Dub music

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For the process of transferring or copying audio material, see Dubbing (music). Dub music_sentence_0

For the UK garage subgenre, see Dubstep. Dub music_sentence_1

Dub music_table_infobox_0

DubDub music_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsDub music_header_cell_0_1_0 Dub music_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsDub music_header_cell_0_2_0 Late 1960s, JamaicaDub music_cell_0_2_1
Derivative formsDub music_header_cell_0_3_0 Dub music_cell_0_3_1
SubgenresDub music_header_cell_0_4_0
Fusion genresDub music_header_cell_0_5_0
Other topicsDub music_header_cell_0_6_0

Dub is a genre of electronic music that grew out of reggae in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and is commonly considered a subgenre, though it has developed to extend beyond the scope of reggae. Dub music_sentence_2

The style consists predominantly of partly or completely instrumental remixes of existing recordings and is achieved by significantly manipulating and reshaping the recordings, usually through the removal of some or all of the vocals, emphasis of the rhythm section (the stripped-down drum-and-bass track is sometimes referred to as a riddim), the application of studio effects such as echo and reverb, and the occasional dubbing of vocal or instrumental snippets from the original version or other works. Dub music_sentence_3

It was an early form of popular electronic music. Dub music_sentence_4

Dub was pioneered by recording engineers and producers such as Osbourne "King Tubby" Ruddock, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Errol Thompson and others beginning in the late 1960s. Dub music_sentence_5

Augustus Pablo is credited with bringing the melodica to dub, and is also among the pioneers and creators of the genre. Dub music_sentence_6

Similar experiments with recordings at the mixing desk outside the dancehall environment were also done by producers Clive Chin and Herman Chin Loy. Dub music_sentence_7

These producers, especially Ruddock and Perry, looked upon the mixing console as an instrument, manipulating tracks to come up with something new and different. Dub music_sentence_8

The Roland Space Echo was widely used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects. Dub music_sentence_9

Dub has influenced many genres of music, including rock (most significantly the subgenre of post-punk and other kinds of punk), pop, hip hop, post-disco, and later house, techno, ambient, electronic dance music, and trip hop. Dub music_sentence_10

Dub has become a basis for the genres of jungle and drum and bass. Dub music_sentence_11

Traditional dub has survived, and some of the originators, such as Lee "Scratch" Perry, and other long-time practitioners such as Mad Professor, continue to produce new material. Dub music_sentence_12

Name Dub music_section_0

The use of the word dub in a recording context originated in the late 1920s with the advent of "talking pictures" and referred to adding a soundtrack to a film; it is an informal abbreviation of the word double. Dub music_sentence_13

Over the next 40 years or so the term found its way into audio recording in general, often in the context of making a copy of a recording on another tape or disc. Dub music_sentence_14

It was in this sense that the term was first used in the Jamaican recording industry: new recordings were often initially copied onto one-off acetate discs, known colloquially as soft wax or dub and later as dubplates, for exclusive use by sound system operators; playing a song as an exclusive recording on a sound system was a good way for a producer to test the potential popularity of a recording before committing to the pressing of hundreds or thousands of copies of singles for retail sale. Dub music_sentence_15

Initially these acetates would simply be the standard recording of a song that wasn't yet released on a single, but around 1968-69 they started to be exclusive mixes with some or all of the vocal mixed out, as described by producer Bunny Lee: Dub music_sentence_16

After describing how Redwood then had his deejay first play the vocal version and then the instrumental version at a dance, and how popular this novelty was, Lee continued, Dub music_sentence_17

Jamaican sound systems had always sought exclusive recordings from their origins in the late 1940s but through most of the 1950s, when they played American rhythm & blues records, these were simply records that rival sound system operators didn't have and couldn't identify. Dub music_sentence_18

This progressed from the late 1950s onwards via having local musicians record a song exclusively for play on a particular sound system to having exclusive mixes of a song on acetate, which became possible with the arrival of multi-track recording in Jamaica. Dub music_sentence_19

From the concept of a version with some or all of the vocal mixed out dubbed to acetate, the novelty-hungry sound system scene rapidly drove the evolution of increasingly creative mixes in the first few years of the 1970s, and within a few years the term dub became attached to these regardless of whether they were on an exclusive acetate or "dubplate". Dub music_sentence_20

As the use of the term widened and evolved, Bob Marley and The Wailers used the order "dub this one!" Dub music_sentence_21

in live concerts to mean, "put an emphasis on bass and drums". Dub music_sentence_22

Drummer Sly Dunbar similarly points to a usage of the related term dubwise to mean using only drums and bass. Dub music_sentence_23

It is possible that the existing use of the word dub for other meanings in Jamaica around the time of the music's origin may have helped to cement its use in the musical context. Dub music_sentence_24

The most frequent meanings referred to either a form of erotic dance or sexual intercourse; such usage is frequently present in names of reggae songs, for instance, of The Silvertones' "Dub the Pum Pum" (where pum pum is Jamaican slang for female genitalia), Big Joe and Fay's "Dub a Dawta" (dawta is Jamaican patois for ). Dub music_sentence_25

I-Roy's "Sister Maggie Breast" features several references on sex: Dub music_sentence_26

However, all three of these songs were recorded after the use of dub for a style of remixing was already prevalent. Dub music_sentence_27

Characteristics Dub music_section_1

See also: Music of Jamaica Dub music_sentence_28

Dub music is characterized by a "version" or "double" of an existing song, often instrumental, initially almost always pressed on the B-sides of 45 RPM records and typically emphasizing the drums and bass for a sound popular in local sound systems. Dub music_sentence_29

A "version" is an alternative cut of a song made for the DJ to "toast" over (a form of Jamaican rapping), usually with some or all of the original vocal removed. Dub music_sentence_30

These "versions" were used as the basis of new songs by rerecording them with new elements. Dub music_sentence_31

The instrumental tracks are typically drenched in sound effects such as echo, reverberation, with instruments and vocals dropping in and out of the mix. Dub music_sentence_32

The partial or total removal of vocals and other instruments tends to emphasise the bass guitar. Dub music_sentence_33

The music sometimes features other noises, such as birds singing, thunder and lightning, water flowing, and producers shouting instructions at the musicians. Dub music_sentence_34

It can be further augmented by live DJs. Dub music_sentence_35

The many-layered sounds with varying echoes and volumes are often said to create soundscapes, or sound sculptures, drawing attention to the shape and depth of the space between sounds as well as to the sounds themselves. Dub music_sentence_36

There is usually a distinctly organic feel to the music, even though the effects are electronically created. Dub music_sentence_37

Often these tracks are used for "toasters" rapping heavily rhymed and alliterative lyrics. Dub music_sentence_38

These are called "DJ Versions". Dub music_sentence_39

In forms of sound system based reggae, the performer using a microphone is referred to as the "DJ" or "deejay" (where in other genres, this performer might be termed the "MC", meaning "Master of Ceremonies", or alternately, the later developed slang terms: "Microphone Commander" or "Mic Control"), and the person choosing the music and operating the turntables is called the "selector" (sometimes referred to as the DJ in other genres). Dub music_sentence_40

A major reason for producing multiple versions was economic; a record producer could use a recording he owned to produce numerous versions from a single studio session. Dub music_sentence_41

A version was also an opportunity for a producer or remix engineer to experiment and express their more creative side. Dub music_sentence_42

The version was typically the B-side of a single, and used for experimenting and providing something for DJs to talk over, while the A-side was more often dedicated to the original vocal-oriented track. Dub music_sentence_43

In the 1970s, LPs of dub tracks began to be produced; these could be, variously: a collection of new dub mixes of riddims previously used on various singles, usually by a single producer; the dub version of an existing vocal LP with dub mixes of all the tracks; or, least commonly, a selection of previously unissued original riddims mixed in a dub style. Dub music_sentence_44

History Dub music_section_2

Dub music and toasting introduced a new era of creativity in reggae music. Dub music_sentence_45

From their beginning, toasting and dub music developed together and influenced each other. Dub music_sentence_46

The development of sound system culture influenced the development of studio techniques in Jamaica, and the earliest DJs, including Duke Reid and Prince Buster among others, were toasting over instrumental versions of reggae and developing instrumental reggae music. Dub music_sentence_47

"Versions" and experiments with studio mixing (Late 1960s) Dub music_section_3

In 1968, Kingston, Jamaica sound system operator Rudolph "Ruddy" Redwood went to Duke Reid's Treasure Isle studio to cut a one-off dub plate of The Paragons hit "On The Beach." Dub music_sentence_48

Engineer Byron Smith left the vocal track out by accident, but Redwood kept the result and played it at his next dance with his deejay Wassy toasting over the rhythm. Dub music_sentence_49

The instrumental record excited the people at the sound system and they started singing lyrics of the vocal track over the instrumental. Dub music_sentence_50

The invention was a success, and Ruddy needed to play the instrumental continuously for half an hour to an hour that day. Dub music_sentence_51

The next day Bunny Lee who was a witness to this, told King Tubby that they needed to make some more instrumental tracks, as "them people love" them, and they dubbed out vocals from "Ain't Too Proud To Beg" by Slim Smith. Dub music_sentence_52

Because of King Tubby's innovative approach, the resulting instrumental track was more than just a track without a voice – King Tubby interchanged the vocals and the instrumental, playing the vocals first, then playing the riddim, then mixing them together. Dub music_sentence_53

From this point on, they started to call such tracks "versions." Dub music_sentence_54

Another source puts 1967 and not 1968 as the initial year of the practice of putting instrumental versions of reggae tracks to the B-side of records. Dub music_sentence_55

At Studio One the initial motivation to experiment with instrumental tracks and studio mixing was correcting the riddim until it had a "feel," so a singer, for instance, could comfortably sing over it. Dub music_sentence_56

Another reason to experiment with mixing was rivalry among sound systems. Dub music_sentence_57

Sound systems' sound men wanted the tracks they played at dances to be slightly different each time, so they would order numerous copies of the same record from a studio, each with a different mix. Dub music_sentence_58

Evolution of dub as a subgenre (1970s) Dub music_section_4

By 1973, through the efforts of several independent and competitive innovators, engineers, and producers, instrumental reggae "versions" from various studios had evolved into "dub" as a subgenre of reggae. Dub music_sentence_59

Errol Thompson engineered the first strictly instrumental reggae album, entitled The Undertaker by Derrick Harriott and the Crystallites. Dub music_sentence_60

This album was released in 1970. Dub music_sentence_61

This innovative album credits "Sound Effects" to Derrick Harriott. Dub music_sentence_62

In 1973, at least three producers, Lee "Scratch" Perry and the Aquarius studio engineer/producer team of Herman Chin Loy and Errol Thompson simultaneously recognized that there was an active market for this new "dub" sound and consequently they started to release the first albums strictly consisting of dub. Dub music_sentence_63

In the spring of 1973, Lee "Scratch" Perry released Upsetters 14 Dub Blackboard Jungle, mixed in collaboration with King Tubby and more commonly known as "Blackboard Jungle Dub". Dub music_sentence_64

It is considered a landmark recording of this genre. Dub music_sentence_65

In 1974, Keith Hudson released his classic Pick a Dub, widely considered to have been the first deliberately thematic dub album, with tracks specifically mixed in the dub style for the purpose of appearing together on an LP, and King Tubby released his two debut albums At the Grass Roots of Dub and Surrounded by the Dreads at the National Arena. Dub music_sentence_66

Recent history (Early 1980s–present) Dub music_section_5

Dub has continued to evolve, its popularity waxing and waning with changes in musical fashion. Dub music_sentence_67

Almost all reggae singles still carry an instrumental version on the B-side and these are still used by the sound systems as a blank canvas for live singers and DJs. Dub music_sentence_68

In 1986, the Japanese band Mute Beat would create dub music using live instruments such as trumpets rather than studio equipment, and became a precursor to the acid jazz, ambient and trip hop music genres. Dub music_sentence_69

They collaborated with numerous Jamaican artists such as King Tubby, Lee "Scratch" Perry and Gladstone Anderson amongst others and became a large influence upon future dub musicians. Dub music_sentence_70

In the 1980s, the United Kingdom became a new centre for dub production with Mikey Dread, Mad Professor and Jah Shaka being the most famous. Dub music_sentence_71

It was also the time when dub made its influence known in the work of harder edged, experimental producers such as Mikey Dread with UB40 and The Clash, Adrian Sherwood and the roster of artists on his On-U Sound label. Dub music_sentence_72

Many bands characterized as post-punk were heavily influenced by dub. Dub music_sentence_73

Better-known bands such as The Police, The Clash and UB40 helped popularize Dub, with UB40's Present Arms In Dub album being the first dub album to hit the UK top 40. Dub music_sentence_74

Side by side with reggae at this time (early 1980s) running B side dub mixes, a rising number of American (mostly New York state and New Jersey-based) post-disco record producers in collaboration with prominent DJs decided to supply 12 inch singles with alternate dub mixes, predating the era of "remixes." Dub music_sentence_75

Reflected in the production of records such as The Peech Boys' "Don't Make Me Wait," Toney Lee's "Reach Up," and artists mostly on New York City labels Prelude or West End. Dub music_sentence_76

In the aforementioned mixes the beat of the record was accentuated, "unnecessary" vocal parts dropped, and other DJ-friendly features making it easy to work with, like picking out key sections to play over other records, heightening the dancefloor effect. Dub music_sentence_77

Contemporary instances are also called "dubtronica," or electronic music influenced by dub music. Dub music_sentence_78

Musical impact Dub music_section_6

Influence of dub Dub music_section_7

Influence of dub on punk and rock music Dub music_section_8

Since the inception of dub in the late 1960s, its history has been intertwined with that of the punk rock scene in the UK. Dub music_sentence_79

The Clash worked on collaborations involving Jamaican dub reggae creators like Lee "Scratch" Perry (whose "Police & Thieves", co-written with Junior Murvin, was covered by the Clash on their first album) and Mikey Dread (on the Sandinista! Dub music_sentence_80

album). Dub music_sentence_81

As well, the English group Ruts DC, a post-Malcolm Owen incarnation of the legendary reggae influenced punk group The Ruts, released Rhythm Collision Dub Volume 1 (Roir session), with the expertise of the Mad Professor. Dub music_sentence_82

Many punk rock bands In the U.S. were exposed to dub via the rasta punk band Bad Brains from D.C., which was established and released their most influential material during the 80s. Dub music_sentence_83

Blind Idiot God placed dub music alongside their faster and more intense noise rock tracks. Dub music_sentence_84

Dub was adopted by some punk rock groups of the 90s, with bands such as Rancid and NOFX writing original songs in a dub style. Dub music_sentence_85

Often, bands considered to be ska punk play dub influenced songs; one of the first such bands to become popular was Sublime, whose albums featured both dub originals and remixes. Dub music_sentence_86

They went on to influence more recent American bands such as Rx Bandits and The Long Beach Dub Allstars. Dub music_sentence_87

In addition, dub influenced some types of pop, including bands such as No Doubt. Dub music_sentence_88

No Doubt's second-most recent album, Rock Steady , features an assortment of popular dub sounds like reverb and echoing. Dub music_sentence_89

As noted by the band themselves, No Doubt is heavily influenced by Jamaican musical aesthetics and production techniques, even recording their Rock Steady album in Kingston, Jamaica, and producing B-sides featuring dub influences on their Everything in Time B-sides album. Dub music_sentence_90

Some controversy still exists on whether pop-ska bands like No Doubt can regard themselves as a part of dub lineage. Dub music_sentence_91

Other bands followed in the footsteps of No Doubt, fusing pop-ska and dub influences, such as Save Ferris and Vincent. Dub music_sentence_92

There are also some British punk bands creating dub music. Dub music_sentence_93

Capdown released their Civil Disobedients album, featuring the track "Dub No. Dub music_sentence_94

1", while Sonic Boom Six and The King Blues take heavy influences from dub, mixing the genre with original punk ethics and attitudes. Dub music_sentence_95

The post-punk band Public Image Ltd, fronted by John Lydon, formerly of Sex Pistols, often use dub and reggae influenced bass lines in their music, especially in their earlier music through various bassists who were members of the group, such as Jah Wobble and Jonas Hellborg. Dub music_sentence_96

Their track "Rise", which reached #11 in the UK Chart in 1986 uses a dub/reggae influenced bass line. Dub music_sentence_97

Shoegaze bands such as Ride with their song "King Bullshit" and the intro to "Time Machine" have explored and experimented with dub. Dub music_sentence_98

Slowdive also penned "Souvlaki Space Station" and their instrumental "Moussaka Chaos" as a testimony of dub influence, while the Kitchens of Distinction released "Anvil Dub". Dub music_sentence_99

Steve Hogarth, singer with British rock band Marillion, acknowledged the influence of dub on their 2001 album Anoraknophobia. Dub music_sentence_100

21st century dub in the roots tradition Dub music_section_9

Traditional dub has survived and some of the originators of dub such as Lee "Scratch" Perry and Mad Professor continue to produce new material. Dub music_sentence_101

New artists continue to preserve the traditional dub sound, some with slight modifications but with a primary focus on reproducing the original characteristics of the sound in a live environment. Dub music_sentence_102

Some of those artists include Dubblestandart from Vienna, Austria (who recorded the album "Return from Planet Dub" in collaboration with, and performs live with, Lee Scratch Perry), Liquid Stranger from Sweden, New York City artists including Ticklah, also known as Victor Axelrod, Victor Rice, Easy Star All-Stars, Dub Trio (who have recorded and performed live with Mike Patton, and are currently touring as the backing band for Matisyahu), Subatomic Sound System (who have remixed material by Lee Scratch Perry and Ari Up), Dub is a Weapon, King Django, Dr. Israel, Giant Panda Guerilla Dub Squad from Rochester, New York, Heavyweight Dub Champion from San Francisco and Colorado, Gaudi, Ott from the UK who has released several influential albums through Twisted Records, Boom One Sound System and Dubsmith from the Boom One Records label, Future Pigeon from Los Angeles, German artists like Disrupt and Rootah from the Jahtari label, Twilight Circus from the Netherlands, Moonlight Dub Experiment from Costa Rica and Stand High Patrol from France. Dub music_sentence_103

More eclectic use of dub techniques are apparent in the work of BudNubac, which mixes Cuban bigband with dub techniques. Dub music_sentence_104

Modern dub producer Ryan Moore has received critical acclaim for his Twilight Circus project. Dub music_sentence_105

Afrofuturism Dub music_section_10

Dub music is in conversation with the cultural aesthetic of Afrofuturism. Dub music_sentence_106

Having emerged from Jamaica, this genre is regarded as the product of diaspora peoples, whose culture reflects the experience of dislocation, alienation and remembrance. Dub music_sentence_107

Through the creation of space-filling soundscapes, faded echoes, and repetition within musical tracks, Dub artists are able to tap into such Afrofuturist concepts as the nonlinearity of time and the projection of past sounds into an unknown future space. Dub music_sentence_108

In a 1982 essay, Luke Ehrlich describes Dub through this particular scope: Dub music_sentence_109

Jamaican Sound System Dub music_section_11

The most straightforward explanation of the Jamaican sound system would be an individual who deals with a mechanical system consisting of musical amplification and diffusion. Dub music_sentence_110

This would include turntables, speakers, and a PA system. Dub music_sentence_111

In this system the deejay is the person who speaks over the record. Dub music_sentence_112

This is not to be confused with the American term DJ, which refers to the one in charge of selecting the tracks at an event with music. Dub music_sentence_113

This role is known as the selector in the sound system dub culture, who also plays a vital role in the system, especially in Jamaican dancehalls. Dub music_sentence_114

The sound system has had a prevalent spot in music production in Jamaica for well over 50 years. Dub music_sentence_115

The true importance and relationship between the sound system and dub music can be found in the dubbed out versions of sounds that became the source of Dub music. Dub music_sentence_116

These dubbed out versions of songs consisted of the original track, without the vocals. Dub music_sentence_117

Through reggae soundscape and the Jamaican Sound System, dub artists were able to creatively manipulate these dubbed out versions or remixes of songs. Dub music_sentence_118

These dub remixes were heavily influenced with effects, vocal samples, and were essential to the progression of dub. Dub music_sentence_119

The remixes, often referred to as versions were the B-sides of a specific record. Dub music_sentence_120

The dub musician would add in dramatic pauses and breakdowns in the version to make the song have a dub influence and feel. Dub music_sentence_121

The artists who were using the sound system to create dub tracks would refer to their creation of remixes of certain records versioning. Dub music_sentence_122

In the setting of a sound system, versions allow for more vocal improvisation and expressions from the deejay. Dub music_sentence_123

These remixes or versions would not have been possible without the Jamaican sound system and its progression over the years. Dub music_sentence_124

At the heart of reggae and Jamaican culture lies the sound system. Dub music_sentence_125

In the early 1950s the sound system was merely nothing more than a turntable, amplifier, and pair of speakers. Dub music_sentence_126

Since then in the 21st century they have become massive productions set to include large scale equipment and crew and now has the capacity to tour worldwide. Dub music_sentence_127

The Jamaican sound system paired with the evolution of dub music has caused new culture to emerge and change throughout Jamaica. Dub music_sentence_128

When Jamaica gained independence from Britain in 1962, the culture was in jeopardy and the country was in a state of identity crisis. Dub music_sentence_129

Along with its independence from Britain, Jamaica started to experience a lack of individuality and originality in its music, and this threatened to send Jamaica into further cultural disarray. Dub music_sentence_130

The Jamaican sound system and dub music allowed for Jamaica to have another genre of music they can claim as their own. Dub music_sentence_131

See also Dub music_section_12

Dub music_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dub music.