For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation).
|Lord mayor||Dirk Hilbert (FDP)|
|City||328.8 km (127.0 sq mi)|
|Elevation||113 m (371 ft)|
|Density||1,700/km (4,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Former UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Official name||Dresden Elbe Valley|
|Criteria||ii, iii, iv, v|
|Designated||2004 (28th session)|
|Delisted||2009 (33rd session)|
It is the 12th most populous city of Germany, the fourth largest by area (following only Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne), and the third most populous city in the area of former East Germany, following only (East) Berlin and Leipzig.
The Dresden metropolitan area has approximately 1.34 million inhabitants.
Dresden is the second largest city on the River Elbe after Hamburg.
Most of the city's population lives in the Elbe Valley, but a large, albeit very sparsely populated area of the city east of the Elbe lies in the West Lusatian Hill Country and Uplands (the westernmost part of the Sudetes) and thus in Lusatia, while many boroughs west of the Elbe lie in the foreland of the Ore Mountains as well as in the valleys of the rivers rising there and flowing through Dresden, the longest of which are the Weißeritz and the Lockwitzbach.
The name of the city as well as the names of most of its boroughs and rivers are of Slavic origin.
The Sorbian language area begins east of the city, in Lusatia.
Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, and was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs.
The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre.
After the war, restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city.
Since German reunification in 1990, Dresden has again become a cultural, educational and political centre of Germany and Europe.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony.
It is dominated by high-tech branches, often called "Silicon Saxony".
According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut (HWWI) and Berenberg Bank, in 2019, Dresden had the seventh best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany.
Dresden is one of the most visited cities in Germany with 4.7 million overnight stays per year.
Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II.
The remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005.
Furthermore, the city is home to the renowned Dresden State Art Collections, originating from the collections of the Saxon electors in the 16th century.
See also: Timeline of Dresden
Its name etymologically derives from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the forest.
Dresden later evolved into the capital of Saxony.
Around the late 12th century, a Sorbian settlement called Drežďany (meaning either "woods" or "lowland forest-dweller") had developed on the southern bank.
Another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown.
It was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, and later as Altendresden, both literally "old Dresden".
Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene".
After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate.
It was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288.
He gathered many of the best musicians, architects and painters from all over Europe to Dresden.
His reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art.
In addition, significant art collections and museums were founded.
In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had recently converted from Catholicism.
Only a few years later, Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, and a failed Prussian siege in 1760.
19th and early 20th century
The uprising forced Frederick Augustus II of Saxony to flee from Dresden, but he soon after regained control over the city with the help of Prussia.
In 1852, the population of Dresden grew to 100,000 inhabitants, making it one of the biggest cities within the German Confederation.
As the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony, Dresden became part of the newly founded German Empire in 1871.
In the early 20th century, Dresden was particularly well known for its camera works and its cigarette factories.
During World War I, the city did not suffer any war damage, but lost many of its inhabitants.
Between 1918 and 1934, Dresden was the capital of the first Free State of Saxony as well as a cultural and economic centre of the Weimar Republic.
The city was also a centre of European modern art until 1933.
During the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, a large military facility called Albertstadt was built.
The garrison saw only limited use between 1918 and 1934, but was then reactivated in preparation for the Second World War.
Its usefulness was limited by attacks on 13–15 February and 17 April 1945, the former of which destroyed large areas of the city.
However, the garrison itself was not specifically targeted.
Soldiers had been deployed as late as March 1945 in the Albertstadt garrison.
Apart from the German army officers' school (Offizierschule des Heeres), there have been no more military units in Dresden since the army merger during German reunification, and the withdrawal of Soviet forces in 1992.
Nowadays, the Bundeswehr operates the Military History Museum of the Federal Republic of Germany in the former Albertstadt garrison.
Second World War
During the Nazi era from 1933 to 1945, the Jewish community of Dresden was reduced from over 6,000 (7,100 people were persecuted as Jews) to 41, mostly as a result of emigration, but later also deportation and murder.
Non-Jews were also targeted, and over 1,300 people were executed by the Nazis at the Münchner Platz, a courthouse in Dresden, including labour leaders, undesirables, resistance fighters and anyone caught listening to foreign radio broadcasts.
The bombing stopped prisoners who were busy digging a large hole into which an additional 4,000 prisoners were to be disposed of.
Dresden in the 20th century was a major communications hub and manufacturing centre with 127 factories and major workshops and was designated by the German military as a defensive strongpoint, with which to hinder the Soviet advance.
Being the capital of the German state of Saxony, Dresden not only had garrisons but a whole military borough, the Albertstadt.
During the final months of the Second World War, Dresden harboured some 600,000 refugees, with a total population of 1.2 million.
Dresden was attacked seven times between 1944 and 1945, and was occupied by the Red Army after the German capitulation.
On the night of 13–14 February 1945, 773 RAF Lancaster bombers dropped 1,181.6 tons of incendiary bombs and 1,477.7 tons of high explosive bombs on the city.
The inner city of Dresden was largely destroyed.
The high explosive bombs damaged buildings and exposed their wooden structures, while the incendiaries ignited them, denying their use by retreating German troops and refugees.
Widely quoted Nazi propaganda reports claimed 200,000 deaths, but the German Dresden Historians' Commission, made up of 13 prominent German historians, in an official 2010 report published after five years of research concluded that casualties numbered between 18,000 and 25,000.
The Allies described the operation as the legitimate bombing of a military and industrial target.
Several researchers have argued that the February attacks were disproportionate.
Mostly women and children died.
In remembrance of the victims, the anniversaries of the bombing of Dresden are marked with peace demonstrations, devotions and marches.
The destruction of Dresden allowed Hildebrand Gurlitt, a major Nazi museum director and art dealer, to hide a large collection of artwork worth over a billion dollars that had been stolen during the Nazi era, as he claimed it had been destroyed along with his house which was located in Dresden.
After the Second World War, Dresden became a major industrial centre in the German Democratic Republic (former East Germany) with a great deal of research infrastructure.
It was the centre of Bezirk Dresden (Dresden District) between 1952 and 1990.
Many of the city's important historic buildings were reconstructed, including the Semper Opera House and the Zwinger Palace, although the city leaders chose to rebuild large areas of the city in a "socialist modern" style, partly for economic reasons, but also to break away from the city's past as the royal capital of Saxony and a stronghold of the German bourgeoisie.
Some of the ruins of churches, royal buildings and palaces, such as the Gothic Sophienkirche, the Alberttheater and the Wackerbarth-Palais, were razed by the Soviet and East German authorities in the 1950s and 1960s rather than being repaired.
Compared to West Germany, the majority of historic buildings were saved.
Local activists and residents joined in the growing civil disobedience movement spreading across the German Democratic Republic, by staging demonstrations and demanding the removal of the communist government.
Dresden has experienced dramatic changes since the reunification of Germany in the early 1990s.
The city still bears many wounds from the bombing raids of 1945, but it has undergone significant reconstruction in recent decades.
Restoration of the Dresden Frauenkirche, a Lutheran church, the rebuilding of which was started after the reunification of Germany in 1994, was completed in 2005, a year before Dresden's 800th anniversary, notably by privately raised funds.
The gold cross on the top of the church was funded officially by "the British people and the House of Windsor".
The urban renewal process, which includes the reconstruction of the area around the Neumarkt square on which the Frauenkirche is situated, will continue for many decades, but public and government interest remains high, and there are numerous large projects underway—both historic reconstructions and modern plans—that will continue the city's recent architectural renaissance.
Dresden remains a major cultural centre of historical memory, owing to the city's destruction in World War II.
Each year on 13 February, the anniversary of the British and American fire-bombing raid that destroyed most of the city, tens of thousands of demonstrators gather to commemorate the event.
Since reunification, the ceremony has taken on a more neutral and pacifist tone (after being used more politically during the Cold War).
Each year around the anniversary of the city's destruction, people convene in the memory of those who died in the fire-bombing.
The completion of the reconstructed Dresden Frauenkirche in 2005 marked the first step in rebuilding the Neumarkt area.
The areas around the square have been divided into 8 "quarters", with each being rebuilt as a separate project, the majority of buildings to be rebuilt either to the original structure or at least with a facade similar to the original.
The quarters I, II, IV, V, VI and VIII have since been completed, with quarter III and quarter VII still partly under construction in 2020.
In 2002, torrential rains caused the Elbe to flood 9 metres (30 ft) above its normal height, i.e., even higher than the old record height from 1845, damaging many landmarks (see 2002 European floods).
The destruction from this "millennium flood" is no longer visible, due to the speed of reconstruction.
After being placed on the list of endangered World Heritage Sites in 2006, the city lost the title in June 2009, due to the construction of the Waldschlößchenbrücke, making it only the second ever World Heritage Site to be removed from the register.
UNESCO stated in 2006 that the bridge would destroy the cultural landscape.
The city council's legal moves, meant to prevent the bridge from being built, failed.
Main article: Geography and urban development of Dresden
Dresden lies on both banks of the Elbe, mostly in the Dresden Basin, with the further reaches of the eastern Ore Mountains to the south, the steep slope of the Lusatian granitic crust to the north, and the Elbe Sandstone Mountains to the east at an altitude of about 113 metres (371 feet).
Triebenberg is the highest point in Dresden at 384 metres (1,260 feet).
With a pleasant location and a mild climate on the Elbe, as well as Baroque-style architecture and numerous world-renowned museums and art collections, Dresden has been called "Elbflorenz" (Florence of the Elbe).
Dresden is one of the greenest cities in all of Europe, with 62% of the city being green areas and forests.
The Dresden Heath (Dresdner Heide) to the north is a forest 50 km in size.
There are four nature reserves.
The additional Special Conservation Areas cover 18 km.
The protected gardens, parkways, parks and old graveyards host 110 natural monuments in the city.
One important part of that landscape is the Elbe meadows, which cross the city in a 20 kilometre swath.
Saxon Switzerland is located south-east of the city.
The summers are warm, averaging 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) in July.
The winters are slightly colder than the German average, with a January average temperature of 0.1 °C (32.18 °F), just preventing it from being a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb).
The driest months are February, March and April, with precipitation of around 40 mm (1.6 in).
The wettest months are July and August, with more than 80 mm (3.1 in) per month.
Mayor and city council
Main article: City Council of Dresden
The city council is the legislative branch of the city government.
The council gives orders to the mayor (German: Bürgermeister) via resolutions and decrees, and thus also has some degree of executive power.
The mayor was originally chosen by the city council, but since 1994 has been directly elected.
He was succeeded by Helma Orosz (CDU).
Since 2015, the mayor has been Dirk Hilbert (FDP).
The most recent mayoral election was held on 7 June 2015, with a runoff held on 5 July, and the results were as follows:
The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows:
|Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)||171,630||20.5||4.8||15||4|
|Christian Democratic Union (CDU)||153,022||18.3||9.3||13||8|
|Alternative for Germany (AfD)||143,207||17.2||10.1||12||7|
|The Left (Die Linke)||135,613||16.2||4.7||12||3|
|Social Democratic Party (SPD)||73,627||8.8||4.0||6||3|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||62,613||7.5||2.5||5||2|
|Free Voters Dresden (WV)||44,725||5.3||5.2||4||4|
|Die PARTEI (PARTEI)||15,268||1.8||0.9||1||1|
|Pirate Party Germany (Piraten)||20,516||2.4||0.9||1||1|
|Free Citizens Dresden (FBD)||12,652||1.5||2.3||1||1|
|National Democratic Party (NPD)||4,744||0.6||2.2||0||2|
As the capital of Saxony, Dresden is home to the Saxon state parliament (Landtag) and the ministries of the Saxon Government.
The controlling Constitutional Court of Saxony is in Leipzig.
The highest Saxon court in civil and criminal law, the Higher Regional Court of Saxony, has its home in Dresden.
Most of the Saxon state authorities are located in Dresden.
Dresden is home to the Regional Commission of the Dresden Regierungsbezirk, which is a controlling authority for the Saxon Government.
Like many cities in Germany, Dresden is also home to a local court, has a trade corporation and a Chamber of Industry and Trade and many subsidiaries of federal agencies (such as the Federal Labour Office or the Federal Agency for Technical Relief).
It hosts some divisions of the German Customs and the eastern Federal Waterways Directorate.
Dresden is home to a military subdistrict command, but no longer has large military units as it did in the past.
Local affairs in Dresden often centre around the urban development of the city and its spaces.
Architecture and the design of public places is a controversial subject.
The city held a public referendum in 2005 on whether to build the bridge, prior to UNESCO expressing doubts about the compatibility between bridge and heritage.
Its construction caused loss of World Heritage site status in 2009.
The city received 987.1 million euro and paid off its remaining loans, making it the first large city in Germany to become debt-free.
Opponents of the sale were concerned about Dresden's loss of control over the subsidized housing market.
Dresden has been the center of groups and activities of far-right movements.
Politicians and politics of Alternative for Germany (AfD) have a strong backing.
Starting in October 2014, PEGIDA, a nationalistic political movement based in Dresden has been organizing weekly demonstrations against what it perceives as the Islamization of Europe at the height of the European migrant crisis.
As the number of demonstrators increased to 15,000 in December 2014, so has the international media coverage of it.
However, since 2015, the number of demonstrators has decreased significantly.
In 2019, the Dresden City Council passed a policy statement against "anti-democratic, anti-pluralist, misanthropic and right-wing-extremist developments".
The motion was originally put forward by the satirical political party Die Partei.
Among other things, the statement calls on strengthening democracy, protecting human rights and raising spending on (political) education.
Twin towns – sister cities
Dresden has 13 twin cities:
Although Dresden is often said to be a Baroque city, its architecture is influenced by more than one style.
Dresden has some 13 000 listed cultural monuments and eight districts under general preservation orders.
The wings of the building have been renewed, built upon and restored many times.
The Zwinger Palace is across the road from the castle.
It was built on the old stronghold of the city and was converted to a centre for the royal art collections and a place to hold festivals.
Its gate by the moat is surmounted by a golden crown.
Other royal buildings and ensembles:
- Brühl's Terrace was a gift to Heinrich, count von Brühl, and became an ensemble of buildings above the river Elbe.
- Dresden Elbe Valley with the Pillnitz Castle and other castles
The Hofkirche was the church of the royal household.
Augustus the Strong, who desired to be King of Poland, converted to Catholicism, as Polish kings had to be Catholic.
At that time Dresden was strictly Protestant.
Augustus the Strong ordered the building of the Hofkirche, the Roman Catholic Cathedral, to establish a sign of Roman Catholic religious importance in Dresden.
The church is the cathedral "Sanctissimae Trinitatis" since 1980.
The crypt of the Wettin Dynasty is located within the church.
The city's historic Kreuzkirche was reconsecrated in 1388.
Historicist buildings made their presence felt on the cityscape until the 1920s.
Notable examples of Renaissance Revival architecture in Dresden include the Albertinum located at Brühl's Terrace as well as the Saxon State Chancellery and the Saxon State Ministery of Finance located on the northern Elbe river banks.
Yenidze is a former cigarette factory building built in the style of a mosque between 1907 and 1909.
The most recent historicist buildings in Dresden date from the short era of Stalinist architecture in the 1950s, e.g. at the Altmarkt.
The Garden City of Hellerau, at that time a suburb of Dresden, was founded in 1909.
It was Germany's first garden city.
Until the outbreak of World War I, Hellerau was a centre for European modernism with international standing.
In 1950, Hellerau was incorporated into the city of Dresden.
Today, the Hellerau reform architecture is recognized as exemplary.
In the 1990s, the garden city of Hellerau became a conservation area.
The building is designed in an impressively monumental style, but employs plain façades and simple structures.
After 1990 and German reunification, new styles emerged.
Important contemporary buildings include the New Synagogue, a postmodern building with few windows, the Transparent Factory, the Saxon State Parliament and the New Terrace, the UFA-Kristallpalast cinema by Coop Himmelb(l)au (one of the biggest buildings of Deconstructivism in Germany), and the Saxon State Library.
Foster roofed the main railway station with translucent Teflon-coated synthetics.
Libeskind changed the whole structure of the Bundeswehr Military History Museum by placing a wedge through the historical arsenal building.
According to Libeskind's studio, "[t]he façade’s openness and transparency is intended to contrast with the opacity and rigidity of the existing building."
It shows August at the beginning of the Hauptstraße (Main street) on his way to Warsaw, where he was King of Poland in personal union.
Another statue is the memorial of Martin Luther in front of the Frauenkirche.
Parks and gardens
The Dresden Heath is a large forest located in the northeast of Dresden and one of the city's most important recreation areas.
Main article: Culture in Dresden
Dresden is also home to several art collections and musical ensembles.
The Saxon State Opera descends from the opera company of the former electors and Kings of Saxony.
Their first opera house was the Opernhaus am Taschenberg, opened in 1667.
The later Semperoper was completely destroyed during the bombing of Dresden during the second world war.
The opera's reconstruction was completed exactly 40 years later, on 13 February 1985.
Its musical ensemble is the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden, founded in 1548.
The Dresden State Theatre runs a number of smaller theatres.
The Dresden State Operetta is the only independent operetta in Germany.
It is a boys' choir drawn from pupils of the Kreuzschule, and was founded in the 13th century.
The Dresdner Kapellknaben are not related to the Staatskapelle, but to the former Hofkapelle, the Catholic cathedral, since 1980.
The Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra is the orchestra of the city of Dresden.
Throughout the summer, the outdoor concert series "Zwingerkonzerte und Mehr" is held in the Zwingerhof.
Performances include dance and music.
Dresden also has a few multiplex cinemas, of which the Rundkino is the oldest.
Founded as a one-day market in 1434, it is considered the first genuine Christmas market in the world.
Bands play live concerts for free in the streets and there are refreshments and food.
Dresden hosts the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (Dresden State Art Collections) which, according to the institution's own statements, place it among the most important museums presently in existence.
Other museums and collections owned by the Free State of Saxony in Dresden are:
- The Deutsche Hygiene-Museum, founded for mass education in hygiene, health, human biology and medicine
- The Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte (State Museum of Prehistory)
- The Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden (Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden)
- The Universitätssammlung Kunst + Technik (Collection of Art and Technology of the Dresden University of Technology)
- Verkehrsmuseum Dresden (Transport Museum)
- Festung Dresden (Dresden Fortress)
- Panometer Dresden (Dresden Panometer) (Panorama museum)
The Dresden City Museum is run by the city of Dresden and focused on the city's history.
The Bundeswehr Military History Museum is placed in the former garrison in the Albertstadt.
Main article: Transportation in Dresden
The Bundesautobahn 17 leaves the A4 in a south-eastern direction.
In Dresden it begins to cross the Ore Mountains towards Prague.
The Bundesautobahn 13 leaves from the three-point interchange "Dresden-Nord" and goes to Berlin.
The A13 and the A17 are on the European route E55.
In addition, several Bundesstraßen (federal highways) run through Dresden.
The most important railway lines run to Berlin, Prague, Leipzig and Chemnitz.
After German reunification the airport's infrastructure has been considerably improved.
In 1998, a motorway access route was opened.
The Transport Authority operates twelve lines on a 200 km (124 mi) network.
While about 30% of the system's lines are on reserved track (often sown with grass to avoid noise), many tracks still run on the streets, especially in the inner city.
The transparent factory is located not far from the city centre next to the city's largest park.
The districts of Loschwitz and Weisser Hirsch are connected by the Dresden Funicular Railway, which has been carrying passengers back and forth since 1895.
Education and science
Dresden is home to a number of renowned universities, but among German cities it is a more recent location for academic education.
- The Dresden University of Technology (Technische Universität Dresden, abbreviated as TU Dresden or TUD) with more than 36,000 students (2011) was founded in 1828 and is among the oldest and largest Universities of Technology in Germany. It is currently the university of technology in Germany with the largest number of students but also has many courses in social studies, economics and other non-technical sciences. It offers 126 courses. In 2006, the TU Dresden was successful in the German Universities Excellence Initiative of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany).
- The Dresden University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden) was founded in 1992 and had about 5,300 students in 2005.
- The Dresden Academy of Fine Arts (Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden) was founded in 1764 and is known for its former professors and artists such as George Grosz, Sascha Schneider, Otto Dix, Oskar Kokoschka, Bernardo Bellotto, Carl-Gustav Carus, Caspar David Friedrich and Gerhard Richter.
- The Palucca School of Dance (Palucca Hochschule für Tanz) was founded by Gret Palucca in 1925 and is a major European school of free dance.
- The Carl Maria von Weber College of Music was founded in 1856.
The Dresden International University is a private postgraduate university, founded in 2003 in cooperation with the Dresden University of Technology.
Dresden hosts many research institutes, some of which have gained an international standing.
The domains of most importance are micro- and nanoelectronics, transport and infrastructure systems, material and photonic technology, and bio-engineering.
The institutes are well connected among one other as well as with the academic education institutions.
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is the largest complex of research facilities in Dresden, a short distance outside the urban areas.
It focuses on nuclear medicine and physics.
The Fraunhofer Society hosts institutes of applied research that also offer mission-oriented research to enterprises.
With eleven institutions or parts of institutes, Dresden is the largest location of the Fraunhofer Society worldwide.
The Fraunhofer Society has become an important factor in location decisions and is seen as a useful part of the "knowledge infrastructure".
The Leibniz Community is a union of institutes with science covering fundamental research and applied research.
In Dresden there are three Leibniz Institutes.
The Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research and the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research are both in the material and high-technology domain, while the Leibniz Institute for Ecological and Regional Development is focused on more fundamental research into urban planning.
The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf was member of the Leibniz Community until the end of 2010.
Higher secondary education
Dresden has more than 20 gymnasia which prepare for a tertiary education, five of which are private.
The Sächsisches Landesgymnasium für Musik with a focus on music is supported, as its name implies by the State of Saxony, rather than by the city.
There are some Berufliche Gymnasien which combine vocational education and secondary education and a Abendgymnasium which prepares higher education of adults avocational.
Dynamo Dresden won eight titles in the DDR-Oberliga.
In the early 20th century, the city was represented by Dresdner SC, who were one of Germany's most successful clubs in football.
Dresdner SC is a multisport club.
The Dresden Titans are the city's top basketball team.
Due to good performances, they have moved up several divisions and currently play in Germany's second division ProA.
The Titans' home arena is the Margon Arena.
Since 1890, horse races have taken place and the Dresdener Rennverein 1890 e.V. are active and one of the big sporting events in Dresden.
Quality of life
According to the 2017 Global Least & Most Stressful Cities Ranking, Dresden was one of the least stressful cities in the World.
It was ranked 15th out of 150 cities worldwide and above Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Dortmund, Cologne, Frankfurt, and Berlin.
Sons and daughters of the city
- Georg Bartisch (ca 1535–1607), eye surgeon and author of first German-language textbook of ophthalmology
- Gerhart Baum (born 1932), politician (FDP)
- Amelie Beese (1886-1925), aviator
- Christine Bergmann (born 1939), politician (SPD)
- August Buchner (1591–1661), influential Baroque poet
- Andreas von Bülow (born 1937), politician and writer
- Siegfried Geißler (1929–2014), composer, conductor, hornist and politician
- Carle Hessay (1911–1978), Canadian painter
- Andrea Ihle (born 1953), operatic soprano
- Annette Jahns (1958–2020), operatic mezzo-soprano and contralto, and opera director
- Erich Kästner (1899–1974), author of books
- Christoph M. Kimmich (born 1939), German-American historian and eighth President of Brooklyn College
- Victor Klemperer (1881–1960) Jewish author of I Will Bear Witness
- Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel (1809-1885), Prussian general field marshal
- Paul Miersch (1868-1956), composer
- Siarhei Mikhalok (born 1972), Belarusian rock musician and actor
- Wolfgang Mischnick (1921–2002), politician (FDP)
- Karl Reinisch (1921–2007), engineer
- Gerhard Richter (born 1932), painter
- Ludwig Richter (1803-1884), painter
- Matthias Sammer (born 1967), footballer and football coach
- Ad Santel (1887-1966), professional wrestler
- Albert of Saxony (1828-1902), king of Saxony
- Anthony of Saxony (1755-1836), king of Saxony
- Frederick Augustus I of Saxony (1750-1827), king of Saxony
- Frederick Augustus II of Saxony (1797-1854), king of Saxony
- Frederick Augustus III of Saxony (1865-1932), king of Saxony
- George, King of Saxony (1832-1904), king of Saxony
- John of Saxony (1801-1873), king of Saxony
- Helmut Schön (1915–1996), football coach
- Edith Schönert-Geiß (1933-2012), numismatist
- Herbert Wehner (1906–1990), politician (SPD)
- Peter Hoffmann (born 1930), historian
- Elsa Laura Wolzogen (1876-1945), composer
- Martin Mutschmann, 11 May 1933 (revoked 26 June 1945)
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dresden.