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For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). Drum_sentence_0

The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments. Drum_sentence_1

In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophone. Drum_sentence_2

Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with the player's hands, or with a percussion mallet, to produce sound. Drum_sentence_3

There is usually a resonance head on the underside of the drum, typically tuned to a slightly lower pitch than the top drumhead. Drum_sentence_4

Other techniques have been used to cause drums to make sound, such as the thumb roll. Drum_sentence_5

Drums are the world's oldest and most ubiquitous musical instruments, and the basic design has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years. Drum_sentence_6

Drums may be played individually, with the player using a single drum, and some drums such as the djembe are almost always played in this way. Drum_sentence_7

Others are normally played in a set of two or more, all played by the one player, such as bongo drums and timpani. Drum_sentence_8

A number of different drums together with cymbals form the basic modern drum kit. Drum_sentence_9

Uses Drum_section_0

Drums are usually played by striking with the hand, or with one or two sticks with or without padding. Drum_sentence_10

A wide variety of sticks are used, including wooden sticks and sticks with soft beaters of felt on the end. Drum_sentence_11

In jazz, some drummers use brushes for a smoother, quieter sound. Drum_sentence_12

In many traditional cultures, drums have a symbolic function and are used in religious ceremonies. Drum_sentence_13

Drums are often used in music therapy, especially hand drums, because of their tactile nature and easy use by a wide variety of people. Drum_sentence_14

In popular music and jazz, "drums" usually refers to a drum kit or a set of drums (with some cymbals, or in the case of harder rock music genres, many cymbals), and "drummer" to the person who plays them. Drum_sentence_15

Drums acquired even divine status in places such as Burundi, where the karyenda was a symbol of the power of the king. Drum_sentence_16

Construction Drum_section_1

The shell almost always has a circular opening over which the drumhead is stretched, but the shape of the remainder of the shell varies widely. Drum_sentence_17

In the Western musical tradition, the most usual shape is a cylinder, although timpani, for example, use bowl-shaped shells. Drum_sentence_18

Other shapes include a frame design (tar, Bodhrán), truncated cones (bongo drums, Ashiko), goblet shaped (djembe), and joined truncated cones (talking drum). Drum_sentence_19

Drums with cylindrical shells can be open at one end (as is the case with timbales), or can have two drum heads, one head on each end. Drum_sentence_20

Single-headed drums typically consist of a skin stretched over an enclosed space, or over one of the ends of a hollow vessel. Drum_sentence_21

Drums with two heads covering both ends of a cylindrical shell often have a small hole somewhat halfway between the two heads; the shell forms a resonating chamber for the resulting sound. Drum_sentence_22

Exceptions include the African slit drum, also known as a log drum as it is made from a hollowed-out tree trunk, and the Caribbean steel drum, made from a metal barrel. Drum_sentence_23

Drums with two heads can also have a set of wires, called snares, held across the bottom head, top head, or both heads, hence the name snare drum. Drum_sentence_24

On some drums with two heads, a hole or bass reflex port may be cut or installed onto one head, as with some 2010s era bass drums in rock music. Drum_sentence_25

On modern band and orchestral drums, the drumhead is placed over the opening of the drum, which in turn is held onto the shell by a "counterhoop" (or "rim"), which is then held by means of a number of tuning screws called "tension rods" that screw into lugs placed evenly around the circumference. Drum_sentence_26

The head's tension can be adjusted by loosening or tightening the rods. Drum_sentence_27

Many such drums have six to ten tension rods. Drum_sentence_28

The sound of a drum depends on many variables—including shape, shell size and thickness, shell materials, counterhoop material, drumhead material, drumhead tension, drum position, location, and striking velocity and angle. Drum_sentence_29

Prior to the invention of tension rods, drum skins were attached and tuned by rope systems—as on the Djembe—or pegs and ropes such as on Ewe drums. Drum_sentence_30

These methods are rarely used today, though sometimes appear on regimental marching band snare drums. Drum_sentence_31

The head of a talking drum, for example, can be temporarily tightened by squeezing the ropes that connect the top and bottom heads. Drum_sentence_32

Similarly, the tabla is tuned by hammering a disc held in place around the drum by ropes stretching from the top to bottom head. Drum_sentence_33

Orchestral timpani can be quickly tuned to precise pitches by using a foot pedal. Drum_sentence_34

Sound Drum_section_2

Several factors determine the sound a drum produces, including the type, shape and construction of the drum shell, the type of drum heads it has, and the tension of these drumheads. Drum_sentence_35

Different drum sounds have different uses in music. Drum_sentence_36

For example, the modern Tom-tom drum. Drum_sentence_37

A jazz drummer may want drums that are high pitched, resonant and quiet whereas a rock drummer may prefer drums that are loud, dry and low-pitched. Drum_sentence_38

The drum head has the most effect on how a drum sounds. Drum_sentence_39

Each type of drum head serves its own musical purpose and has its own unique sound. Drum_sentence_40

Double-ply drumheads dampen high frequency harmonics because they are heavier and they are suited to heavy playing. Drum_sentence_41

Drum heads with a white, textured coating on them muffle the overtones of the drum head slightly, producing a less diverse pitch. Drum_sentence_42

Drum heads with central silver or black dots tend to muffle the overtones even more, while drum heads with perimeter sound rings mostly eliminate overtones. Drum_sentence_43

Some jazz drummers avoid using thick drum heads, preferring single ply drum heads or drum heads with no muffling. Drum_sentence_44

Rock drummers often prefer the thicker or coated drum heads. Drum_sentence_45

The second biggest factor that affects drum sound is head tension against the shell. Drum_sentence_46

When the hoop is placed around the drum head and shell and tightened down with tension rods, the tension of the head can be adjusted. Drum_sentence_47

When the tension is increased, the amplitude of the sound is reduced and the frequency is increased, making the pitch higher and the volume lower. Drum_sentence_48

The type of shell also affects the sound of a drum. Drum_sentence_49

Because the vibrations resonate in the shell of the drum, the shell can be used to increase the volume and to manipulate the type of sound produced. Drum_sentence_50

The larger the diameter of the shell, the lower the pitch. Drum_sentence_51

The larger the depth of the drum, the louder the volume. Drum_sentence_52

Shell thickness also determines the volume of drums. Drum_sentence_53

Thicker shells produce louder drums. Drum_sentence_54

Mahogany raises the frequency of low pitches and keeps higher frequencies at about the same speed. Drum_sentence_55

When choosing a set of shells, a jazz drummer may want smaller maple shells, while a rock drummer may want larger birch shells. Drum_sentence_56

History Drum_section_3

Drums made with alligator skins have been found in Neolithic cultures located in China, dating to a period of 5500–2350 BC. Drum_sentence_57

In literary records, drums manifested shamanistic characteristics and were often used in ritual ceremonies. Drum_sentence_58

The bronze Dong Son drum was fabricated by the Bronze Age Dong Son culture of northern Vietnam. Drum_sentence_59

They include the ornate Ngoc Lu drum. Drum_sentence_60

Animal drumming Drum_section_4

Macaque monkeys drum objects in a rhythmic way to show social dominance and this has been shown to be processed in a similar way in their brains to vocalizations, suggesting an evolutionary origin to drumming as part of social communication. Drum_sentence_61

Other primates make drumming sounds by chest beating or hand clapping, and rodents such as kangaroo rats also make similar sounds using their paws on the ground. Drum_sentence_62

Talking drums Drum_section_5

Main article: Talking drum Drum_sentence_63

Drums are used not only for their musical qualities, but also as a means of communication over great distances. Drum_sentence_64

The talking drums of Africa are used to imitate the tone patterns of spoken language. Drum_sentence_65

Throughout Sri Lankan history drums have been used for communication between the state and the community, and Sri Lankan drums have a history stretching back over 2500 years. Drum_sentence_66

Drums in art Drum_section_6

Drumming may be a purposeful expression of emotion for entertainment, spiritualism and communication. Drum_sentence_67

Many cultures practice drumming as a spiritual or religious passage and interpret drummed rhythm similarly to spoken language or prayer. Drum_sentence_68

Drumming has developed over millennia to be a powerful art form. Drum_sentence_69

Drumming is commonly viewed as the root of music and is sometimes performed as a kinesthetic dance. Drum_sentence_70

As a discipline, drumming concentrates on training the body to punctuate, convey and interpret musical rhythmic intention to an audience and to the performer. Drum_sentence_71

Military uses Drum_section_7

Further information: Military drums Drum_sentence_72

Chinese troops used tàigǔ drums to motivate troops, to help set a marching pace, and to call out orders or announcements. Drum_sentence_73

For example, during a war between Qi and Lu in 684 BC, the effect of drum on soldiers' morale is employed to change the result of a major battle. Drum_sentence_74

Fife-and-drum corps of Swiss mercenary foot soldiers also used drums. Drum_sentence_75

They used an early version of the snare drum carried over the player's right shoulder, suspended by a strap (typically played with one hand using traditional grip). Drum_sentence_76

It is to this instrument that the English word "drum" was first used. Drum_sentence_77

Similarly, during the English Civil War rope-tension drums would be carried by junior officers as a means to relay commands from senior officers over the noise of battle. Drum_sentence_78

These were also hung over the shoulder of the drummer and typically played with two drum sticks. Drum_sentence_79

Different regiments and companies would have distinctive and unique drum beats only they recognized. Drum_sentence_80

In the mid-19th century, the Scottish military started incorporating pipe bands into their Highland regiments. Drum_sentence_81

During pre-Columbian warfare, Aztec nations were known to have used drums to send signals to the battling warriors. Drum_sentence_82

The Nahuatl word for drum is roughly translated as huehuetl. Drum_sentence_83

The Rig Veda, one of the oldest religious scriptures in the world, contains several references to the use of the Dundhubi (war drum). Drum_sentence_84

Arya tribes charged into battle to the beating of the war drum and chanting of a hymn that appears in Book VI of the Rig Veda and also the Atharva Veda where it is referred to as the "Hymn to the battle drum". Drum_sentence_85

Types Drum_section_8

See also Drum_section_9

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum.