisches Landesgymnasium für Musik with a focus on music is supported, as its name implies by the State of Saxony, rather than by the city. Dresden_sentence_307

There are some Berufliche Gymnasien which combine vocational education and secondary education and a Abendgymnasium which prepares higher education of adults avocational. Dresden_sentence_308

Sport Dresden_section_42

Dresden is home to Dynamo Dresden, which had a tradition in UEFA club competitions up to the early 1990s. Dresden_sentence_309

Dynamo Dresden won eight titles in the DDR-Oberliga. Dresden_sentence_310

Currently, the club is a member of the 2. Dresden_sentence_311 Bundesliga after some seasons in the Bundesliga and 3. Dresden_sentence_312 Liga. Dresden_sentence_313

In the early 20th century, the city was represented by Dresdner SC, who were one of Germany's most successful clubs in football. Dresden_sentence_314

Their best performances came during World War II, when they were twice German champions, and twice Cup winners. Dresden_sentence_315

Dresdner SC is a multisport club. Dresden_sentence_316

While its football team plays in the sixth-tier Landesliga Sachsen, its volleyball section has a team in the women's Bundesliga. Dresden_sentence_317

Dresden has a third football team SC Borea Dresden. Dresden_sentence_318

ESC Dresdner Eislöwen is an ice hockey club playing in the second-tier ice hockey league DEL2. Dresden_sentence_319

Dresden Monarchs are an American football team in the German Football League. Dresden_sentence_320

The Dresden Titans are the city's top basketball team. Dresden_sentence_321

Due to good performances, they have moved up several divisions and currently play in Germany's second division ProA. Dresden_sentence_322

The Titans' home arena is the Margon Arena. Dresden_sentence_323

Since 1890, horse races have taken place and the Dresdener Rennverein 1890 e.V. are active and one of the big sporting events in Dresden. Dresden_sentence_324

Major sporting facilities in Dresden are the Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion, the Heinz-Steyer-Stadion and the EnergieVerbund Arena for ice hockey. Dresden_sentence_325

Quality of life Dresden_section_43

According to the 2017 Global Least & Most Stressful Cities Ranking, Dresden was one of the least stressful cities in the World. Dresden_sentence_326

It was ranked 15th out of 150 cities worldwide and above Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Dortmund, Cologne, Frankfurt, and Berlin. Dresden_sentence_327

Sons and daughters of the city Dresden_section_44


Honorary citizens Dresden_section_45


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dresden.