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This article is about the country in South America. Ecuador_sentence_0

For other uses, see Ecuador (disambiguation). Ecuador_sentence_1

Not to be confused with Equator. Ecuador_sentence_2


Republic of Ecuador

República del Ecuador  (Spanish)Ecuador_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalEcuador_header_cell_0_1_0 QuitoEcuador_cell_0_1_1
Largest cityEcuador_header_cell_0_2_0 Guayaquil (city proper)

Quito (metropolitan area)Ecuador_cell_0_2_1

Official languagesEcuador_header_cell_0_3_0 SpanishEcuador_cell_0_3_1
Recognized regional languagesEcuador_header_cell_0_4_0 Kichwa language (Quichua), Shuar and others "are in official use for indigenous peoples"Ecuador_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groups (2010 Census)Ecuador_header_cell_0_5_0 Ecuador_cell_0_5_1
Religion (2012)Ecuador_header_cell_0_6_0 93.1% Christianity

—80.4% Roman Catholic —11.3% Protestant —1.4% Other Christian 6.1% No religion 0.8% Other religionsEcuador_cell_0_6_1

Demonym(s)Ecuador_header_cell_0_7_0 EcuadorianEcuador_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentEcuador_header_cell_0_8_0 Unitary presidential constitutional republicEcuador_cell_0_8_1
PresidentEcuador_header_cell_0_9_0 Lenín MorenoEcuador_cell_0_9_1
Vice PresidentEcuador_header_cell_0_10_0 María Alejandra MuñozEcuador_cell_0_10_1
LegislatureEcuador_header_cell_0_11_0 National AssemblyEcuador_cell_0_11_1
DeclaredEcuador_header_cell_0_13_0 August 10, 1809Ecuador_cell_0_13_1
from SpainEcuador_header_cell_0_14_0 May 24, 1822Ecuador_cell_0_14_1
from Gran ColombiaEcuador_header_cell_0_15_0 May 13, 1830Ecuador_cell_0_15_1
Recognized by SpainEcuador_header_cell_0_16_0 February 16, 1840Ecuador_cell_0_16_1
Current constitutionEcuador_header_cell_0_17_0 September 28, 2008Ecuador_cell_0_17_1
TotalEcuador_header_cell_0_19_0 283,561 km (109,484 sq mi) (73rd)Ecuador_cell_0_19_1
Water (%)Ecuador_header_cell_0_20_0 5Ecuador_cell_0_20_1
2018 estimateEcuador_header_cell_0_22_0 17,084,358 (67th)Ecuador_cell_0_22_1
CensusEcuador_header_cell_0_23_0 17,300,000Ecuador_cell_0_23_1
DensityEcuador_header_cell_0_24_0 61/km (158.0/sq mi) (151st)Ecuador_cell_0_24_1
GDP (PPP)Ecuador_header_cell_0_25_0 2019 estimateEcuador_cell_0_25_1
TotalEcuador_header_cell_0_26_0 $202.043 billionEcuador_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaEcuador_header_cell_0_27_0 $11,701Ecuador_cell_0_27_1
GDP (nominal)Ecuador_header_cell_0_28_0 2019 estimateEcuador_cell_0_28_1
TotalEcuador_header_cell_0_29_0 $106.289 billionEcuador_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaEcuador_header_cell_0_30_0 $6,155Ecuador_cell_0_30_1
Gini (2014)Ecuador_header_cell_0_31_0 45.4


HDI (2018)Ecuador_header_cell_0_32_0 0.758

high · 85thEcuador_cell_0_32_1

CurrencyEcuador_header_cell_0_33_0 United States dollar (USD)Ecuador_cell_0_33_1
Time zoneEcuador_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC−5 / −6 (ECT / GALT)Ecuador_cell_0_34_1
Driving sideEcuador_header_cell_0_35_0 rightEcuador_cell_0_35_1
Calling codeEcuador_header_cell_0_36_0 +593Ecuador_cell_0_36_1
ISO 3166 codeEcuador_header_cell_0_37_0 ECEcuador_cell_0_37_1
Internet TLDEcuador_header_cell_0_38_0 .ecEcuador_cell_0_38_1

Ecuador (/ˈɛkwədɔːr/ (listen) EK-wə-dor; Spanish pronunciation: [ekwaˈðoɾ (listen); Quechua: Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (Spanish: República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechua: Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka), is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Ecuador_sentence_3

Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (621 mi) west of the mainland. Ecuador_sentence_4

The capital is Quito. Ecuador_sentence_5

The territories of modern-day Ecuador were once home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were gradually incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. Ecuador_sentence_6

The territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. Ecuador_sentence_7

The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 17.1 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European, Native American, and African descendants. Ecuador_sentence_8

Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Native languages are also recognized, including Quechua and Shuar. Ecuador_sentence_9

The sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic and a developing country that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products. Ecuador_sentence_10

It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. Ecuador_sentence_11

One of 17 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. Ecuador_sentence_12

In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of nature, or ecosystem rights. Ecuador_sentence_13

It also has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Ecuador_sentence_14

Between 2006 and 2016, poverty decreased from 36.7% to 22.5% and annual per capita GDP growth was 1.5 percent (as compared to 0.6 percent over the prior two decades). Ecuador_sentence_15

At the same time, the country's Gini index of economic inequality decreased from 0.55 to 0.47. Ecuador_sentence_16

History Ecuador_section_0

Government and politics Ecuador_section_1

Main article: Politics of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_17

The Ecuadorian State consists of five branches of government: the Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, the Electoral Branch, and Transparency and Social Control. Ecuador_sentence_18

Ecuador is governed by a democratically elected president, for a four-year term. Ecuador_sentence_19

The current president of Ecuador, Lenín Moreno, exercises his power from the presidential Palacio de Carondelet in Quito. Ecuador_sentence_20

The current constitution was written by the Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly elected in 2007, and was approved by referendum in 2008. Ecuador_sentence_21

Since 1936, voting is compulsory for all literate persons aged 18–65, optional for all other citizens. Ecuador_sentence_22

The executive branch includes 23 ministries. Ecuador_sentence_23

Provincial governors and councilors (mayors, aldermen, and parish boards) are directly elected. Ecuador_sentence_24

The National Assembly of Ecuador meets throughout the year except for recesses in July and December. Ecuador_sentence_25

There are thirteen permanent committees. Ecuador_sentence_26

Members of the National Court of Justice are appointed by the National Judicial Council for nine-year terms. Ecuador_sentence_27

Executive branch Ecuador_section_2

Main article: List of heads of state of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_28

The executive branch is led by the president, an office currently held by Lenín Moreno. Ecuador_sentence_29

He is accompanied by the vice-president, currently María Alejandra Muñoz, elected for four years (with the ability to be re-elected only once). Ecuador_sentence_30

As head of state and chief government official, he is responsible for public administration including the appointing of national coordinators, ministers, ministers of State and public servants. Ecuador_sentence_31

The executive branch defines foreign policy, appoints the Chancellor of the Republic, as well as ambassadors and consuls, being the ultimate authority over the Armed Forces of Ecuador, National Police of Ecuador, and appointing authorities. Ecuador_sentence_32

The acting president's wife receives the title of First Lady of Ecuador. Ecuador_sentence_33

Legislative branch Ecuador_section_3

Main article: National Assembly (Ecuador) Ecuador_sentence_34

The legislative branch is embodied by the National Assembly, which is headquartered in the city of Quito in the Legislative Palace, and consists of 137 assemblymen, divided into ten committees and elected for a four-year term. Ecuador_sentence_35

Fifteen national constituency elected assembly, two Assembly members elected from each province and one for every 100,000 inhabitants or fraction exceeding 150,000, according to the latest national population census. Ecuador_sentence_36

In addition, statute determines the election of assembly of regions and metropolitan districts. Ecuador_sentence_37

Judicial branch Ecuador_section_4

Ecuador's judiciary has as its main body the Judicial Council, and also includes the National Court of Justice, provincial courts, and lower courts. Ecuador_sentence_38

Legal representation is made by the Judicial Council. Ecuador_sentence_39

The National Court of Justice is composed of 21 judges elected for a term of nine years. Ecuador_sentence_40

Judges are renewed by thirds every three years pursuant to the Judicial Code. Ecuador_sentence_41

These are elected by the Judicial Council on the basis of opposition proceedings and merits. Ecuador_sentence_42

The justice system is buttressed by the independent offices of public prosecutor and the public defender. Ecuador_sentence_43

Auxiliary organs are as follows: notaries, court auctioneers, and court receivers. Ecuador_sentence_44

Also there is a special legal regime for Amerindians. Ecuador_sentence_45

Electoral branch Ecuador_section_5

The electoral system functions by authorities which enter only every four years or when elections or referendums occur. Ecuador_sentence_46

Its main functions are to organize, control elections, and punish the infringement of electoral rules. Ecuador_sentence_47

Its main body is the National Electoral Council, which is based in the city of Quito, and consists of seven members of the political parties most voted, enjoying complete financial and administrative autonomy. Ecuador_sentence_48

This body, along with the electoral court, forms the Electoral Branch which is one of Ecuador's five branches of government. Ecuador_sentence_49

Transparency and social control branch Ecuador_section_6

The Transparency and Social Control consists of the Council of Citizen Participation and Social Control, an ombudsman, the Comptroller General of the State, and the superintendents. Ecuador_sentence_50

Branch members hold office for five years. Ecuador_sentence_51

This branch is responsible for promoting transparency and control plans publicly, as well as plans to design mechanisms to combat corruption, as also designate certain authorities, and be the regulatory mechanism of accountability in the country. Ecuador_sentence_52

Human rights Ecuador_section_7

UN's Human Rights Council's (HRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) has treated the restrictions on freedom of expression and efforts to control NGOs and recommended that Ecuador should stop the criminal sanctions for the expression of opinions, and delay in implementing judicial reforms. Ecuador_sentence_53

Ecuador rejected the recommendation on decriminalization of libel. Ecuador_sentence_54

According to Human Rights Watch (HRW) President Correa has intimidated journalists and subjected them to "public denunciation and retaliatory litigation". Ecuador_sentence_55

The sentences to journalists have been years of imprisonment and millions of dollars of compensation, even though defendants have been pardoned. Ecuador_sentence_56

Correa has stated he was only seeking a retraction for slanderous statements. Ecuador_sentence_57

According to HRW, Correa's government has weakened the freedom of press and independence of the judicial system. Ecuador_sentence_58

In Ecuador's current judicial system, judges are selected in a contest of merits, rather than government appointments. Ecuador_sentence_59

However, the process of selection has been criticized as biased and subjective. Ecuador_sentence_60

In particular, the final interview is said to be given "excessive weighing". Ecuador_sentence_61

Judges and prosecutors that have made decisions in favor of Correa in his lawsuits have received permanent posts, while others with better assessment grades have been rejected. Ecuador_sentence_62

The laws also forbid articles and media messages that could favor or disfavor some political message or candidate. Ecuador_sentence_63

In the first half of 2012, twenty private TV or radio stations were closed down. Ecuador_sentence_64

In July 2012, the officials warned the judges that they would be sanctioned and possibly dismissed if they allowed the citizens to appeal to the protection of their constitutional rights against the state. Ecuador_sentence_65

People engaging in public protests against environmental and other issues are prosecuted for "terrorism and sabotage", which may lead to an eight-year prison sentence. Ecuador_sentence_66

Foreign affairs Ecuador_section_8

Main article: Foreign relations of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_67

Ecuador joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1973 and suspended its membership in 1992. Ecuador_sentence_68

Under President Rafael Correa, the country returned to OPEC before leaving again in 2020 under the instruction of President Moreno, citing its desire to increase crude oil importation to gain more revenue. Ecuador_sentence_69

In Antarctica, Ecuador has maintained a peaceful research station for scientific study as a member nation of the Antarctica Treaty. Ecuador_sentence_70

Ecuador has often placed great emphasis on multilateral approaches to international issues. Ecuador_sentence_71

Ecuador is a member of the United Nations (and most of its specialized agencies) and a member of many regional groups, including the Rio Group, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Energy Organization, the Latin American Integration Association, the Andean Community of Nations, and the Bank of the South (Spanish: Banco del Sur or BancoSur). Ecuador_sentence_72

In 2017, the Ecuadorian parliament adopted a Law on human mobility. Ecuador_sentence_73

The International Organization for Migration lauds Ecuador as the first state to have established the promotion of the concept of universal citizenship in its constitution, aiming to promote the universal recognition and protection of the human rights of migrants. Ecuador_sentence_74

In 2017, Ecuador signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Ecuador_sentence_75

Administrative divisions Ecuador_section_9

Main articles: Provinces of Ecuador and Cantons of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_76

Ecuador is divided into 24 provinces (Spanish: provincias), each with its own administrative capital: Ecuador_sentence_77


Administrative divisions of EcuadorEcuador_table_caption_1
Ecuador_header_cell_1_0_0 ProvinceEcuador_header_cell_1_0_1 Area (km)Ecuador_header_cell_1_0_2 Population (2020)Ecuador_header_cell_1_0_3 CapitalEcuador_header_cell_1_0_4
1Ecuador_cell_1_1_0 AzuayEcuador_cell_1_1_1 8,189Ecuador_cell_1_1_2 881,394Ecuador_cell_1_1_3 CuencaEcuador_cell_1_1_4
2Ecuador_cell_1_2_0 BolívarEcuador_cell_1_2_1 4,148Ecuador_cell_1_2_2 209,933Ecuador_cell_1_2_3 GuarandaEcuador_cell_1_2_4
3Ecuador_cell_1_3_0 CañarEcuador_cell_1_3_1 3,669Ecuador_cell_1_3_2 281,396Ecuador_cell_1_3_3 AzoguesEcuador_cell_1_3_4
4Ecuador_cell_1_4_0 CarchiEcuador_cell_1_4_1 3,790Ecuador_cell_1_4_2 186,869Ecuador_cell_1_4_3 TulcánEcuador_cell_1_4_4
5Ecuador_cell_1_5_0 ChimborazoEcuador_cell_1_5_1 5,999Ecuador_cell_1_5_2 524,004Ecuador_cell_1_5_3 RiobambaEcuador_cell_1_5_4
6Ecuador_cell_1_6_0 CotopaxiEcuador_cell_1_6_1 6,085Ecuador_cell_1_6_2 488,716Ecuador_cell_1_6_3 LatacungaEcuador_cell_1_6_4
7Ecuador_cell_1_7_0 El OroEcuador_cell_1_7_1 5,879Ecuador_cell_1_7_2 715,751Ecuador_cell_1_7_3 MachalaEcuador_cell_1_7_4
8Ecuador_cell_1_8_0 EsmeraldasEcuador_cell_1_8_1 14,893Ecuador_cell_1_8_2 643,654Ecuador_cell_1_8_3 EsmeraldasEcuador_cell_1_8_4
9Ecuador_cell_1_9_0 GalápagosEcuador_cell_1_9_1 8,010Ecuador_cell_1_9_2 33,042Ecuador_cell_1_9_3 Puerto Baquerizo MorenoEcuador_cell_1_9_4
10Ecuador_cell_1_10_0 GuayasEcuador_cell_1_10_1 15,927Ecuador_cell_1_10_2 4,387,434Ecuador_cell_1_10_3 GuayaquilEcuador_cell_1_10_4
11Ecuador_cell_1_11_0 ImbaburaEcuador_cell_1_11_1 4,611Ecuador_cell_1_11_2 476,257Ecuador_cell_1_11_3 IbarraEcuador_cell_1_11_4
12Ecuador_cell_1_12_0 LojaEcuador_cell_1_12_1 11,100Ecuador_cell_1_12_2 521,154Ecuador_cell_1_12_3 LojaEcuador_cell_1_12_4
13Ecuador_cell_1_13_0 Los RíosEcuador_cell_1_13_1 7,100Ecuador_cell_1_13_2 921,763Ecuador_cell_1_13_3 BabahoyoEcuador_cell_1_13_4
14Ecuador_cell_1_14_0 ManabíEcuador_cell_1_14_1 19,427Ecuador_cell_1_14_2 1,562,079Ecuador_cell_1_14_3 PortoviejoEcuador_cell_1_14_4
15Ecuador_cell_1_15_0 Morona SantiagoEcuador_cell_1_15_1 23,875Ecuador_cell_1_15_2 196,535Ecuador_cell_1_15_3 MacasEcuador_cell_1_15_4
16Ecuador_cell_1_16_0 NapoEcuador_cell_1_16_1 12,476Ecuador_cell_1_16_2 133,705Ecuador_cell_1_16_3 TenaEcuador_cell_1_16_4
17Ecuador_cell_1_17_0 OrellanaEcuador_cell_1_17_1 21,691Ecuador_cell_1_17_2 161,338Ecuador_cell_1_17_3 Puerto Francisco de OrellanaEcuador_cell_1_17_4
18Ecuador_cell_1_18_0 PastazaEcuador_cell_1_18_1 29,068Ecuador_cell_1_18_2 114,202Ecuador_cell_1_18_3 PuyoEcuador_cell_1_18_4
19Ecuador_cell_1_19_0 PichinchaEcuador_cell_1_19_1 9,692Ecuador_cell_1_19_2 3,228,233Ecuador_cell_1_19_3 QuitoEcuador_cell_1_19_4
20Ecuador_cell_1_20_0 Santa ElenaEcuador_cell_1_20_1 3,696Ecuador_cell_1_20_2 401,178Ecuador_cell_1_20_3 Santa ElenaEcuador_cell_1_20_4
21Ecuador_cell_1_21_0 Santo Domingo de los TsáchilasEcuador_cell_1_21_1 4,180Ecuador_cell_1_21_2 458,580Ecuador_cell_1_21_3 Santo DomingoEcuador_cell_1_21_4
22Ecuador_cell_1_22_0 SucumbíosEcuador_cell_1_22_1 18,612Ecuador_cell_1_22_2 230,503Ecuador_cell_1_22_3 Nueva LojaEcuador_cell_1_22_4
23Ecuador_cell_1_23_0 TungurahuaEcuador_cell_1_23_1 3,222Ecuador_cell_1_23_2 590,600Ecuador_cell_1_23_3 AmbatoEcuador_cell_1_23_4
24Ecuador_cell_1_24_0 Zamora ChinchipeEcuador_cell_1_24_1 10,556Ecuador_cell_1_24_2 120,416Ecuador_cell_1_24_3 ZamoraEcuador_cell_1_24_4

The provinces are divided into cantons and further subdivided into parishes (parroquias). Ecuador_sentence_78

Regions and planning areas Ecuador_section_10

Regionalization, or zoning, is the union of two or more adjoining provinces in order to decentralize the administrative functions of the capital, Quito. Ecuador_sentence_79

In Ecuador, there are seven regions, or zones, each shaped by the following provinces: Ecuador_sentence_80


Quito and Guayaquil are Metropolitan Districts. Ecuador_sentence_81

Galápagos, despite being included within Region 5, is also under a special unit. Ecuador_sentence_82

Military Ecuador_section_11

Main article: Military of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_83

The Ecuadorian Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de la Republica de Ecuador), consists of the Army, Air Force, and Navy and have the stated responsibility for the preservation of the integrity and national sovereignty of the national territory. Ecuador_sentence_84

The military tradition starts in Gran Colombia, where a sizable army was stationed in Ecuador due to border disputes with Peru, which claimed territories under its political control when it was a Spanish vice-royalty. Ecuador_sentence_85

Once Gran Colombia was dissolved after the death of Simón Bolívar in 1830, Ecuador inherited the same border disputes and had the need of creating its own professional military force. Ecuador_sentence_86

So influential was the military in Ecuador in the early republican period that its first decade was under the control of General Juan José Flores, first president of Ecuador of Venezuelan origin. Ecuador_sentence_87

General Jose Ma. Ecuador_sentence_88

Urbina and General Robles are examples of military figures who became presidents of the country in the early republican period. Ecuador_sentence_89

Due to the continuous border disputes with Peru, finally settled in the early 2000s, and due to the ongoing problem with the Colombian guerrilla insurgency infiltrating Amazonian provinces, the Ecuadorian Armed Forces has gone through a series of changes. Ecuador_sentence_90

In 2009, the new administration at the Defense Ministry launched a deep restructuring within the forces, increasing spending budget to $1,691,776,803, an increase of 25%. Ecuador_sentence_91

The icons of the Ecuadorian military forces are Marshall Antonio José de Sucre and General Eloy Alfaro. Ecuador_sentence_92

Army Ecuador_section_12

The Military Academy General Eloy Alfaro (c. 1838) located in Quito is in charge to graduate the army officers. Ecuador_sentence_93

Jungle Commands Group (IWIAS) Ecuador_section_13

The IWIAS is a special force trained to perform exploration and military activities. Ecuador_sentence_94

This army branch is considered the best elite force of Ecuador and is conformed by indigenous of the Amazon who combine their inherital experience for jungle dominance with modern army tactics. Ecuador_sentence_95

Navy Ecuador_section_14

The Ecuadorian Navy Academy (c. 1837), located in Salinas graduates the navy officers. Ecuador_sentence_96

Air Force Ecuador_section_15

The Air Academy "Cosme Rennella (c. 1920), also located in Salinas, graduates the air force officers. Ecuador_sentence_97

Other training academies for different military specialties are found across the country. Ecuador_sentence_98

Geography Ecuador_section_16

Main article: Geography of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_99

Ecuador has a total area of 283,561 km (109,484 sq mi), including the Galápagos Islands. Ecuador_sentence_100

Of this, 276,841 km (106,889 sq mi) is land and 6,720 km (2,595 sq mi) water. Ecuador_sentence_101

Ecuador is bigger than Uruguay, Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana in South America. Ecuador_sentence_102

Ecuador lies between latitudes 2°N and 5°S, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and has 2,337 km (1,452 mi) of coastline. Ecuador_sentence_103

It has 2,010 km (1,250 mi) of land boundaries, with Colombia in the north (with a 590 km (367 mi) border) and Peru in the east and south (with a 1,420 km (882 mi) border). Ecuador_sentence_104

It is the westernmost country that lies on the equator. Ecuador_sentence_105

The country has four main geographic regions: Ecuador_sentence_106


  • La Costa, or "the coast": The coastal region consists of the provinces to the west of the Andean range – Esmeraldas, Guayas, Los Ríos, Manabí, El Oro, and Santa Elena. It is the country's most fertile and productive land, and is the seat of the large banana exportation plantations of the companies Dole and Chiquita. This region is also where most of Ecuador's rice crop is grown. The truly coastal provinces have active fisheries. The largest coastal city is Guayaquil.Ecuador_item_1_7
  • La Sierra, or "the highlands": The sierra consists of the Andean and Interandean highland provinces – Azuay, Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Imbabura, Loja, Pichincha, and Tungurahua. This land contains most of Ecuador's volcanoes and all of its snow-capped peaks. Agriculture is focused on the traditional crops of potato, maize, and quinua and the population is predominantly Amerindian Kichua. The largest Sierran city is Quito.Ecuador_item_1_8
  • La Amazonía, also known as El Oriente, or "the east": The oriente consists of the Amazon jungle provinces – Morona Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Sucumbíos, and Zamora-Chinchipe. This region is primarily made up of the huge Amazon national parks and Amerindian untouchable zones, which are vast stretches of land set aside for the Amazon Amerindian tribes to continue living traditionally. It is also the area with the largest reserves of petroleum in Ecuador, and parts of the upper Amazon here have been extensively exploited by petroleum companies. The population is primarily mixed Amerindian Shuar, Huaorani and Kichua, although there are numerous tribes in the deep jungle which are little-contacted. The largest city in the Oriente is probably Lago Agrio in Sucumbíos, although Macas in Morona Santiago runs a close second.Ecuador_item_1_9
  • La Región Insular is the region comprising the Galápagos Islands, some 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the mainland in the Pacific Ocean.Ecuador_item_1_10

Ecuador's capital is Quito, which is in the province of Pichincha in the Sierra region. Ecuador_sentence_107

Its largest city is Guayaquil, in the Guayas Province. Ecuador_sentence_108

Cotopaxi, just south of Quito, is one of the world's highest active volcanoes. Ecuador_sentence_109

The top of Mount Chimborazo (6,268 m, or 20,560 ft, above sea level), Ecuador's tallest mountain, is the most distant point from the center of the Earth on the Earth's surface because of the ellipsoid shape of the planet. Ecuador_sentence_110

Climate Ecuador_section_17

Main article: Climate of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_111

There is great variety in the climate, largely determined by altitude. Ecuador_sentence_112

It is mild year-round in the mountain valleys, with a humid subtropical climate in coastal areas and rainforest in lowlands. Ecuador_sentence_113

The Pacific coastal area has a tropical climate with a severe rainy season. Ecuador_sentence_114

The climate in the Andean highlands is temperate and relatively dry, and the Amazon basin on the eastern side of the mountains shares the climate of other rainforest zones. Ecuador_sentence_115

Because of its location at the equator, Ecuador experiences little variation in daylight hours during the course of a year. Ecuador_sentence_116

Both sunrise and sunset occur each day at the two six o'clock hours. Ecuador_sentence_117

Hydrology Ecuador_section_18

Main article: Rivers of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_118

The Andes is the watershed divisor between the Amazon watershed, which runs to the east, and the Pacific, including the north–south rivers Mataje, Santiago, Esmeraldas, Chone, Guayas, Jubones, and Puyango-Tumbes. Ecuador_sentence_119

Almost all of the rivers in Ecuador form in the Sierra region and flow east toward the Amazon River or west toward the Pacific Ocean. Ecuador_sentence_120

The rivers rise from snowmelt at the edges of the snowcapped peaks or from the abundant precipitation that falls at higher elevations. Ecuador_sentence_121

In the Sierra region, the streams and rivers are narrow and flow rapidly over precipitous slopes. Ecuador_sentence_122

Rivers may slow and widen as they cross the hoyas yet become rapid again as they flow from the heights of the Andes to the lower elevations of the other regions. Ecuador_sentence_123

The highland rivers broaden as they enter the more level areas of the Costa and the Oriente. Ecuador_sentence_124

In the Costa, the external coast has mostly intermittent rivers that are fed by constant rains from December through May and become empty riverbeds during the dry season. Ecuador_sentence_125

The few exceptions are the longer, perennial rivers that flow throughout the external coast from the internal coast and La Sierra on their way to the Pacific Ocean. Ecuador_sentence_126

The internal coast, by contrast, is crossed by perennial rivers that may flood during the rainy season, sometimes forming swamps. Ecuador_sentence_127

Major rivers in the Oriente include the Pastaza, Napo, and Putumayo. Ecuador_sentence_128

The Pastaza is formed by the confluence of the Chambo and the Patate rivers, both of which rise in the Sierra. Ecuador_sentence_129

The Pastaza includes the Agoyan waterfall, which at sixty-one meters (200 feet) is the highest waterfall in Ecuador. Ecuador_sentence_130

The Napo rises near Mount Cotopaxi and is the major river used for transport in the eastern lowlands. Ecuador_sentence_131

The Napo ranges in width from 500 to 1,800 m (1,640 to 5,906 ft). Ecuador_sentence_132

In its upper reaches, the Napo flows rapidly until the confluence with one of its major tributaries, the Coca River, where it slows and levels off. Ecuador_sentence_133

The Putumayo forms part of the border with Colombia. Ecuador_sentence_134

All of these rivers flow into the Amazon River. Ecuador_sentence_135

The Galápagos Islands have no significant rivers. Ecuador_sentence_136

Several of the larger islands, however, have freshwater springs, although they are surrounded by the Pacific Ocean. Ecuador_sentence_137

Biodiversity Ecuador_section_19

Ecuador is one of seventeen megadiverse countries in the world according to Conservation International, and it has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation. Ecuador_sentence_138

Ecuador has 1,600 bird species (15% of the world's known bird species) in the continental area and 38 more endemic in the Galápagos. Ecuador_sentence_139

In addition to over 16,000 species of plants, the country has 106 endemic reptiles, 138 endemic amphibians, and 6,000 species of butterfly. Ecuador_sentence_140

The Galápagos Islands are well known as a region of distinct fauna, famous as the place of birth of Darwin's Theory of Evolution and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ecuador_sentence_141

Ecuador has the first constitution to recognize the rights of nature. Ecuador_sentence_142

The protection of the nation's biodiversity is an explicit national priority as stated in the National Plan of "Buen Vivir", or good living, Objective 4, "Guarantee the rights of nature", Policy 1: "Sustainably conserve and manage the natural heritage, including its land and marine biodiversity, which is considered a strategic sector". Ecuador_sentence_143

As of the writing of the Plan in 2008, 19% of Ecuador's land area was in a protected area; however, the Plan also states that 32% of the land must be protected in order to truly preserve the nation's biodiversity. Ecuador_sentence_144

Current protected areas include 11 national parks, 10 wildlife refuges, 9 ecological reserves, and other areas. Ecuador_sentence_145

A program begun in 2008, Sociobosque, is preserving another 2.3% of total land area (6,295 km, or 629,500 ha) by paying private landowners or community landowners (such as Amerindian tribes) incentives to maintain their land as native ecosystems such as native forests or grasslands. Ecuador_sentence_146

Eligibility and subsidy rates for this program are determined based on the poverty in the region, the number of hectares that will be protected, and the type of ecosystem of the land to be protected, among other factors. Ecuador_sentence_147

Despite being on the UNESCO list, the Galápagos are endangered by a range of negative environmental effects, threatening the existence of this exotic ecosystem. Ecuador_sentence_148

Additionally, oil exploitation of the Amazon rainforest has led to the release of billions of gallons of untreated wastes, gas, and crude oil into the environment, contaminating ecosystems and causing detrimental health effects to Amerindian peoples. Ecuador_sentence_149

One of the best known examples is the Texaco-Chevron case. Ecuador_sentence_150

This American oil company operated in the Ecuadorian Amazon region between 1964 and 1992. Ecuador_sentence_151

During this period, Texaco drilled 339 wells in 15 petroleum fields and abandoned 627 toxic wastewater pits, as well as other elements of the oil infrastructure. Ecuador_sentence_152

It is now known that these highly polluting and now obsolete technologies were used as a way to reduce expenses. Ecuador_sentence_153

Economy Ecuador_section_20

Main article: Economy of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_154

Ecuador has a developing economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products. Ecuador_sentence_155

The country is classified as an upper-middle-income country. Ecuador_sentence_156

Ecuador's economy is the eighth largest in Latin America and experienced an average growth of 4.6% between 2000 and 2006. Ecuador_sentence_157

From 2007 to 2012, Ecuador's GDP grew at an annual average of 4.3 percent, above the average for Latin America and the Caribbean, which was 3.5%, according to the United Nations' Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Ecuador_sentence_158

Ecuador was able to maintain relatively superior growth during the crisis. Ecuador_sentence_159

In January 2009, the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE) put the 2010 growth forecast at 6.88%. Ecuador_sentence_160

In 2011, its GDP grew at 8% and ranked 3rd highest in Latin America, behind Argentina (2nd) and Panama (1st). Ecuador_sentence_161

Between 1999 and 2007, GDP doubled, reaching $65,490 million according to BCE. Ecuador_sentence_162

The inflation rate until January 2008, was about 1.14%, the highest in the past year, according to the government. Ecuador_sentence_163

The monthly unemployment rate remained at about 6 and 8 percent from December 2007 until September 2008; however, it went up to about 9 percent in October and dropped again in November 2008 to 8 percent. Ecuador_sentence_164

Unemployment mean annual rate for 2009 in Ecuador was 8.5% because the global economic crisis continued to affect the Latin American economies. Ecuador_sentence_165

From this point, unemployment rates started a downward trend: 7.6% in 2010, 6.0% in 2011, and 4.8% in 2012. Ecuador_sentence_166

The extreme poverty rate has declined significantly between 1999 and 2010. Ecuador_sentence_167

In 2001, it was estimated at 40% of the population, while by 2011 the figure dropped to 17.4% of the total population. Ecuador_sentence_168

This is explained to an extent by emigration and the economic stability achieved after adopting the U.S. dollar as official means of transaction (before 2000, the Ecuadorian sucre was prone to rampant inflation). Ecuador_sentence_169

However, starting in 2008, with the bad economic performance of the nations where most Ecuadorian emigrants work, the reduction of poverty has been realized through social spending, mainly in education and health. Ecuador_sentence_170

Oil accounts for 40% of exports and contributes to maintaining a positive trade balance. Ecuador_sentence_171

Since the late 1960s, the exploitation of oil increased production, and proven reserves are estimated at 6.51 billion barrels as of 2011. Ecuador_sentence_172

The overall trade balance for August 2012 was a surplus of almost $390 million for the first six months of 2012, a huge figure compared with that of 2007, which reached only $5.7 million; the surplus had risen by about $425 million compared to 2006. Ecuador_sentence_173

The oil trade balance positive had revenues of $3.295 million in 2008, while non-oil was negative, amounting to $2.842 million. Ecuador_sentence_174

The trade balance with the United States, Chile, the European Union, Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, and Mexico is positive. Ecuador_sentence_175

The trade balance with Argentina, Colombia, and Asia is negative. Ecuador_sentence_176

In the agricultural sector, Ecuador is a major exporter of bananas (first place worldwide in production and export), flowers, and the seventh largest producer of cocoa. Ecuador_sentence_177

Ecuador also produces coffee, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), plantains and sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork and dairy products; fish, and shrimp; and balsa wood. Ecuador_sentence_178

The country's vast resources include large amounts of timber across the country, like eucalyptus and mangroves. Ecuador_sentence_179

Pines and cedars are planted in the region of La Sierra and walnuts, rosemary, and balsa wood in the Guayas River Basin. Ecuador_sentence_180

The industry is concentrated mainly in Guayaquil, the largest industrial center, and in Quito, where in recent years the industry has grown considerably. Ecuador_sentence_181

This city is also the largest business center of the country. Ecuador_sentence_182

Industrial production is directed primarily to the domestic market. Ecuador_sentence_183

Despite this, there is limited export of products produced or processed industrially. Ecuador_sentence_184

These include canned foods, liquor, jewelry, furniture, and more. Ecuador_sentence_185

A minor industrial activity is also concentrated in Cuenca. Ecuador_sentence_186

Incomes from tourism has been increasing during the last few years because of the Government showing the variety of climates and the biodiversity of Ecuador. Ecuador_sentence_187

Ecuador has negotiated bilateral treaties with other countries, besides belonging to the Andean Community of Nations, and an associate member of Mercosur. Ecuador_sentence_188

It also serves on the World Trade Organization (WTO), in addition to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) and other multilateral agencies. Ecuador_sentence_189

In April 2007, Ecuador paid off its debt to the IMF, thus ending an era of interventionism of the Agency in the country. Ecuador_sentence_190

The public finance of Ecuador consists of the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE), the National Development Bank (BNF), the State Bank. Ecuador_sentence_191

Tourism Ecuador_section_21

Main article: Tourism in Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_192

The Ministry of Information and Tourism was created on August 10, 1992, at the beginning of the government of Sixto Durán Ballén, who viewed tourism as a fundamental activity for the economic and social development of the peoples. Ecuador_sentence_193

Faced with the growth of the tourism sector, in June 1994, the decision was taken to separate tourism from information, so that it is exclusively dedicated to promoting and strengthening this activity. Ecuador_sentence_194

Ecuador is a country with vast natural wealth. Ecuador_sentence_195

The diversity of its four regions has given rise to thousands of species of flora and fauna. Ecuador_sentence_196

It has around 1640 kinds of birds. Ecuador_sentence_197

The species of butterflies border the 4,500, the reptiles 345, the amphibians 358 and the mammals 258, among others. Ecuador_sentence_198

Not in vain, Ecuador is considered one of the 17 countries where the planet's highest biodiversity is concentrated, being also the largest country with diversity per km2 in the world. Ecuador_sentence_199

Most of its fauna and flora lives in 26 protected areas by the State. Ecuador_sentence_200

Also, it has a huge culture spectrum. Ecuador_sentence_201

Since 2007, with the government of Rafael Correa, the tourism brand "Ecuador Ama la Vida" has been transformed, with which the nation's tourism promotion would be sold. Ecuador_sentence_202

Focused on considering it as a country friendly and respectful of the nature, natural biodiversity and cultural diversity of the peoples. Ecuador_sentence_203

And for this, means of exploiting them are developed along with the private economy. Ecuador_sentence_204

The country has two cities UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Quito and Cuenca, as well as two natural UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Galapagos Islands and Sangay National Park in addition to one World Biosphere Reserve, such as the Cajas Massif. Ecuador_sentence_205

Culturally, the Toquilla straw hat and the culture of the Zapara indigenous people are recognized. Ecuador_sentence_206

The most popular sites for national and foreign tourists have different nuances due to the various tourist activities offered by the country. Ecuador_sentence_207

Among the main tourist destinations are: Ecuador_sentence_208


Transport Ecuador_section_22

Main article: Transport in Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_209

The rehabilitation and reopening of the Ecuadorian railroad and use of it as a tourist attraction is one of the recent developments in transportation matters. Ecuador_sentence_210

The roads of Ecuador in recent years have undergone important improvement. Ecuador_sentence_211

The major routes are Pan American (under enhancement from four to six lanes from Rumichaca to Ambato, the conclusion of 4 lanes on the entire stretch of Ambato and Riobamba and running via Riobamba to Loja). Ecuador_sentence_212

In the absence of the section between Loja and the border with Peru, there are the Route Espondilus and/or Ruta del Sol (oriented to travel along the Ecuadorian coastline) and the Amazon backbone (which crosses from north to south along the Ecuadorian Amazon, linking most and more major cities of it). Ecuador_sentence_213

Another major project is developing the road Manta – Tena, the highway Guayaquil – Salinas Highway Aloag Santo Domingo, Riobamba – Macas (which crosses Sangay National Park). Ecuador_sentence_214

Other new developments include the National Unity bridge complex in Guayaquil, the bridge over the Napo river in Francisco de Orellana, the Esmeraldas River Bridge in the city of the same name, and, perhaps the most remarkable of all, the Bahia – San Vincente Bridge, being the largest on the Latin American Pacific coast. Ecuador_sentence_215

Cuenca's tramway is the largest public transport system in the city and the first modern tramway in Ecuador. Ecuador_sentence_216

It was inaugurated on March 8, 2019. Ecuador_sentence_217

It has 20,4 km and 27 stations. Ecuador_sentence_218

It will transport 120 000 passagers daily. Ecuador_sentence_219

Its route starts in the south of Cuenca and ends in the north at the Parque Industrial neighbourhood. Ecuador_sentence_220

The Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito and the José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport in Guayaquil have experienced a high increase in demand and have required modernization. Ecuador_sentence_221

In the case of Guayaquil it involved a new air terminal, once considered the best in South America and the best in Latin America and in Quito where an entire new airport has been built in Tababela and was inaugurated in February 2013, with Canadian assistance. Ecuador_sentence_222

However, the main road leading from Quito city centre to the new airport will only be finished in late 2014, making current travelling from the airport to downtown Quito as long as two hours during rush hour. Ecuador_sentence_223

Quito's old city-centre airport is being turned into parkland, with some light industrial use. Ecuador_sentence_224

Demographics Ecuador_section_23

Main article: Ecuadorian people Ecuador_sentence_225

Ecuador's population is ethnically diverse and the 2018 estimates put Ecuador's population at 17,084,358. Ecuador_sentence_226

The largest ethnic group (as of 2010) is the Mestizos, who are Amerindians with mixture or cultural influence from Spanish colonists, and constitute about 71% of the population. Ecuador_sentence_227

The White Ecuadorians (White Latin American) are a minority accounting for 6.1% of the population of Ecuador and can be found throughout all of Ecuador, primarily around the urban areas. Ecuador_sentence_228

Even though Ecuador's white population during its colonial era were mainly descendants from Spain, today Ecuador's white population is a result of a mixture of European immigrants, predominantly from Spain with people from Italy, Germany, France, and Switzerland who have settled in the early 20th century. Ecuador_sentence_229

Ecuador also has people of middle eastern extraction that have also joined the ranks of the white minority. Ecuador_sentence_230

These include economically well off immigrants of Lebanese and Palestinian descent, who are either Christian or Muslim (Islam in Ecuador). Ecuador_sentence_231

In addition, there is a small European Jewish (Ecuadorian Jews) population, which is based mainly in Quito and to a lesser extent in Guayaquil. Ecuador_sentence_232

Amerindians account for 7% of the current population. Ecuador_sentence_233

The mostly rural Montubio population of the coastal provinces of Ecuador, who might be classified as Pardo account for 7.4% of the population. Ecuador_sentence_234

The Afro-Ecuadorians are a minority population (7%) in Ecuador, that includes the Mulattos and zambos, and are largely based in the Esmeraldas province and to a lesser degree in the predominantly Mestizo provinces of Coastal Ecuador - Guayas and Manabi. Ecuador_sentence_235

In the Highland Andes where a predominantly Mestizo, white and Amerindian population exist, the African presence is almost non-existent except for a small community in the province of Imbabura called Chota Valley. Ecuador_sentence_236

Religion Ecuador_section_24

Main article: Religion in Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_237

According to the Ecuadorian National Institute of Statistics and Census, 91.95% of the country's population have a religion, 7.94% are atheists and 0.11% are agnostics. Ecuador_sentence_238

Among the people that have a religion, 80.44% are Roman Catholic Latin Rite (see List of Roman Catholic dioceses in Ecuador), 11.30% are Evangelical Protestants, 1.29% are Jehovah's Witnesses and 6.97% other (mainly Jewish, Buddhists and Latter-day Saints). Ecuador_sentence_239

In the rural parts of Ecuador, Amerindian beliefs and Catholicism are sometimes syncretized. Ecuador_sentence_240

Most festivals and annual parades are based on religious celebrations, many incorporating a mixture of rites and icons. Ecuador_sentence_241

There is a small number of Eastern Orthodox Christians, Amerindian religions, Muslims (see Islam in Ecuador), Buddhists and Baháʼí. Ecuador_sentence_242

According to their own estimates, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints accounts for about 1.4% of the population, or 211,165 members at the end of 2012. Ecuador_sentence_243

According to their own sources, in 2017 there were 92,752 Jehovah's Witnesses in the country. Ecuador_sentence_244

The first Jews arrived in Ecuador in the 16th and 17th centuries. Ecuador_sentence_245

Most of them are Sephardic Anusim (Crypto-Jews) and many still speak Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) language. Ecuador_sentence_246

Today the Jewish Community of Ecuador (Comunidad Judía del Ecuador) has its seat in Quito and has approximately 200 members. Ecuador_sentence_247

Nevertheless, this number is declining because young people leave the country for the United States or Israel. Ecuador_sentence_248

The Community has a Jewish Center with a synagogue, a country club, and a cemetery. Ecuador_sentence_249

It supports the "Albert Einstein School", where Jewish history, religion, and Hebrew classes are offered. Ecuador_sentence_250

There are very small communities in Cuenca. Ecuador_sentence_251

The "Comunidad de Culto Israelita" reunites the Jews of Guayaquil. Ecuador_sentence_252

This community works independently from the "Jewish Community of Ecuador" and is composed of only 30 people. Ecuador_sentence_253


  • Ecuador_item_3_15
  • Ecuador_item_3_16

Nations Ecuador_section_25

Main article: Indigenous peoples in Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_254

The Ecuadorian constitution recognizes the "pluri-nationality" of those who want to exercise their affiliation with their native ethnic groups. Ecuador_sentence_255

Thus, in addition to criollos, mestizos, and Afro-Ecuadorians, some people belong to the Amerindian nations scattered in a few places in the coast, Quechua Andean villages, and the Amazonian jungle. Ecuador_sentence_256

Population genetics Ecuador_section_26

According to a 2015 genealogical DNA testing, the average Ecuadorian is estimated to be 52.96% Native American, 41.77% European, and 5.26% Sub-Saharan African overall. Ecuador_sentence_257

Population density Ecuador_section_27

The majority of Ecuadorians live in the central provinces, the Andes mountains, or along the Pacific coast. Ecuador_sentence_258

The tropical forest region to the east of the mountains (El Oriente) remains sparsely populated and contains only about 3% of the population. Ecuador_sentence_259

Birth rate is 2-1 for each death. Ecuador_sentence_260

Marriages are usually from 14 and above using parental consent. Ecuador_sentence_261

About 12.4% of the population is married in the ages 15–19. Ecuador_sentence_262

Divorce rates are moderate. Ecuador_sentence_263

Largest cities Ecuador_section_28

The five largest cities in the country are Guayaquil (2.99 million inhabitants), Quito (1.87 million inhabitants), Cuenca (636,996 inhabitants), Santo Domingo (458,580 inhabitants), and Ambato (387,309 inhabitants). Ecuador_sentence_264

While the most populated metropolitan areas of the country are those of Guayaquil, Quito, Cuenca, Manabí Centro (Portoviejo-Manta) and Ambato. Ecuador_sentence_265

Immigration and emigration Ecuador_section_29

See also: Emigration from Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_266

A prominent East Asian Latino community mainly consists of those of Japanese and Chinese descent, whose ancestors arrived as miners, farmhands and fishermen in the late 19th century. Ecuador_sentence_267

In the early years of World War II, Ecuador still admitted a certain number of immigrants, and in 1939, when several South American countries refused to accept 165 Jewish refugees from Germany aboard the ship Koenigstein, Ecuador granted them entry permits. Ecuador_sentence_268

In the early 1900's there was immigration from Italians, Germans, Portuguese, French, Britons and Greeks. Ecuador_sentence_269

In the 1950's the Italians were the third largest national group in terms of numbers of immigrants, since Ecuador like Mexico and the Andean countries did not receive a significant total number of immigrants. Ecuador_sentence_270

It can be noted that, after World War I, people from Liguria, still constituted the majority of the flow, even though they then represented only one third of the total number of immigrants in Ecuador. Ecuador_sentence_271

This situation came from the improvement of the economic situation in Liguria. Ecuador_sentence_272

The classic paradigm of the Italian immigrant today was not that of the small trader from Liguria as it had been before; those who emigrated to Ecuador were professionals and technicians, employees and religious people from South-Central Italy. Ecuador_sentence_273

It must be remembered that many immigrants, a remarkable number of Italians among them, moved to the Ecuadorian port from Peru to escape from the Peruvian war with Chile. Ecuador_sentence_274

The Italian government came to be more interested in the emigration phenomenon in Ecuador because of the necessity of finding an outlet for the large number of immigrants who traditionally went to the United States but who could no longer enter this country because of the new measures that imposed restrictions in the 1920s. Ecuador_sentence_275

Most of these communities and their descendants are located in the Guayas region of the country. Ecuador_sentence_276

In recent years, Ecuador has grown in popularity among North American expatriates. Ecuador_sentence_277

Another perk that draws many expats to Ecuador is its low cost of living. Ecuador_sentence_278

Since everything from gas to groceries costs far less than in North America, it is a popular choice for those who are looking to make the most of their retirement budget. Ecuador_sentence_279

Culture Ecuador_section_30

Main article: Culture of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_280

Ecuador's mainstream culture is defined by its Hispanic mestizo majority, and, like their ancestry, it is traditionally of Spanish heritage, influenced in different degrees by Amerindian traditions and in some cases by African elements. Ecuador_sentence_281

The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Ecuador consisted of Spanish colonists, following the arrival of Europeans in 1499. Ecuador_sentence_282

A lower number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War. Ecuador_sentence_283

Since African slavery was not the workforce of the Spanish colonies in the Andes Mountains, given the subjugation of the Amerindian people through proselytization and encomiendas, the minority population of African descent is mostly found in the coastal northern province of Esmeraldas. Ecuador_sentence_284

This is largely owing to the 17th-century shipwreck of a slave-trading galleon off the northern coast of Ecuador. Ecuador_sentence_285

The few black African survivors swam to the shore and penetrated the then-thick jungle under the leadership of Anton, the chief of the group, where they remained as free men maintaining their original culture, not influenced by the typical elements found in other provinces of the coast or in the Andean region. Ecuador_sentence_286

A little later, freed slaves from Colombia known as cimarrones joined them. Ecuador_sentence_287

In the small Chota Valley of the province of Imbabura exists a small community of Africans among the province's predominantly mestizo population. Ecuador_sentence_288

These blacks are descendants of Africans, who were brought over from Colombia by Jesuits to work their colonial sugar plantations as slaves. Ecuador_sentence_289

As a general rule, small elements of zambos and mulattoes coexisted among the overwhelming mestizo population of coastal Ecuador throughout its history as gold miners in Loja, Zaruma, and Zamora and as shipbuilders and plantation workers around the city of Guayaquil. Ecuador_sentence_290

Today you can find a small community of Africans in the Catamayo valley of the predominantly mestizo population of Loja. Ecuador_sentence_291

Ecuador's Amerindian communities are integrated into the mainstream culture to varying degrees, but some may also practice their own native cultures, particularly the more remote Amerindian communities of the Amazon basin. Ecuador_sentence_292

Spanish is spoken as the first language by more than 90% of the population and as a first or second language by more than 98%. Ecuador_sentence_293

Part of Ecuador's population can speak Amerindian languages, in some cases as a second language. Ecuador_sentence_294

Two percent of the population speak only Amerindian languages. Ecuador_sentence_295

Language Ecuador_section_31

Main article: Languages of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_296

Most Ecuadorians speak Spanish as their first language, with its ubiquity permeating and dominating most of the country, though there are many who speak an Amerindian language, such as Kichwa (also spelled Quechua), which is one of the Quechuan languages and is spoken by approximately 2.5 million people in Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru. Ecuador_sentence_297

Other Amerindian languages spoken in Ecuador include Awapit (spoken by the Awá), A'ingae (spoken by the Cofan), Shuar Chicham (spoken by the Shuar), Achuar-Shiwiar (spoken by the Achuar and the Shiwiar), Cha'palaachi (spoken by the Chachi), Tsa'fiki (spoken by the Tsáchila), Paicoca (spoken by the Siona and Secoya), and Wao Tededeo (spoken by the Waorani). Ecuador_sentence_298

Use of these Amerindian languages are, however, gradually diminishing due to Spanish's widespread use in education. Ecuador_sentence_299

Though most features of Ecuadorian Spanish are universal to the Spanish-speaking world, there are several idiosyncrasies. Ecuador_sentence_300

Music Ecuador_section_32

Main article: Music of Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_301

The music of Ecuador has a long history. Ecuador_sentence_302

Pasillo is a genre of indigenous Latin music. Ecuador_sentence_303

In Ecuador it is the "national genre of music". Ecuador_sentence_304

Through the years, many cultures have brought their influences together to create new types of music. Ecuador_sentence_305

There are also different kinds of traditional music like albazo, pasacalle, fox incaico, tonada, capishca, Bomba (highly established in Afro-Ecuadorian societies), and so on. Ecuador_sentence_306

Tecnocumbia and Rockola are clear examples of the influence of foreign cultures. Ecuador_sentence_307

One of the most traditional forms of dancing in Ecuador is Sanjuanito. Ecuador_sentence_308

It is originally from northern Ecuador (Otavalo-Imbabura). Ecuador_sentence_309

Sanjuanito is a type of dance music played during festivities by the mestizo and Amerindian communities. Ecuador_sentence_310

According to the Ecuadorian musicologist Segundo Luis Moreno, Sanjuanito was danced by Amerindian people during San Juan Bautista's birthday. Ecuador_sentence_311

This important date was established by the Spaniards on June 24, coincidentally the same date when Amerindian people celebrated their rituals of Inti Raymi. Ecuador_sentence_312

Cuisine Ecuador_section_33

See also: List of Ecuadorian dishes and foods Ecuador_sentence_313

Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with the altitude and associated agricultural conditions. Ecuador_sentence_314

Most regions in Ecuador follow the traditional three-course meal of soup, a course that includes rice and a protein, and then dessert and coffee to finish. Ecuador_sentence_315

Supper is usually lighter and sometimes consists only of coffee or herbal tea with bread. Ecuador_sentence_316

In the highland region, various dishes of pork, chicken, beef, and cuy (guinea pig) are popular and are served with a variety of grains (especially rice and mote) or potatoes. Ecuador_sentence_317

In the coastal region, seafood is very popular, with fish, shrimp, and ceviche being key parts of the diet. Ecuador_sentence_318

Generally, ceviches are served with fried plantain (chifles or patacones), popcorn, or tostado. Ecuador_sentence_319

Plantain- and peanut-based dishes are the basis of most coastal meals. Ecuador_sentence_320

Encocados (dishes that contain a coconut sauce) are also very popular. Ecuador_sentence_321

Churrasco is a staple food of the coastal region, especially Guayaquil. Ecuador_sentence_322

Arroz con menestra y carne asada (rice with beans and grilled beef) is one of the traditional dishes of Guayaquil, as is fried plantain, which is often served with it. Ecuador_sentence_323

This region is a leading producer of bananas, cocoa beans (to make chocolate), shrimp, tilapia, mango, and passion fruit, among other products. Ecuador_sentence_324

In the Amazon region, a dietary staple is the yuca, elsewhere called cassava. Ecuador_sentence_325

Many fruits are available in this region, including bananas, tree grapes, and peach palms. Ecuador_sentence_326

Literature Ecuador_section_34

Early literature in colonial Ecuador, as in the rest of Spanish America, was influenced by the Spanish Golden Age. Ecuador_sentence_327

One of the earliest examples is Jacinto Collahuazo, an Amerindian chief of a northern village in today's Ibarra, born in the late 1600s. Ecuador_sentence_328

Despite the early repression and discrimination of the native people by the Spanish, Collahuazo learned to read and write in Castilian, but his work was written in Quechua. Ecuador_sentence_329

The use of Quipu was banned by the Spanish, and in order to preserve their work, many Inca poets had to resort to the use of the Latin alphabet to write in their native Quechua language. Ecuador_sentence_330

The history behind the Inca drama "Ollantay", the oldest literary piece in existence for any Amerindian language in America, shares some similarities with the work of Collahuazo. Ecuador_sentence_331

Collahuazo was imprisoned and all of his work burned. Ecuador_sentence_332

The existence of his literary work came to light many centuries later, when a crew of masons was restoring the walls of a colonial church in Quito and found a hidden manuscript. Ecuador_sentence_333

The salvaged fragment is a Spanish translation from Quechua of the "Elegy to the Dead of Atahualpa", a poem written by Collahuazo, which describes the sadness and impotence of the Inca people of having lost their king Atahualpa. Ecuador_sentence_334

Other early Ecuadorian writers include the Jesuits Juan Bautista Aguirre, born in Daule in 1725, and Father Juan de Velasco, born in Riobamba in 1727. Ecuador_sentence_335

De Velasco wrote about the nations and chiefdoms that had existed in the Kingdom of Quito (today Ecuador) before the arrival of the Spanish. Ecuador_sentence_336

His historical accounts are nationalistic, featuring a romantic perspective of precolonial history. Ecuador_sentence_337

Famous authors from the late colonial and early republic period include Eugenio Espejo, a printer and main author of the first newspaper in Ecuadorian colonial times; Jose Joaquin de Olmedo (born in Guayaquil), famous for his ode to Simón Bolívar titled Victoria de Junin; Juan Montalvo, a prominent essayist and novelist; Juan Leon Mera, famous for his work "Cumanda" or "Tragedy among Savages" and the Ecuadorian National Anthem; Juan A. Martinez with A la Costa; Dolores Veintimilla; and others. Ecuador_sentence_338

Contemporary Ecuadorian writers include the novelist Jorge Enrique Adoum; the poet Jorge Carrera Andrade; the essayist Benjamín Carrión; the poets Medardo Angel Silva, Jorge Carrera Andrade, and Luis Alberto Costales; the novelist Enrique Gil Gilbert; the novelist Jorge Icaza (author of the novel Huasipungo, translated to many languages); the short story author Pablo Palacio; and the novelist Alicia Yanez Cossio. Ecuador_sentence_339

In spite of Ecuador's considerable mystique, it is rarely featured as a setting in contemporary western literature. Ecuador_sentence_340

One exception is "The Ecuadorian Deception," a murder mystery/thriller authored by American Bear Mills. Ecuador_sentence_341

In it, George d'Hout, a website designer from the United States is lured under false pretenses to Guayaquil. Ecuador_sentence_342

A corrupt American archaeologist is behind the plot, believing d'Hout holds the keys to locating a treasure hidden by a buccaneer ancestor. Ecuador_sentence_343

The story is based on a real pirate by the name of George d'Hout who terrorized Guayaquil in the 16th Century. Ecuador_sentence_344

Art Ecuador_section_35

The best known art styles from Ecuador belonged to the Escuela Quiteña (Quito School), which developed from the 16th to 18th centuries, examples of which are on display in various old churches in Quito. Ecuador_sentence_345

Ecuadorian painters include Eduardo Kingman, Oswaldo Guayasamín, and Camilo Egas from the Indiginist Movement; Manuel Rendon, Jaime Zapata, Enrique Tábara, Aníbal Villacís, Theo Constanté, Luis Molinari, Araceli Gilbert, Judith Gutierrez, Felix Arauz, and Estuardo Maldonado from the Informalist Movement; Teddy Cobeña from expressionism and figurative style and Luis Burgos Flor with his abstract, futuristic style. Ecuador_sentence_346

The Amerindian people of Tigua, Ecuador, are also world-renowned for their traditional paintings. Ecuador_sentence_347

Sports Ecuador_section_36

Main article: Sport in Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_348

The most popular sport in Ecuador, as in most South American countries, is football. Ecuador_sentence_349

Its best known professional teams include; Emelec from Guayaquil, Liga De Quito from Quito; Barcelona S.C. from Guayaquil, the most popular team in Ecuador, also the team with most local championships; Deportivo Quito, and El Nacional from Quito; Olmedo from Riobamba; and Deportivo Cuenca from Cuenca. Ecuador_sentence_350

Currently the most successful football team in Ecuador is LDU Quito, and it is the only Ecuadorian team that has won the Copa Libertadores, the Copa Sudamericana, and the Recopa Sudamericana; they were also runners-up in the 2008 FIFA Club World Cup. Ecuador_sentence_351

The matches of the Ecuadorian national team are the most-watched sporting events in the country. Ecuador_sentence_352

Ecuador has qualified for the final rounds of the 2002, the 2006, & the 2014 FIFA World Cups. Ecuador_sentence_353

The 2002 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign was considered a huge success for the country and its inhabitants. Ecuador_sentence_354

The unusually high elevation of the home stadium in Quito often affects the performance of visiting teams. Ecuador_sentence_355

Ecuador finished in 2nd place in the CONMEBOL qualifiers behind Argentina and above the team that would become World Champions, Brazil. Ecuador_sentence_356

In the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Ecuador finished ahead of Poland and Costa Rica finishing second behind Germany in Group A in the 2006 World Cup. Ecuador_sentence_357

They were defeated by England in the second round. Ecuador_sentence_358

Ecuador has won two medals in the Olympic Games, both gained by 20-km (12 mi) racewalker Jefferson Pérez, who took gold in the 1996 games and silver 12 years later. Ecuador_sentence_359

Pérez also set a world best in the 2003 World Championships of 1:17:21 for the 20-km (12 mi) distance. Ecuador_sentence_360

In world class professional cycling, Richard Carapaz became the first Ecuadorian to win a Grand Tour. Ecuador_sentence_361

He won the 2019 Giro d'Italia Ecuador_sentence_362

Health Ecuador_section_37

Main article: Health in Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_363

The current structure of the Ecuadorian public health care system dates back to 1967. Ecuador_sentence_364

The Ministry of the Public Health (Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador) is the responsible entity of the regulation and creation of the public health policies and health care plans. Ecuador_sentence_365

The Minister of Public Health is appointed directly by the President of the Republic. Ecuador_sentence_366

The current minister, or Ecuadorian general surgeon, is Margarita Guevara. Ecuador_sentence_367

The philosophy of the Ministry of Public Health is the social support and service to the most vulnerable population, and its main plan of action lies around communitarian health and preventive medicine. Ecuador_sentence_368

The public healthcare system allows patients to be treated without an appointment in public general hospitals by general practitioners and specialists in the outpatient clinic (Consulta Externa) at no cost. Ecuador_sentence_369

This is done in the four basic specialties of pediatric, gynecology, clinic medicine, and surgery. Ecuador_sentence_370

There are also public hospitals specialized to treat chronic diseases, target a particular group of the population, or provide better treatment in some medical specialties. Ecuador_sentence_371

Some examples in this group are the Gynecologic Hospitals, or Maternities, Children Hospitals, Geriatric Hospitals, and Oncology Institutes. Ecuador_sentence_372

Although well-equipped general hospitals are found in the major cities or capitals of provinces, there are basic hospitals in the smaller towns and canton cities for family care consultation and treatments in pediatrics, gynecology, clinical medicine, and surgery. Ecuador_sentence_373

Community health care centers (Centros de Salud) are found inside metropolitan areas of cities and in rural areas. Ecuador_sentence_374

These are day hospitals that provide treatment to patients whose hospitalization is under 24 hours. Ecuador_sentence_375

The doctors assigned to rural communities, where the Amerindian population can be substantial, have small clinics under their responsibility for the treatment of patients in the same fashion as the day hospitals in the major cities. Ecuador_sentence_376

The treatment in this case respects the culture of the community. Ecuador_sentence_377

The public healthcare system should not be confused with the Ecuadorian Social Security healthcare service, which is dedicated to individuals with formal employment and who are affiliated obligatorily through their employers. Ecuador_sentence_378

Citizens with no formal employment may still contribute to the social security system voluntarily and have access to the medical services rendered by the social security system. Ecuador_sentence_379

The Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS) has several major hospitals and medical sub-centers under its administration across the nation. Ecuador_sentence_380

Ecuador currently ranks 20, in most efficient health care countries, compared to 111 back in the year 2000. Ecuador_sentence_381

Ecuadorians have a life expectancy of 77.1 years. Ecuador_sentence_382

The infant mortality rate is 13 per 1,000 live births, a major improvement from approximately 76 in the early 1980s and 140 in 1950. Ecuador_sentence_383

23% of children under five are chronically malnourished. Ecuador_sentence_384

Population in some rural areas have no access to potable water, and its supply is provided by mean of water tankers. Ecuador_sentence_385

There are 686 malaria cases per 100,000 people. Ecuador_sentence_386

Basic health care, including doctor's visits, basic surgeries, and basic medications, has been provided free since 2008. Ecuador_sentence_387

However, some public hospitals are in poor condition and often lack necessary supplies to attend the high demand of patients. Ecuador_sentence_388

Private hospitals and clinics are well equipped but still expensive for the majority of the population. Ecuador_sentence_389

Between 2008 and 2016, new public hospitals have been built, the number of civil servants has increased significantly and salaries have been increased. Ecuador_sentence_390

In 2008, the government introduced universal and compulsory social security coverage. Ecuador_sentence_391

In 2015, corruption remains a problem. Ecuador_sentence_392

Overbilling is recorded in 20% of public establishments and in 80% of private establishments. Ecuador_sentence_393

Education Ecuador_section_38

Main article: Education in Ecuador Ecuador_sentence_394

The Ecuadorian Constitution requires that all children attend school until they achieve a "basic level of education", which is estimated at nine school years. Ecuador_sentence_395

In 1996, the net primary enrollment rate was 96.9%, and 71.8% of children stayed in school until the fifth grade / age 10. Ecuador_sentence_396

The cost of primary and secondary education is borne by the government, but families often face significant additional expenses such as fees and transportation costs. Ecuador_sentence_397

Provision of public schools falls far below the levels needed, and class sizes are often very large, and families of limited means often find it necessary to pay for education. Ecuador_sentence_398

In rural areas, only 10% of the children go on to high school. Ecuador_sentence_399

The Ministry of Education states that the mean number of years completed is 6.7. Ecuador_sentence_400

Ecuador has 61 universities, many of which still confer terminal degrees according to the traditional Spanish education system, honoring a long tradition of having some of the oldest universities in the Americas: University of San Fulgencio, founded in 1586 by the Augustines; San Gregorio Magno University, founded in 1651 by the Jesuits; and University of Santo Tomás of Aquino, founded in 1681 by the Dominican order. Ecuador_sentence_401

Among the traditional conferred terminal degrees can be noted the doctorate for medicine and law schools or engineering, physics, chemistry, or mathematics for polytechnic or technology institutes. Ecuador_sentence_402

These terminal degrees, as in the case of the PhD in other countries, were the main requirement for an individual to be accepted in academia as a professor or researcher. Ecuador_sentence_403

In the professional realm, a terminal degree granted by an accredited institution automatically provides a professional license to the individual. Ecuador_sentence_404

However, in 2004, the National Council of Higher Education (CONESUP), started the reorganization of all the degree-granting schemes of the accredited universities in order to pair them with foreign counterparts. Ecuador_sentence_405

The new structure of some careers caused the dropping of subjects, credits, or even the name of the previously conferred diplomas. Ecuador_sentence_406

The terminal degree in law, previously known as JD Juris Doctor (Doctor en Jurisprudencia) was replaced by the one of abogado (attorney) with the exception of the modification of the number of credits to equate it to an undergraduate degree. Ecuador_sentence_407

In the same fashion for medical school, the required time of education was considerably reduced from nine years (the minimum needed to obtain the title of MD in Medicine and Surgery) to almost five, with the provision that the diploma is not terminal anymore, and it is given with the title of médico (medic). Ecuador_sentence_408

Therefore, an MD or PhD in medicine is only to be obtained overseas until the universities adjust themselves to granting schemes and curriculum as in foreign counterparts. Ecuador_sentence_409

Nonetheless, a "médico" can start a career as family practitioner or general medicine physician. Ecuador_sentence_410

This new reorganization, although very ambitious, lacked the proper path to the homologation of diplomas for highly educated professionals graduated in the country or even for the ones graduated in foreign institutions. Ecuador_sentence_411

One of the points of conflict was the imposition of obtaining foreign degrees to current academicians. Ecuador_sentence_412

As today, a master's degree is a requirement to keep an academic position and at least a foreign PhD to attain or retain the status of rector (president of a university) or décano (dean). Ecuador_sentence_413

For Ecuadorian researchers and many academicians trained in the country, these regulations sounded illogical, disappointing, and unlawful since it appeared a question of a title name conflict rather than specialization or science advancement. Ecuador_sentence_414

A debate to modify this and other reforms, especially the one which granted control of the Higher Education System by the government, was practically passed with consensus by the multi-partisan National Assembly on August 4, 2010, but vetoed by President Rafael Correa, who wanted to keep the law strictly as it was originally redacted by his political party and SENPLADES (National Secretary of Planning and Development). Ecuador_sentence_415

Due to this change, there are many highly educated professionals and academicians under the old structure but estimated that only 87% of the faculty in public universities have already obtained a master's degree, and fewer than 5% have a PhD (although many of them already have Ecuadorian-granted doctorate degrees). Ecuador_sentence_416

About 300 institutes of higher education offer two to three years of post-secondary vocational or technical training. Ecuador_sentence_417

Sciences and research Ecuador_section_39

Ecuador is currently placed in 96th position of innovation in technology. Ecuador_sentence_418

The most notable icons in Ecuadorian sciences are the mathematician and cartographer Pedro Vicente Maldonado, born in Riobamba in 1707, and the printer, independence precursor, and medical pioneer Eugenio Espejo, born in 1747 in Quito. Ecuador_sentence_419

Among other notable Ecuadorian scientists and engineers are Lieutenant Jose Rodriguez Labandera, a pioneer who built the first submarine in Latin America in 1837; (1898–1950), a botanist and biologist of Andean flora; and (1880–1961), a chemist and inventor of a method of textile serigraphy. Ecuador_sentence_420

The major areas of scientific research in Ecuador have been in the medical fields, tropical and infectious diseases treatments, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical research, and bioengineering. Ecuador_sentence_421

Being a small country and a consumer of foreign technology, Ecuador has favored research supported by entrepreneurship in information technology. Ecuador_sentence_422

The antivirus program Checkprogram, banking protection system MdLock, and Core Banking Software Cobis are products of Ecuadorian development. Ecuador_sentence_423

The scientific production in hard sciences has been limited due to lack of funding but focused around physics, statistics, and partial differential equations in mathematics. Ecuador_sentence_424

In the case of engineering fields, the majority of scientific production comes from the top three polytechnic institutions: Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral - ESPOL, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas - ESPE, and Escuela Politécnica Nacional EPN. Ecuador_sentence_425

The Center for Research and Technology Development in Ecuador is an autonomous center for research and technology development funded by Senecyt. Ecuador_sentence_426

However, according to Nature, the multidisciplinary scientific journal the top 10 institutions that carry the most outstanding scientific contributions are: Yachay Tech University (Yachay Tech), Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN), and Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ). Ecuador_sentence_427

Nature Index - Top 10 institutions from Ecuador Ecuador_section_40


InstitutionEcuador_header_cell_2_0_0 CountEcuador_header_cell_2_0_2 ShareEcuador_header_cell_2_0_3
1.Ecuador_cell_2_1_0 Yachay Tech University (YT)Ecuador_cell_2_1_1 12Ecuador_cell_2_1_2 3.50Ecuador_cell_2_1_3
2.Ecuador_cell_2_2_0 National Polytechnic School (EPN)Ecuador_cell_2_2_1 63Ecuador_cell_2_2_2 1.41Ecuador_cell_2_2_3
3.Ecuador_cell_2_3_0 Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ)Ecuador_cell_2_3_1 61Ecuador_cell_2_3_2 1.20Ecuador_cell_2_3_3
4.Ecuador_cell_2_4_0 Fundación OtongaEcuador_cell_2_4_1 2Ecuador_cell_2_4_2 0.49Ecuador_cell_2_4_3
5.Ecuador_cell_2_5_0 Center for Research on Health in Latin America (CISeAL)Ecuador_cell_2_5_1 1Ecuador_cell_2_5_2 0.26Ecuador_cell_2_5_3
6.Ecuador_cell_2_6_0 University of the Pacific/EcuadorEcuador_cell_2_6_1 2Ecuador_cell_2_6_2 0.23Ecuador_cell_2_6_3
7.Ecuador_cell_2_7_0 Central University of Ecuador (UCE)Ecuador_cell_2_7_1 4Ecuador_cell_2_7_2 0.20Ecuador_cell_2_7_3
8.Ecuador_cell_2_8_0 Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador (PUCE)Ecuador_cell_2_8_1 4Ecuador_cell_2_8_2 0.18Ecuador_cell_2_8_3
9.Ecuador_cell_2_9_0 Universidad de Cuenca (UC)Ecuador_cell_2_9_1 3Ecuador_cell_2_9_2 0.14Ecuador_cell_2_9_3
10.Ecuador_cell_2_10_0 Coordinadora de las Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica (COICA)Ecuador_cell_2_10_1 1Ecuador_cell_2_10_2 0.11Ecuador_cell_2_10_3

EPN is known for research and education in the applied science, astronomy, atmospheric physics, engineering and physical sciences. Ecuador_sentence_428

The Geophysics Institute monitors over the country's volcanoes in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador and in the Galápagos Islands, all of which is part of the Ring of Fire. Ecuador_sentence_429

EPN adopted the polytechnic university model that stresses laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. Ecuador_sentence_430

The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory and is located in Quito, Ecuador. Ecuador_sentence_431

The Quito Astronomical Observatory, which gives the global community of a Virtual Telescope System that is connected via the Internet and allows the world to watch by streaming, is managed by EPN. Ecuador_sentence_432

Contemporary Ecuadorian scientists who have been recognized by international institutions are Eugenia del Pino (born 1945), the first Ecuadorian to be elected to the United States National Academy of Science, and Arturo Villavicencio, who was part of the working group of the IPCC, which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore for their dissemination of the effects of climate change. Ecuador_sentence_433

High Performance Computing Ecuador_section_41

Ecuadorian institutions compute extensive information using supercomputers such as Quinde I, the most powerful of that country performing 232 TeraFLOPS. Ecuador_sentence_434

Institutions that have High Performance Computing centers: Ecuador_sentence_435


Currently, the politics of research and investigation are managed by the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Technology (Senescyt). Ecuador_sentence_436

See also Ecuador_section_42


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