Durban

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This article is about the city in South Africa. Durban_sentence_0

For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). Durban_sentence_1

Durban_table_infobox_0

Durban

eThekwiniDurban_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryDurban_header_cell_0_1_0 South AfricaDurban_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceDurban_header_cell_0_2_0 KwaZulu-NatalDurban_cell_0_2_1
MunicipalityDurban_header_cell_0_3_0 eThekwiniDurban_cell_0_3_1
EstablishedDurban_header_cell_0_4_0 1880Durban_cell_0_4_1
Named forDurban_header_cell_0_5_0 Benjamin D'UrbanDurban_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentDurban_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeDurban_header_cell_0_7_0 Metropolitan municipalityDurban_cell_0_7_1
MayorDurban_header_cell_0_8_0 Mxolisi Kaunda (ANC)Durban_cell_0_8_1
AreaDurban_header_cell_0_9_0
CityDurban_header_cell_0_10_0 225.91 km (87.22 sq mi)Durban_cell_0_10_1
MetroDurban_header_cell_0_11_0 2,292 km (885 sq mi)Durban_cell_0_11_1
Population (2018)Durban_header_cell_0_12_0
CityDurban_header_cell_0_13_0 3,720,953Durban_cell_0_13_1
DensityDurban_header_cell_0_14_0 16,000/km (43,000/sq mi)Durban_cell_0_14_1
MetroDurban_header_cell_0_15_0 3,442,361Durban_cell_0_15_1
Metro densityDurban_header_cell_0_16_0 1,500/km (3,900/sq mi)Durban_cell_0_16_1
Demonym(s)Durban_header_cell_0_17_0 DurbaniteDurban_cell_0_17_1
Racial makeup (2011)Durban_header_cell_0_18_0
AfricanDurban_header_cell_0_19_0 51.1%Durban_cell_0_19_1
ColouredDurban_header_cell_0_20_0 8.6%Durban_cell_0_20_1
Indian/AsianDurban_header_cell_0_21_0 24.0%Durban_cell_0_21_1
WhiteDurban_header_cell_0_22_0 15.3%Durban_cell_0_22_1
OtherDurban_header_cell_0_23_0 0.9%Durban_cell_0_23_1
First languages (2011)Durban_header_cell_0_24_0
EnglishDurban_header_cell_0_25_0 49.8%Durban_cell_0_25_1
ZuluDurban_header_cell_0_26_0 33.1%Durban_cell_0_26_1
XhosaDurban_header_cell_0_27_0 5.9%Durban_cell_0_27_1
AfrikaansDurban_header_cell_0_28_0 3.6%Durban_cell_0_28_1
OtherDurban_header_cell_0_29_0 7.6%Durban_cell_0_29_1
Time zoneDurban_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC+2 (SAST)Durban_cell_0_30_1
Postal code (street)Durban_header_cell_0_31_0 4001Durban_cell_0_31_1
PO boxDurban_header_cell_0_32_0 4000Durban_cell_0_32_1
Area codeDurban_header_cell_0_33_0 031Durban_cell_0_33_1
GDPDurban_header_cell_0_34_0 US$ 83.9 billionDurban_cell_0_34_1
GDP per capitaDurban_header_cell_0_35_0 US$ 15,575Durban_cell_0_35_1
WebsiteDurban_header_cell_0_36_0 Durban_cell_0_36_1

Durban (Zulu: eThekwini, from itheku meaning 'city') is the third most populous city in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town and the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. Durban_sentence_2

Durban forms part of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, which includes neighboring towns and has a population of about 3.44 million, making the combined municipality one of the largest cities on the Indian Ocean coast of the African continent. Durban_sentence_3

Durban was one of the host cities of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Durban_sentence_4

History Durban_section_0

See also: Timeline of Durban Durban_sentence_5

Archaeological evidence from the Drakensberg mountains suggests that the Durban area has been inhabited by communities of hunter-gatherers since 100,000 BC. Durban_sentence_6

These people lived throughout the area of present-day KwaZulu-Natal until the expansion of Bantu farmers and pastoralists from the north saw their gradual displacement, incorporation or extermination. Durban_sentence_7

Little is known of the history of the first residents, as there is no written history of the area until it was sighted by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, who sailed parallel to the KwaZulu-Natal coast at Christmastide in 1497 while searching for a route from Europe to India. Durban_sentence_8

He named the area "Natal", or Christmas in Portuguese. Durban_sentence_9

Abambo People Durban_section_1

In 1686 a ship from the Dutch East India Company named 'Stavenisse' wrecked off the eastern coast of South Africa. Durban_sentence_10

Some of the survivors made their way to the Bay of Natal (Durban) where they were taken in by Abambo tribe under leadership of Chief Langalibale. Durban_sentence_11

The crew became fluent in the language of the tribe and witnessed their customs. Durban_sentence_12

They told that the land where the Abambo people lived was called Embo by the natives and that the people were very hospitable. Durban_sentence_13

On 28 October 1689 the galiot 'Noord' traveled from Table Bay to the Bay of Natal for the purpose to fetch the survivors of the crew and to negotiate a deal to purchase the bay. Durban_sentence_14

The Noord arrived on 9 December 1689 where after the Dutch Cape Colony purchased the Bay of Natal from the Abambo people for £1650. Durban_sentence_15

A formal contract was drawn up by Laurens van Swaanswyk and signed by the Chief of the Abambo people, the crew of the Stavenisse acted as translators. Durban_sentence_16

First European settlers Durban_section_2

In 1822 Lieutenant James King, captain of the ship Salisbury, together with Lt. Durban_sentence_17 Francis George Farewell, both ex-Royal Navy officers from the Napoleonic Wars, were engaged in trade between the Cape and Delagoa Bay. Durban_sentence_18

On a return trip to the Cape in 1823, they were caught in a very bad storm and decided to risk the Bar and anchor in the Bay of Natal. Durban_sentence_19

The crossing went off well and they found safe anchor from the storm. Durban_sentence_20

Lt. King decided to map the Bay and named the "Salisbury and Farewell Islands". Durban_sentence_21

In 1824 Lt. Farewell, together with a trading company called J. R. Thompson & Co., decided to open trade relations with Shaka the Zulu King and establish a trading station at the Bay. Durban_sentence_22

Henry Francis Fynn, another trader at Delagoa Bay, was also involved in this venture. Durban_sentence_23

Fynn left Delagoa Bay and sailed for the Bay of Natal on the brig Julia, while Farewell followed six weeks later on the Antelope. Durban_sentence_24

Between them they had 26 possible settlers, but only 18 stayed. Durban_sentence_25

On a visit to King Shaka, Henry Francis Fynn was able to befriend the King by helping him recover from a stab wound suffered as a result of an assassination attempt by one of his half-brothers. Durban_sentence_26

As a token of Shaka's gratitude, he granted Fynn a "25-mile strip of coast a hundred miles in depth". Durban_sentence_27

On 7 August 1824 they concluded negotiations with King Shaka for a cession of land, including the Bay of Natal and land extending ten miles south of the Bay, twenty-five miles north of the Bay and one hundred miles inland. Durban_sentence_28

Farewell took possession of this grant and raised the Union Jack with a Royal Salute, which consisted of 4 cannon shots and twenty musket shots. Durban_sentence_29

Of the original 18 would-be settlers, only 6 remained, and they can be regarded as the founding members of Port Natal as a British colony. Durban_sentence_30

These 6 were joined by Lt. James Saunders King and Nathaniel Isaacs in 1825. Durban_sentence_31

The modern city of Durban thus dates from 1824 when the settlement was established on the northern shores of the bay near today's Farewell Square. Durban_sentence_32

During a meeting of 35 European residents in Fynn's territory on 23 June 1835, it was decided to build a capital town and name it "D'Urban" after Sir Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of the Cape Colony. Durban_sentence_33

Republic of Natalia Durban_section_3

Main article: Battle of Congella Durban_sentence_34

The Voortrekkers established the Republic of Natalia in 1839, with its capital at Pietermaritzburg. Durban_sentence_35

Tension between the Voortrekkers and the Zulus prompted the governor of the Cape Colony to dispatch a force under Captain Charlton Smith to establish British rule in Natal, for fear of losing British control in Port Natal. Durban_sentence_36

The force arrived on 4 May 1842 and built a fortification that was later to be The Old Fort. Durban_sentence_37

On the night of 23/24 May 1842 the British attacked the Voortrekker camp at Congella. Durban_sentence_38

The attack failed, and the British had to withdraw to their camp which was put under siege. Durban_sentence_39

A local trader Dick King and his servant Ndongeni were able to escape the blockade and rode to Grahamstown, a distance of 600 km (370 mi) in fourteen days to raise reinforcements. Durban_sentence_40

The reinforcements arrived in Durban 20 days later; the Voortrekkers retreated, and the siege was lifted. Durban_sentence_41

Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, and eventually the Afrikaners accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure. Durban_sentence_42

Durban's historic regalia Durban_section_4

When the Borough of Durban was proclaimed in 1854, the council had to procure a seal for official documents. Durban_sentence_43

The seal was produced in 1855 and was replaced in 1882. Durban_sentence_44

The new seal contained a coat of arms without helmet or mantling that combined the coats of arms of Sir Benjamin D’Urban and Sir Benjamin Pine. Durban_sentence_45

An application was made to register the coat of arms with the College of Arms in 1906, but this application was rejected on grounds that the design implied that D’Urban and Pine were husband and wife. Durban_sentence_46

Nevertheless, the coat of arms appeared on the council's stationery from about 1912. Durban_sentence_47

The following year, a helmet and mantling was added to the council's stationery and to the new city seal that was made in 1936. Durban_sentence_48

The motto reads "Debile principium melior fortuna sequitur"—"Better fortune follows a humble beginning". Durban_sentence_49

The blazon of the arms registered by the South African Bureau of Heraldry and granted to Durban on 9 February 1979. Durban_sentence_50

The coat of arms fell into disuse with the re-organisation of the South African local government structure in 2000. Durban_sentence_51

The seal ceased to be used in 1995. Durban_sentence_52

Government Durban_section_5

Further information: eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality and Mayors of Durban Durban_sentence_53

With the end of apartheid, Durban was subject to restructuring of local government. Durban_sentence_54

The eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality was formed in 1994 after South Africa's first multiracial elections, with its first mayor being Sipho Ngwenya. Durban_sentence_55

The mayor is elected for a five-year term; however Sipho Ngwenya only served two years. Durban_sentence_56

In 1996, the city became part of the Durban UniCity in July 1996 as part of transitional arrangements and to eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality in 1999, with the adoption of South Africa's new municipal governance system. Durban_sentence_57

In July 1996, Obed Mlaba was appointed mayor of Durban UniCity; in 1999 he was elected to mayor of the eThekwini municipality and re-elected in 2006. Durban_sentence_58

Following the May 2011 local elections, James Nxumalo, the former speaker of the council, was elected as the new mayor. Durban_sentence_59

On 23 August 2016 Zandile Gumede was elected as the new mayor until 13 August 2019. Durban_sentence_60

On 5 September 2019 Mxolisi Kaunda was sworn in as the new mayor. Durban_sentence_61

The name of the Durban municipal government, prior to the post-apartheid reorganisations of municipalities, was the Durban Corporation or City of Durban. Durban_sentence_62

Geography Durban_section_6

Durban is located on the east coast of South Africa, looking out upon the Indian Ocean. Durban_sentence_63

The city lies at the mouth of the Umgeni River, which demarcates parts of Durban's north city limit, while other sections of the river flow through the city itself. Durban_sentence_64

Durban has a natural harbour, Durban Harbour, which is the busiest port in South Africa and is the 4th-busiest in the Southern Hemisphere. Durban_sentence_65

Climate Durban_section_7

Durban has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with hot and humid summers and pleasantly warm and dry winters, which are snow and frost-free. Durban_sentence_66

Durban has an annual rainfall of 1,009 millimetres (39.7 in). Durban_sentence_67

The average temperature in summer ranges around 24 °C (75 °F), while in winter the average temperature is 17 °C (63 °F). Durban_sentence_68

Demographics Durban_section_8

Durban is ethnically diverse, with a cultural richness of mixed beliefs and traditions. Durban_sentence_69

Zulus form the largest single ethnic group. Durban_sentence_70

It has a large number of people of British and Indian descent. Durban_sentence_71

The influence of Indians in Durban has been significant, bringing with them a variety of cuisine, culture and religion. Durban_sentence_72

In the years following the end of Apartheid there was a population boom as Africans were allowed to move into the city. Durban_sentence_73

The population grew by 2.34% between 1996 and 2001. Durban_sentence_74

This led to shanty towns forming around the city which were often demolished. Durban_sentence_75

Between 2001 and 2011 the population growth slowed down to 1.08% per year and shanty towns have become less common as the government builds low-income housing. Durban_sentence_76

The population of the city of Durban and central suburbs such as Durban North, Durban South and the Berea increased 10.9% between 2001 and 2011 from 536,644 to 595,061. Durban_sentence_77

The proportion of Black Africans increased while the proportion of people in all the other racial groups decreased. Durban_sentence_78

Black Africans increased from 34.9% to 51.1%. Durban_sentence_79

Indian or Asians decreased from 27.3% to 24.0%. Durban_sentence_80

Whites decreased from 25.5% to 15.3%. Durban_sentence_81

Coloureds decreased from 10.26% to 8.59%. Durban_sentence_82

A new racial group, Other, was included in the 2011 census at 0.93%. Durban_sentence_83

The city's demographics indicate that 68% of the population are of working age, and 38% of the people in Durban are under the age of 19 years. Durban_sentence_84

It has the highest number of dollar millionaires added per year of any South African city with the number having increased 200 percent between 2000 and 2014. Durban_sentence_85

Economy Durban_section_9

Sugar refining is one of Durban's main industries. Durban_sentence_86

South Africa produces 19.9 million tons of sugar cane a year, and most of it comes from the rolling green valleys of KwaZulu-Natal. Durban_sentence_87

Informal sector Durban_section_10

Durban has a number of informal and semi-formal street vendors. Durban_sentence_88

The Warwick Junction Precinct is home to a number of street markets, with vendors selling goods from traditional medicine, to clothing and spices. Durban_sentence_89

The city's treatment of shack dwellers was criticised in a report from the United Nations linked Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions and there has also been criticism of the city's treatment of street traders, street children and sex workers. Durban_sentence_90

The cannabis strain called 'Durban Poison' is named for the city. Durban_sentence_91

Civil society Durban_section_11

There are a number of civil society organisations based in Durban. Durban_sentence_92

These include: Abahlali baseMjondolo (shack-dwellers') movement, the Diakonia Council of Churches, the Right2Know Campaign, the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance and the South African Unemployed Peoples' Movement. Durban_sentence_93

The Durban Art Gallery was founded in 1892. Durban_sentence_94

Tourism Durban_section_12

Durban has been named the greenest city in the world by Husqvarna Urban Green Space Index. Durban_sentence_95

Main article: List of nature reserves in eThekwini Durban_sentence_96

Durban_unordered_list_0

Media Durban_section_13

Two major English-language daily newspapers are published in Durban, both part of the Independent Newspapers, the national group owned by Sekunjalo Investments. Durban_sentence_97

These are the morning editions of The Mercury and the afternoon Daily News. Durban_sentence_98

Like most news media in South Africa, they have seen declining circulations in recent years. Durban_sentence_99

Major Zulu language papers comprise Isolezwe (Independent Newspapers), UmAfrika and Ilanga. Durban_sentence_100

Independent Newspapers also publish Post, a newspaper aimed largely at the Indian community. Durban_sentence_101

A national Sunday paper, the Sunday Tribune is also published by Independent Newspapers as is the Independent on Saturday. Durban_sentence_102

A major city initiative is the eZasegagasini Metro Gazette. Durban_sentence_103

The national broadcaster, the SABC, has regional offices in Durban and operates two major stations there. Durban_sentence_104

The Zulu language Ukhozi FM has a huge national listenership of over 6.67 million, which makes it the second largest radio station in the world. Durban_sentence_105

The SABC also operates Radio Lotus, which is aimed at South Africans of Indian origin. Durban_sentence_106

The other SABC national stations have smaller regional offices in Durban, as does TV for news links and sports broadcasts. Durban_sentence_107

A major English language radio station, East Coast Radio, operates out of Durban and is owned by SA media giant Kagiso Media. Durban_sentence_108

There are a number of smaller stations which are independent, having been granted licences by ICASA, the national agency charged with the issue of broadcast licences. Durban_sentence_109

Sport Durban_section_14

Durban was initially successful in its bid to host the 2022 Commonwealth Games, but needed to withdraw in March 2017 from the role of hosts, citing financial constraints. Durban_sentence_110

Birmingham, England replaced Durban as the host city. Durban_sentence_111

Durban is home to the Cell C Sharks, who compete in the domestic Currie Cup competition as well as in the international Super Rugby competition. Durban_sentence_112

The Sharks' home ground is the 56,000 capacity Kings Park Stadium, sometimes referred to as the Shark Tank. Durban_sentence_113

The city is home to two clubs in the Premier Soccer LeagueAmaZulu, and Golden Arrows. Durban_sentence_114

AmaZulu play most of their home games at the Moses Mabhida Stadium. Durban_sentence_115

Golden Arrows play most of their home games at the King Zwelithini Stadium in the suburb of Umlazi, but sometimes play some of their matches at Moses Mabhida Stadium or Chatsworth Stadium. Durban_sentence_116

It is also a home to some teams tha are playing in the NFD such as Royal Eagles FC and Royal Kings Durban_sentence_117

Durban is host to the KwaZulu-Natal cricket team, who play as the Dolphins when competing in the Sunfoil Series. Durban_sentence_118

Shaun Pollock, Jonty Rhodes, Lance Klusener, Barry Richards, Andrew Hudson, Hashim Amla, Vince van der Bijl, Kevin Pietersen, Dale Benkenstein and David Miller are all players or past players of the Natal cricket team. Durban_sentence_119

International cricketers representing them include Malcolm Marshall, Dwayne Bravo and Graham Onions. Durban_sentence_120

Cricket in Durban is played at Kingsmead cricket ground. Durban_sentence_121

Durban hosted matches in the 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup. Durban_sentence_122

In 2007 the city hosted nine matches, including a semi-final, as part of the inaugural ICC World Twenty20. Durban_sentence_123

The 2009 IPL season was played in South Africa, and Durban was selected as a venue. Durban_sentence_124

2010 saw the city host six matches, including a semi-final, in the 2010 Champions League Twenty20. Durban_sentence_125

Durban was one of the host cities of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, and A1GP held a race on a street circuit in Durban from 2006 to 2008. Durban_sentence_126

Durban hosted the 123rd IOC Session in July 2011. Durban_sentence_127

The city is home to Greyville Racecourse, a major Thoroughbred horse racing venue which annually hosts a number of prestigious races including the country's premier event, the July Handicap, and the premier staying event in South Africa, the Gold Cup. Durban_sentence_128

Clairwood racecourse, south of the city, was a popular racing venue for many years, but was sold by the KZN racing authority in 2012. Durban_sentence_129

Durban hosts many famous endurance sports events annually, such as the Comrades Marathon, Dusi Canoe Marathon and the Ironman 70.3. Durban_sentence_130

The city hosted several continental basketball tournaments such as the 1994 FIBA Africa Championship for Women or the 2006 FIBA Africa Under-18 Championship. Durban_sentence_131

Transport Durban_section_15

Air Durban_section_16

Main article: List of airports in the Durban area Durban_sentence_132

King Shaka International Airport services both domestic and international flights, with regularly scheduled services to London, Dubai, Istanbul, Doha, Mauritius, Lusaka, Windhoek and Gaborone, as well as eight domestic destinations. Durban_sentence_133

The airport's position forms part of the Golden Triangle between Johannesburg and Cape Town, which is important for convenient travel and trade between these three major South African cities. Durban_sentence_134

The airport opened in May 2010. Durban_sentence_135

King Shaka International Airport handled 6.1 million passengers in 2019/2020, up 1.8 percent from 2018/2019. Durban_sentence_136

King Shaka International was constructed at La Mercy, about 36 kilometres (22 mi) north of central Durban. Durban_sentence_137

All operations at Durban International Airport have been transferred to King Shaka International as of 1 May 2010, with plans for flights to Singapore, Mumbai, Kigali, Luanda, Lilongwe and Nairobi. Durban_sentence_138

Sea Durban_section_17

Durban has a long tradition as a port city. Durban_sentence_139

The Port of Durban, formerly known as the Port of Natal, is one of the few natural harbours between Port Elizabeth and Maputo, and is also located at the beginning of a particular weather phenomenon which can cause extremely violent seas. Durban_sentence_140

These two features made Durban an extremely busy port of call for ship repairs when the port was opened in the 1840s. Durban_sentence_141

MSC Cruises bases one of their cruise ships in Durban from November to April every year. Durban_sentence_142

From the 2019/2020 Southern Africa cruise season MSC Cruises will be basing the MSC Orchestra in Durban. Durban_sentence_143

Durban is the most popular cruise hub in Southern Africa. Durban_sentence_144

Cruise destinations from Durban on the MSC Orchestra include Mozambique, Mauritius, Réunion, Madagascar and other domestic destinations such as Port Elizabeth and Cape Town. Durban_sentence_145

For the 2020/2021 cruise season MSC Cruises will be sending 2 ships being the MSC Musica & MSC Opera which will include additional cruise dates and Seychelles being added as a new cruise destination. Durban_sentence_146

Many other ships cruise through Durban every year, including some of the world's biggest, such as the RMS Queen Mary 2, the biggest ocean liner in the world. Durban_sentence_147

Durban will be building a brand new R200 million cruise terminal that will be operational in October 2019, the Durban Cruise Terminal. Durban_sentence_148

The tender was awarded to KwaZulu Cruise Terminal (Pty) Ltd which is 70% owned by MSC Cruises SA and 30% by Africa Armada Consortium. Durban_sentence_149

The new cruise terminal will be able to accommodate two cruise ships at any given time. Durban_sentence_150

Naval Base Durban on Salisbury Island (now joined to the mainland and part of the Port of Durban), was established as a naval base during the Second World War. Durban_sentence_151

It was downgraded in 2002 to a naval station. Durban_sentence_152

In 2012 a decision was made to renovate and expand the facilities back up to a full naval base to accommodate the South African Navy's offshore patrol flotilla. Durban_sentence_153

In December 2015 it was redesignated Naval Base Durban. Durban_sentence_154

Rail Durban_section_18

Durban featured the first operating steam railway in South Africa when the Natal Railway Company started operating a line between the Point and the city of Durban in 1860. Durban_sentence_155

Shosholoza Meyl, the passenger rail service of Spoornet, operates two long-distance passenger rail services from Durban: a daily service to and from Johannesburg via Pietermaritzburg and Newcastle, and a weekly service to and from Cape Town via Kimberley and Bloemfontein. Durban_sentence_156

These trains terminate at Durban railway station. Durban_sentence_157

Metrorail operates a commuter rail service in Durban and the surrounding area. Durban_sentence_158

The Metrorail network runs from Durban Station outwards as far as Stanger on the north coast, Kelso on the south coast, and Cato Ridge inland. Durban_sentence_159

A high-speed rail link has been proposed, between Johannesburg and Durban. Durban_sentence_160

Roads Durban_section_19

The city's main position as a port of entry onto the southern African continent has led to the development of national roads around it. Durban_sentence_161

The N3 Western Freeway, which links Durban with the economic hinterland of Gauteng, heads west out of the city. Durban_sentence_162

The N2 Outer Ring Road links Durban with the Eastern Cape to the south, and Mpumalanga in the north. Durban_sentence_163

The Western Freeway is particularly important because freight is shipped by truck to and from the Witwatersrand for transfer to the port. Durban_sentence_164

The N3 Western Freeway starts in the central business district and heads west under Tollgate Bridge and through the suburbs of Sherwood and Mayville. Durban_sentence_165

The EB Cloete Interchange (which is informally nicknamed the Spaghetti Junction) lies to the east of Westville, allowing for transfer of traffic between the N2 Outer Ring Road and the Western Freeway. Durban_sentence_166

The N2 Outer Ring Road cuts through the city from the north coast to the south coast. Durban_sentence_167

It provides a vital link to the coastal towns (such as Scottburgh and Stanger) that rely on Durban. Durban_sentence_168

Durban also has a system of freeway and dual arterial metropolitan routes, which connect the sprawling suburbs that lie to the north, west and south of the city. Durban_sentence_169

The M4 exists in two segments. Durban_sentence_170

The northern segment, named the Ruth First Highway, starts as an alternative highway at Ballito where it separates from the N2. Durban_sentence_171

It passes through the northern suburbs of Umhlanga and La Lucia where it becomes a dual carriageway and ends at the northern edge of the CBD. Durban_sentence_172

The southern segment of the M4, the Albert Lutuli Highway, starts at the southern edge of the CBD, connecting through to the old, decommissioned Durban International Airport, where it once again reconnects with the N2 Outer Ring Road. Durban_sentence_173

The M7 connects the southern industrial basin with the N3 and Pinetown via Queensburgh via the N2. Durban_sentence_174

The M19 connects the northern suburbs with Pinetown via Westville. Durban_sentence_175

The M13 is an untolled alternative to the N3 Western Freeway (which is tolled at Mariannhill). Durban_sentence_176

It also feeds traffic through Gillitts, Kloof, and Westville. Durban_sentence_177

In the Westville area it is called the Jan Smuts Highway, while in the Kloof area it is named the Arthur Hopewell Highway. Durban_sentence_178

A number of streets in Durban were renamed in the late 2000s to the names of figures related to the anti-apartheid struggle, persons related to liberation movements around the world (including Che Guevara, Kenneth Kaunda and SWAPO), and others associated with the governing African National Congress. Durban_sentence_179

A few street names were changed in the first round of renaming, followed by a larger second round. Durban_sentence_180

The renamings provoked incidents of vandalism, as well as protests from opposition parties and members of the public. Durban_sentence_181

Buses Durban_section_20

Several companies run long-distance bus services from Durban to the other cities in South Africa. Durban_sentence_182

Buses have a long history in Durban. Durban_sentence_183

Most of them have been run by Indian owners since the early 1930s. Durban_sentence_184

Privately owned buses which are not subsidised by the government also service the communities. Durban_sentence_185

Buses operate in all areas of the eThekwini Municipality. Durban_sentence_186

Since 2003 buses have been violently taken out of the routes and bus ranks by taxi operators. Durban_sentence_187

Durban was previously served by the Durban trolleybus system, which first ran in 1935. Durban_sentence_188

Since 2017 the newer People Mover Bus System which runs along certain routes has been testing out free Wi-Fi for passengers. Durban_sentence_189

Taxis Durban_section_21

Durban has two kinds of taxis: metered taxis and minibus taxis. Durban_sentence_190

Unlike in many cities, metered taxis are not allowed to drive around the city to solicit fares and instead must be called and ordered to a specific location. Durban_sentence_191

A number of companies service the Durban and surrounding regions. Durban_sentence_192

These taxis can also be called upon for airport transfers, point to point pickups and shuttles. Durban_sentence_193

Mini bus taxis are the standard form of transport for the majority of the population who cannot afford private cars. Durban_sentence_194

With the high demand for transport by the working class of South Africa, minibus taxis are often filled over their legal passenger allowance, making for high casualty rates when they are involved in accidents. Durban_sentence_195

Minibuses are generally owned and operated in fleets, and inter-operator violence flares up from time to time, especially as turf wars over lucrative taxi routes occur. Durban_sentence_196

Ride sharing apps Uber and Taxify have been launched in Durban and are also used by commuters. Durban_sentence_197

Rickshaws Durban_section_22

Although rickshaws have been a mode of transportation since the early 1900s, they have been displaced by other forms of motorised transport. Durban_sentence_198

The roughly 25 remaining rickshaws mostly cater to tourists. Durban_sentence_199

Education Durban_section_23

Private schools Durban_section_24

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Public schools Durban_section_25

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Universities and Colleges Durban_section_26

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Culture Durban_section_27

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  • African Art CentreDurban_item_4_101
  • Durban Art GalleryDurban_item_4_102
  • KZNSADurban_item_4_103
  • Phansi MuseumDurban_item_4_104
  • Ethekwini Municipal LibrariesDurban_item_4_105
  • Thunee is a popular Jack-Nine card game that originated among communities in DurbanDurban_item_4_106

Places of worship Durban_section_28

Among the places of worship, there are predominantly Christian churches and temples. Durban_sentence_200

These include: Zion Christian Church, Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa, Assemblies of God, Baptist Union of Southern Africa (Baptist World Alliance), Methodist Church of Southern Africa (World Methodist Council), Anglican Church of Southern Africa (Anglican Communion), Presbyterian Church of Africa (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Durban (Catholic Church) and the Durban South Africa Temple (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). Durban_sentence_201

There are also Muslim mosques and Hindu temples. Durban_sentence_202

Crime and safety Durban_section_29

As in other South African cities, Durban has a high murder rate. Durban_sentence_203

The Ethekwini Metropolitan Municipality between April 2018 - March 2019 recorded 1871 murders, gradually increasing from 1349 7 years earlier and down from 2042 in 2009. Durban_sentence_204

Criminals usually avoid targeting tourists because they know that the police response will be greater. Durban_sentence_205

Heist or theft is a common crime in the city. Durban_sentence_206

Most houses are protected by high walls and wealthier residents are often able to afford greater protection such as electric fencing, private security or gated communities. Durban_sentence_207

Crime rates vary widely across the city and most inner suburbs have much lower murder rates than in outlying areas of Ethekwini. Durban_sentence_208

Police station precincts recording the lowest murder rates per 100,000 in 2017 were Durban North (7), Mayville (8), Westville (12) and Malvern (12). Durban_sentence_209

Kwamashu (76) and Umlazi (69) are some of the most dangerous areas. Durban_sentence_210

Other crime comparisons are less valuable due to significant under-reporting especially in outlying areas. Durban_sentence_211

There was a period of intense violence beginning in the 1990s and the Durban area recorded a murder rate of 83 per 100,000 in 1999. Durban_sentence_212

The murder rate dropped rapidly in the 2000s before increasing rapidly throughout the 2010s. Durban_sentence_213

Durban is one of the main drug trafficking routes for drugs exiting and entering Sub-Saharan Africa. Durban_sentence_214

The drug trade has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Durban_sentence_215

International relations Durban_section_30

Twin towns and sister cities Durban_section_31

Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in South Africa Durban_sentence_216

Durban is twinned with: Durban_sentence_217

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See also Durban_section_32

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durban.