Eastbourne

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This article is about the town in East Sussex. Eastbourne_sentence_0

For other uses, see Eastbourne (disambiguation). Eastbourne_sentence_1

Eastbourne_table_infobox_0

Eastbourne

Borough of EastbourneEastbourne_header_cell_0_0_0

Sovereign stateEastbourne_header_cell_0_1_0 United KingdomEastbourne_cell_0_1_1
Constituent countryEastbourne_header_cell_0_2_0 EnglandEastbourne_cell_0_2_1
RegionEastbourne_header_cell_0_3_0 South East EnglandEastbourne_cell_0_3_1
Non-metropolitan countyEastbourne_header_cell_0_4_0 East SussexEastbourne_cell_0_4_1
StatusEastbourne_header_cell_0_5_0 Non-metropolitan districtEastbourne_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentEastbourne_header_cell_0_6_0
MPEastbourne_header_cell_0_7_0 Caroline Ansell MP (Conservative)Eastbourne_cell_0_7_1
MayorEastbourne_header_cell_0_8_0 Steve WallisEastbourne_cell_0_8_1
Borough CouncilEastbourne_header_cell_0_9_0 David Tutt, LeaderEastbourne_cell_0_9_1
County CouncilEastbourne_header_cell_0_10_0 Keith Glazier, Leader (Conservative)Eastbourne_cell_0_10_1
AreaEastbourne_header_cell_0_11_0
TotalEastbourne_header_cell_0_12_0 17.05 sq mi (44.16 km)Eastbourne_cell_0_12_1
Area rankEastbourne_header_cell_0_13_0 273rd (of 317)Eastbourne_cell_0_13_1
Population (June 2019)Eastbourne_header_cell_0_14_0
TotalEastbourne_header_cell_0_15_0 103,745Eastbourne_cell_0_15_1
RankEastbourne_header_cell_0_16_0 231st (of 317)Eastbourne_cell_0_16_1
DensityEastbourne_header_cell_0_17_0 6,050/sq mi (2,336/km)Eastbourne_cell_0_17_1
Time zoneEastbourne_header_cell_0_18_0 UTC0 (GMT)Eastbourne_cell_0_18_1
Summer (DST)Eastbourne_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC+1 (BST)Eastbourne_cell_0_19_1
PostcodesEastbourne_header_cell_0_20_0 BN20-23Eastbourne_cell_0_20_1
Area code(s)Eastbourne_header_cell_0_21_0 01323Eastbourne_cell_0_21_1
ONS codeEastbourne_header_cell_0_22_0 21UC (ONS)

E07000061 (GSS)Eastbourne_cell_0_22_1

OS grid referenceEastbourne_header_cell_0_23_0 Eastbourne_cell_0_23_1
WebsiteEastbourne_header_cell_0_24_0 Eastbourne Borough Council atEastbourne_cell_0_24_1

Eastbourne (/ˈiːstbɔːrn/ (listen)) is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, 19 miles (31 km) east of Brighton. Eastbourne_sentence_2

Eastbourne is immediately to the east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the larger Eastbourne Downland Estate. Eastbourne_sentence_3

With a seafront consisting largely of Victorian hotels, a pier and a Napoleonic era fort and military museum, Eastbourne was developed at the direction of the Duke of Devonshire from 1859 from four separate hamlets. Eastbourne_sentence_4

It has a growing population, a broad economic base and is home to companies in a wide range of industries. Eastbourne_sentence_5

Though Eastbourne is a relatively new town, there is evidence of human occupation in the area from the Stone Age. Eastbourne_sentence_6

The town grew as a fashionable tourist resort largely thanks to prominent landowner, William Cavendish, later to become the Duke of Devonshire. Eastbourne_sentence_7

Cavendish appointed architect Henry Currey to design a street plan for the town, but not before sending him to Europe to draw inspiration. Eastbourne_sentence_8

The resulting mix of architecture is typically Victorian and remains a key feature of Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_9

As a seaside resort, Eastbourne derives a large and increasing income from tourism, with revenue from traditional seaside attractions augmented by conferences, public events and cultural sightseeing. Eastbourne_sentence_10

The other main industries in Eastbourne include trade and retail, healthcare, education, construction, manufacturing, professional scientific and the technical sector. Eastbourne_sentence_11

Eastbourne's population is growing; between 2001 and 2011 it increased from 89,800 to 99,412. Eastbourne_sentence_12

The 2011 census shows that the average age of residents has decreased as the town has attracted students, families and those commuting to London and Brighton. Eastbourne_sentence_13

In June 2019, the population of Eastbourne was estimated to be 103,745. Eastbourne_sentence_14

History Eastbourne_section_0

Pre-Roman Eastbourne_section_1

Flint mines and Stone Age artefacts have been found in the surrounding countryside of the Eastbourne Downs. Eastbourne_sentence_15

A Bronze Age site of national importance was discovered in Hydneye lake at Shinewater in 1995. Eastbourne_sentence_16

Celtic people are believed to have settled on the Eastbourne Downland in 500 BC. Eastbourne_sentence_17

Roman era Eastbourne_section_2

There are Roman remains buried beneath the town, such as a Roman bath and section of pavement between Eastbourne Pier and the Redoubt Fortress. Eastbourne_sentence_18

There is also a Roman villa near the entrance to the Pier and the present Queens Hotel. Eastbourne_sentence_19

In 2014, skeletal remains of a woman who lived around 425 AD were discovered in the vicinity of Beachy Head on the Eastbourne Downland Estate. Eastbourne_sentence_20

The remains were found to be of a 30-year-old woman who grew up in East Sussex, but had genetic heritage from sub-Saharan Africa, giving her black skin and an African skeletal structure. Eastbourne_sentence_21

Her ancestors came from below the Saharan region, at a time when the Roman Empire extended only as far as North Africa. Eastbourne_sentence_22

Anglo-Saxon era Eastbourne_section_3

An Anglo-Saxon charter, circa 963 AD, describes a landing stage and stream at Burne. Eastbourne_sentence_23

The original name came from the 'Burne' or stream which ran through today's Old Town area of Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_24

All that can be seen of the Burne, or Bourne, is the small pond in Motcombe Gardens. Eastbourne_sentence_25

The bubbling source is guarded by a statue of Neptune. Eastbourne_sentence_26

Motcombe Gardens are overlooked by St. Mary's Church, a Norman church which allegedly lies on the site of a Saxon 'moot', or meeting place. Eastbourne_sentence_27

This gives Motcombe its name. Eastbourne_sentence_28

In 2014 local metal-detectorist Darrin Simpson found a coin minted during the reign of Æthelberht II of East Anglia (died 794), in a field near the town. Eastbourne_sentence_29

It is believed that the coin may have led to Æthelberht's beheading by Offa of Mercia, as it had been struck as a sign of independence. Eastbourne_sentence_30

Describing the coin, expert Christopher Webb, said, "This new discovery is an important and unexpected addition to the numismatic history of 8th century England." Eastbourne_sentence_31

Norman era Eastbourne_section_4

Following the Norman conquest, the Hundred of what is now Eastbourne, was held by Robert, Count of Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. Eastbourne_sentence_32

The Domesday Book lists 28 ploughlands, a church, a watermill, fisheries and salt pans. Eastbourne_sentence_33

The Book referred to the area as 'Borne'. Eastbourne_sentence_34

'East' was added to 'Borne' in the 13th century, renaming the town. Eastbourne_sentence_35

Medieval era Eastbourne_section_5

A charter for a weekly market was granted to Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1315–16; this increased his status as Lord of the Manor and improved local industry. Eastbourne_sentence_36

During the Middle Ages the town was visited by King Henry I and in 1324 by Edward II. Eastbourne_sentence_37

Evidence of Eastbourne's medieval past can seen in the 12th century Church of St Mary, and the manor house called Bourne Place. Eastbourne_sentence_38

In the mid-16th century Bourne Place was home to the Burton family, who acquired much of the land on which the present town stands. Eastbourne_sentence_39

This manor house is currently owned by the Duke of Devonshire and was extensively remodelled in the early Georgian era when it was renamed Compton Place. Eastbourne_sentence_40

It is one of the two Grade I listed buildings in the town. Eastbourne_sentence_41

Eastbourne has Cornish connections, most notably visible in the Cornish high cross in the churchyard of St Mary's Church which was brought from an unspecified location in Cornwall. Eastbourne_sentence_42

Georgian era Eastbourne_section_6

In 1752, a dissertation by Doctor Richard Russell extolled the medicinal benefits of the seaside. Eastbourne_sentence_43

His views were of considerable benefit to the south coast and, in due course, Eastbourne became known as "the Empress of Watering Places". Eastbourne_sentence_44

Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort came about following a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780 (Princes Edward and Octavius and Princesses Elizabeth and Sophia). Eastbourne_sentence_45

In 1793, following a survey of coastal defences in the southeast, approval was given for the positioning of infantry and artillery to defend the bay between Beachy Head and Hastings from attack by the French. Eastbourne_sentence_46

Fourteen Martello Towers were constructed along the western shore of Pevensey Bay, continuing as far as Tower 73, the Wish Tower at Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_47

Several of these towers survive: the Wish Tower is an important feature of the town's seafront and was the subject of a painting by James Sant RA, and part of Tower 68 forms the basement of a house on St. Antony's Hill. Eastbourne_sentence_48

Between 1805 and 1807, the construction took place of a fortress known as the Eastbourne Redoubt, which was built as a barracks and storage depot, and armed with 10 cannons. Eastbourne_sentence_49

A connection with India comes in the shape of the 18th-century Lushington monument, also at St Mary's, which commemorates a survivor of the Black Hole of Calcutta atrocity which led to the British conquest of Bengal. Eastbourne_sentence_50

Eastbourne remained an area of small rural settlements until the 19th century. Eastbourne_sentence_51

Four villages or hamlets occupied the site of the modern town: Bourne (or, to distinguish it from others of the same name, East Bourne), is now known as Old Town, and this surrounded the bourne (stream) which rises in the present Motcombe Park; Meads, where the Downs meet the coast; South Bourne (near the town hall); and the fishing settlement known simply as Sea Houses, which was situated to the east of the present pier. Eastbourne_sentence_52

Victorian era Eastbourne_section_7

By the mid-19th century most of the area had fallen into the hands of two landowners: John Davies Gilbert (the Davies-Gilbert family still own much of the land in Eastbourne and East Dean) and William Cavendish, Earl of Burlington. Eastbourne_sentence_53

The Gilbert family's holdings date to the late 17th and early 18th centuries when barrister Nicholas Gilbert married an Eversfield and Gildredge heiress. Eastbourne_sentence_54

(The Gildredges owned much of Eastbourne by 1554. Eastbourne_sentence_55

The Gilberts eventually made the Gildredge Manor House their own. Eastbourne_sentence_56

Today the Gildredge name lives on in the eponymous park.) Eastbourne_sentence_57

Trevithick, the inventor of the steam locomotive (a claim disputed on the grave of one Vyvyan in the churchyard at Camborne), is reported to have spent some time here. Eastbourne_sentence_58

An early plan, for a town named Burlington, was abandoned, but on 14 May 1849 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway arrived to scenes of great jubilation. Eastbourne_sentence_59

With the arrival of the railway, the town's growth accelerated. Eastbourne_sentence_60

Cavendish, now the 7th Duke of Devonshire, recruited Henry Currey in 1859 to lay out a plan for what was essentially an entire new town – a resort built "for gentlemen by gentlemen". Eastbourne_sentence_61

The town grew rapidly from a population of less than 4,000 in 1851 to nearly 35,000 by 1891. Eastbourne_sentence_62

In 1883, it was incorporated as a municipal borough; a purpose-built town hall was opened in 1886. Eastbourne_sentence_63

This period of growth and elegant development continued for several decades. Eastbourne_sentence_64

A royal visit by George V and Queen Mary in March 1935 is commemorated by a plaque on chalet number 2 at Holywell. Eastbourne_sentence_65

20th century Eastbourne_section_8

During the First World War, Summerdown Camp, a convalescent facility, opened in 1915 near the South Downs to treat soldiers who were injured during trench warfare or seriously ill. Eastbourne_sentence_66

It was the largest of this type in the UK during this war, treating 150,000; 80% were able to return to fight. Eastbourne_sentence_67

The facility was dismantled in 1920. Eastbourne_sentence_68

An exhibition about the history of the camp was held in Eastbourne for several months in 2015. Eastbourne_sentence_69

In 1926, the Eastbourne Corporation Act enabled the creation of the Eastbourne Downland Estate. Eastbourne_sentence_70

The Second World War saw a change in fortunes. Eastbourne_sentence_71

Initially, children were evacuated to Eastbourne on the assumption that they would be safe from German bombs, but soon they had to be evacuated again because after the fall of France in June 1940 it was anticipated that the town would lie in an invasion zone. Eastbourne_sentence_72

Part of Operation Sea Lion, the German invasion plan, envisaged landings at Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_73

Many people sought safety away from the coast and shut up their houses. Eastbourne_sentence_74

Restrictions on visitors forced the closure of most hotels, and private boarding schools moved away. Eastbourne_sentence_75

Many of these empty buildings were later taken over by the services. Eastbourne_sentence_76

The Royal Navy set up an underwater weapons school, and the Royal Air Force operated radar stations at Beachy Head and on the marshes near Pevensey. Eastbourne_sentence_77

Thousands of Canadian soldiers were billeted in and around Eastbourne from July 1941 to the run-up to D-Day. Eastbourne_sentence_78

The town suffered badly during the war, with many Victorian and Edwardian buildings damaged or destroyed by air raids. Eastbourne_sentence_79

Indeed, by the end of the conflict it was designated by the Home Office to have been 'the most raided town in the South East region'. Eastbourne_sentence_80

The situation was especially bad between May 1942 and June 1943 with hit–and–run raids from fighter–bombers based in northern France. Eastbourne_sentence_81

Ultimately 187 civilian lives were lost in the borough through enemy action. Eastbourne_sentence_82

In the summer of 1956, the town came to national and worldwide attention, when Dr John Bodkin Adams, a general practitioner serving the town's wealthier patients, was arrested for the murder of an elderly widow. Eastbourne_sentence_83

Rumours had been circulating since 1935 regarding the frequency of his being named in patients' wills (132 times between 1946 and 1956) and the gifts he was given (including two Rolls Royces). Eastbourne_sentence_84

Figures of up to 400 murders were reported in British and foreign newspapers, but after a controversial trial at the Old Bailey which gripped the nation for 17 days in March 1957, Adams was found not guilty. Eastbourne_sentence_85

He was struck off for four years but resumed his practice in Eastbourne in 1961. Eastbourne_sentence_86

According to Scotland Yard's archives, he is thought to have killed up to 163 patients in the Eastbourne area. Eastbourne_sentence_87

After the war, development continued, including the growth of Old Town up the hillside (Green Street Farm Estate) and the housing estates of Hampden Park, Willingdon Trees and Langney. Eastbourne_sentence_88

During the latter half of the 20th century, there were controversies over the demolition of Pococks, a 15th-century manor house on what is now the Rodmill Housing Estate, and the granting of planning permission for a 19-storey block at the western end of the seafront. Eastbourne_sentence_89

The latter project (South Cliff Tower) was realised in 1965 despite a storm of protest led by the newly formed Eastbourne and District Preservation Committee, which later became Eastbourne Civic Society, and was renamed the Eastbourne Society in 1999. Eastbourne_sentence_90

Local conservationists also failed to prevent the construction of the glass-plated TGWU conference and holiday centre (the building now operating as The View Hotel), but were successful in purchasing Polegate Windmill, thus saving it from demolition and redevelopment. Eastbourne_sentence_91

Most of the expansion took place on the northern and eastern margins of the town, gradually swallowing surrounding villages. Eastbourne_sentence_92

However, the richer western part was constrained by the Downs and has remained largely unchanged. Eastbourne_sentence_93

In 1981, a large section of the town centre was replaced by the indoor shops of the Arndale Centre. Eastbourne_sentence_94

In the 1990s, both growth and controversy accelerated rapidly as a new plan was launched to develop the area known as the Crumbles, a shingle bank on the coast to the east of the town centre. Eastbourne_sentence_95

This area, now known as Sovereign Harbour, containing a marina, shops and several thousand houses, along with luxury flats, was formerly home to many rare plants. Eastbourne_sentence_96

There has been continued growth in other parts of the town, and the central marshland has become farmland and nature reserves. Eastbourne_sentence_97

21st century Eastbourne_section_9

In 2009, the new Towner Gallery was opened, abutting the listed Congress Theatre built in 1963. Eastbourne_sentence_98

In 2016–19 extensive remodelling work was undertaken to the prominent Arndale Centre, which takes up most of the town centre, and was originally built by Legal & General Assurance in the 1980s. Eastbourne_sentence_99

This was then renamed The Beacon. Eastbourne_sentence_100

The remodelling including the addition of a brand new cinema run by Cineworld. Eastbourne_sentence_101

On 22 November 2019, a fire broke out in the basement of the Claremont Hotel. Eastbourne_sentence_102

The nearby Pier Hotel was also evacuated. Eastbourne_sentence_103

Local History Society Eastbourne_section_10

Eastbourne Local History Society was founded in 1970. Eastbourne_sentence_104

It is a charitable, not-for-profit organisation in the United Kingdom whose objective is the pursuit and encouragement of an active interest in the study of the history of Eastbourne and its immediate environs and the dissemination of the outcome of such studies. Eastbourne_sentence_105

As the major landowner, the Cavendish family has had strong connections with Eastbourne since the 18th century. Eastbourne_sentence_106

The current President of the Society is William Cavendish, Earl of Burlington. Eastbourne_sentence_107

Containing over 1,500 articles about the history of Eastbourne, the Society's indexed journal, The Eastbourne Local Historian, is the major historical resource for the town and has been published quarterly since its inception in 1970. Eastbourne_sentence_108

Over the years, the Society has published various books and booklets about the history of Eastbourne, twelve of which are currently in print. Eastbourne_sentence_109

Geography Eastbourne_section_11

The South Downs dominate Eastbourne and the Eastbourne Downland Estate can be seen from most of the town. Eastbourne_sentence_110

These were originally chalk deposits laid down under the sea during the Late Cretaceous, and were later lifted by the same tectonic plate movements that formed the European Alps, during the middle Tertiary period. Eastbourne_sentence_111

The chalk can be clearly seen along the eroded coastline to the west of the town, in the area known as Beachy Head and the Seven Sisters, where continuous erosion keeps the cliff edge vertical and white. Eastbourne_sentence_112

The chalk contains many fossils such as ammonites and nautilus. Eastbourne_sentence_113

The town area is built on geologically recent alluvial drift, the result of the silting up of a bay. Eastbourne_sentence_114

This changes to Weald clay around the Langney estate. Eastbourne_sentence_115

A part of the South Downs, Willingdon Down is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest. Eastbourne_sentence_116

This is of archaeological interest due to a Neolithic camp and burial grounds. Eastbourne_sentence_117

The area is also a nationally uncommon tract of chalk grassland rich in species. Eastbourne_sentence_118

Another SSSI which partially falls with the Eastbourne district is Seaford to Beachy Head. Eastbourne_sentence_119

This site, of biological and geological interest, covers the coastline between Eastbourne and Seaford, plus the Seven Sisters country park and the Cuckmere valley. Eastbourne_sentence_120

Several nature trails lead across the Downs to areas such as the nearby villages of East Dean and Birling Gap, and landmarks like the Seven Sisters, Belle Tout Lighthouse and Beachy Head. Eastbourne_sentence_121

Districts Eastbourne_section_12

Eastbourne's greater area comprises the town of Polegate, and the civil parishes of Willingdon and Jevington, Stone Cross, Pevensey, Westham and Pevensey Bay village. Eastbourne_sentence_122

All are part of the Wealden District. Eastbourne_sentence_123

Within Eastbourne's limits are: Eastbourne_sentence_124

Eastbourne_unordered_list_0

  • Langney: Langney Rise, Shinewater, Kingsmere, Langney Village, the Marina, Langney PointEastbourne_item_0_0
  • Hampden Park: Hampden Park Village, Willingdon Trees, Winkney Farm, RattonEastbourne_item_0_1
  • Inner areas: Rodmill, Ocklynge, Seaside, Bridgemere, Roselands, DownsideEastbourne_item_0_2
  • Town centre: Town centre, Little Chelsea, Meads, Holywell, Old Town, UppertonEastbourne_item_0_3
  • Sovereign Harbour: North Harbour, South HarbourEastbourne_item_0_4

There was a community known as Norway, Eastbourne in the triangle now bounded by Wartling Road, Seaside and Lottbridge Drove. Eastbourne_sentence_125

The name being a corruption of North Way, as this was the route to the north. Eastbourne_sentence_126

The area is now a housing estate and the only evidence there was a Norway are a Norway Road and the local church whose sign reads "St Andrew's Church, Norway". Eastbourne_sentence_127

The former fishing hamlet of Holywell (local pronunciation 'holly well') was situated by the cliff on a ledge some 400 yards to the southwest of the public garden known as the Holywell Retreat. Eastbourne_sentence_128

It was approached from what is now Holywell Road via the lane between the present Helen Gardens and St Bede's School which leads to the chalk pinnacle formerly known locally as 'Gibraltar' or the 'Sugar Loaf'. Eastbourne_sentence_129

The ground around the pinnacle was the site of lime kilns also worked by the fishermen. Eastbourne_sentence_130

The fishing hamlet at Holywell was taken over by the local water board in 1896 to exploit the springs in the cliffs. Eastbourne_sentence_131

The water board's successors still own the site, and there is a pumping station but little evidence of the hamlet itself, as by now even most of the foundations of the cottages have gone over the cliff. Eastbourne_sentence_132

Climate Eastbourne_section_13

As with the rest of the British Isles and South Coast, Eastbourne experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. Eastbourne_sentence_133

The local climate is notable for its high sunshine levels, at least relative to much of the rest of England – Eastbourne holds the record for the highest recorded amount of sunshine in a month, 383.9 hours in July 1911. Eastbourne_sentence_134

Temperature extremes recorded at Eastbourne since 1960 range from 31.6 °C (88.9 °F) during July 1976, down to −9.7 °C (14.5 °F) In January 1987. Eastbourne_sentence_135

Eastbourne's coastal location also means it tends to be milder than most areas, particularly during night. Eastbourne_sentence_136

A whole six months of the year have never fallen below 0 °C (32 °F), and in July the temperature has never fallen below 8.3 °C (46.9 °F). Eastbourne_sentence_137

All temperature figures relate to the period 1960 onwards. Eastbourne_sentence_138

The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate). Eastbourne_sentence_139

Governance Eastbourne_section_14

Eastbourne Borough Council Eastbourne_section_15

Eastbourne Borough Council is responsible for much local governance, with representation provided by 27 councillors from 9 wards, with elections to the council being held every four years. Eastbourne_sentence_140

The 2015 election resulted in a council made up of 18 Liberal Democrat and 9 Conservative councillors. Eastbourne_sentence_141

The council operates out of a Victorian town hall designed by W. Tadman Foulkes, and built between 1884 and 1886 under supervision of Henry Currey, the Duke of Devonshire's architect. Eastbourne_sentence_142

East Sussex County Council Eastbourne_section_16

East Sussex County Council has responsibility for local education, libraries, social services, civil registration, trading standards and transport. Eastbourne_sentence_143

Out of the 49 seats, 9 are returned by Eastbourne voters. Eastbourne_sentence_144

The 2009 East Sussex County Council election resulted in 29 Conservatives, 13 Liberal Democrats, 4 Labour and 3 Independent, of which Eastbourne provided 6 Liberal Democrats and 3 Conservatives. Eastbourne_sentence_145

House of Commons Eastbourne_section_17

The Parliament Constituency of Eastbourne has always covered a greater area than the borough's nine wards, but due to population growth in the town, it has lost territory over time. Eastbourne_sentence_146

At present the constituency includes all of the borough as well as the suburb of Willingdon. Eastbourne_sentence_147

Eastbourne is a marginal seat currently represented by the Conservatives but with recent representation by the Liberal Democrats. Eastbourne_sentence_148

European Parliament Eastbourne_section_18

At European level, Eastbourne is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament. Eastbourne_sentence_149

The 2009 election returned 4 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, 2 UK Independence, 1 Labour and 1 Green. Eastbourne_sentence_150

Demography Eastbourne_section_19

The overall population of Eastbourne is growing (between 2001–2008 the population grew from 89,800 to 94,800),. Eastbourne_sentence_151

Eastbourne is the second largest district or borough in East Sussex with an official resident population of 101,133 in 2014. Eastbourne_sentence_152

The average age of residents has dropped in recent years as younger people move into the town and young family households have started to balance retirement communities. Eastbourne_sentence_153

In 2014, 54% of residents were between 20 and 64, while 24% were over 65 years old, and there was an average age of 43. Eastbourne_sentence_154

In 2013, the Office for National Statistics named an area in Meads as the first place in the UK to have an average resident age exceeding 70, with an average age of 71.1, compared with a national average age of 39.7. Eastbourne_sentence_155

29% of households do not have cars or vans. Eastbourne_sentence_156

Ethnically, the town was said to be 93.7% white in 2007. Eastbourne_sentence_157

Eastbourne has residents from a diverse range of international backgrounds, including notable groups of people from recent Polish, Portuguese, Chinese, Turkish, Italian and Greek origin. Eastbourne_sentence_158

The 2001 UK Census indicated that the largest non-white ethnic group at the time was Chinese. Eastbourne_sentence_159

Studies conducted by the local council in 2008 reflected growth in new residents from Eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Eastbourne_sentence_160

Unemployment in Eastbourne was below the national average in 2013 figures, at 4.1% compared to 4.4% for England and Wales. Eastbourne_sentence_161

The percentage of economically active people increased between 2001–2011. Eastbourne_sentence_162

There has also been an upward trend in recent years, in the number of people with higher education qualifications. Eastbourne_sentence_163

Economy Eastbourne_section_20

With a population of more than 100,000 people, Eastbourne has been a fast-growing town in the past few years, relative to the rest of the UK. Eastbourne_sentence_164

Development around Eastbourne's Sovereign Harbour, Britain's largest composite marina, has created more than 3,000 new homes and an innovation centre for small businesses. Eastbourne_sentence_165

Eastbourne is home to companies in a wide range of industries. Eastbourne_sentence_166

Eastbourne's Chamber of Commerce has more than 500 members and holds many networking events to facilitate local business links. Eastbourne_sentence_167

In 2008, Eastbourne was judged to have low productivity, in a national assessment by the National Audit Office. Eastbourne_sentence_168

Productivity, measured by gross value added per employee, was recorded as £31,390 per year. Eastbourne_sentence_169

This compared unfavourably with the South East overall, where GVA was £40,460 per employee per year. Eastbourne_sentence_170

A possible explanation for this is that a high proportion of workers are in sectors which have relatively low productivity and wages. Eastbourne_sentence_171

In recent years, five areas within Eastbourne have regularly featured in the most economically deprived 10% in all of England. Eastbourne_sentence_172

Measured as Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs), two areas within Devonshire ward, two areas within Hampden Park, and one area within Langney, are all among the most deprived LSOAs in the country. Eastbourne_sentence_173

Three quarters of LSOAs in the town (45 LSOAs or 76%) had a worse ranking for deprivation in 2010 than in 2007. Eastbourne_sentence_174

Technology and creative sectors Eastbourne_section_21

In 2016, UK innovation charity NESTA named Eastbourne as a "creative cluster", with 969 creative firms representing 9.1% of total businesses in the town and providing employment for 2,703 people. Eastbourne_sentence_175

Tourism sector Eastbourne_section_22

The seafront at Eastbourne consists almost entirely of Victorian hotels. Eastbourne_sentence_176

Along with its pier and bandstand, this serves to preserve the front in a somewhat timeless manner. Eastbourne_sentence_177

The Duke of Devonshire retains the rights to the seafront buildings and does not allow them to be developed into shops. Eastbourne_sentence_178

A stretch of 4 miles (6.4 km) of shingle beach stretches from Sovereign Harbour in the east to Beachy Head in the west. Eastbourne_sentence_179

In a 1998 survey, 56% of visitors said that the beach and seafront was one of Eastbourne's best features, although 10% listed the pebbled beach as a dislike. Eastbourne_sentence_180

Other recreation facilities include two swimming pools, three fitness centres and other smaller sports clubs including scuba diving. Eastbourne_sentence_181

A children's adventure park is sited at the eastern end of the seafront. Eastbourne_sentence_182

There are various other establishments scattered around the town such as crazy golf, go–karting and Laser Quest. Eastbourne_sentence_183

The pier is an obvious place to visit and is sometimes used to hold events, such as the international birdman competition held annually, although this was cancelled in 2005 due to a lack of competitors. Eastbourne_sentence_184

An annual raft competition used to take place where competitors, usually local businesses, circumnavigate the pier in a raft made by themselves, while being attacked by a water-cannon. Eastbourne_sentence_185

A major event in the tourist programme of Eastbourne Borough Council is Eastbourne Airbourne, a large air show, held annually in August. Eastbourne_sentence_186

Reports claim a £365m revenue from visitors in 2010, with an estimated 7,160 jobs supported by tourism. Eastbourne_sentence_187

Large employers Eastbourne_section_23

The town is home to the UK's largest book wholesalers, who have a 350,000 sq ft warehouse facility there. Eastbourne_sentence_188

Gardners Books are one of the town's largest employers, with a majority of staff involved in packing and shipping books. Eastbourne_sentence_189

A majority of Eastbourne's total employment is offered by small private businesses, though Eastbourne District General Hospital is a significant public sector employer. Eastbourne_sentence_190

In 2010, it was assessed that Eastbourne had a public sector employment rate of 25.4% of overall jobs. Eastbourne_sentence_191

This was noted as below average, compared with the UK as a whole. Eastbourne_sentence_192

Electricity supply Eastbourne_section_24

Eastbourne Electric Light Co. started up on 4 September 1882 illuminating The Parades with 22 Brush arc lamps. Eastbourne_sentence_193

Several large shops were lit with incandescent lamps powered from generators located at the Bedfordwell waterworks. Eastbourne_sentence_194

An alternating current system was introduced in 1883, from a generating plant at The Old Brewery in Junction Road. Eastbourne_sentence_195

By 1888 there were 1,700 lamps on the system; a new generating plant was added in 1899 including 30 kW, 75 kW, 100 kW, 50 kW, 150 kW and 200 kW generators. Eastbourne_sentence_196

There were five circuits distributing electricity around the town through rubber insulated cables. Eastbourne_sentence_197

After a few years the rubber deteriorated and faults were frequent. Eastbourne_sentence_198

The Eastbourne Corporation purchased the undertaking on 1 January 1900 and the original Electricity Works was closed down in July 1902. Eastbourne_sentence_199

Eastbourne County Borough Corporation began construction of Eastbourne power station in the first decade of the twentieth century. Eastbourne_sentence_200

It supplied electricity, firstly for street lighting then other uses. Eastbourne_sentence_201

The station had a single brick chimney and three wooden cooling towers. Eastbourne_sentence_202

Upon nationalisation of the electricity industry in 1948 ownership of the station passed to the British Electricity Authority and then to the Central Electricity Generating Board. Eastbourne_sentence_203

In 1954 the station generated 2,652 MWh of electricity and burned 3,500 tons of coal. Eastbourne_sentence_204

In 1966 the power station had a generating capacity of 9.0 MW and delivered 3,165 MWh of electricity. Eastbourne_sentence_205

The CEGB later closed the station and it was subsequently demolished. Eastbourne_sentence_206

Culture Eastbourne_section_25

See also: Eastbourne Theatres and Towner Art Gallery Eastbourne_sentence_207

Towner Art Gallery Eastbourne_section_26

The Towner Art Gallery is Eastbourne's principal arts gallery and arts education hub. Eastbourne_sentence_208

After being located for many years in Eastbourne Manor House, within Gildredge Park, it relocated next to the Congress Theatre in 2009. Eastbourne_sentence_209

The gallery holds one of the most important collections of public art in southern England. Eastbourne_sentence_210

Theatres Eastbourne_section_27

Eastbourne has three council-owned theatres: the Grade II* listed Congress Theatre, the Grade II listed Devonshire Park Theatre and the Grade II listed Winter Garden. Eastbourne_sentence_211

The Grade II listed Royal Hippodrome Theatre used to be council-owned, but is now run by an independent charitable trust. Eastbourne_sentence_212

The Devonshire Park Theatre is a fine example of a Victorian theatre with ornate interior decorations, and plays host to touring dramas and comedies and an annual local pantomime. Eastbourne_sentence_213

The Royal Hippodrome has the longest running summer show in Britain. Eastbourne_sentence_214

The London Philharmonic Orchestra makes regular appearances and has an annual season at the Congress Theatre. Eastbourne_sentence_215

Other theatre venues in the town include the volunteer-run Underground Theatre, in the basement of the town's Central Library, and the Lamb Theatre, based at the Lamb Inn in Old Town, which was launched in August 2009 but reinstated an older tradition at the pub. Eastbourne_sentence_216

Cinemas Eastbourne_section_28

Eastbourne had two cinemas: the Curzon Cinema and Cineworld. Eastbourne_sentence_217

The Curzon Cinema was a small, family-run, independent cinema in Langney Road, in the town centre, which closed in January 2020. Eastbourne_sentence_218

Cineworld is a large Multiplex cinema with eight screens, in the Beacon shopping centre. Eastbourne_sentence_219

In 2013, the owners of the Curzon Cinema declared themselves "shocked" at the threats to their venue from a newly announced eight-screen multiplex, to be built in a renovated Arndale Centre nearby (the Centre has been renamed as The Beacon). Eastbourne_sentence_220

Music venues Eastbourne_section_29

Eastbourne Bandstand lies on the seafront, between the Wish Tower and the pier. Eastbourne_sentence_221

It stages 1812 Firework Concerts, Rock N Roll nights, Big Band concerts, Promenade concerts and tribute bands. Eastbourne_sentence_222

There was once a second similar bandstand (also built in 1935) in the 'music gardens' near the Redoubt Fortress. Eastbourne_sentence_223

The bandstand was removed to make way for the Pavilion Tearooms but the colonnades built around it are still there (behind the tea rooms). Eastbourne_sentence_224

Before 1935 each of these sites had a smaller "birdcage" bandstand; the one in the music gardens having been moved from a rather precarious position opposite the Albion Hotel. Eastbourne_sentence_225

The kiosk in the music gardens was originally one of the toll kiosks at the entrance to the pier. Eastbourne_sentence_226

Grove Road is the location of two independent record shops and a venue called Printer's Playhouse (which hosts performances of live music and new plays). Eastbourne_sentence_227

Media Eastbourne_section_30

Former local radio station Sovereign FM is now More Radio Eastbourne, broadcasting to Eastbourne from studios in Worthing. Eastbourne_sentence_228

Regional radio stations, Heart Sussex, (previously Southern FM) has, since mid 2019, been networked from London and no longer has a Sussex base, which was previously in Portslade and BBC Sussex which broadcasts from Brighton. Eastbourne_sentence_229

BBC South East Today and ITV Meridian are the two regional news channels. Eastbourne_sentence_230

Depictions in popular culture Eastbourne_section_31

The seafront and the iconic cliff at Beachy Head has been used for many scenes in feature films, and the local council set up a film liaison unit to encourage and facilitate the shooting of film sequences in and around the town. Eastbourne_sentence_231

The 2006 Academy Award-nominated film Notes on a Scandal includes scenes filmed at Beachy Head, Cavendish Hotel and 117 Royal Parade. Eastbourne_sentence_232

Beachy Head and the Seven Sisters were used as backdrops for scenes from the Quidditch World Cup in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Eastbourne_sentence_233

Scenes from Half a Sixpence (1969) were filmed on the pier and near to the bandstand. Eastbourne_sentence_234

The seafront area was also used for the film Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging directed by Gurinder Chadha. Eastbourne_sentence_235

The Langham Hotel was a filming location for Made in Dagenham, which also featured the seafront and pier. Eastbourne_sentence_236

A sequence of a rainy day at the seaside for the Doel family has as its backdrop the Wish Tower, the bandstand, the Cavendish Hotel and the pier in the 1987 British/American drama film 84 Charing Cross Road directed by David Jones. Eastbourne_sentence_237

Television too has used Eastbourne as a backdrop. Eastbourne_sentence_238

The series Little Britain had the character Emily Howard strolling along the promenade. Eastbourne_sentence_239

Other brief appearances were made in the television series Agatha Christie's Marple, The Two Ronnies, French and Saunders and Foyle's War. Eastbourne_sentence_240

A sequence of sketches that appear in each episode of Bang, Bang, It's Reeves and Mortimer, was shot in the old Jo Pip's / Cunninghams theatre venue on Seaside Road, which has since been developed into flats. Eastbourne_sentence_241

The 1993 BBC drama series Westbeach was filmed on location in Eastbourne and surrounding areas. Eastbourne_sentence_242

The elderly female residents of Eastbourne were the inspiration for the song "Eastbourne Ladies" by English singer Kevin Coyne, which appeared on his 1973 album Marjory Razorblade. Eastbourne_sentence_243

Parks and gardens Eastbourne_section_32

Eastbourne has numerous parks and gardens, although there are several smaller open spaces including Upperton Gardens, the Carpet Gardens and the Western Lawns. Eastbourne_sentence_244

The first public park in Eastbourne was Hampden Park, originally owned by Lord Willingdon and opened on 12 August 1902. Eastbourne_sentence_245

Facilities include: football pitches, rugby club, indoor bowls, a large lake (formerly a Decoy pond), lakeside cafe, children's recreation area, tennis courts, BMX and skate facility, disc golf course (target) and woodland. Eastbourne_sentence_246

The largest and newest park is Shinewater Park, located on the west side of Langney and opened in 2002. Eastbourne_sentence_247

There is a large fishing lake, basketball, football pitches, a BMX and skate park and children's playground. Eastbourne_sentence_248

Gildredge Park is a large open park located between the town centre and Old Town; it is very popular with families and has a children's playground, cafe, tennis courts, disc golf course (target) and bowls lawns. Eastbourne_sentence_249

The smaller, adjoining, Manor Gardens combines both lawns and shady areas as well as a rose garden. Eastbourne_sentence_250

Until 2005, Manor Gardens was the home of the Towner Gallery. Eastbourne_sentence_251

This gallery incorporated a permanent exhibition of local art and historical items, plus temporary art exhibitions of regional and national significance. Eastbourne_sentence_252

It was relocated to a new, £8.6 million purpose-built facility adjacent to the Congress Theatre, Devonshire Park which opened on 4 April 2009. Eastbourne_sentence_253

Princes Park obtained its name during a visit by the Duke of Windsor as Prince of Wales in 1931. Eastbourne_sentence_254

Located at the eastern end of the seafront, it has a children's playground with paddling pool, cafe, bowls and a large lake, noted for its swans. Eastbourne_sentence_255

The lake is used by a nearby water-sports centre, which offers kayak and windsurfing training. Eastbourne_sentence_256

Princes Park lake is also home to Eastbourne Model Powerboat Club and Eastbourne Model Yacht Club. Eastbourne_sentence_257

Close by are tennis and basketball courts and a football pitch. Eastbourne_sentence_258

At the north of the park is the Oval, home of Eastbourne United F.C.. Eastbourne_sentence_259

On 21 July 2018, the park hosted the town's second LGBTQ+ Pride event which was attended by over 4,000 people. Eastbourne_sentence_260

Devonshire Park, home to the pre-Wimbledon ladies tennis championships, is located just off the seafront in the towns cultural district. Eastbourne_sentence_261

Other parks include: Helen Gardens and the Italian Gardens at the western end of the seafront, Sovereign Park between the main seafront and the marina and Motcombe Gardens in Old Town. Eastbourne_sentence_262

Eastbourne's floral displays have been promoted, including the Carpet Gardens along the coastal road near the pier. Eastbourne_sentence_263

The displays, and the town, have won the award the 'Coastal Resort B' category in the 2003 Britain in Bloom competition. Eastbourne_sentence_264

Sport Eastbourne_section_33

Eastbourne's Devonshire Park is the venue for the Eastbourne International, a tennis tournament held in the town since 1974 and serving as a warm-up to Wimbledon. Eastbourne_sentence_265

Previously a women only tournament, in 2009 the Lawn Tennis Association merged it with the men only event the Nottingham Open. Eastbourne_sentence_266

Eastbourne has four senior football clubs: Eastbourne Borough F.C. play in the Conference South. Eastbourne_sentence_267

Eastbourne Town F.C., Eastbourne United Association F.C. and Langney Wanderers F.C. play in the Southern Combination League Premier. Eastbourne_sentence_268

Langney Wanderers F.C. won promotion to the Southern Combination League Division One. Eastbourne_sentence_269

in 2018 Eastbourne_sentence_270

Eastbourne Eagles are a speedway club located at Arlington Stadium, just outside the town. Eastbourne_sentence_271

Between 1997–2014 they competed in the Elite League, the highest level of speedway in the UK. Eastbourne_sentence_272

They were champions in 2000. Eastbourne_sentence_273

They now compete in the National League. Eastbourne_sentence_274

Arlington stadium also sees stock-car racing on Wednesday evenings in the summer months. Eastbourne_sentence_275

Eastbourne hosted a triathlon in 2016 and 2017, which attracted professional triathletes such as Ben Allen, Jacqui Slack, Lawrence Fanous and 2012 Biathle world champion Richard Stannard in addition to the hundreds of amateurs taking part. Eastbourne_sentence_276

The event takes in the town's major landmarks, including the promenade and local South Downs National Park. Eastbourne_sentence_277

Other local sports clubs include cricket, hockey, rugby, lacrosse and golf. Eastbourne_sentence_278

Among Eastbourne's golf courses are the Royal Eastbourne, Eastbourne Downs, Willingdon and the Eastbourne Golfing Park. Eastbourne_sentence_279

There is an annual extreme sports festival held at the eastern end of the seafront. Eastbourne_sentence_280

Eastbourne Sovereign Sailing Club, on the seafront towards the eastern end, organises dinghy sailing for its members and visitors from Easter to Boxing Day and usually holds a National Championship Series for a popular UK class in the summer months. Eastbourne_sentence_281

Landmarks Eastbourne_section_34

See also: Listed buildings in Eastbourne Eastbourne_sentence_282

Beachy Head and the Downs Eastbourne_section_35

Main articles: Beachy Head and Eastbourne Downs Eastbourne_sentence_283

The Eastbourne Downland provides a spectacular backdrop to the town. Eastbourne_sentence_284

The 4,000 acres of farmland and downland are owned by the town of Eastbourne, following the 1926 Eastbourne Corporation Act, which aimed to protect their unspoilt beauty "in perpetuity". Eastbourne_sentence_285

The Eastbourne Downs include Beachy Head cliff, to the west of the town, a famous beauty spot and an infamous suicide spot. Eastbourne_sentence_286

Statistics are not officially published to reduce suicidal mimicry, but unofficial statistics show it to be the third most common suicide spot. Eastbourne_sentence_287

The lighthouse at the foot of the cliff came into operation in October 1902. Eastbourne_sentence_288

Although originally manned by two keepers, it has been remotely monitored by Trinity House via a landline since June 1983. Eastbourne_sentence_289

Prior to its construction, shipping had been warned by the Belle Tout Lighthouse on the cliff top some 1,640 yards (1,500 m) to the west. Eastbourne_sentence_290

Belle Tout Lighthouse was operational from 1834 to 1902, and closed because its light was not visible in mist and low cloud. Eastbourne_sentence_291

It became a private residence, but was severely damaged in the Second World War by Canadian artillery. Eastbourne_sentence_292

In 1956, it was rebuilt as a house and remains a dwelling to this day. Eastbourne_sentence_293

In March 1999, the structure was moved 55 feet (17 m) back from the cliff edge to save it from plunging into the sea. Eastbourne_sentence_294

The structure may need to be moved again to safeguard it from cliff erosion. Eastbourne_sentence_295

Eastbourne Pier Eastbourne_section_36

Main article: Eastbourne Pier Eastbourne_sentence_296

Eastbourne Pier was built between 1866 and 1872 at the junction of Grand and Marine Parades. Eastbourne_sentence_297

The pier interrupts what would otherwise have been a ribbon development of buildings – to the west, high-class hotels, with modest family hotels and boarding houses to the east. Eastbourne_sentence_298

The Eastbourne Pier Company was registered in April 1865 with a capital of £15,000 and on 18 April 1866 work began. Eastbourne_sentence_299

It was opened by Lord Edward Cavendish on 13 June 1870, although it was not actually completed until two years later. Eastbourne_sentence_300

On New Year's Day 1877 the landward half was swept away in a storm. Eastbourne_sentence_301

It was rebuilt at a higher level, creating a drop towards the end of the pier. Eastbourne_sentence_302

The pier is effectively built on stilts that rest in cups on the sea-bed allowing the whole structure to move during rough weather. Eastbourne_sentence_303

It is roughly 300 metres (1000 ft) long. Eastbourne_sentence_304

A domed 400-seater pavilion was constructed at a cost of £250 at the seaward end in 1888. Eastbourne_sentence_305

A 1,000-seater theatre, bar, camera obscura and office suite replaced this in 1899/1901. Eastbourne_sentence_306

At the same time, two saloons were built midway along the pier. Eastbourne_sentence_307

Access to the camera obscura was destroyed by an arson attack in 1970, but was restored in 2003 with a new stairway built. Eastbourne_sentence_308

Eastbourne Pier fire Eastbourne_section_37

Further information: Eastbourne Pier § Fire Eastbourne_sentence_309

On 30 July 2014, a fire broke out in the middle building of the pier. Eastbourne_sentence_310

BBC News reported that 80 firefighters attended the scene. Eastbourne_sentence_311

One third of the pier was badly damaged. Eastbourne_sentence_312

On 19 August 2014, a worker from Cumbria died after falling through the decking of the damaged pier. Eastbourne_sentence_313

Central government paid Eastbourne Borough Council £2m in one-off funding, to compensate for lost income to the town from the temporary loss of the attraction. Eastbourne_sentence_314

The Council spent this on a variety of projects and events in the hope of boosting the local economy. Eastbourne_sentence_315

Eastbourne Redoubt Eastbourne_section_38

Main article: Eastbourne Redoubt Eastbourne_sentence_316

Eastbourne Redoubt on Royal Parade is one of three examples of a type of fortress built to withstand potential invasion from Napoleon's forces in the early 19th century. Eastbourne_sentence_317

It houses collections from the Royal Sussex Regiment, the Queen's Royal Irish Hussars and the Sussex Combined Services Collection; including four Victoria Crosses and General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim's Steyr Automobile 1500A Afrika Korps Staff Car. Eastbourne_sentence_318

Education Eastbourne_section_39

Eastbourne's reputation for health, enhanced by bracing air and sea breezes contributed to the establishment of many independent schools in the 19th century and in 1871, the year which saw the arrival of Queenwood Ladies College, the town was just beginning a period of growth and prosperity. Eastbourne_sentence_319

By 1896, Gowland's Eastbourne Directory listed 76 private schools for boys and girls. Eastbourne_sentence_320

However, economic difficulties during the inter-war years saw a gradual decline in the number of independent schools. Eastbourne_sentence_321

In 1930, the headmistress of Clovelly-Kepplestone, a well-established boarding school for girls, referred to "heavy financial losses experienced by schools in the past few years". Eastbourne_sentence_322

In 1930, this school was forced to merge its junior and senior departments; in 1931, one of its buildings was sold off, and in 1934 the school closed altogether. Eastbourne_sentence_323

Finally, indicative of the changes that would later befall many of the larger buildings in the town, the school was demolished to make way for a block of flats, which was completed in 1939. Eastbourne_sentence_324

The Eastbourne (Blue Book) Directory for 1938 lists 39 independent schools in the town. Eastbourne_sentence_325

With the fall of France in June 1940, and the risk of invasion, most left – the majority never to return. Eastbourne_sentence_326

By 2020, the number had reduced to just three: St. Eastbourne_sentence_327 Andrew's Prep School, Eastbourne College and St. Eastbourne_sentence_328 Bede's Preparatory School Eastbourne_sentence_329

Eastbourne has 6 state secondary schools, 17 state primary schools, 1 primary special school and 2 secondary special schools. Eastbourne_sentence_330

Parts of the University of Brighton are based in the Meads area of the town. Eastbourne_sentence_331

There are several language colleges and schools, with students coming mainly from Europe. Eastbourne_sentence_332

East Sussex College is a large further education college with a campus in Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_333

This state-funded college provides a range of GCSE, GCE A Level, BTEC and vocational programmes for students aged 16–19 years of age, plus a full range of adult FE programmes. Eastbourne_sentence_334

It originated from a 2001 merger between Lewes Tertiary College and Eastbourne College of Arts and Technology (ECAT) to form Sussex Downs College, which then took over Park College (the old Eastbourne Sixth Form college) in 2003. Eastbourne_sentence_335

In 2018, a further merger with Sussex Coast College in Hastings formed the current East Sussex College. Eastbourne_sentence_336

Health and emergency services Eastbourne_section_40

The town is served by Eastbourne District General Hospital, part of East Sussex Healthcare NHS Trust. Eastbourne_sentence_337

As of 2014, the maternity unit of the hospital has been permanently transferred to the Conquest Hospital, Hastings after years of campaigning to save the unit. Eastbourne_sentence_338

An earlier hospital, St Mary's, opened on Vicarage Road in 1877 as the infirmary to the local workhouse; it was demolished in 1990. Eastbourne_sentence_339

Eastbourne Fire Station is in Whitley Road, and the town's police station is in Grove Road. Eastbourne_sentence_340

Eastbourne has an RNLI lifeboat station. Eastbourne_sentence_341

A new boat named Diamond Jubilee was launched in 2012 by the Earl and Countess of Wessex. Eastbourne_sentence_342

Eastbourne Blind Society was founded in 1923 to support eight war-blinded veterans. Eastbourne_sentence_343

In 1963 a centre in Longstone Road was opened and in 2018 the society had almost 800 members. Eastbourne_sentence_344

Religious life Eastbourne_section_41

See also: List of places of worship in Eastbourne and List of demolished places of worship in East Sussex Eastbourne_sentence_345

As well as the medieval parish church of St Mary in Old Town, another remarkable church building in Eastbourne is the redbrick St Saviour's and St Peter's. Eastbourne_sentence_346

Originally consecrated under the former name in 1872, it was designed by George Edmund Street but merged with St Peter's in 1971 when the latter was made redundant and demolished. Eastbourne_sentence_347

The Catholic Church of Our Lady of Ransom is a generously proportioned building with a tall Gothic interior. Eastbourne_sentence_348

One of the windows commemorates the exiled Polish-Lithuanian nobleman, Prince Lev Sapieha, who lived in the town, and there is much other artwork in the building. Eastbourne_sentence_349

The recently formed Personal Ordinariate of Anglicans reconciled to the Catholic Church meets at St Agnes, another Victorian Gothic building. Eastbourne_sentence_350

The tall flint tower of St Michael's at Ocklynge is one of Eastbourne's landmarks. Eastbourne_sentence_351

The church was consecrated in 1902 and built on the site of the mission hall where the nonsense writer Lewis Carroll (the clergyman CL Dodgson) is known to have preached during his holidays in the town. Eastbourne_sentence_352

All Souls, in Italian style, is a finely proportioned building with an Evangelical church tradition. Eastbourne_sentence_353

Holy Trinity also has a strong history of Evangelism, particularly during the early 20th century when Canon Stephen Warner was the vicar for 28 years. Eastbourne_sentence_354

There is a Greek Orthodox Church converted from a 19th-century Calvinistic chapel. Eastbourne_sentence_355

The Strict Baptist Chapel in Grove Road is an interesting building, despite its rather grim street frontage. Eastbourne_sentence_356

The United Reformed Church in Upperton Road has tall rogue Gothic windows set in red brick walls. Eastbourne_sentence_357

Several other denominations have similarly interesting church buildings, including some of 20th century design, such as the Baptist Church in Eldon Road. Eastbourne_sentence_358

The copyrights of many well-known hymns used in the English-speaking world are handled by Kingway's Thankyou Music of Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_359

There is a tradition of Judaism in Eastbourne, and a Jewish rest home. Eastbourne_sentence_360

The Islamic community uses a small mosque that was formerly the Seeboard social club. Eastbourne_sentence_361

Transport Eastbourne_section_42

Eastbourne is connected by road to London by the A22, and to Brighton and Hove and Hastings by the nearby A27. Eastbourne_sentence_362

The car is the most used form of transport in the town, with only 6% of journeys taken by bus; the local council transport plan aims to reduce the amount of car usage. Eastbourne_sentence_363

Bus services within Eastbourne have been provided by Stagecoach Group under the name Stagecoach in Eastbourne since November 2008, when the company acquired Eastbourne Buses, a service run by the local council, and subsequently the independent company Cavendish Motor Services. Eastbourne_sentence_364

Eastbourne Buses had been formed in 1903 by the County Borough of Eastbourne, who were the first local authority in the world authorised to run motor buses. Eastbourne_sentence_365

As well as local journeys within the town, Stagecoach also runs routes to Polegate, Hailsham, Tunbridge Wells, Uckfield and East Grinstead at various frequencies, while the two routes to Hastings via Bexhill are run by Stagecoach South East from Hastings. Eastbourne_sentence_366

The other main operator into Eastbourne is Brighton & Hove, owned by the Go-Ahead Group, which runs frequent services seven days a week from Brighton via Seaford and Newhaven. Eastbourne_sentence_367

Limited numbers of additional buses are run by the Cuckmere Buses, and a regular National Express coach service operates daily from London's Victoria Coach Station. Eastbourne_sentence_368

The main railway station is situated in the town centre and is served by Southern. Eastbourne_sentence_369

The present station (the town's third), designed by F. D. Bannister, dates from 1886. Eastbourne_sentence_370

It was originally on what was termed the Eastbourne Branch from Polegate. Eastbourne_sentence_371

There was a rarely used triangular junction between Polegate and the now-closed Stone Cross which allowed trains to bypass the Branch; the track has now been lifted. Eastbourne_sentence_372

Also on the erstwhile Branch is Hampden Park railway station to the north of the town. Eastbourne_sentence_373

Regular services along the coast have invariably served Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_374

All trains, because of the layout, have to pass through Hampden Park once in each direction. Eastbourne_sentence_375

This has the effect of making the Hampden Park level crossing very busy. Eastbourne_sentence_376

Indeed, it is thought to be the busiest in the country. Eastbourne_sentence_377

Regular services are to London Victoria, Gatwick Airport, Hastings and Ashford International and a commuter service to Brighton. Eastbourne_sentence_378

Trains leave from London Victoria to Eastbourne with a journey time of 1hr 36mins. Eastbourne_sentence_379

A miniature tramway once ran a mile across "the Crumbles" (then undeveloped) from near Princes Park/Wartling Road towards Langney Point. Eastbourne_sentence_380

It opened in 1954 but ceased operation in 1970, relocating to Seaton in Devon after the owners had fallen out with the council; it is now the Seaton Tramway. Eastbourne_sentence_381

Notable people Eastbourne_section_43

See also: Eastbourne Blue Plaques and :Category:People from Eastbourne Eastbourne_sentence_382

Eastbourne can claim some notable visitors, residents and scholars: Eastbourne_sentence_383

Writers Eastbourne_section_44

Lewis Carroll holidayed in Eastbourne 19 times, taking lodgings in Lushington Road, where a blue plaque now marks the location of his first visit in 1877. Eastbourne_sentence_384

Poet Francis William Bourdillon lived in the town. Eastbourne_sentence_385

Charles Webb, writer of The Graduate, moved to Eastbourne with his wife in 2006. Eastbourne_sentence_386

The novelist and children's writer Annie Keary died in the town in 1879. Eastbourne_sentence_387

Former students at the closed St Cyprian's School include George Orwell, Alaric Jacob, E. Eastbourne_sentence_388 H. W. Meyerstein and Alan Hyman. Eastbourne_sentence_389

The biographer and historian Philip Ziegler was also a pupil, as was the music historian Dyneley Hussey and politician, historian and diarist Alan Clark. Eastbourne_sentence_390

Philosophers Eastbourne_section_45

Karl Marx and Frederick Engels often stayed in the area. Eastbourne_sentence_391

Engels' ashes were scattered in the sea off Beachy Head at his request. Eastbourne_sentence_392

The philosopher A. Eastbourne_sentence_393 J. Ayer was a pupil at Ascham St Vincent's School in Carlisle Road. Eastbourne_sentence_394

Musicians Eastbourne_section_46

Claude Debussy finished composing La mer at the Grand Hotel in 1905. Eastbourne_sentence_395

The pianist Russ Conway was a resident for many years. Eastbourne_sentence_396

Several bands have formed in Eastbourne, including: Toploader, Easyworld, the Divided, ROAM and Mobiles. Eastbourne_sentence_397

Musician Robin Romei is a resident of Eastbourne, and has written a song named after the town. Eastbourne_sentence_398

David Bowie performed in Eastbourne several times. Eastbourne_sentence_399

He included a mention of Eastbourne in his 1967 single, "The Laughing Gnome": "Well I gave him roasted toadstools and a glass of dandelion wine, Then I put him on a train to Eastbourne, Carried his bag and gave him a fag ..." Eastbourne_sentence_400

Spider Stacy, member of The Pogues, was born in Eastbourne in 1958. Eastbourne_sentence_401

Scientists Eastbourne_section_47

"Darwin's Bulldog" Thomas Henry Huxley spent the last few years of his life in Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_402

Frederick Soddy, radiochemist and economist, was born in Eastbourne and studied at Eastbourne College. Eastbourne_sentence_403

NASA aerospace engineer Bruce Woodgate, who attended Eastbourne Grammar School, was the principal investigator and designer of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, which was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope in 1997. Eastbourne_sentence_404

Michael Fish, who forecast the weather for BBC Television from 1974 to 2004, was born in Eastbourne and studied at Eastbourne College. Eastbourne_sentence_405

Explorers Eastbourne_section_48

Polar explorer Lawrence Oates attended South Lynn School in Mill Gap Road. Eastbourne_sentence_406

George Mallory, the noted mountaineer, attended Glengorse Preparatory School in Chesterfield Road between 1896 and 1900. Eastbourne_sentence_407

Count László Almásy, the basis of the lead character of The English Patient, was educated by a private tutor at Berrow, and was a member of the pioneering Eastbourne Flying Club. Eastbourne_sentence_408

In 1993, following a suggestion to Eastbourne Borough Council by Eastbourne Civic Society (now Eastbourne Society), a joint project was set up to erect blue plaques on buildings associated with famous people. Eastbourne_sentence_409

The principles for selection are broadly those already established by English Heritage for such plaques in London. Eastbourne_sentence_410

The first was erected in November 1994 in Milnthorpe Road at the former home of Sir Ernest Shackleton, the Antarctic explorer. Eastbourne_sentence_411

Visual artists Eastbourne_section_49

The artist Eric Ravilious grew up, was educated and taught in Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_412

Artists Cedric Morris and David Kindersley attended St Cyprian's School. Eastbourne_sentence_413

Dramatic artists and comedians Eastbourne_section_50

Prunella Scales and Eddie Izzard attended school in Eastbourne. Eastbourne_sentence_414

Annie Castledine spent the end years of her life living in and working from the town. Eastbourne_sentence_415

Politicians Eastbourne_section_51

Former students at St Cyprian's include the politicians Richard Wood, who had lost both legs in war, and David Ormsby-Gore, later ambassador to the USA. Eastbourne_sentence_416

Theresa May, a former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, was born in the town. Eastbourne_sentence_417

Ed Balls, former MP Morley and Outwood and BBC Strictly Come Dancing contestant, married Yvette Cooper, MP for Normanton, Pontefract and Castleford in Eastbourne in January 1998. Eastbourne_sentence_418

Others Eastbourne_section_52

Johanna Konta, British number one tennis player and Grand Slam semi-finalist Eastbourne_sentence_419

Henry Allingham, briefly the world's oldest man when he died in 2009, aged 113, was a resident. Eastbourne_sentence_420

Percy Sillitoe, director of MI5, lived in the town in the 1950s. Eastbourne_sentence_421

Olav Bjortomt, English international quiz player, four-time world champion (2003, 2015, 2018, 2019) and three time individual European champion (2010, 2014, 2015) Eastbourne_sentence_422

The leading evangelist Canon Stephen Warner was the vicar of Holy Trinity between 1919 and 1947. Eastbourne_sentence_423

Novelist Angela Carter was born in Eastbourne in 1940 before moving to South Yorkshire as a child. Eastbourne_sentence_424

Aleister Crowley, occultist and mystic attended Eastbourne College and later edited a chess column for the Eastbourne Gazette. Eastbourne_sentence_425

Douglas Bader, who became a successful Second World War fighter pilot despite having lost both legs in a flying accident, attended Temple Grove Preparatory School in Compton Place Road. Eastbourne_sentence_426

Military figures who had been students at St Cyprian's include: General Sir Lashmer Whistler; Major General Henry Foot VC; the submarine commander Rupert Lonsdale. Eastbourne_sentence_427

Other ex-students at St Cyprian's include: the amateur jockey Anthony Mildmay; Seymour de Lotbiniere, one-time Director of Outside Broadcasts at the BBC; Jagaddipendra Narayan, a reigning Maharaja of Cooch Behar while at the school. Eastbourne_sentence_428


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