Duke Ellington

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Duke Ellington_table_infobox_0

Duke EllingtonDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_1_0
Birth nameDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_2_0 Edward Kennedy EllingtonDuke Ellington_cell_0_2_1
BornDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_3_0 (1899-04-29)April 29, 1899

Washington, D.C., U.S.Duke Ellington_cell_0_3_1

DiedDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_4_0 May 24, 1974(1974-05-24) (aged 75)

New York City, U.S.Duke Ellington_cell_0_4_1

GenresDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_5_0 Jazz, swingDuke Ellington_cell_0_5_1
Occupation(s)Duke Ellington_header_cell_0_6_0 Duke Ellington_cell_0_6_1
InstrumentsDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_7_0 PianoDuke Ellington_cell_0_7_1
Years activeDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_8_0 1914–1974Duke Ellington_cell_0_8_1
Associated actsDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_9_0 Billy StrayhornDuke Ellington_cell_0_9_1
WebsiteDuke Ellington_header_cell_0_10_0 Duke Ellington_cell_0_10_1

Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and leader of a jazz orchestra, which he led from 1923 until his death over a career spanning more than six decades. Duke Ellington_sentence_0

Born in Washington, D.C., Ellington was based in New York City from the mid-1920s onward and gained a national profile through his orchestra's appearances at the Cotton Club in Harlem. Duke Ellington_sentence_1

In the 1930s, his orchestra toured in Europe. Duke Ellington_sentence_2

Although widely considered a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, Ellington embraced the phrase "beyond category" as a liberating principle and referred to his music as part of the more general category of American Music. Duke Ellington_sentence_3

Some of the jazz musicians who were members of Ellington's orchestra, such as saxophonist Johnny Hodges, are considered among the best players in the idiom. Duke Ellington_sentence_4

Ellington melded them into the best-known orchestral unit in the history of jazz. Duke Ellington_sentence_5

Some members stayed with the orchestra for several decades. Duke Ellington_sentence_6

A master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington wrote more than one thousand compositions; his extensive body of work is the largest recorded personal jazz legacy, and many of his pieces have become standards. Duke Ellington_sentence_7

He also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, for example Juan Tizol's "Caravan", and "Perdido", which brought a Spanish tinge to big band jazz. Duke Ellington_sentence_8

In the early 1940s, Ellington began a nearly thirty-year collaboration with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his writing and arranging companion. Duke Ellington_sentence_9

With Strayhorn, he composed many extended compositions, or suites, as well as additional short pieces. Duke Ellington_sentence_10

Following an appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival in July 1956, Ellington and his orchestra enjoyed a major revival and embarked on world tours. Duke Ellington_sentence_11

Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era, performed in and scored several films, and composed a handful of stage musicals. Duke Ellington_sentence_12

Ellington was noted for his inventive use of the orchestra, or big band, and for his eloquence and charisma. Duke Ellington_sentence_13

His reputation continued to rise after he died, and he was awarded a posthumous Pulitzer Prize Special Award for music in 1999. Duke Ellington_sentence_14

Early life and education Duke Ellington_section_0

Ellington was born on April 29, 1899, to James Edward Ellington and Daisy (Kennedy) Ellington in Washington, D.C. Duke Ellington_sentence_15

Both his parents were pianists. Duke Ellington_sentence_16

Daisy primarily played parlor songs, and James preferred operatic arias. Duke Ellington_sentence_17

They lived with Daisy's parents at 2129 Ida Place (now Ward Place), NW, in D.C.'s West End neighborhood. Duke Ellington_sentence_18

Duke's father was born in Lincolnton, North Carolina, on April 15, 1879, and moved to D.C. in 1886 with his parents. Duke Ellington_sentence_19

Daisy Kennedy was born in Washington, D.C., on January 4, 1879, the daughter of two former American slaves. Duke Ellington_sentence_20

James Ellington made for the United States Navy. Duke Ellington_sentence_21

When Edward Ellington was a child, his family showed racial pride and support in their home, as did many other families. Duke Ellington_sentence_22

African Americans in D.C. worked to protect their children from the era's Jim Crow laws. Duke Ellington_sentence_23

At age seven, Ellington began taking piano lessons from Marietta Clinkscales. Duke Ellington_sentence_24

Daisy surrounded her son with dignified women to reinforce his manners and teach him elegance. Duke Ellington_sentence_25

His childhood friends noticed that his casual, offhand manner and dapper dress gave him the bearing of a young nobleman, so they began calling him "Duke". Duke Ellington_sentence_26

Ellington credited his friend Edgar McEntree for the nickname. Duke Ellington_sentence_27

"I think he felt that in order for me to be eligible for his constant companionship, I should have a title. Duke Ellington_sentence_28

So he called me Duke." Duke Ellington_sentence_29

Though Ellington took piano lessons, he was more interested in baseball. Duke Ellington_sentence_30

"President Roosevelt (Teddy) would come by on his horse sometimes, and stop and watch us play", he recalled. Duke Ellington_sentence_31

Ellington went to [[Armstrong_High_School_(Washington,_D.C. Duke Ellington_sentence_32

)|Armstrong Technical High School]] in Washington, D.C. His first job was selling peanuts at Washington Senators baseball games. Duke Ellington_sentence_33

Ellington started sneaking into Frank Holiday's Poolroom at age fourteen. Duke Ellington_sentence_34

Hearing the music of the poolroom pianists ignited Ellington's love for the instrument, and he began to take his piano studies seriously. Duke Ellington_sentence_35

Among the many piano players he listened to were Doc Perry, Lester Dishman, Louis Brown, Turner Layton, Gertie Wells, Clarence Bowser, Sticky Mack, Blind Johnny, Cliff Jackson, Claude Hopkins, Phil Wurd, Caroline Thornton, Luckey Roberts, Eubie Blake, Joe Rochester, and Harvey Brooks. Duke Ellington_sentence_36

In the summer of 1914, while working as a soda jerk at the Poodle Dog Café, Ellington wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" (also known as the "Poodle Dog Rag"). Duke Ellington_sentence_37

He created the piece by ear, as he had not yet learned to read and write music. Duke Ellington_sentence_38

"I would play the 'Soda Fountain Rag' as a one-step, two-step, waltz, tango, and fox trot", Ellington recalled. Duke Ellington_sentence_39

"Listeners never knew it was the same piece. Duke Ellington_sentence_40

I was established as having my own repertoire." Duke Ellington_sentence_41

In his autobiography, Music is my Mistress (1973), Ellington wrote that he missed more lessons than he attended, feeling at the time that piano was not his talent. Duke Ellington_sentence_42

Ellington continued listening to, watching, and imitating ragtime pianists, not only in Washington, D.C., but in Philadelphia and Atlantic City, where he vacationed with his mother during the summer. Duke Ellington_sentence_43

He would sometimes hear strange music played by those who could not afford much sheet music, so for variations, they played the sheets upside down. Duke Ellington_sentence_44

Henry Lee Grant, a [[Dunbar_High_School_(Washington,_D.C. Duke Ellington_sentence_45

)|Dunbar High School]] music teacher, gave him private lessons in harmony. Duke Ellington_sentence_46

With the additional guidance of Washington pianist and band leader Oliver "Doc" Perry, Ellington learned to read sheet music, project a professional style, and improve his technique. Duke Ellington_sentence_47

Ellington was also inspired by his first encounters with stride pianists James P. Johnson and Luckey Roberts. Duke Ellington_sentence_48

Later in New York he took advice from Will Marion Cook, Fats Waller and Sidney Bechet. Duke Ellington_sentence_49

He started to play gigs in cafés and clubs in and around Washington, D.C. His attachment to music was so strong that in 1916 he turned down an art scholarship to the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. Duke Ellington_sentence_50

Three months before graduating, he dropped out of Armstrong Manual Training School, where he was studying commercial art. Duke Ellington_sentence_51

Career Duke Ellington_section_1

Early career Duke Ellington_section_2

Working as a freelance sign-painter from 1917, Ellington began assembling groups to play for dances. Duke Ellington_sentence_52

In 1919 he met drummer Sonny Greer from New Jersey, who encouraged Ellington's ambition to become a professional musician. Duke Ellington_sentence_53

Ellington built his music business through his day job: when a customer asked him to make a sign for a dance or party, he would ask if they had musical entertainment; if not, Ellington would offer to play for the occasion. Duke Ellington_sentence_54

He also had a messenger job with the U.S. Navy and State departments, where he made a wide range of contacts. Duke Ellington_sentence_55

Ellington moved out of his parents' home and bought his own as he became a successful pianist. Duke Ellington_sentence_56

At first, he played in other ensembles, and in late 1917 formed his first group, "The Duke's Serenaders" ("Colored Syncopators", his telephone directory advertising proclaimed). Duke Ellington_sentence_57

He was also the group's booking agent. Duke Ellington_sentence_58

His first play date was at the True Reformer's Hall, where he took home 75 cents. Duke Ellington_sentence_59

Ellington played throughout the D.C. area and into Virginia for private society balls and embassy parties. Duke Ellington_sentence_60

The band included childhood friend Otto Hardwick, who began playing the string bass, then moved to C-melody sax and finally settled on alto saxophone; Arthur Whetsol on trumpet; Elmer Snowden on banjo; and Sonny Greer on drums. Duke Ellington_sentence_61

The band thrived, performing for both African-American and white audiences, a rarity in the segregated society of the day. Duke Ellington_sentence_62

When his drummer Sonny Greer was invited to join the Wilber Sweatman Orchestra in New York City, Ellington left his successful career in D.C. and moved to Harlem, ultimately becoming part of the Harlem Renaissance. Duke Ellington_sentence_63

New dance crazes such as the Charleston emerged in Harlem, as well as African-American musical theater, including Eubie Blake's Shuffle Along. Duke Ellington_sentence_64

After the young musicians left the Sweatman Orchestra to strike out on their own, they found an emerging jazz scene that was highly competitive with difficult inroad. Duke Ellington_sentence_65

They hustled pool by day and played whatever gigs they could find. Duke Ellington_sentence_66

The young band met stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith, who introduced them to the scene and gave them some money. Duke Ellington_sentence_67

They played at rent-house parties for income. Duke Ellington_sentence_68

After a few months, the young musicians returned to Washington, D.C., feeling discouraged. Duke Ellington_sentence_69

In June 1923 they played a gig in Atlantic City, New Jersey and another at the prestigious Exclusive Club in Harlem. Duke Ellington_sentence_70

This was followed in September 1923 by a move to the Hollywood Club (at 49th and Broadway) and a four-year engagement, which gave Ellington a solid artistic base. Duke Ellington_sentence_71

He was known to play the bugle at the end of each performance. Duke Ellington_sentence_72

The group was initially called Elmer Snowden and his Black Sox Orchestra and had seven members, including trumpeter James "Bubber" Miley. Duke Ellington_sentence_73

They renamed themselves The Washingtonians. Duke Ellington_sentence_74

Snowden left the group in early 1924 and Ellington took over as bandleader. Duke Ellington_sentence_75

After a fire, the club was re-opened as the Club Kentucky (often referred to as the Kentucky Club). Duke Ellington_sentence_76

Ellington then made eight records in 1924, receiving composing credit on three including "Choo Choo". Duke Ellington_sentence_77

In 1925, Ellington contributed four songs to Chocolate Kiddies starring Lottie Gee and Adelaide Hall, an all-African-American revue which introduced European audiences to African-American styles and performers. Duke Ellington_sentence_78

Duke Ellington and his Kentucky Club Orchestra grew to a group of ten players; they developed their own sound by displaying the non-traditional expression of Ellington's arrangements, the street rhythms of Harlem, and the exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, high-squealing trumpets, and saxophone blues licks of the band members. Duke Ellington_sentence_79

For a short time, soprano saxophonist and clarinetist Sidney Bechet played with them, reportedly becoming the dominant personality in the group, with Sonny Greer saying Bechet "fitted out the band like a glove". Duke Ellington_sentence_80

His presence resulted in friction with Miley and trombonist Charlie Irvis whose style's differed from Bechet's New Orleans influenced playing. Duke Ellington_sentence_81

It was mainly Bechet's unreliability, he was absent for three days in succession, which made his association with Ellington short-lived. Duke Ellington_sentence_82

Cotton Club engagement Duke Ellington_section_3

In October 1926, Ellington made an agreement with agent-publisher Irving Mills, giving Mills a 45% interest in Ellington's future. Duke Ellington_sentence_83

Mills had an eye for new talent and published compositions by Hoagy Carmichael, Dorothy Fields, and Harold Arlen early in their careers. Duke Ellington_sentence_84

After recording a handful of acoustic titles during 1924–26, Ellington's signing with Mills allowed him to record prolifically, although sometimes he recorded different versions of the same tune. Duke Ellington_sentence_85

Mills often took a co-composer credit. Duke Ellington_sentence_86

From the beginning of their relationship, Mills arranged recording sessions on nearly every label including Brunswick, Victor, Columbia, OKeh, Pathê (and its Perfect label), the ARC/Plaza group of labels (Oriole, Domino, Jewel, Banner) and their dime-store labels (Cameo, Lincoln, Romeo), Hit of the Week, and Columbia's cheaper labels (Harmony, Diva, Velvet Tone, Clarion) labels which gave Ellington popular recognition. Duke Ellington_sentence_87

On OKeh, his records were usually issued as The Harlem Footwarmers, while the Brunswick's were usually issued as The Jungle Band. Duke Ellington_sentence_88

Whoopee Makers and the Ten Black Berries were other pseudonyms. Duke Ellington_sentence_89

In September 1927, King Oliver turned down a regular booking for his group as the house band at Harlem's Cotton Club; the offer passed to Ellington after Jimmy McHugh suggested him and Mills arranged an audition. Duke Ellington_sentence_90

Ellington had to increase from a six to eleven-piece group to meet the requirements of the Cotton Club's management for the audition, and the engagement finally began on December 4. Duke Ellington_sentence_91

With a weekly radio broadcast, the Cotton Club's exclusively white and wealthy clientele poured in nightly to see them. Duke Ellington_sentence_92

At the Cotton Club, Ellington's group performed all the music for the revues, which mixed comedy, dance numbers, vaudeville, burlesque, music, and illicit alcohol. Duke Ellington_sentence_93

The musical numbers were composed by Jimmy McHugh and the lyrics by Dorothy Fields (later Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler), with some Ellington originals mixed in. Duke Ellington_sentence_94

(Here he moved in with a dancer, his second wife Mildred Dixon). Duke Ellington_sentence_95

Weekly radio broadcasts from the club gave Ellington national exposure, while Ellington also recorded Fields-JMcHugh and Fats WallerAndy Razaf songs. Duke Ellington_sentence_96

Although trumpeter Bubber Miley was a member of the orchestra for only a short period, he had a major influence on Ellington's sound. Duke Ellington_sentence_97

As an early exponent of growl trumpet, Miley changed the sweet dance band sound of the group to one that was hotter, which contemporaries termed Jungle Style. Duke Ellington_sentence_98

In October 1927, Ellington and his Orchestra recorded several compositions with Adelaide Hall. Duke Ellington_sentence_99

One side in particular, "Creole Love Call", became a worldwide sensation and gave both Ellington and Hall their first hit record. Duke Ellington_sentence_100

Miley had composed most of "Creole Love Call" and "Black and Tan Fantasy". Duke Ellington_sentence_101

An alcoholic, Miley had to leave the band before they gained wider fame. Duke Ellington_sentence_102

He died in 1932 at the age of 29, but he was an important influence on Cootie Williams, who replaced him. Duke Ellington_sentence_103

In 1929, the Cotton Club Orchestra appeared on stage for several months in Florenz Ziegfeld's Show Girl, along with vaudeville stars Jimmy Durante, Eddie Foy, Jr., Ruby Keeler, and with music and lyrics by George Gershwin and Gus Kahn. Duke Ellington_sentence_104

Will Vodery, Ziegfeld's musical supervisor, recommended Ellington for the show, and, according to John Hasse's Beyond :Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington, "Perhaps during the run of Show Girl, Ellington received what he later termed 'valuable lessons in orchestration’ from Will Vodery.” In his 1946 biography, Duke Ellington, Barry Ulanov wrote: Duke Ellington_sentence_105

Ellington's film work began with Black and Tan (1929), a 19-minute all-African-American RKO short in which he played the hero "Duke". Duke Ellington_sentence_106

He also appeared in the Amos 'n' Andy film Check and Double Check, released in 1930. Duke Ellington_sentence_107

That year, Ellington and his Orchestra connected with a whole different audience in a concert with Maurice Chevalier and they also performed at the Roseland Ballroom, "America's foremost ballroom". Duke Ellington_sentence_108

Australian-born composer Percy Grainger was an early admirer and supporter. Duke Ellington_sentence_109

He wrote "The three greatest composers who ever lived are Bach, Delius and Duke Ellington. Duke Ellington_sentence_110

Unfortunately Bach is dead, Delius is very ill but we are happy to have with us today The Duke". Duke Ellington_sentence_111

Ellington's first period at the Cotton Club concluded in 1931. Duke Ellington_sentence_112

The early 1930s Duke Ellington_section_4

Ellington led the orchestra by conducting from the keyboard using piano cues and visual gestures; very rarely did he conduct using a baton. Duke Ellington_sentence_113

By 1932 his orchestra consisted of six brass instruments, four reeds, and a four-man rhythm section. Duke Ellington_sentence_114

As the leader, Ellington was not a strict disciplinarian; he maintained control of his orchestra with a combination of charm, humor, flattery and astute psychology. Duke Ellington_sentence_115

A complex, private person, he revealed his feelings to only his closest intimates and effectively used his public persona to deflect attention away from himself. Duke Ellington_sentence_116

Ellington signed exclusively to Brunswick in 1932 and stayed with them through to late 1936 (albeit with a short-lived 1933–34 switch to Victor when Irving Mills temporarily moved his acts from Brunswick). Duke Ellington_sentence_117

As the Depression worsened, the recording industry was in crisis, dropping over 90% of its artists by 1933. Duke Ellington_sentence_118

Ivie Anderson was hired as the Ellington Orchestra's featured vocalist in 1931. Duke Ellington_sentence_119

She is the vocalist on "It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)" (1932) among other recordings. Duke Ellington_sentence_120

Sonny Greer had been providing occasional vocals and continued to do in a cross-talk feature with Anderson. Duke Ellington_sentence_121

Radio exposure helped maintain Ellington's public profile as his orchestra began to tour. Duke Ellington_sentence_122

The other 78s of this era include: "Mood Indigo" (1930), "Sophisticated Lady" (1933), "Solitude" (1934), and "In a Sentimental Mood" (1935) Duke Ellington_sentence_123

While Ellington's United States audience remained mainly African-American in this period, the orchestra had a significant following overseas. Duke Ellington_sentence_124

They travelled to England and Scotland in 1933, as well as France (three concerts at the Salle Pleyel in Paris) and the Netherlands before returning to New York. Duke Ellington_sentence_125

On June 12, 1933, the Duke Ellington Orchestra gave its British debut at the London Palladium; Ellington received an ovation when he walked on stage. Duke Ellington_sentence_126

They were one of 13 acts on the bill and were restricted to eight short numbers; the booking lasted until June 24. Duke Ellington_sentence_127

The British visit saw Ellington win praise from members of the serious music community, including composer Constant Lambert, which gave a boost to Ellington's interest in composing longer works. Duke Ellington_sentence_128

His longer pieces had already begun to appear. Duke Ellington_sentence_129

Ellington had composed and recorded "Creole Rhapsody" as early as 1931 (issued as both sides of a 12" record for Victor and both sides of a 10" record for Brunswick), and a tribute to his mother, "Reminiscing in Tempo", took four 10" 78rpm record sides to record in 1935 after her death in that year. Duke Ellington_sentence_130

Symphony in Black (also 1935), a short film, featured his extended piece 'A Rhapsody of Negro Life'. Duke Ellington_sentence_131

It introduced Billie Holiday, and won an Academy Award as the best musical short subject. Duke Ellington_sentence_132

Ellington and his Orchestra also appeared in the features Murder at the Vanities and Belle of the Nineties (both 1934). Duke Ellington_sentence_133

For agent Mills the attention was a publicity triumph, as Ellington was now internationally known. Duke Ellington_sentence_134

On the band's tour through the segregated South in 1934, they avoided some of the traveling difficulties of African-Americans by touring in private railcars. Duke Ellington_sentence_135

These provided easy accommodations, dining, and storage for equipment while avoiding the indignities of segregated facilities. Duke Ellington_sentence_136

Competition was intensifying, though, as swing bands like Benny Goodman's began to receive popular attention. Duke Ellington_sentence_137

Swing dancing became a youth phenomenon, particularly with white college audiences, and danceability drove record sales and bookings. Duke Ellington_sentence_138

Jukeboxes proliferated nationwide, spreading the gospel of swing. Duke Ellington_sentence_139

Ellington's band could certainly swing, but their strengths were mood, nuance, and richness of composition, hence his statement "jazz is music, swing is business". Duke Ellington_sentence_140

The later 1930s Duke Ellington_section_5

From 1936, Ellington began to make recordings with smaller groups (sextets, octets, and nonets) drawn from his then-15-man orchestra and he composed pieces intended to feature a specific instrumentalist, as with "Jeep's Blues" for Johnny Hodges, "Yearning for Love" for Lawrence Brown, "Trumpet in Spades" for Rex Stewart, "Echoes of Harlem" for Cootie Williams and "Clarinet Lament" for Barney Bigard. Duke Ellington_sentence_141

In 1937, Ellington returned to the Cotton Club, which had relocated to the mid-town Theater District. Duke Ellington_sentence_142

In the summer of that year, his father died, and due to many expenses, Ellington's finances were tight, although his situation improved the following year. Duke Ellington_sentence_143

After leaving agent Irving Mills, he signed on with the William Morris Agency. Duke Ellington_sentence_144

Mills though continued to record Ellington. Duke Ellington_sentence_145

After only a year, his Master and Variety labels (the small groups had recorded for the latter), collapsed in late 1937, Mills placed Ellington back on Brunswick and those small group units on Vocalion through to 1940. Duke Ellington_sentence_146

Well known sides continued to be recorded, "Caravan" in 1937, and "I Let a Song Go Out of My Heart" the following year. Duke Ellington_sentence_147

Billy Strayhorn, originally hired as a lyricist, began his association with Ellington in 1939. Duke Ellington_sentence_148

Nicknamed "Swee' Pea" for his mild manner, Strayhorn soon became a vital member of the Ellington organization. Duke Ellington_sentence_149

Ellington showed great fondness for Strayhorn and never failed to speak glowingly of the man and their collaborative working relationship, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine". Duke Ellington_sentence_150

Strayhorn, with his training in classical music, not only contributed his original lyrics and music, but also arranged and polished many of Ellington's works, becoming a second Ellington or "Duke's doppelganger". Duke Ellington_sentence_151

It was not uncommon for Strayhorn to fill in for Duke, whether in conducting or rehearsing the band, playing the piano, on stage, and in the recording studio. Duke Ellington_sentence_152

The decade ended with a very successful European tour in 1939 just as World War II loomed in Europe. Duke Ellington_sentence_153

Ellington in the early to mid-1940s Duke Ellington_section_6

Some of the musicians who joined Ellington at this time created a sensation in their own right. Duke Ellington_sentence_154

The short-lived Jimmy Blanton transformed the use of double bass in jazz, allowing it to function as a solo/melodic instrument rather than a rhythm instrument alone. Duke Ellington_sentence_155

Terminal illness forced him to leave by late 1941 after only about two years. Duke Ellington_sentence_156

Ben Webster, the orchestra's first regular tenor saxophonist, whose main tenure with Ellington spanned 1939 to 1943, started a rivalry with Johnny Hodges as the orchestra's foremost voice in the sax section. Duke Ellington_sentence_157

Trumpeter Ray Nance joined, replacing Cootie Williams who had defected to Benny Goodman. Duke Ellington_sentence_158

Additionally, Nance added violin to the instrumental colors Ellington had at his disposal. Duke Ellington_sentence_159

Recordings exist of Nance's first concert date on November 7, 1940, at Fargo, North Dakota. Duke Ellington_sentence_160

Privately made by Jack Towers and Dick Burris, these recordings were first legitimately issued in 1978 as Duke Ellington at Fargo, 1940 Live; they are among the earliest of innumerable live performances which survive. Duke Ellington_sentence_161

Nance was also an occasional vocalist, although Herb Jeffries was the main male vocalist in this era (until 1943) while Al Hibbler (who replaced Jeffries in 1943) continued until 1951. Duke Ellington_sentence_162

Ivie Anderson left in 1942 for health reasons after 11 years, the longest term of any of Ellington's vocalists. Duke Ellington_sentence_163

Once more recording for Victor (from 1940), with the small groups being issued on their Bluebird label, three-minute masterpieces on 78 rpm record sides continued to flow from Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Ellington's son Mercer Ellington, and members of the orchestra. Duke Ellington_sentence_164

"Cotton Tail", "Main Stem", "Harlem Air Shaft", "Jack the Bear", and dozens of others date from this period. Duke Ellington_sentence_165

Strayhorn's "Take the "A" Train", a hit in 1941, became the band's theme, replacing "East St. Louis Toodle-Oo". Duke Ellington_sentence_166

Ellington and his associates wrote for an orchestra of distinctive voices who displayed tremendous creativity. Duke Ellington_sentence_167

Mary Lou Williams, working as a staff arranger, would briefly join Ellington a few years later. Duke Ellington_sentence_168

Ellington's long-term aim, though, was to extend the jazz form from that three-minute limit, of which he was an acknowledged master. Duke Ellington_sentence_169

While he had composed and recorded some extended pieces before, such works now became a regular feature of Ellington's output. Duke Ellington_sentence_170

In this, he was helped by Strayhorn, who had enjoyed a more thorough training in the forms associated with classical music than Ellington. Duke Ellington_sentence_171

The first of these, Black, Brown and Beige (1943), was dedicated to telling the story of African-Americans, and the place of slavery and the church in their history. Duke Ellington_sentence_172

Black, Brown and Beige debuted at Carnegie Hall on January 23, 1943, beginning an annual series of Ellington concerts at the venue over the next four years. Duke Ellington_sentence_173

While some jazz musicians had played at Carnegie Hall before, none had performed anything as elaborate as Ellington's work. Duke Ellington_sentence_174

Unfortunately, starting a regular pattern, Ellington's longer works were generally not well received. Duke Ellington_sentence_175

A partial exception was Jump for Joy, a full-length musical based on themes of African-American identity, debuted on July 10, 1941, at the Mayan Theater in Los Angeles. Duke Ellington_sentence_176

Hollywood luminaries such as actors John Garfield and Mickey Rooney invested in the production, and Charlie Chaplin and Orson Welles offered to direct. Duke Ellington_sentence_177

At one performance though, Garfield insisted Herb Jeffries, who was light-skinned, should wear make-up. Duke Ellington_sentence_178

Ellington objected in the interval, and compared Jeffries to Al Jolson. Duke Ellington_sentence_179

The change was reverted, and the singer later commented that the audience must have thought he was an entirely different character in the second half of the show. Duke Ellington_sentence_180

Although it had sold-out performances, and received positive reviews, it ran for only 122 performances until September 29, 1941, with a brief revival in November of that year. Duke Ellington_sentence_181

Its subject matter did not make it appealing to Broadway; Ellington had unfulfilled plans to take it there. Duke Ellington_sentence_182

Despite this disappointment, a Broadway production of Ellington's Beggar's Holiday, his sole book musical, premiered on December 23, 1946, under the direction of Nicholas Ray. Duke Ellington_sentence_183

The settlement of the first recording ban of 1942–43, leading to an increase in royalties paid to musicians, had a serious effect on the financial viability of the big bands, including Ellington's Orchestra. Duke Ellington_sentence_184

His income as a songwriter ultimately subsidized it. Duke Ellington_sentence_185

Although he always spent lavishly and drew a respectable income from the orchestra's operations, the band's income often just covered expenses. Duke Ellington_sentence_186

Early post-war years Duke Ellington_section_7

Musicians enlisting in the military and travel restrictions made touring difficult for the big bands and dancing became subject to a new tax, which continued for many years, affecting the choices of club owners. Duke Ellington_sentence_187

By the time World War II ended, the focus of popular music was shifting towards singing crooners such as Frank Sinatra and Jo Stafford. Duke Ellington_sentence_188

As the cost of hiring big bands had increased, club owners now found smaller jazz groups more cost-effective. Duke Ellington_sentence_189

Some of Ellington's new works, such as the wordless vocal feature "Transblucency" (1946) with Kay Davis, was not going to have a similar reach as the newly emerging stars. Duke Ellington_sentence_190

Ellington continued on his own course through these tectonic shifts. Duke Ellington_sentence_191

While Count Basie was forced to disband his whole ensemble and work as an octet for a time, Ellington was able to tour most of Western Europe between April 6 and June 30, 1950, with the orchestra playing 74 dates over 77 days. Duke Ellington_sentence_192

During the tour, according to Sonny Greer, the newer works were not performed, though Ellington's extended composition, Harlem (1950) was in the process of being completed at this time. Duke Ellington_sentence_193

Ellington later presented its score to music-loving President Harry Truman. Duke Ellington_sentence_194

Also during his time in Europe, Ellington would compose the music for a stage production by Orson Welles. Duke Ellington_sentence_195

Titled Time Runs in Paris and An Evening With Orson Welles in Frankfurt, the variety show also featured a newly discovered Eartha Kitt, who performed Ellington's original song "Hungry Little Trouble" as Helen of Troy. Duke Ellington_sentence_196

In 1951, Ellington suffered a significant loss of personnel: Sonny Greer, Lawrence Brown and, most importantly, Johnny Hodges left to pursue other ventures, although only Greer was a permanent departee. Duke Ellington_sentence_197

Drummer Louie Bellson replaced Greer, and his "Skin Deep" was a hit for Ellington. Duke Ellington_sentence_198

Tenor player Paul Gonsalves had joined in December 1950 after periods with Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie and stayed for the rest of his life, while Clark Terry joined in November 1951. Duke Ellington_sentence_199

During the early 1950s, Ellington's career was at a low point with his style being generally seen as outmoded, but his reputation did not suffer as badly as some artists. Duke Ellington_sentence_200

André Previn said in 1952: "You know, Stan Kenton can stand in front of a thousand fiddles and a thousand brass and make a dramatic gesture and every studio arranger can nod his head and say, Oh, yes, that's done like this. Duke Ellington_sentence_201

But Duke merely lifts his finger, three horns make a sound, and I don’t know what it is!" Duke Ellington_sentence_202

However, by 1955, after three years of recording for Capitol, Ellington lacked a regular recording affiliation. Duke Ellington_sentence_203

Career revival Duke Ellington_section_8

Ellington's appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival on July 7, 1956 returned him to wider prominence and introduced him to a new generation of fans. Duke Ellington_sentence_204

The feature "Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue" comprised two tunes that had been in the band's book since 1937 but largely forgotten until Ellington, who had abruptly ended the band's scheduled set because of the late arrival of four key players, called the two tunes as the time was approaching midnight. Duke Ellington_sentence_205

Announcing that the two pieces would be separated by an interlude played by tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves, Ellington proceeded to lead the band through the two pieces, with Gonsalves' 27-chorus marathon solo whipping the crowd into a frenzy, leading the Maestro to play way beyond the curfew time despite urgent pleas from festival organizer George Wein to bring the program to an end. Duke Ellington_sentence_206

The concert made international headlines, led to one of only five Time magazine cover stories dedicated to a jazz musician, and resulted in an album produced by George Avakian that would become the best-selling LP of Ellington's career. Duke Ellington_sentence_207

Much of the music on the vinyl LP was, in effect, simulated, with only about 40% actually from the concert itself. Duke Ellington_sentence_208

According to Avakian, Ellington was dissatisfied with aspects of the performance and felt the musicians had been under rehearsed. Duke Ellington_sentence_209

The band assembled the next day to re-record several of the numbers with the addition of the faked sound of a crowd, none of which was disclosed to purchasers of the album. Duke Ellington_sentence_210

Not until 1999 was the concert recording properly released for the first time. Duke Ellington_sentence_211

The revived attention brought about by the Newport appearance should not have surprised anyone, Johnny Hodges had returned the previous year, and Ellington's collaboration with Strayhorn had been renewed around the same time, under terms more amenable to the younger man. Duke Ellington_sentence_212

The original Ellington at Newport album was the first release in a new recording contract with Columbia Records which yielded several years of recording stability, mainly under producer Irving Townsend, who coaxed both commercial and artistic productions from Ellington. Duke Ellington_sentence_213

In 1957, CBS (Columbia Records' parent corporation) aired a live television production of A Drum Is a Woman, an allegorical suite which received mixed reviews. Duke Ellington_sentence_214

His hope that television would provide a significant new outlet for his type of jazz was not fulfilled. Duke Ellington_sentence_215

Tastes and trends had moved on without him. Duke Ellington_sentence_216

Festival appearances at the new Monterey Jazz Festival and elsewhere provided venues for live exposure, and a European tour in 1958 was well received. Duke Ellington_sentence_217

Such Sweet Thunder (1957), based on Shakespeare's plays and characters, and The Queen's Suite (1958), dedicated to Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, were products of the renewed impetus which the Newport appearance helped to create, although the latter work was not commercially issued at the time. Duke Ellington_sentence_218

The late 1950s also saw Ella Fitzgerald record her Duke Ellington Songbook (Verve) with Ellington and his orchestra—a recognition that Ellington's songs had now become part of the cultural canon known as the 'Great American Songbook'. Duke Ellington_sentence_219

Around this time Ellington and Strayhorn began to work on film soundtrack scoring. Duke Ellington_sentence_220

The first of these was Anatomy of a Murder (1959), a courtroom drama directed by Otto Preminger and featuring James Stewart, in which Ellington appeared fronting a roadhouse combo. Duke Ellington_sentence_221

This was followed by Paris Blues (1961), which featured Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier as jazz musicians. Duke Ellington_sentence_222

In 2009 Detroit Free Press music critic Mark Stryker wrote that Ellington and Strayhorn's work in Anatomy of a Murder, is "indispensable, [although] . Duke Ellington_sentence_223

. Duke Ellington_sentence_224

. Duke Ellington_sentence_225

too sketchy to rank in the top echelon among Ellington-Strayhorn masterpiece suites like Such Sweet Thunder and The Far East Suite, but its most inspired moments are their equal." Duke Ellington_sentence_226

Film historians have recognized the soundtrack "as a landmark – the first significant Hollywood film music by African Americans comprising non-diegetic music, that is, music whose source is not visible or implied by action in the film, like an on-screen band." Duke Ellington_sentence_227

The score avoided the cultural stereotypes which previously characterized jazz scores and rejected a strict adherence to visuals in ways that presaged the New Wave cinema of the '60s". Duke Ellington_sentence_228

Ellington and Strayhorn, always looking for new musical territory, produced suites for John Steinbeck's novel Sweet Thursday, Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt. Duke Ellington_sentence_229

In the early 1960s, Ellington embraced recording with artists who had been friendly rivals in the past, or were younger musicians who focused on later styles. Duke Ellington_sentence_230

The Ellington and Count Basie orchestras recorded together with the album First Time! Duke Ellington_sentence_231 The Count Meets the Duke (1961). Duke Ellington_sentence_232

During a period when Ellington was between recording contracts, he made records with Louis Armstrong (Roulette), Coleman Hawkins, John Coltrane (both for Impulse) and participated in a session with Charles Mingus and Max Roach which produced the Money Jungle (United Artists) album. Duke Ellington_sentence_233

He signed to Frank Sinatra's new Reprise label, but the association with the label was short-lived. Duke Ellington_sentence_234

Musicians who had previously worked with Ellington returned to the Orchestra as members: Lawrence Brown in 1960 and Cootie Williams in 1962. Duke Ellington_sentence_235

He was now performing all over the world; a significant part of each year was spent on overseas tours. Duke Ellington_sentence_236

As a consequence, he formed new working relationships with artists from around the world, including the Swedish vocalist Alice Babs, and the South African musicians Dollar Brand and Sathima Bea Benjamin (A Morning in Paris, 1963/1997). Duke Ellington_sentence_237

Ellington wrote an original score for director Michael Langham's production of Shakespeare's Timon of Athens at the Stratford Festival in Ontario, Canada which opened on July 29, 1963. Duke Ellington_sentence_238

Langham has used it for several subsequent productions, including a much later adaptation by Stanley Silverman which expands the score with some of Ellington's best-known works. Duke Ellington_sentence_239

Last years Duke Ellington_section_9

Ellington was shortlisted for the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1965 but no prize was ultimately awarded that year. Duke Ellington_sentence_240

Then 66 years old, he joked: "Fate is being kind to me. Duke Ellington_sentence_241

Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young." Duke Ellington_sentence_242

In 1999 he was posthumously awarded a special Pulitzer Prize "commemorating the centennial year of his birth, in recognition of his musical genius, which evoked aesthetically the principles of democracy through the medium of jazz and thus made an indelible contribution to art and culture." Duke Ellington_sentence_243

In September 1965, he premiered the first of his Sacred Concerts. Duke Ellington_sentence_244

He created a jazz Christian liturgy. Duke Ellington_sentence_245

Although the work received mixed reviews, Ellington was proud of the composition and performed it dozens of times. Duke Ellington_sentence_246

This concert was followed by two others of the same type in 1968 and 1973, known as the Second and Third Sacred Concerts. Duke Ellington_sentence_247

These generated controversy in what was already a tumultuous time in the United States. Duke Ellington_sentence_248

Many saw the Sacred Music suites as an attempt to reinforce commercial support for organized religion, though Ellington simply said it was "the most important thing I've done". Duke Ellington_sentence_249

The Steinway piano upon which the Sacred Concerts were composed is part of the collection of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. Duke Ellington_sentence_250

Like Haydn and Mozart, Ellington conducted his orchestra from the piano – he always played the keyboard parts when the Sacred Concerts were performed. Duke Ellington_sentence_251

Duke turned 65 in the spring of 1964 but showed no signs of slowing down as he continued to make vital and innovative recordings, including The Far East Suite (1966), New Orleans Suite (1970), Latin American Suite (1972) and The Afro-Eurasian Eclipse (1971), much of it inspired by his world tours. Duke Ellington_sentence_252

It was during this time that he recorded his only album with Frank Sinatra, entitled Francis A. Duke Ellington_sentence_253 & Edward K. (1967). Duke Ellington_sentence_254

Ellington performed what is considered his final full concert in a ballroom at Northern Illinois University on March 20, 1974. Duke Ellington_sentence_255

The last three shows Ellington and his orchestra performed were one on March 21, 1973 at Purdue University's Hall of Music and two on March 22, 1973 at the Sturges-Young Auditorium in Sturgis, Michigan. Duke Ellington_sentence_256

Personal life Duke Ellington_section_10

Ellington married his high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson (d. 1967), on July 2, 1918, when he was 19. Duke Ellington_sentence_257

The next spring, on March 11, 1919, Edna gave birth to their only son, Mercer Kennedy Ellington. Duke Ellington_sentence_258

Ellington was joined in New York City by his wife and son in the late twenties, but the couple soon permanently separated. Duke Ellington_sentence_259

According to her obituary in Jet magazine, she was "homesick for Washington" and returned. Duke Ellington_sentence_260

In 1929, Ellington became the companion of Mildred Dixon, who traveled with him, managed Tempo Music, inspired songs, such as "Sophisticated Lady", at the peak of his career, and raised his son. Duke Ellington_sentence_261

In 1938 he left his family (his son was 19) and moved in with Beatrice "Evie" Ellis, a Cotton Club employee. Duke Ellington_sentence_262

Their relationship, though stormy, continued after Ellington met and formed a relationship with Fernanda de Castro Monte in the early 1960s. Duke Ellington_sentence_263

Ellington supported both women for the rest of his life. Duke Ellington_sentence_264

Ellington's sister Ruth (1915–2004) later ran Tempo Music, his music publishing company. Duke Ellington_sentence_265

Ruth's second husband was the bass-baritone McHenry Boatwright, whom she met when he sang at her brother's funeral. Duke Ellington_sentence_266

As an adult, son Mercer Ellington (d. 1996) played trumpet and piano, led his own band, and worked as his father's business manager. Duke Ellington_sentence_267

Ellington was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha and was a freemason associated with Prince Hall Freemasonry. Duke Ellington_sentence_268

Death Duke Ellington_section_11

Ellington died on May 24, 1974, of complications from lung cancer and pneumonia, a few weeks after his 75th birthday. Duke Ellington_sentence_269

At his funeral, attended by over 12,000 people at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, Ella Fitzgerald summed up the occasion: "It's a very sad day. Duke Ellington_sentence_270

A genius has passed." Duke Ellington_sentence_271

He was interred in the Woodlawn Cemetery, the Bronx, New York City. Duke Ellington_sentence_272

Legacy Duke Ellington_section_12

Memorials Duke Ellington_section_13

Numerous memorials have been dedicated to Duke Ellington, in cities from New York and Washington, D.C. to Los Angeles. Duke Ellington_sentence_273

In Ellington's birthplace, Washington, D.C., the Duke Ellington School of the Arts educates talented students, who are considering careers in the arts, by providing intensive arts instruction and strong academic programs that prepare students for post-secondary education and professional careers. Duke Ellington_sentence_274

Originally built in 1935, the Calvert Street Bridge was renamed the Duke Ellington Bridge in 1974. Duke Ellington_sentence_275

Another school is P.S. 004 Duke Ellington in New York. Duke Ellington_sentence_276

In 1989, a bronze plaque was attached to the newly named Duke Ellington Building at 2121 Ward Place, NW. Duke Ellington_sentence_277

In 2012, the new owner of the building commissioned a mural by Aniekan Udofia that appears above the lettering "Duke Ellington". Duke Ellington_sentence_278

In 2010 the triangular park, across the street from Duke Ellington's birth site, at the intersection of New Hampshire and M Streets, NW was named the Duke Ellington Park. Duke Ellington_sentence_279

Ellington's residence at 2728 Sherman Avenue, NW, during the years 1919–1922, is marked by a bronze plaque. Duke Ellington_sentence_280

On February 24, 2009, the United States Mint issued a coin with Duke Ellington on it, making him the first African American to appear by himself on a circulating U.S. coin. Duke Ellington_sentence_281

Ellington appears on the reverse (tails) side of the District of Columbia quarter. Duke Ellington_sentence_282

The coin is part of the U.S. Mint's program honoring the District and the U.S. territories and celebrates Ellington's birthplace in the District of Columbia. Duke Ellington_sentence_283

Ellington is depicted on the quarter seated at a piano, sheet music in hand, along with the inscription "Justice for All", which is the District's motto. Duke Ellington_sentence_284

In 1986 a United States commemorative stamp was issued featuring Ellington's likeness. Duke Ellington_sentence_285

Ellington lived out his final years in Manhattan, in a townhouse at 333 Riverside Drive near West 106th Street. Duke Ellington_sentence_286

His sister Ruth, who managed his publishing company, also lived there, and his son Mercer lived next door. Duke Ellington_sentence_287

After his death, West 106th Street was officially renamed Duke Ellington Boulevard. Duke Ellington_sentence_288

A large memorial to Ellington, created by sculptor Robert Graham, was dedicated in 1997 in New York's Central Park, near Fifth Avenue and 110th Street, an intersection named Duke Ellington Circle. Duke Ellington_sentence_289

A statue of Ellington at a piano is featured at the entrance to UCLA's Schoenberg Hall. Duke Ellington_sentence_290

According to UCLA magazine: Duke Ellington_sentence_291

The Essentially Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition and Festival is a nationally renowned annual competition for prestigious high school bands. Duke Ellington_sentence_292

Started in 1996 at Jazz at Lincoln Center, the festival is named after Ellington because of the large focus that the festival places on his works. Duke Ellington_sentence_293

Tributes Duke Ellington_section_14

After Duke died, his son Mercer took over leadership of the orchestra, continuing until his own death in 1996. Duke Ellington_sentence_294

Like the Count Basie Orchestra, this "ghost band" continued to release albums for many years. Duke Ellington_sentence_295

Digital Duke, credited to The Duke Ellington Orchestra, won the 1988 Grammy Award for Best Large Jazz Ensemble Album. Duke Ellington_sentence_296

Mercer Ellington had been handling all administrative aspects of his father's business for several decades. Duke Ellington_sentence_297

Mercer's children continue a connection with their grandfather's work. Duke Ellington_sentence_298

Gunther Schuller wrote in 1989: Duke Ellington_sentence_299

Martin Williams said: "Duke Ellington lived long enough to hear himself named among our best composers. Duke Ellington_sentence_300

And since his death in 1974, it has become not at all uncommon to see him named, along with Charles Ives, as the greatest composer we have produced, regardless of category." Duke Ellington_sentence_301

In the opinion of Bob Blumenthal of The Boston Globe in 1999: "[i]n the century since his birth, there has been no greater composer, American or otherwise, than Edward Kennedy Ellington." Duke Ellington_sentence_302

In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Duke Ellington on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans. Duke Ellington_sentence_303

His compositions have been revisited by artists and musicians around the world both as a source of inspiration and a bedrock of their own performing careers. Duke Ellington_sentence_304

Duke Ellington_unordered_list_0

  • Dave Brubeck dedicated "The Duke" (1954) to Ellington and it became a standard covered by others, including Miles Davis on his Miles Ahead, 1957. The album The Real Ambassadors has a vocal version of this piece, "You Swing Baby (The Duke)", with lyrics by Iola Brubeck, Dave Brubeck's wife. It is performed as a duet between Louis Armstrong and Carmen McRae. It is also dedicated to Duke Ellington.Duke Ellington_item_0_0
  • Miles Davis created his half-hour dirge "He Loved Him Madly" (on Get Up with It) as a tribute to Ellington one month after his death.Duke Ellington_item_0_1
  • Charles Mingus, who had been fired by Ellington decades earlier, wrote the elegy "Duke Ellington's Sound Of Love" in 1974, a few months after Ellington's death.Duke Ellington_item_0_2
  • Stevie Wonder wrote the song "Sir Duke" as a tribute to Ellington which appeared on his album Songs in the Key of Life released in 1976.Duke Ellington_item_0_3

There are hundreds of albums dedicated to the music of Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn by artists famous and obscure. Duke Ellington_sentence_305

Sophisticated Ladies, an award-winning 1981 musical revue, incorporated many tunes from Ellington's repertoire. Duke Ellington_sentence_306

A second Broadway musical interpolating Ellington's music, Play On! Duke Ellington_sentence_307 , debuted in 1997. Duke Ellington_sentence_308

Loss of material Duke Ellington_section_15

On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Duke Ellington among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. Duke Ellington_sentence_309

Discography Duke Ellington_section_16

Main article: Duke Ellington discography Duke Ellington_sentence_310

Awards and honors Duke Ellington_section_17

Duke Ellington_unordered_list_1

Grammy Awards Duke Ellington_section_18

Ellington earned 14 Grammy awards from 1959 to 2000, three of which were posthumous and a total of 24 nominations Duke Ellington_sentence_311

Duke Ellington_table_general_1

Duke Ellington Grammy Award HistoryDuke Ellington_header_cell_1_0_0
YearDuke Ellington_header_cell_1_1_0 CategoryDuke Ellington_header_cell_1_1_1 TitleDuke Ellington_header_cell_1_1_2 GenreDuke Ellington_header_cell_1_1_3 ResultDuke Ellington_header_cell_1_1_4
1999Duke Ellington_cell_1_2_0 Historical AlbumDuke Ellington_cell_1_2_1 The Duke Ellington Centennial Edition

RCA Victor Recordings (1927–1973)Duke Ellington_cell_1_2_2

JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_2_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_2_4
1979Duke Ellington_cell_1_3_0 Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Big BandDuke Ellington_cell_1_3_1 Duke Ellington At Fargo, 1940 LiveDuke Ellington_cell_1_3_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_3_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_3_4
1976Duke Ellington_cell_1_4_0 Best Jazz Performance By A Big BandDuke Ellington_cell_1_4_1 The Ellington SuitesDuke Ellington_cell_1_4_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_4_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_4_4
1972Duke Ellington_cell_1_5_0 Best Jazz Performance By A Big BandDuke Ellington_cell_1_5_1 Togo Brava SuiteDuke Ellington_cell_1_5_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_5_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_5_4
1971Duke Ellington_cell_1_6_0 Best Jazz Performance By A Big BandDuke Ellington_cell_1_6_1 New Orleans SuiteDuke Ellington_cell_1_6_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_6_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_6_4
1971Duke Ellington_cell_1_7_0 Best Instrumental CompositionDuke Ellington_cell_1_7_1 New Orleans SuiteDuke Ellington_cell_1_7_2 Composing/ArrangingDuke Ellington_cell_1_7_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_7_4
1970Duke Ellington_cell_1_8_0 Best Instrumental Jazz Performance – Large Group or Soloist with Large GroupDuke Ellington_cell_1_8_1 Duke Ellington - 70th Birthday ConcertDuke Ellington_cell_1_8_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_8_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_8_4
1968Duke Ellington_cell_1_9_0 Trustees AwardDuke Ellington_cell_1_9_1 National Trustees Award - 1968Duke Ellington_cell_1_9_2 Special AwardsDuke Ellington_cell_1_9_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_9_4
1968Duke Ellington_cell_1_10_0 Best Instrumental Jazz Performance – Large Group

Or Soloist With Large GroupDuke Ellington_cell_1_10_1

...And His Mother Called Him BillDuke Ellington_cell_1_10_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_10_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_10_4
1967Duke Ellington_cell_1_11_0 Best Instrumental Jazz Performance, Large Group

Or Soloist With Large GroupDuke Ellington_cell_1_11_1

Far East SuiteDuke Ellington_cell_1_11_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_11_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_11_4
1966Duke Ellington_cell_1_12_0 Bing Crosby Award - Name changed to GRAMMY Lifetime Achievement Award in 1982.Duke Ellington_cell_1_12_1 Bing Crosby Award - Name changed to GRAMMY Lifetime Achievement Award in 1982.Duke Ellington_cell_1_12_2 Special AwardsDuke Ellington_cell_1_12_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_12_4
1966Duke Ellington_cell_1_13_0 Best Original Jazz CompositionDuke Ellington_cell_1_13_1 "In The Beginning God"Duke Ellington_cell_1_13_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_13_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_13_4
1966Duke Ellington_cell_1_14_0 Best Instrumental Jazz Performance – Group or Soloist with GroupDuke Ellington_cell_1_14_1 Concert Of Sacred Music (Album)Duke Ellington_cell_1_14_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_14_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_14_4
1965Duke Ellington_cell_1_15_0 Best Instrumental Jazz Performance -

Large Group Or Soloist With Large GroupDuke Ellington_cell_1_15_1

Ellington '66Duke Ellington_cell_1_15_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_15_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_15_4
1965Duke Ellington_cell_1_16_0 Best Original Jazz CompositionDuke Ellington_cell_1_16_1 Virgin Islands SuiteDuke Ellington_cell_1_16_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_16_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_16_4
1964Duke Ellington_cell_1_17_0 Best Original Jazz CompositionDuke Ellington_cell_1_17_1 Night CreatureDuke Ellington_cell_1_17_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_17_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_17_4
1964Duke Ellington_cell_1_18_0 Best Jazz Performance – Large Group (Instrumental)Duke Ellington_cell_1_18_1 First Time! (Album)Duke Ellington_cell_1_18_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_18_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_18_4
1961Duke Ellington_cell_1_19_0 Best Instrumental Theme or Instrumental Version of SongDuke Ellington_cell_1_19_1 Paris BluesDuke Ellington_cell_1_19_2 Composing/ArrangingDuke Ellington_cell_1_19_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_19_4
1961Duke Ellington_cell_1_20_0 Best Sound Track Album or Recording of Score from Motion Picture or TelevisionDuke Ellington_cell_1_20_1 Paris Blues (Motion Picture) (Album)Duke Ellington_cell_1_20_2 Music for Visual MediaDuke Ellington_cell_1_20_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_20_4
1960Duke Ellington_cell_1_21_0 Best Jazz Performance Solo or Small GroupDuke Ellington_cell_1_21_1 Back To Back - Duke Ellington And Johnny Hodges Play The BluesDuke Ellington_cell_1_21_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_21_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_21_4
1960Duke Ellington_cell_1_22_0 Best Jazz Composition of More Than Five Minutes DurationDuke Ellington_cell_1_22_1 Idiom '59Duke Ellington_cell_1_22_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_22_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_22_4
1959Duke Ellington_cell_1_23_0 Best Performance By A Dance BandDuke Ellington_cell_1_23_1 Anatomy of a MurderDuke Ellington_cell_1_23_2 PopDuke Ellington_cell_1_23_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_23_4
1959Duke Ellington_cell_1_24_0 Best Musical Composition First Recorded

And Released In 1959 (More Than 5 Minutes Duration)Duke Ellington_cell_1_24_1

Anatomy of a MurderDuke Ellington_cell_1_24_2 ComposingDuke Ellington_cell_1_24_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_24_4
1959Duke Ellington_cell_1_25_0 Best Sound Track Album – Background Score

From A Motion Picture Or TelevisionDuke Ellington_cell_1_25_1

Anatomy of a MurderDuke Ellington_cell_1_25_2 ComposingDuke Ellington_cell_1_25_3 WonDuke Ellington_cell_1_25_4
1959Duke Ellington_cell_1_26_0 Best Jazz Performance - GroupDuke Ellington_cell_1_26_1 Ellington Jazz Party (Album)Duke Ellington_cell_1_26_2 JazzDuke Ellington_cell_1_26_3 NominatedDuke Ellington_cell_1_26_4

Grammy Hall of Fame Duke Ellington_section_19

Recordings of Duke Ellington were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, which is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least 25 years old, and that have qualitative or historical significance. Duke Ellington_sentence_312

Duke Ellington_table_general_2

Duke Ellington: Grammy Hall of Fame AwardDuke Ellington_header_cell_2_0_0
Year RecordedDuke Ellington_header_cell_2_1_0 TitleDuke Ellington_header_cell_2_1_1 GenreDuke Ellington_header_cell_2_1_2 LabelDuke Ellington_header_cell_2_1_3 Year InductedDuke Ellington_header_cell_2_1_4
1932Duke Ellington_cell_2_2_0 "It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)"Duke Ellington_cell_2_2_1 Jazz (single)Duke Ellington_cell_2_2_2 BrunswickDuke Ellington_cell_2_2_3 2008Duke Ellington_cell_2_2_4
1934Duke Ellington_cell_2_3_0 "Cocktails for Two"Duke Ellington_cell_2_3_1 Jazz (single)Duke Ellington_cell_2_3_2 VictorDuke Ellington_cell_2_3_3 2007Duke Ellington_cell_2_3_4
1957Duke Ellington_cell_2_4_0 Ellington at NewportDuke Ellington_cell_2_4_1 Jazz (album)Duke Ellington_cell_2_4_2 ColumbiaDuke Ellington_cell_2_4_3 2004Duke Ellington_cell_2_4_4
1956Duke Ellington_cell_2_5_0 "Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue"Duke Ellington_cell_2_5_1 Jazz (single)Duke Ellington_cell_2_5_2 ColumbiaDuke Ellington_cell_2_5_3 1999Duke Ellington_cell_2_5_4
1967Duke Ellington_cell_2_6_0 Far East SuiteDuke Ellington_cell_2_6_1 Jazz (album)Duke Ellington_cell_2_6_2 RCADuke Ellington_cell_2_6_3 1999Duke Ellington_cell_2_6_4
1944Duke Ellington_cell_2_7_0 Black, Brown and BeigeDuke Ellington_cell_2_7_1 Jazz (single)Duke Ellington_cell_2_7_2 RCA VictorDuke Ellington_cell_2_7_3 1990Duke Ellington_cell_2_7_4
1928Duke Ellington_cell_2_8_0 "Black and Tan Fantasy"Duke Ellington_cell_2_8_1 Jazz (single)Duke Ellington_cell_2_8_2 VictorDuke Ellington_cell_2_8_3 1981Duke Ellington_cell_2_8_4
1941Duke Ellington_cell_2_9_0 "Take the "A" Train"Duke Ellington_cell_2_9_1 Jazz (single)Duke Ellington_cell_2_9_2 VictorDuke Ellington_cell_2_9_3 1976Duke Ellington_cell_2_9_4
1931Duke Ellington_cell_2_10_0 "Mood Indigo"Duke Ellington_cell_2_10_1 Jazz (single)Duke Ellington_cell_2_10_2 BrunswickDuke Ellington_cell_2_10_3 1975Duke Ellington_cell_2_10_4

Honors and inductions Duke Ellington_section_20

Duke Ellington_table_general_3

YearDuke Ellington_header_cell_3_0_0 CategoryDuke Ellington_header_cell_3_0_1 NotesDuke Ellington_header_cell_3_0_2
2009Duke Ellington_cell_3_1_0 Commemorative U.S. quarterDuke Ellington_cell_3_1_1 D.C. and U.S. Territories Quarters Program.Duke Ellington_cell_3_1_2
2008Duke Ellington_cell_3_2_0 Gennett Records Walk of FameDuke Ellington_cell_3_2_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_2_2
2004Duke Ellington_cell_3_3_0 Nesuhi Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame

at Jazz at Lincoln CenterDuke Ellington_cell_3_3_1

Duke Ellington_cell_3_3_2
1999Duke Ellington_cell_3_4_0 Pulitzer PrizeDuke Ellington_cell_3_4_1 Special CitationDuke Ellington_cell_3_4_2
1992Duke Ellington_cell_3_5_0 Oklahoma Jazz Hall of FameDuke Ellington_cell_3_5_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_5_2
1986Duke Ellington_cell_3_6_0 22¢ commemorative U.S. stampDuke Ellington_cell_3_6_1 Issued April 29, 1986Duke Ellington_cell_3_6_2
1978Duke Ellington_cell_3_7_0 Big Band and Jazz Hall of FameDuke Ellington_cell_3_7_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_7_2
1973Duke Ellington_cell_3_8_0 French Legion of HonorDuke Ellington_cell_3_8_1 July 6, 1973Duke Ellington_cell_3_8_2
1973Duke Ellington_cell_3_9_0 Honorary Degree in Music from Columbia UniversityDuke Ellington_cell_3_9_1 May 16, 1973Duke Ellington_cell_3_9_2
1971Duke Ellington_cell_3_10_0 Honorary Doctorate Degree from Berklee College of MusicDuke Ellington_cell_3_10_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_10_2
1971Duke Ellington_cell_3_11_0 Honorary Doctor of Music from Howard UniversityDuke Ellington_cell_3_11_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_11_2
1971Duke Ellington_cell_3_12_0 Songwriters Hall of FameDuke Ellington_cell_3_12_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_12_2
1969Duke Ellington_cell_3_13_0 Presidential Medal of FreedomDuke Ellington_cell_3_13_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_13_2
1968Duke Ellington_cell_3_14_0 Grammy Trustees AwardDuke Ellington_cell_3_14_1 Special Merit AwardDuke Ellington_cell_3_14_2
1967Duke Ellington_cell_3_15_0 Honorary Doctor of Music Degree from Yale UniversityDuke Ellington_cell_3_15_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_15_2
1966Duke Ellington_cell_3_16_0 Grammy Lifetime Achievement AwardDuke Ellington_cell_3_16_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_16_2
1964Duke Ellington_cell_3_17_0 Honorary degree, Milton College, WisconsinDuke Ellington_cell_3_17_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_17_2
1959Duke Ellington_cell_3_18_0 NAACP Spingarn MedalDuke Ellington_cell_3_18_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_18_2
1957Duke Ellington_cell_3_19_0 Deutscher Filmpreis: Best MusicDuke Ellington_cell_3_19_1 Award won for the movie Jonah with fellow composer Winfried ZilligDuke Ellington_cell_3_19_2
1956Duke Ellington_cell_3_20_0 DownBeat Jazz Hall of Fame inducteeDuke Ellington_cell_3_20_1 Duke Ellington_cell_3_20_2

See also Duke Ellington_section_21

Duke Ellington_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke Ellington.