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This article is about the capital of Ireland. Dublin_sentence_0

For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). Dublin_sentence_1

"Áth Cliath" redirects here. Dublin_sentence_2

For the village in Scotland, see Hurlford. Dublin_sentence_3



Baile Átha CliathDublin_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryDublin_header_cell_0_1_0 IrelandDublin_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceDublin_header_cell_0_2_0 LeinsterDublin_cell_0_2_1
TypeDublin_header_cell_0_4_0 City CouncilDublin_cell_0_4_1
HeadquartersDublin_header_cell_0_5_0 Dublin City HallDublin_cell_0_5_1
Lord MayorDublin_header_cell_0_6_0 Hazel Chu (GP)Dublin_cell_0_6_1
Dáil ÉireannDublin_header_cell_0_7_0 Dublin Central

Dublin Bay North Dublin North-West Dublin South-Central Dublin Bay SouthDublin_cell_0_7_1

European ParliamentDublin_header_cell_0_8_0 Dublin constituencyDublin_cell_0_8_1
Capital cityDublin_header_cell_0_10_0 117.8 km (45.5 sq mi)Dublin_cell_0_10_1
UrbanDublin_header_cell_0_11_0 318 km (123 sq mi)Dublin_cell_0_11_1
Population (2016)Dublin_header_cell_0_12_0
Capital cityDublin_header_cell_0_13_0 554,554Dublin_cell_0_13_1
DensityDublin_header_cell_0_14_0 4,811/km (12,460/sq mi)Dublin_cell_0_14_1
UrbanDublin_header_cell_0_15_0 1,173,179Dublin_cell_0_15_1
Metro (2020)Dublin_header_cell_0_16_0 1,417,700Dublin_cell_0_16_1
Greater DublinDublin_header_cell_0_17_0 1,904,806Dublin_cell_0_17_1

(2011 Census)Dublin_header_cell_0_18_0

Ethnic groupsDublin_cell_0_18_1
DemonymsDublin_header_cell_0_19_0 Dubliner, DubDublin_cell_0_19_1
Time zoneDublin_header_cell_0_20_0 UTC0 (GMT)Dublin_cell_0_20_1
Summer (DST)Dublin_header_cell_0_21_0 UTC+1 (IST)Dublin_cell_0_21_1
EircodeDublin_header_cell_0_22_0 D01 to D18, D20, D22, D24 & D6WDublin_cell_0_22_1
Area code(s)Dublin_header_cell_0_23_0 01 (+3531)Dublin_cell_0_23_1
GDPDublin_header_cell_0_24_0 €106 billionDublin_cell_0_24_1
GDP per capitaDublin_header_cell_0_25_0 €79,000Dublin_cell_0_25_1
WebsiteDublin_header_cell_0_26_0 Dublin_cell_0_26_1

Dublin (/ˈdʌblɪn/, locally /ˈdʊb-/; Irish: Baile Átha Cliath [ˈbˠalʲə aːhə ˈclʲiə; ˌbʲlʲaː ˈclʲiə) is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin_sentence_4

Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the province of Leinster. Dublin_sentence_5

It is bordered on the south by the Dublin Mountains, a part of the Wicklow Mountains range. Dublin_sentence_6

It has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region (formerly County Dublin) as of 2016 was 1,347,359. Dublin_sentence_7

The population of the Greater Dublin Area was 1,904,806 per the 2016 census. Dublin_sentence_8

There is archaeological debate regarding precisely where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Dublin_sentence_9

Later expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion. Dublin_sentence_10

The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire after the Acts of Union in 1800. Dublin_sentence_11

Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, later renamed Ireland. Dublin_sentence_12

Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, administration and industry. Dublin_sentence_13

As of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. Dublin_sentence_14

Etymology Dublin_section_0

See also: Other names of Dublin Dublin_sentence_15

The name Dublin derives from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh ([d̪uβ, [d̪uw, [d̪uː) meaning "black, dark", and lind ([lʲiɲ(d̪ʲ)) "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. Dublin_sentence_16

This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. Dublin_sentence_17

In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn [ˈd̪ˠiːlʲiɲ. Dublin_sentence_18

The original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn and Breton Dulenn. Dublin_sentence_19

Other localities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicised as Devlin, Divlin and Difflin. Dublin_sentence_20

Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Dublin_sentence_21

Those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Dublin_sentence_22

Variations on the name are also found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland (Gàidhealtachd, cognate with Irish Gaeltacht), such as An Linne Dhubh ("the black pool"), which is part of Loch Linnhe. Dublin_sentence_23

It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Dublin_sentence_24

Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Dublin_sentence_25

The Viking settlement of about 841, Dyflin, and a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath ("ford of hurdles") further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge (also known as Dublin Bridge), at the bottom of Church Street. Dublin_sentence_26

Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Dublin_sentence_27

Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Dublin_sentence_28

Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, currently occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. Dublin_sentence_29

There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Scotland, which is anglicised as Hurlford. Dublin_sentence_30

History Dublin_section_1

Main articles: History of Dublin and Timeline of Dublin Dublin_sentence_31

The area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy (the Greco-Roman astronomer and cartographer) in about AD 140 provide possibly the earliest reference to a settlement there. Dublin_sentence_32

He called it Eblana polis (Greek: Ἔβλανα πόλις). Dublin_sentence_33

Dublin celebrated its 'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would later become the city of Dublin. Dublin_sentence_34

It is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Dublin_sentence_35

Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which later became the modern Dublin. Dublin_sentence_36

The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. Dublin_sentence_37

The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships. Dublin_sentence_38

This pool was finally fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. Dublin_sentence_39

The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Dublin_sentence_40

Táin Bó Cuailgne ("The Cattle Raid of Cooley") refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, which is called Ath Cliath". Dublin_sentence_41

Middle Ages Dublin_section_2

Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained largely under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169. Dublin_sentence_42

It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. Dublin_sentence_43

According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Dublin_sentence_44

Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 9th and 10th centuries. Dublin_sentence_45

Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men, women and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice. Dublin_sentence_46

The victims came from Wales, England, Normandy and beyond. Dublin_sentence_47

The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Dublin_sentence_48

Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. Dublin_sentence_49

In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in 1171 and pronounced himself Lord of Ireland. Dublin_sentence_50

Around this time, the county of the City of Dublin was established along with certain liberties adjacent to the city proper. Dublin_sentence_51

This continued down to 1840 when the barony of Dublin City was separated from the barony of Dublin. Dublin_sentence_52

Since 2001, both baronies have been redesignated as the City of Dublin. Dublin_sentence_53

Dublin Castle, which became the centre of Anglo-Norman power in Ireland, was founded in 1204 as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England. Dublin_sentence_54

Following the appointment of the first Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1229, the city expanded and had a population of 8,000 by the end of the 13th century. Dublin_sentence_55

Dublin prospered as a trade centre, despite an attempt by King Robert I of Scotland to capture the city in 1317. Dublin_sentence_56

It remained a relatively small walled medieval town during the 14th century and was under constant threat from the surrounding native clans. Dublin_sentence_57

In 1348, the Black Death, a lethal plague which had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin and killed thousands over the following decade. Dublin_sentence_58

Dublin was the heart of the area known as the Pale, a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern coast, under the control of the English Crown. Dublin_sentence_59

The Tudor conquest of Ireland in the 16th century spelt a new era for Dublin, with the city enjoying a renewed prominence as the centre of administrative rule in an Ireland where English control and settlement had become much more extensive. Dublin_sentence_60

Determined to make Dublin a Protestant city, Queen Elizabeth I of England established Trinity College in 1592 as a solely Protestant university and ordered that the Catholic St. Dublin_sentence_61 Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals be converted to the Protestant church. Dublin_sentence_62

The city had a population of 21,000 in 1640 before a plague in 1649–51 wiped out almost half of the inhabitants. Dublin_sentence_63

However, the city prospered again soon after as a result of the wool and linen trade with England, reaching a population of over 50,000 in 1700. Dublin_sentence_64

Early modern Dublin_section_3

As the city continued to prosper during the 18th century, Georgian Dublin became, for a short period, the second largest city of the British Empire and the fifth largest city in Europe, with the population exceeding 130,000. Dublin_sentence_65

The vast majority of Dublin's most notable architecture dates from this period – the Four Courts, the Custom House, Temple Bar and Grafton Street are some of the few remaining areas that were not affected by the wave of Georgian reconstruction and maintained their medieval character. Dublin_sentence_66

Dublin grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many new districts and buildings, such as Merrion Square, Parliament House and the Royal Exchange. Dublin_sentence_67

The Wide Streets Commission was established in 1757 at the request of Dublin Corporation to govern architectural standards on the layout of streets, bridges and buildings. Dublin_sentence_68

In 1759, the Guinness brewery was founded; and would eventually grow to become the largest brewery in the world and the largest employer in Dublin. Dublin_sentence_69

Late modern and contemporary Dublin_section_4

Dublin suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century following the Acts of Union 1800, under which the seat of government was transferred to the Westminster Parliament in London. Dublin_sentence_70

The city played no major role in the Industrial Revolution, but remained the centre of administration and a transport hub for most of the island. Dublin_sentence_71

Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not a centre of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in Britain and Ireland. Dublin_sentence_72

Belfast developed faster than Dublin during this period on a mixture of international trade, factory-based linen cloth production and shipbuilding. Dublin_sentence_73

The Easter Rising of 1916, the Irish War of Independence, and the subsequent Irish Civil War resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central Dublin. Dublin_sentence_74

The Government of the Irish Free State rebuilt the city centre and located the new parliament, the Oireachtas, in Leinster House. Dublin_sentence_75

Since the beginning of Norman rule in the 12th century, the city has functioned as the capital in varying geopolitical entities: Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541), Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800), as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922), and the Irish Republic (1919–1922). Dublin_sentence_76

Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, it became the capital of the Irish Free State (1922–1937) and now is the capital of Ireland. Dublin_sentence_77

One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance. Dublin_sentence_78

Dublin was also a victim of the Northern Irish Troubles, although during this 30-year conflict, violence mainly occurred within Northern Ireland. Dublin_sentence_79

However, the Provisional IRA drew some support from within the Republic, including from Dublin. Dublin_sentence_80

A Loyalist paramilitary group, the Ulster Volunteer Force, bombed the city during this time – notably in an atrocity known as the Dublin and Monaghan bombings in which 34 people died, mainly in central Dublin. Dublin_sentence_81

Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed. Dublin_sentence_82

The city was at the forefront of Ireland's economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period, with private sector and state development of housing, transport and business. Dublin_sentence_83

Following an economic decline during the Great Recession, Dublin has rebounded and as of 2017 has close to full employment, but has a significant problem with housing supply in both the city and surrounds. Dublin_sentence_84

Government Dublin_section_5

Local Dublin_section_6

From 1842, the boundaries of the city were comprehended by the baronies of Dublin City and the Barony of Dublin. Dublin_sentence_85

In 1930, the boundaries were extended by the Local Government (Dublin) Act. Dublin_sentence_86

Later, in 1953, the boundaries were again extended by the Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation Act. Dublin_sentence_87

Dublin City Council is a unicameral assembly of 63 members elected every five years from Local Election Areas. Dublin_sentence_88

It is presided over by the Lord Mayor, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in Dublin's Mansion House. Dublin_sentence_89

Council meetings occur at Dublin City Hall, while most of its administrative activities are based in the Civic Offices on Wood Quay. Dublin_sentence_90

The party or coalition of parties with the majority of seats assigns committee members, introduces policies, and proposes the Lord Mayor. Dublin_sentence_91

The Council passes an annual budget for spending on areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, and planning. Dublin_sentence_92

The Dublin City Manager is responsible for implementing City Council decisions but also has considerable executive power. Dublin_sentence_93

National Dublin_section_7

As the capital city, Dublin is the seat of the national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas. Dublin_sentence_94

It is composed of the President of Ireland, Seanad Éireann as the upper house, and Dáil Éireann as the lower house. Dublin_sentence_95

The President resides in Áras an Uachtaráin in Phoenix Park, while both houses of the Oireachtas meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on Kildare Street. Dublin_sentence_96

It has been the home of the Irish parliament since the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. Dublin_sentence_97

The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland are located in College Green. Dublin_sentence_98

Government Buildings house the Department of the Taoiseach, the Council Chamber, the Department of Finance and the Office of the Attorney General. Dublin_sentence_99

It consists of a main building (completed 1911) with two wings (completed 1921). Dublin_sentence_100

It was designed by Thomas Manley Dean and Sir Aston Webb as the Royal College of Science. Dublin_sentence_101

The First Dáil originally met in the Mansion House in 1919. Dublin_sentence_102

The Irish Free State government took over the two wings of the building to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology until 1989. Dublin_sentence_103

Although both it and Leinster House were intended to be temporary locations, they became the permanent homes of parliament from then on. Dublin_sentence_104

For elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is divided into five constituencies: Dublin Central (3 seats), Dublin Bay North (5 seats), Dublin North-West (3 seats), Dublin South-Central (4 seats) and Dublin Bay South (4 seats). Dublin_sentence_105

Nineteen TD's are elected in total. Dublin_sentence_106

Representation Dublin_section_8

In the 2016 general election the Dublin city area elected 6 Fine Gael, 4 Sinn Féin, 2 Fianna Fáil, 2 Independents 4 Change, 2 Independents, 1 People Before Profit, 1 Green Party and 1 Social Democrats TDs. Dublin_sentence_107

Geography Dublin_section_9

Landscape Dublin_section_10

Dublin is situated at the mouth of the River Liffey and encompasses a land area of approximately 117.8 square kilometres (45.5 sq mi) in east-central Ireland. Dublin_sentence_108

It is bordered by the Dublin Mountains, a low mountain range and sub range of the Wicklow Mountains, to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west. Dublin_sentence_109

Watercourses Dublin_section_11

See also: List of rivers of County Dublin Dublin_sentence_110

The River Liffey divides the city in two, between the Northside and the Southside. Dublin_sentence_111

The Liffey bends at Leixlip from a northeasterly route to a predominantly eastward direction, and this point also marks the transition to urban development from more agricultural land usage. Dublin_sentence_112

Two secondary rivers further divide the city  – the River Tolka, running southeast into Dublin Bay, and the River Dodder running northeast to near the mouth of the Liffey, and these and the Liffey have multiple tributaries. Dublin_sentence_113

A number of lesser rivers and streams also flow to the sea. Dublin_sentence_114

Two canals – the Grand Canal on the southside and the Royal Canal on the northside – ring the inner city on their way from the west and the River Shannon. Dublin_sentence_115

Cultural divide Dublin_section_12

A north–south division once, to some extent, traditionally existed, with the River Liffey as the divider. Dublin_sentence_116

The South side was generally seen as being more affluent and genteel than the North side. Dublin_sentence_117

There have also been some social divisions evident between the coastal suburbs in the east of the city, and the newer developments further to the west. Dublin_sentence_118

In some tourism and real-estate marketing contexts, inner Dublin is sometimes divided into a number of "quarters" or districts. Dublin_sentence_119

These include, the 'Medieval Quarter' (in the area of Dublin Castle, Christ Church and St Patrick's Cathedral and the old city walls), the 'Georgian Quarter' (including the area around St Stephen's Green, Trinity College, and Merrion Square), the 'Docklands Quarter' (around the Dublin Docklands and Silicon Docks), the 'Cultural Quarter' (around Temple Bar), and 'Creative Quarter' (between South William Street and George's Street). Dublin_sentence_120

Climate Dublin_section_13

Similar to much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Dublin experiences a maritime climate (Cfb) with mild-warm summers, cool winters, and a lack of temperature extremes. Dublin_sentence_121

The average maximum January temperature is 8.8 °C (48 °F), while the average maximum July temperature is 20.2 °C (68 °F). Dublin_sentence_122

On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 76 mm (3 in) of rain, and the driest month is February with 46 mm (2 in). Dublin_sentence_123

Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. Dublin_sentence_124

Dublin's sheltered location on the east coast makes it the driest place in Ireland, receiving only about half the rainfall of the west coast. Dublin_sentence_125

Ringsend in the south of the city records the lowest rainfall in the country, with an average annual precipitation of 683 mm (27 in), with the average annual precipitation in the city centre being 714 mm (28 in). Dublin_sentence_126

The main precipitation in winter is rain; however snow showers do occur between November and March. Dublin_sentence_127

Hail is more common than snow. Dublin_sentence_128

The city experiences long summer days and short winter days. Dublin_sentence_129

Strong Atlantic winds are most common in autumn. Dublin_sentence_130

These winds can affect Dublin, but due to its easterly location, it is least affected compared to other parts of the country. Dublin_sentence_131

However, in winter, easterly winds render the city colder and more prone to snow showers. Dublin_sentence_132

In the 20th century, smog and air-pollution were an issue in the city, precipitating a ban on bituminous fuels across Dublin. Dublin_sentence_133

The ban was implemented in 1990 to address black smoke concentrations, that had been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory deaths in residents. Dublin_sentence_134

Since the ban, non-trauma death rates, respiratory death rates and cardiovascular death rates have declined – by an estimated 350 deaths annually. Dublin_sentence_135


Climate data for DublinDublin_header_cell_1_0_0
MonthDublin_header_cell_1_1_0 JanDublin_header_cell_1_1_1 FebDublin_header_cell_1_1_2 MarDublin_header_cell_1_1_3 AprDublin_header_cell_1_1_4 MayDublin_header_cell_1_1_5 JunDublin_header_cell_1_1_6 JulDublin_header_cell_1_1_7 AugDublin_header_cell_1_1_8 SepDublin_header_cell_1_1_9 OctDublin_header_cell_1_1_10 NovDublin_header_cell_1_1_11 DecDublin_header_cell_1_1_12 YearDublin_header_cell_1_1_13
Average sea temperature °C (°F)Dublin_header_cell_1_2_0 9.6


























Mean daily daylight hoursDublin_header_cell_1_3_0 8.0Dublin_cell_1_3_1 10.0Dublin_cell_1_3_2 12.0Dublin_cell_1_3_3 14.0Dublin_cell_1_3_4 16.0Dublin_cell_1_3_5 17.0Dublin_cell_1_3_6 16.0Dublin_cell_1_3_7 15.0Dublin_cell_1_3_8 13.0Dublin_cell_1_3_9 11.0Dublin_cell_1_3_10 9.0Dublin_cell_1_3_11 8.0Dublin_cell_1_3_12 12.4Dublin_cell_1_3_13
Average Ultraviolet indexDublin_header_cell_1_4_0 0Dublin_cell_1_4_1 1Dublin_cell_1_4_2 2Dublin_cell_1_4_3 4Dublin_cell_1_4_4 5Dublin_cell_1_4_5 6Dublin_cell_1_4_6 6Dublin_cell_1_4_7 5Dublin_cell_1_4_8 4Dublin_cell_1_4_9 2Dublin_cell_1_4_10 1Dublin_cell_1_4_11 0Dublin_cell_1_4_12 3Dublin_cell_1_4_13
Source: Weather AtlasDublin_header_cell_1_5_0

Places of interest Dublin_section_14

Landmarks Dublin_section_15

Further information: List of public art in Dublin Dublin_sentence_136

Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. Dublin_sentence_137

One of the oldest is Dublin Castle, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of England's King John in 1204, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the King's treasure. Dublin_sentence_138

Largely complete by 1230, the castle was of typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square without a keep, bounded on all sides by tall defensive walls and protected at each corner by a circular tower. Dublin_sentence_139

Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle as a natural means of defence. Dublin_sentence_140

One of Dublin's newest monuments is the Spire of Dublin, officially entitled the "Monument of Light." Dublin_sentence_141

It is a 121.2-metre (398 ft) conical spire made of stainless steel, located on O'Connell Street where it meets Henry Street and North Earl Street. Dublin_sentence_142

It replaces Nelson's Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin's place in the 21st century. Dublin_sentence_143

The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects, who sought an "Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology". Dublin_sentence_144

The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky across the city. Dublin_sentence_145

The Old Library of Trinity College, Dublin, holding the Book of Kells, is one of the city's most visited sites. Dublin_sentence_146

The Book of Kells is an illustrated manuscript created by Irish monks circa 800 AD. Dublin_sentence_147

The Ha'penny Bridge, an iron footbridge over the River Liffey, is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered to be one of Dublin's most iconic landmarks. Dublin_sentence_148

Other landmarks and monuments include Christ Church Cathedral and St Patrick's Cathedral, the Mansion House, the Molly Malone statue, the complex of buildings around Leinster House, including part of the National Museum of Ireland and the National Library of Ireland, The Custom House and Áras an Uachtaráin. Dublin_sentence_149

Other sights include the Anna Livia monument. Dublin_sentence_150

The Poolbeg Towers are also landmark features of Dublin, and visible from various spots around the city. Dublin_sentence_151

Parks Dublin_section_16

There are many green-spaces around the city, and Dublin City Council manages over 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of parks. Dublin_sentence_152

Public parks include the Phoenix Park, Herbert Park, St Stephen's Green, Saint Anne's Park and Bull Island. Dublin_sentence_153

The Phoenix Park is about 3 km (2 miles) west of the city centre, north of the River Liffey. Dublin_sentence_154

Its 16-kilometre (10 mi) perimeter wall encloses 707 hectares (1,750 acres), making it one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. Dublin_sentence_155

It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild fallow deer. Dublin_sentence_156

The residence of the President of Ireland (Áras an Uachtaráin), which was built in 1751, is located in the park. Dublin_sentence_157

The park is also home to Dublin Zoo, Ashtown Castle, and the official residence of the United States Ambassador. Dublin_sentence_158

Music concerts are also sometimes held in the park. Dublin_sentence_159

St Stephen's Green is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, and to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies. Dublin_sentence_160

Saint Anne's Park is a public park and recreational facility, shared between Raheny and Clontarf, both suburbs on the Northside. Dublin_sentence_161

The park, the second largest municipal park in Dublin, is part of a former 2-square-kilometre (0.8 sq mi; 500-acre) estate assembled by members of the Guinness family, beginning with Benjamin Lee Guinness in 1835 (the largest municipal park is nearby (North) Bull Island, also shared between Clontarf and Raheny), featuring a 5 km beach. Dublin_sentence_162

Economy Dublin_section_17

Main article: Economy of Dublin Dublin_sentence_163

The Dublin region is the economic centre of Ireland, and was at the forefront of the country's economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period. Dublin_sentence_164

In 2009, Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and 10th richest by personal income. Dublin_sentence_165

According to Mercer's 2011 Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, Dublin is the 13th most expensive city in the European Union (down from 10th in 2010) and the 58th most expensive place to live in the world (down from 42nd in 2010). Dublin_sentence_166

As of 2017, approximately 874,400 people were employed in the Greater Dublin Area. Dublin_sentence_167

Around 60% of people who are employed in Ireland's financial, ICT, and professional sectors are located in this area. Dublin_sentence_168

A number of Dublin's traditional industries, such as food processing, textile manufacturing, brewing, and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St. Dublin_sentence_169 James's Gate Brewery since 1759. Dublin_sentence_170

Economic improvements in the 1990s attracted a number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and Greater Dublin Area. Dublin_sentence_171

Companies such as Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Yahoo! Dublin_sentence_172 , Facebook, Twitter, Accenture and Pfizer now have European headquarters and/or operational bases in the city, with several located in enterprise clusters like the Digital Hub and Silicon Docks. Dublin_sentence_173

The presence of these companies has driven economic expansion in the city and led to Dublin sometimes being referred to as the "Tech Capital of Europe". Dublin_sentence_174

Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin's International Financial Services Centre in 1987. Dublin_sentence_175

More than 500 operations are approved to trade under the IFSC programme. Dublin_sentence_176

The centre is host to half of the world's top 50 banks and to half of the top 20 insurance companies. Dublin_sentence_177

Many international firms have established major headquarters in the city, such as Citibank. Dublin_sentence_178

The Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX) are also located in Dublin. Dublin_sentence_179

Dublin has been positioned as one of the main cities vying to host Financial Services companies hoping to retain access to the Eurozone after Brexit. Dublin_sentence_180

The Celtic Tiger also led to a temporary boom in construction, with large redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock. Dublin_sentence_181

Completed projects include the Convention Centre, the 3Arena, and the Bord Gáis Energy Theatre. Dublin_sentence_182

In the second quarter of 2018, Dublin touched its lowest unemployment rate in a decade, when it fell down to 5.7% as reported by the Dublin Economic Monitor. Dublin_sentence_183

Transport Dublin_section_18

Main article: Transport in Dublin Dublin_sentence_184

Road Dublin_section_19

The road network in Ireland is primarily focused on Dublin. Dublin_sentence_185

The M50 motorway, a semi-ring road which runs around the south, west and north of the city, connects important national primary routes to the rest of the country. Dublin_sentence_186

In 2008, the West-Link toll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system, with a three-tiered charge system based on electronic tags and car pre-registration. Dublin_sentence_187

The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass for the city is the Dublin Port Tunnel, which officially opened in 2006 to mainly cater for heavy vehicles. Dublin_sentence_188

The tunnel connects Dublin Port and the M1 motorway close to Dublin Airport. Dublin_sentence_189

The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. Dublin_sentence_190

The inner orbital route runs approximately around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs primarily along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal, as well as the North and South Circular Roads. Dublin_sentence_191

The 2016 TomTom Traffic Index ranked Dublin the 15th most congested city in the world and the 7th most congested in Europe. Dublin_sentence_192

Bus Dublin_section_20

Dublin is served by a network of nearly 200 bus routes which cover the city and suburbs. Dublin_sentence_193

The majority of these are provided by Dublin Bus, with a modest number having been transferred to Go Ahead Ireland in 2018, but a number of smaller companies also operate. Dublin_sentence_194

Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. Dublin_sentence_195

There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most services. Dublin_sentence_196

A "Real Time Passenger Information" system was introduced at Dublin Bus bus stops in 2012. Dublin_sentence_197

Electronically displayed signs relay information about the time of the next buses arrival based on its GPS determined position. Dublin_sentence_198

The National Transport Authority is responsible for integration of bus and rail services in Dublin and has been involved in introducing a pre-paid smart card, called a Leap card, which can be used on all of Dublin's public transport services. Dublin_sentence_199

Cycling Dublin_section_21

The 2011 Census showed that 5.9 percent of commuters in Dublin cycled. Dublin_sentence_200

A 2013 report by Dublin City Council on traffic flows crossing the canals in and out of the city found that just under 10% of all traffic was made up of cyclists, representing an increase of 14.1% over 2012 and an 87.2% increase over 2006 levels and is attributed to measures, such as, the Dublinbikes bike rental scheme, the provision of cycle lanes, public awareness campaigns to promote cycling and the introduction of the 30 km/h city centre speed limit. Dublin_sentence_201

Dublin City Council began installing cycle lanes and tracks throughout the city in the 1990s, and as of 2012 the city had over 200 kilometres (120 mi) of specific on- and off-road tracks for cyclists. Dublin_sentence_202

In 2011, the city was ranked 9th of major world cities on the Copenhagenize Index of Bicycle-Friendly Cities. Dublin_sentence_203

The same index showed a fall to 15th in 2015, and Dublin was outside the top 20 in 2017. Dublin_sentence_204

Dublinbikes is a self-service bicycle rental scheme which has been in operation in Dublin since 2009. Dublin_sentence_205

Sponsored by JCDecaux and Just Eat, the scheme consists of hundreds of unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city centre. Dublin_sentence_206

Users must make a subscription for either an annual Long Term Hire Card or purchase a three-day ticket. Dublin_sentence_207

As of 2018, Dublinbikes had over 66,000 long-term subscribers making over 2 million journeys per year. Dublin_sentence_208

Rail Dublin_section_22

Heuston and Connolly stations are the two main railway termini in Dublin. Dublin_sentence_209

Operated by Iarnród Éireann, the Dublin Suburban Rail network consists of five railway lines serving the Greater Dublin Area and commuter towns such as Drogheda and Dundalk in County Louth, Gorey in County Wexford, and extending as far as Portlaoise and once a day, Newry. Dublin_sentence_210

One of the five lines is the electrified Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) line, which runs primarily along the coast of Dublin, comprising 31 stations, from Malahide and Howth southwards as far as Greystones in County Wicklow. Dublin_sentence_211

Commuter rail operates on the other four lines using Irish Rail diesel multiple units. Dublin_sentence_212

In 2013, passengers for DART and Dublin Suburban lines were 16 million and 11.7 million, respectively (around 75% of all Irish Rail passengers). Dublin_sentence_213

Dublin once had an extensive system of trams but this was largely phased out by 1949. Dublin_sentence_214

A new light rail system, often described as a tram system, the Luas, was launched in 2004, and is run by Transdev Ireland (under contract from Transport Infrastructure Ireland), carrying over 34 million passengers annually. Dublin_sentence_215

The network consists of two interconnecting lines; the Red Line links the Docklands and city centre with the south-western suburbs of Tallaght and Saggart, while the Green Line connects northern inner city suburbs and the main city centre with suburbs to the south of the city including Sandyford and Brides Glen. Dublin_sentence_216

Together these lines comprise a total 67 stations and 44.5 kilometres (27.7 mi) of track. Dublin_sentence_217

Construction of a 6 km extension to the Green Line, bringing it into the north of the city, commenced in June 2013 and was opened for passenger travel on 9 December 2017. Dublin_sentence_218

A metro service is proposed under the name of Metrolink, and planned to run from Dublin's northside to Sandyford via Dublin Airport and St. Dublin_sentence_219 Stephen's Green, with construction projected to start after 2021. Dublin_sentence_220

Rail and ferry Dublin_section_23

Dublin Connolly is connected by bus to Dublin Port and ferries run by Irish Ferries and Stena Line to Holyhead for connecting trains on the North Wales Coast Line to Chester, Crewe and London Euston. Dublin_sentence_221

Dublin Connolly to Dublin Port can be reached via Amiens Street, Dublin into Store Street or by Luas via Busáras where Dublin Bus operates services to the Ferry Terminal. Dublin_sentence_222

Air Dublin_section_24

Dublin Airport Dublin_section_25

Dublin Airport (owned and operated by DAA) is located north of Dublin city, near Swords in the administrative county of Fingal. Dublin_sentence_223

The headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier Aer Lingus and regional airlines Stobart Air and CityJet are located there, and those of low-cost carrier Ryanair nearby. Dublin_sentence_224

The airport offers a short and medium haul network, domestic services to regional airports in Ireland, and long-haul services to the United States, Canada, the Middle East and Hong Kong. Dublin_sentence_225

Dublin Airport is the 11th busiest in the European Union, and by far the busiest airport on the island of Ireland. Dublin_sentence_226

In 2014, Dublin Airport was the 18th busiest airport in Europe, serving over 21 million passengers. Dublin_sentence_227

By 2016 this increased to 27.9 million passengers passing through the airport, establishing an all-time record supported by growth in both short- and long-haul networks. Dublin_sentence_228

In 2015 and 2016, transatlantic traffic grew, with 158 summer flights a week to North America, making it the sixth largest European hub for that route over the year. Dublin_sentence_229

Transatlantic traffic was also the fastest-growing segment of the market for the airport in 2016, in which a 16% increase from 2015 brought the yearly number of passengers travelling between Dublin and North America to 2.9 million. Dublin_sentence_230

From 2010 to 2016, Dublin Airport saw an increase of nearly 9.5 million passengers in its annual traffic, as the number of commercial aircraft movements has similarly followed a growth trend from 163,703 in 2013 to 191,233 in 2015. Dublin_sentence_231

Other air transport Dublin_section_26

Dublin is also served by Weston Airport and other small facilities, by a range of helicopter operators, and the military and some State services use Casement Aerodrome nearby. Dublin_sentence_232

Education Dublin_section_27

Dublin is the largest centre of education in Ireland, and is home to four universities and a number of other higher education institutions. Dublin_sentence_233

It was the European Capital of Science in 2012. Dublin_sentence_234

The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland, dating from the 16th century, and is located in the city centre. Dublin_sentence_235

Its sole constituent college, Trinity College (TCD), was established by Royal Charter in 1592 under Elizabeth I. Dublin_sentence_236

It was closed to Roman Catholics until 1793, and the Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending until 1970. Dublin_sentence_237

It is situated in the city centre, on College Green, and has over 18,000 students. Dublin_sentence_238

The National University of Ireland (NUI) has its seat in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated constituent university of University College Dublin (UCD), which has over 30,000 students. Dublin_sentence_239

Founded in 1854, it is now the largest university in Ireland. Dublin_sentence_240

UCD's main campus is at Belfield, about 5 km (3 mi) from the city centre, in the southeastern suburbs. Dublin_sentence_241

As of 2019, Dublin's principal, and Ireland's largest, institution for technological education and research, Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT), with origins in 1887, has merged with two major suburban third level institutions, Institute of Technology, Tallaght and Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown, to form Technological University Dublin, Ireland's second largest university by student population. Dublin_sentence_242

The new university offers a wide range of courses in areas include engineering, architecture, the sciences, health, journalism, digital media, hospitality, business, art and design, music and the humanities programmes, and has three long-term campuses, at Grangegorman, Tallaght and Blanchardstown. Dublin_sentence_243

Dublin City University (DCU), formerly the National Institute for Higher Education (NIHE) Dublin, offers courses in business, engineering, science, communication courses, languages and primary education. Dublin_sentence_244

It has around 16,000 students, and its main campus is located about 7 km (4 mi) from the city centre, in the northern suburbs. Dublin_sentence_245

Aside from the main Glasnevin Campus, the Drumcondra campus includes the former St Patrick's College of Education, now also hosting students from the nearby Mater Dei Institute and students from the Church of Ireland College of Education. Dublin_sentence_246

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) conducts a medical school which is a recognised college of the NUI, and is situated at St. Dublin_sentence_247 Stephen's Green in the city centre; there are also large medical schools within UCD and Trinity College. Dublin_sentence_248

The National College of Art and Design (NCAD) provides education and research in art, design and media. Dublin_sentence_249

The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also based in Dublin, as well as the Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, on Sir John Rogerson's Quay, and the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Dublin_sentence_250

Dublin is also home to the Royal Irish Academy, membership of which is considered Ireland's highest academic honour. Dublin_sentence_251

The Institute of International and European Affairs is also in Dublin. Dublin_sentence_252

Dublin Business School (DBS) is Ireland's largest private third level institution with over 9,000 students located on Aungier Street, and Griffith College Dublin has its main facility in Portobello. Dublin_sentence_253

There are also smaller specialised colleges, including The Gaiety School of Acting and the New Media Technology College. Dublin_sentence_254

The Irish public administration and management training centre has its base in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and post graduate awards via the National University of Ireland and in some instances, Queen's University Belfast. Dublin_sentence_255

The suburban town of Dún Laoghaire is home to the Dún Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT), which supports training and research in art, design, business, psychology and media technology. Dublin_sentence_256

Demographics Dublin_section_28

See also: Demographics of County Dublin Dublin_sentence_257


NationalityDublin_header_cell_2_0_0 PopulationDublin_header_cell_2_0_1
PolandDublin_cell_2_1_0 33,751Dublin_cell_2_1_1
UKDublin_cell_2_2_0 19,196Dublin_cell_2_2_1
RomaniaDublin_cell_2_3_0 16,808Dublin_cell_2_3_1
LithuaniaDublin_cell_2_4_0 9,869Dublin_cell_2_4_1
BrazilDublin_cell_2_5_0 8,903Dublin_cell_2_5_1
ItalyDublin_cell_2_6_0 6,834Dublin_cell_2_6_1
IndiaDublin_cell_2_7_0 6,546Dublin_cell_2_7_1
SpainDublin_cell_2_8_0 6,341Dublin_cell_2_8_1
LatviaDublin_cell_2_9_0 5,771Dublin_cell_2_9_1
Mainland ChinaDublin_cell_2_10_0 5,748Dublin_cell_2_10_1
FranceDublin_cell_2_11_0 5,576Dublin_cell_2_11_1
USADublin_cell_2_12_0 4,042Dublin_cell_2_12_1
NigeriaDublin_cell_2_13_0 2,563Dublin_cell_2_13_1
PakistanDublin_cell_2_14_0 2,515Dublin_cell_2_14_1
PhilippinesDublin_cell_2_15_0 2,204Dublin_cell_2_15_1

The City of Dublin is the area administered by Dublin City Council, but the term "Dublin" is also used to refer to the contiguous urban area which includes parts of the adjacent local authority areas of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. Dublin_sentence_258

Together, the four areas form the traditional County Dublin. Dublin_sentence_259

This area is sometimes known as the Dublin Region. Dublin_sentence_260

The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 554,554 in the 2016 census, while the population of the urban area was 1,173,179. Dublin_sentence_261

The County Dublin population was 1,273,069 and that of the Greater Dublin Area 1,904,806. Dublin_sentence_262

The area's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the Central Statistics Office that it will reach 2.1 million by 2020. Dublin_sentence_263

After World War Two, Italians were by far the largest immigrant group in both Dublin and Ireland and became synonymous with the catering and restaurant landscape. Dublin_sentence_264

Since the late 1990s, Dublin has experienced a significant level of net immigration, with the greatest numbers coming from the European Union, especially the United Kingdom, Poland and Lithuania. Dublin_sentence_265

There is also immigration from outside Europe, including from Brazil, India, the Philippines, China and Nigeria. Dublin_sentence_266

Dublin is home to a greater proportion of newer arrivals than any other part of the country. Dublin_sentence_267

Sixty percent of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin. Dublin_sentence_268

Over 15% of Dublin's population was foreign-born in 2006. Dublin_sentence_269

The capital attracts the largest proportion of non-Catholic migrants from other countries. Dublin_sentence_270

Increased secularisation in Ireland has prompted a drop in regular Catholic church attendance in Dublin from over 90 percent in the mid-1970s down to 14 percent according to a 2011 survey and less than 2% in some areas Dublin_sentence_271

According to the 2016 census, the population of Dublin was 86.2% white (including 862,381 white Irish [86.2%], 132,846 other white [13.2%] and 5,092 [0.5%] white Irish traveller), 2% black (23,892), and 4.6% Asian (46,626). Dublin_sentence_272

Additionally, 2.7% (27,412) are from other ethnic or cultural background, while 4.9% (49,092) did not state their ethnicity. Dublin_sentence_273

In terms of religion, 68.2% identified as Catholic, 12.7% as other stated religions, with 19.1% having no religion or no religion stated. Dublin_sentence_274

As of July 2018, there were 1,367 families within the Dublin region living in homeless accommodation or other emergency housing. Dublin_sentence_275

Culture Dublin_section_29

The arts Dublin_section_30

Dublin has a significant literary history, and produced many literary figures, including Nobel laureates William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Dublin_sentence_276

Other influential writers and playwrights include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. Dublin_sentence_277

It is also the location of key and notable works of James Joyce, including Ulysses, which is set in Dublin and includes much topical detail. Dublin_sentence_278

Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and typical characters of the city during the early 20th century. Dublin_sentence_279

Other renowned writers include J. Dublin_sentence_280 M. Synge, Seán O'Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy, John Banville and Roddy Doyle. Dublin_sentence_281

Ireland's biggest libraries and literary museums are found in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and National Library of Ireland. Dublin_sentence_282

In July 2010, Dublin was named as a UNESCO City of Literature, joining Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa City with the permanent title. Dublin_sentence_283

Handel's oratorio Messiah was first performed at Neal’s Music Hall, in Fishamble Street, on 13 April 1742. Dublin_sentence_284

There are several theatres within the city centre, and various well-known actors have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Michael Gambon, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney and Gabriel Byrne. Dublin_sentence_285

The best known theatres include the Gaiety, Abbey, Olympia, Gate, and Grand Canal. Dublin_sentence_286

The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and also opens its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films. Dublin_sentence_287

The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. Dublin_sentence_288

It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. Dublin_sentence_289

The Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avant Garde works. Dublin_sentence_290

The Grand Canal Theatre is a newer 2,111 capacity theatre which opened in 2010 in the Grand Canal Dock area. Dublin_sentence_291

Apart from being the focus of the country's literature and theatre, Dublin is also the focal point for much of Irish art and the Irish artistic scene. Dublin_sentence_292

The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic monks in AD 800 and an example of Insular art, is on display in Trinity College. Dublin_sentence_293

The Chester Beatty Library houses a collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish citizen) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875–1968). Dublin_sentence_294

The collections date from 2700 BC onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. Dublin_sentence_295

In addition public art galleries are found across the city and are free to visit, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, the Douglas Hyde Gallery, the Project Arts Centre and the exhibition space of the Royal Hibernian Academy. Dublin_sentence_296

Private galleries in Dublin include Green on Red Gallery, Kerlin Gallery, Kevin Kavanagh Gallery and Mother's Tankstation. Dublin_sentence_297

Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland are located in Dublin: Archaeology in Kildare Street, Decorative Arts and History in Collins Barracks and Natural History in Merrion Street. Dublin_sentence_298

The same area is also home to a number of smaller museums such as Number 29 on Fitzwilliam Street and the Little Museum of Dublin on St. Stephen's Green. Dublin_sentence_299

Dublin is home to the National College of Art and Design, which dates from 1746, and Dublin Institute of Design, founded in 1991. Dublin_sentence_300

Dublinia is a living history attraction showcasing the Viking and Medieval history of the city. Dublin_sentence_301

Dublin has long had an 'underground' arts scene, with Temple Bar hosting artists in the 1980s, and spaces such as the Project Arts Centre acting as a hub for collectives and new exhibitions. Dublin_sentence_302

The Guardian noted that Dublin's independent and underground arts flourished during the economic recession of c.2010. Dublin_sentence_303

Dublin also has many dramatic, musical and operatic companies, including Festival Productions, Lyric Opera Productions, the Pioneers' Musical & Dramatic Society, the Glasnevin Musical Society, Third Day Chorale, Second Age Theatre Company, Opera Theatre Company and Opera Ireland. Dublin_sentence_304

Dublin was shortlisted to be World Design Capital 2014. Dublin_sentence_305

Taoiseach Enda Kenny was quoted to say that Dublin "would be an ideal candidate to host the World Design Capital in 2014". Dublin_sentence_306

Entertainment Dublin_section_31

Dublin has a vibrant nightlife and is reputedly one of Europe's most youthful cities, with an estimate of 50% of citizens being younger than 25. Dublin_sentence_307

There are many pubs across the city centre, with the area around St. Dublin_sentence_308 Stephen's Green and Grafton Street, especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street, the location of many nightclubs and pubs. Dublin_sentence_309

The best known area for nightlife is Temple Bar, south of the River Liffey. Dublin_sentence_310

The area has become popular among tourists, including stag and hen parties from Britain. Dublin_sentence_311

It was developed as Dublin's cultural quarter and does retain this spirit as a centre for small arts productions, photographic and artists' studios, and in the form of street performers and small music venues; however, it has been criticised as overpriced, false and dirty by Lonely Planet. Dublin_sentence_312

The areas around Leeson Street, Harcourt Street, South William Street and Camden/George's Street are popular nightlife spots for locals. Dublin_sentence_313

Music Dublin_section_32

Live music is played on streets and at venues throughout Dublin, and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including The Dubliners, Thin Lizzy, The Boomtown Rats, U2, The Script, Sinéad O'Connor, Boyzone, Kodaline and Westlife. Dublin_sentence_314

Dublin has several mid-range venues that host live music throughout the week, including Whelans and Vicar Street. Dublin_sentence_315

The 3Arena venue in the Dublin Docklands plays host to visiting global performers. Dublin_sentence_316

Shopping Dublin_section_33

Dublin city centre is a popular shopping destination for both locals and tourists. Dublin_sentence_317

The city has numerous shopping districts, particularly around Grafton Street and Henry Street. Dublin_sentence_318

The city centre is also the location of large department stores, including Arnotts, Brown Thomas and (prior to its 2015 closure) Clerys. Dublin_sentence_319

While the city has seen the loss of some traditional market sites, Moore Street remains one of the city's oldest trading districts. Dublin_sentence_320

There has also been some growth in local farmers' markets and other markets. Dublin_sentence_321

In 2007, Dublin Food Co-op relocated to a warehouse in The Liberties area, where it is home to market and community events. Dublin_sentence_322

Suburban Dublin has several modern retail centres, including Dundrum Town Centre, Blanchardstown Centre, the Square in Tallaght, Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Omni Shopping Centre in Santry, Nutgrove Shopping Centre in Rathfarnham, and Swords Pavilions in Swords. Dublin_sentence_323

Media Dublin_section_34

Dublin is the centre of both media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telephone companies based there. Dublin_sentence_324

RTÉ is Ireland's national state broadcaster, and is based in Donnybrook. Dublin_sentence_325

Fair City is RTÉ's soap opera, located in the fictional Dublin suburb of Carraigstown. Dublin_sentence_326

Virgin Media Television, eir Sport, MTV Ireland and Sky News are also based in the city. Dublin_sentence_327

The headquarters of An Post and telecommunications companies such as Eir, as well as mobile operators Vodafone and 3 are all located there. Dublin_sentence_328

Dublin is also the headquarters of national newspapers such as The Irish Times and Irish Independent, as well as local newspapers such as The Evening Herald. Dublin_sentence_329

As well as being home to RTÉ Radio, Dublin also hosts the national radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, and local stations. Dublin_sentence_330

Commercial radio stations based in the city include 4fm (94.9 MHz), Dublin's 98FM (98.1 MHz), Radio Nova 100FM (100.3 MHz), Q102 (102.2 MHz), SPIN 1038 (103.8 MHz), FM104 (104.4 MHz), Sunshine 106.8 (106.8 MHz). Dublin_sentence_331

There are also numerous community and special interest stations, including Dublin City FM (103.2 MHz), Dublin South FM (93.9 MHz), Liffey Sound FM (96.4 MHz), Near FM (90.3 MHz), and Raidió Na Life (106.4 MHz). Dublin_sentence_332

Sport Dublin_section_35

GAA Dublin_section_36

Croke Park is the largest sport stadium in Ireland. Dublin_sentence_333

The headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association, it has a capacity of 82,300. Dublin_sentence_334

It is the third-largest stadium in Europe after Nou Camp in Barcelona and Wembley Stadium in London. Dublin_sentence_335

It hosts the premier Gaelic football and hurling games, international rules football and irregularly other sporting and non-sporting events including concerts. Dublin_sentence_336

Muhammad Ali fought there in 1972 and it played host to the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2003 Special Olympics. Dublin_sentence_337

It also has conference and banqueting facilities. Dublin_sentence_338

There is a GAA Museum there and tours of the stadium are offered, including a rooftop walk of the stadium. Dublin_sentence_339

During the redevelopment of Lansdowne Road, Croke Park played host to the Irish Rugby Union Team and Republic of Ireland national football team as well as hosting the Heineken Cup rugby 2008–09 semi-final between Munster and Leinster which set a world record attendance for a club rugby match. Dublin_sentence_340

The Dublin GAA team plays most of their home league hurling games at Parnell Park. Dublin_sentence_341

Rugby Union Dublin_section_37

I.R.F.U. Dublin_sentence_342 Stadium Lansdowne Road was laid out in 1874. Dublin_sentence_343

This was the venue for home games of both the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Republic of Ireland national football team. Dublin_sentence_344

A joint venture between the Irish Rugby Football Union, the FAI and the Government, saw it redeveloped into a new state-of-the-art 50,000 seat Aviva Stadium, which opened in May 2010. Dublin_sentence_345

Aviva Stadium hosted the 2011 UEFA Europa League Final. Dublin_sentence_346

Rugby union team Leinster Rugby play their competitive home games in the RDS Arena & the Aviva Stadium while Donnybrook Stadium hosts their friendlies and A games, Ireland A and Women, Leinster Schools and Youths and the home club games of All Ireland League clubs Old Wesley and Bective Rangers. Dublin_sentence_347

County Dublin is home for 13 of the senior rugby union clubs in Ireland including 5 of the 10 sides in the top division 1A. Dublin_sentence_348

Association football Dublin_section_38

County Dublin is home to six League of Ireland association football (soccer) clubs; Bohemians F.C., Shamrock Rovers, St Patrick's Athletic, University College Dublin, Shelbourne and Cabinteely. Dublin_sentence_349

The first Irish side to reach the group stages of a European competition (2011–12 UEFA Europa League group stage) are Shamrock Rovers, who play at Tallaght Stadium in South Dublin. Dublin_sentence_350

Bohemian F.C play at Dalymount Park, the oldest football stadium in the country, and home ground for the Ireland football team from 1904 to the 1970s. Dublin_sentence_351

St Patrick's Athletic play at Richmond Park; University College Dublin at the UCD Bowl in Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown; and Shelbourne at Tolka Park. Dublin_sentence_352

Tolka Park, Dalymount Park, UCD Bowl and Tallaght Stadium, along with the Carlisle Grounds in Bray, hosted all Group 3 games in the intermediary round of the 2011 UEFA Regions' Cup. Dublin_sentence_353

Cricket Dublin_section_39

Dublin has two ODI cricket grounds in Castle Avenue and Malahide Cricket Club Ground. Dublin_sentence_354

The Castle Avenue hosted its first One Day International match on 21 May 1999 as part of the 1999 Cricket World Cup when Bangladesh played against the West Indies. Dublin_sentence_355

College Park has Test status and played host to Ireland's first Test cricket match, a women's match against Pakistan in 2000. Dublin_sentence_356

The men's Irish cricket team also played their first Test match against Pakistan at Malahide Cricket Club Ground during 2018. Dublin_sentence_357

Leinster Lightning play their home inter-provincial matches in Dublin at College Park. Dublin_sentence_358

Other Dublin_section_40

The Dublin Marathon has been run since 1980 at the end of October. Dublin_sentence_359

The Women's Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 on the first Monday in June, which is also a bank holiday in Ireland. Dublin_sentence_360

It is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world. Dublin_sentence_361

The Great Ireland Run takes place in Dublin's Phoenix Park in mid-April. Dublin_sentence_362

The Dublin area hosts greyhound racing at Shelbourne Park and horse racing at Leopardstown. Dublin_sentence_363

The Dublin Horse Show takes place at the RDS, which hosted the Show Jumping World Championships in 1982. Dublin_sentence_364

The national boxing arena is located in The National Stadium on the South Circular Road. Dublin_sentence_365

The National Basketball Arena is located in Tallaght, is the home of the Irish basketball team, the venue for the basketball league finals, and has also hosted boxing and wrestling events. Dublin_sentence_366

The National Aquatic Centre in Blanchardstown is Ireland's largest indoor water leisure facility. Dublin_sentence_367

There are also Gaelic Handball, hockey and athletics stadia, most notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special Olympics. Dublin_sentence_368

Cuisine Dublin_section_41

As of the 2018 Michelin Guide, five Dublin restaurants shared six Michelin stars – including Restaurant Patrick Guilbaud with two. Dublin_sentence_369

Irish-born Kevin Thornton was awarded two Michelin stars in 2001 – though his restaurant, Thornton's, closed in 2016. Dublin_sentence_370

The Dublin Institute of Technology commenced a bachelor's degree in culinary skills in 1999. Dublin_sentence_371

Historically, Irish coffee houses and cafes were associated with those working in media. Dublin_sentence_372

Since the beginning of the 21st century, with the growth of apartment living in the city, Dublin's cafés attracted younger patrons looking for an informal gathering place and an ad hoc office. Dublin_sentence_373

Cafés became more popular in the city, and Irish-owned coffee chains like Java Republic, Insomnia, and O'Brien's Sandwich Bars now compete internationally. Dublin_sentence_374

In 2008, Irish barista Stephen Morrissey won the title of World Barista Champion. Dublin_sentence_375

Irish language Dublin_section_42

There are 12,950 students in the Dublin region attending 34 gaelscoileanna (Irish-language primary schools) and 10 gaelcholáistí (Irish-language secondary schools). Dublin_sentence_376

Two Irish language radio stations Raidió Na Life and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta have studios in the city, and the online and DAB station Raidió Rí-Rá broadcasts from studios in the city. Dublin_sentence_377

A number of Irish language agencies are also located in the capital. Dublin_sentence_378

Conradh na Gaeilge offers language classes, has a book shop and is a meeting place for different groups. Dublin_sentence_379

The closest Gaeltacht to Dublin is the County Meath Gaeltacht of Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib which is 55 km (34 mi) away. Dublin_sentence_380

International relations Dublin_section_43

Dublin city council has an International Relations Unit, established in 2007. Dublin_sentence_381

It works on hosting of international delegations, staff exchanges, international promotion of the city, twinning and partnerships, work with multi-city organisations such as Eurocities, economic partnerships and advice to other Council units. Dublin_sentence_382

Twin and partner cities Dublin_section_44

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Republic of Ireland Dublin_sentence_383

Dublin is twinned with four places: Dublin_sentence_384


CityDublin_header_cell_3_0_0 NationDublin_header_cell_3_0_1 SinceDublin_header_cell_3_0_2
San JoseDublin_cell_3_1_0 United StatesDublin_cell_3_1_1 1986Dublin_cell_3_1_2
LiverpoolDublin_cell_3_2_0 United KingdomDublin_cell_3_2_1 1997Dublin_cell_3_2_2
BarcelonaDublin_cell_3_3_0 SpainDublin_cell_3_3_1 1998Dublin_cell_3_3_2
BeijingDublin_cell_3_4_0 ChinaDublin_cell_3_4_1 2011Dublin_cell_3_4_2

The city also has "friendship" or "co-operation agreements" with a number of other cities: Moscow (2009−) and St Petersburg (2010−) in Russia and Guadalajara in Mexico (2013−), and has previously proposed an agreement with Rio de Janeiro also. Dublin_sentence_385

Previous agreements have included those with Mexico City (2014−2018), Tbilisi in Georgia (2014−2017) and Wuhan in China (2016−2019). Dublin_sentence_386

See also Dublin_section_45


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin.