This article is about the country in South America.
For other uses, see Ecuador (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Equator.
|Republic of Ecuador
República del Ecuador (Spanish)
|Largest city||Guayaquil (city proper)
Quito (metropolitan area)
|Recognized regional languages||Kichwa language (Quichua), Shuar and others "are in official use for indigenous peoples"|
|Ethnic groups (2010 Census)|
|Religion (2012)||93.1% Christianity|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|Vice President||María Alejandra Muñoz|
|Declared||August 10, 1809|
|from Spain||May 24, 1822|
|from Gran Colombia||May 13, 1830|
|Recognized by Spain||February 16, 1840|
|Current constitution||September 28, 2008|
|Total||283,561 km (109,484 sq mi) (73rd)|
|2018 estimate||17,084,358 (67th)|
|Density||61/km (158.0/sq mi) (151st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
high · 85th
|Currency||United States dollar (USD)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 / −6 (ECT / GALT)|
|ISO 3166 code||EC|
Ecuador (/ˈɛkwədɔːr/ (listen) EK-wə-dor; Spanish pronunciation: [ekwaˈðoɾ (listen); Quechua: Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (Spanish: República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechua: Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka), is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.
Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (621 mi) west of the mainland.
The capital is Quito.
The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 17.1 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European, Native American, and African descendants.
It is governed as a democratic presidential republic.
In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of nature, or ecosystem rights.
It also has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas.
Between 2006 and 2016, poverty decreased from 36.7% to 22.5% and annual per capita GDP growth was 1.5 percent (as compared to 0.6 percent over the prior two decades).
At the same time, the country's Gini index of economic inequality decreased from 0.55 to 0.47.
Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Ecuador
The Ecuadorian State consists of five branches of government: the Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, the Electoral Branch, and Transparency and Social Control.
Ecuador is governed by a democratically elected president, for a four-year term.
Since 1936, voting is compulsory for all literate persons aged 18–65, optional for all other citizens.
The executive branch includes 23 ministries.
Provincial governors and councilors (mayors, aldermen, and parish boards) are directly elected.
The National Assembly of Ecuador meets throughout the year except for recesses in July and December.
There are thirteen permanent committees.
Members of the National Court of Justice are appointed by the National Judicial Council for nine-year terms.
Main article: List of heads of state of Ecuador
He is accompanied by the vice-president, currently María Alejandra Muñoz, elected for four years (with the ability to be re-elected only once).
As head of state and chief government official, he is responsible for public administration including the appointing of national coordinators, ministers, ministers of State and public servants.
The executive branch defines foreign policy, appoints the Chancellor of the Republic, as well as ambassadors and consuls, being the ultimate authority over the Armed Forces of Ecuador, National Police of Ecuador, and appointing authorities.
The acting president's wife receives the title of First Lady of Ecuador.
Main article: National Assembly (Ecuador)
The legislative branch is embodied by the National Assembly, which is headquartered in the city of Quito in the Legislative Palace, and consists of 137 assemblymen, divided into ten committees and elected for a four-year term.
Fifteen national constituency elected assembly, two Assembly members elected from each province and one for every 100,000 inhabitants or fraction exceeding 150,000, according to the latest national population census.
In addition, statute determines the election of assembly of regions and metropolitan districts.
Ecuador's judiciary has as its main body the Judicial Council, and also includes the National Court of Justice, provincial courts, and lower courts.
Legal representation is made by the Judicial Council.
The National Court of Justice is composed of 21 judges elected for a term of nine years.
Judges are renewed by thirds every three years pursuant to the Judicial Code.
These are elected by the Judicial Council on the basis of opposition proceedings and merits.
The justice system is buttressed by the independent offices of public prosecutor and the public defender.
Auxiliary organs are as follows: notaries, court auctioneers, and court receivers.
Also there is a special legal regime for Amerindians.
The electoral system functions by authorities which enter only every four years or when elections or referendums occur.
Its main functions are to organize, control elections, and punish the infringement of electoral rules.
Its main body is the National Electoral Council, which is based in the city of Quito, and consists of seven members of the political parties most voted, enjoying complete financial and administrative autonomy.
The Transparency and Social Control consists of the Council of Citizen Participation and Social Control, an ombudsman, the Comptroller General of the State, and the superintendents.
Branch members hold office for five years.
This branch is responsible for promoting transparency and control plans publicly, as well as plans to design mechanisms to combat corruption, as also designate certain authorities, and be the regulatory mechanism of accountability in the country.
UN's Human Rights Council's (HRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) has treated the restrictions on freedom of expression and efforts to control NGOs and recommended that Ecuador should stop the criminal sanctions for the expression of opinions, and delay in implementing judicial reforms.
Ecuador rejected the recommendation on decriminalization of libel.
According to Human Rights Watch (HRW) President Correa has intimidated journalists and subjected them to "public denunciation and retaliatory litigation".
The sentences to journalists have been years of imprisonment and millions of dollars of compensation, even though defendants have been pardoned.
Correa has stated he was only seeking a retraction for slanderous statements.
In Ecuador's current judicial system, judges are selected in a contest of merits, rather than government appointments.
However, the process of selection has been criticized as biased and subjective.
In particular, the final interview is said to be given "excessive weighing".
Judges and prosecutors that have made decisions in favor of Correa in his lawsuits have received permanent posts, while others with better assessment grades have been rejected.
The laws also forbid articles and media messages that could favor or disfavor some political message or candidate.
In the first half of 2012, twenty private TV or radio stations were closed down.
In July 2012, the officials warned the judges that they would be sanctioned and possibly dismissed if they allowed the citizens to appeal to the protection of their constitutional rights against the state.
People engaging in public protests against environmental and other issues are prosecuted for "terrorism and sabotage", which may lead to an eight-year prison sentence.
Main article: Foreign relations of Ecuador
Ecuador joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1973 and suspended its membership in 1992.
Under President Rafael Correa, the country returned to OPEC before leaving again in 2020 under the instruction of President Moreno, citing its desire to increase crude oil importation to gain more revenue.
In Antarctica, Ecuador has maintained a peaceful research station for scientific study as a member nation of the Antarctica Treaty.
Ecuador has often placed great emphasis on multilateral approaches to international issues.
Ecuador is a member of the United Nations (and most of its specialized agencies) and a member of many regional groups, including the Rio Group, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Energy Organization, the Latin American Integration Association, the Andean Community of Nations, and the Bank of the South (Spanish: Banco del Sur or BancoSur).
In 2017, the Ecuadorian parliament adopted a Law on human mobility.
The International Organization for Migration lauds Ecuador as the first state to have established the promotion of the concept of universal citizenship in its constitution, aiming to promote the universal recognition and protection of the human rights of migrants.
In 2017, Ecuador signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.
Ecuador is divided into 24 provinces (Spanish: provincias), each with its own administrative capital:
|Province||Area (km)||Population (2020)||Capital|
|9||Galápagos||8,010||33,042||Puerto Baquerizo Moreno|
|17||Orellana||21,691||161,338||Puerto Francisco de Orellana|
|20||Santa Elena||3,696||401,178||Santa Elena|
|21||Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas||4,180||458,580||Santo Domingo|
The provinces are divided into cantons and further subdivided into parishes (parroquias).
Regions and planning areas
Regionalization, or zoning, is the union of two or more adjoining provinces in order to decentralize the administrative functions of the capital, Quito.
In Ecuador, there are seven regions, or zones, each shaped by the following provinces:
- Region 1 (42,126 km, or 16,265 mi): Esmeraldas, Carchi, Imbabura, and Sucumbios. Administrative city: Ibarra
- Region 2 (43,498 km, or 16,795 mi): Pichincha, Napo, and Orellana. Administrative city: Tena
- Region 3 (44,710 km, or 17,263 mi): Chimborazo, Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Cotopaxi. Administrative city: Riobamba
- Region 4 (22,257 km, or 8,594 mi): Manabí and Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas. Administrative city: Ciudad Alfaro
- Region 5 (38,420 km, or 14,834 mi): Santa Elena, Guayas, Los Ríos, Galápagos, and Bolívar. Administrative city: Milagro
- Region 6 (38,237 km, or 14,763 mi): Cañar, Azuay, and Morona Santiago. Administrative city: Cuenca
- Region 7 (27,571 km, or 10,645 mi): El Oro, Loja, and Zamora Chinchipe. Administrative city: Loja
Galápagos, despite being included within Region 5, is also under a special unit.
Main article: Military of Ecuador
The Ecuadorian Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de la Republica de Ecuador), consists of the Army, Air Force, and Navy and have the stated responsibility for the preservation of the integrity and national sovereignty of the national territory.
The military tradition starts in Gran Colombia, where a sizable army was stationed in Ecuador due to border disputes with Peru, which claimed territories under its political control when it was a Spanish vice-royalty.
Once Gran Colombia was dissolved after the death of Simón Bolívar in 1830, Ecuador inherited the same border disputes and had the need of creating its own professional military force.
So influential was the military in Ecuador in the early republican period that its first decade was under the control of General Juan José Flores, first president of Ecuador of Venezuelan origin.
General Jose Ma.
Urbina and General Robles are examples of military figures who became presidents of the country in the early republican period.
Due to the continuous border disputes with Peru, finally settled in the early 2000s, and due to the ongoing problem with the Colombian guerrilla insurgency infiltrating Amazonian provinces, the Ecuadorian Armed Forces has gone through a series of changes.
In 2009, the new administration at the Defense Ministry launched a deep restructuring within the forces, increasing spending budget to $1,691,776,803, an increase of 25%.
The Military Academy General Eloy Alfaro (c. 1838) located in Quito is in charge to graduate the army officers.
Jungle Commands Group (IWIAS)
The IWIAS is a special force trained to perform exploration and military activities.
This army branch is considered the best elite force of Ecuador and is conformed by indigenous of the Amazon who combine their inherital experience for jungle dominance with modern army tactics.
The Ecuadorian Navy Academy (c. 1837), located in Salinas graduates the navy officers.
The Air Academy "Cosme Rennella (c. 1920), also located in Salinas, graduates the air force officers.
Other training academies for different military specialties are found across the country.
Main article: Geography of Ecuador
Ecuador has a total area of 283,561 km (109,484 sq mi), including the Galápagos Islands.
Of this, 276,841 km (106,889 sq mi) is land and 6,720 km (2,595 sq mi) water.
Ecuador is bigger than Uruguay, Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana in South America.
It has 2,010 km (1,250 mi) of land boundaries, with Colombia in the north (with a 590 km (367 mi) border) and Peru in the east and south (with a 1,420 km (882 mi) border).
It is the westernmost country that lies on the equator.
The country has four main geographic regions:
- La Costa, or "the coast": The coastal region consists of the provinces to the west of the Andean range – Esmeraldas, Guayas, Los Ríos, Manabí, El Oro, and Santa Elena. It is the country's most fertile and productive land, and is the seat of the large banana exportation plantations of the companies Dole and Chiquita. This region is also where most of Ecuador's rice crop is grown. The truly coastal provinces have active fisheries. The largest coastal city is Guayaquil.
- La Sierra, or "the highlands": The sierra consists of the Andean and Interandean highland provinces – Azuay, Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Imbabura, Loja, Pichincha, and Tungurahua. This land contains most of Ecuador's volcanoes and all of its snow-capped peaks. Agriculture is focused on the traditional crops of potato, maize, and quinua and the population is predominantly Amerindian Kichua. The largest Sierran city is Quito.
- La Amazonía, also known as El Oriente, or "the east": The oriente consists of the Amazon jungle provinces – Morona Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Sucumbíos, and Zamora-Chinchipe. This region is primarily made up of the huge Amazon national parks and Amerindian untouchable zones, which are vast stretches of land set aside for the Amazon Amerindian tribes to continue living traditionally. It is also the area with the largest reserves of petroleum in Ecuador, and parts of the upper Amazon here have been extensively exploited by petroleum companies. The population is primarily mixed Amerindian Shuar, Huaorani and Kichua, although there are numerous tribes in the deep jungle which are little-contacted. The largest city in the Oriente is probably Lago Agrio in Sucumbíos, although Macas in Morona Santiago runs a close second.
- La Región Insular is the region comprising the Galápagos Islands, some 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the mainland in the Pacific Ocean.
Ecuador's capital is Quito, which is in the province of Pichincha in the Sierra region.
Its largest city is Guayaquil, in the Guayas Province.
Cotopaxi, just south of Quito, is one of the world's highest active volcanoes.
The top of Mount Chimborazo (6,268 m, or 20,560 ft, above sea level), Ecuador's tallest mountain, is the most distant point from the center of the Earth on the Earth's surface because of the ellipsoid shape of the planet.
Main article: Climate of Ecuador
There is great variety in the climate, largely determined by altitude.
The Pacific coastal area has a tropical climate with a severe rainy season.
The climate in the Andean highlands is temperate and relatively dry, and the Amazon basin on the eastern side of the mountains shares the climate of other rainforest zones.
Because of its location at the equator, Ecuador experiences little variation in daylight hours during the course of a year.
Both sunrise and sunset occur each day at the two six o'clock hours.
Main article: Rivers of Ecuador
The Andes is the watershed divisor between the Amazon watershed, which runs to the east, and the Pacific, including the north–south rivers Mataje, Santiago, Esmeraldas, Chone, Guayas, Jubones, and Puyango-Tumbes.
Almost all of the rivers in Ecuador form in the Sierra region and flow east toward the Amazon River or west toward the Pacific Ocean.
The rivers rise from snowmelt at the edges of the snowcapped peaks or from the abundant precipitation that falls at higher elevations.
In the Sierra region, the streams and rivers are narrow and flow rapidly over precipitous slopes.
Rivers may slow and widen as they cross the hoyas yet become rapid again as they flow from the heights of the Andes to the lower elevations of the other regions.
The highland rivers broaden as they enter the more level areas of the Costa and the Oriente.
In the Costa, the external coast has mostly intermittent rivers that are fed by constant rains from December through May and become empty riverbeds during the dry season.
The few exceptions are the longer, perennial rivers that flow throughout the external coast from the internal coast and La Sierra on their way to the Pacific Ocean.
The internal coast, by contrast, is crossed by perennial rivers that may flood during the rainy season, sometimes forming swamps.
The Pastaza is formed by the confluence of the Chambo and the Patate rivers, both of which rise in the Sierra.
The Pastaza includes the Agoyan waterfall, which at sixty-one meters (200 feet) is the highest waterfall in Ecuador.
The Napo rises near Mount Cotopaxi and is the major river used for transport in the eastern lowlands.
The Napo ranges in width from 500 to 1,800 m (1,640 to 5,906 ft).
In its upper reaches, the Napo flows rapidly until the confluence with one of its major tributaries, the Coca River, where it slows and levels off.
The Putumayo forms part of the border with Colombia.
All of these rivers flow into the Amazon River.
The Galápagos Islands have no significant rivers.
Several of the larger islands, however, have freshwater springs, although they are surrounded by the Pacific Ocean.
Ecuador is one of seventeen megadiverse countries in the world according to Conservation International, and it has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation.
Ecuador has 1,600 bird species (15% of the world's known bird species) in the continental area and 38 more endemic in the Galápagos.
In addition to over 16,000 species of plants, the country has 106 endemic reptiles, 138 endemic amphibians, and 6,000 species of butterfly.
Ecuador has the first constitution to recognize the rights of nature.
The protection of the nation's biodiversity is an explicit national priority as stated in the National Plan of "Buen Vivir", or good living, Objective 4, "Guarantee the rights of nature", Policy 1: "Sustainably conserve and manage the natural heritage, including its land and marine biodiversity, which is considered a strategic sector".
As of the writing of the Plan in 2008, 19% of Ecuador's land area was in a protected area; however, the Plan also states that 32% of the land must be protected in order to truly preserve the nation's biodiversity.
Current protected areas include 11 national parks, 10 wildlife refuges, 9 ecological reserves, and other areas.
A program begun in 2008, Sociobosque, is preserving another 2.3% of total land area (6,295 km, or 629,500 ha) by paying private landowners or community landowners (such as Amerindian tribes) incentives to maintain their land as native ecosystems such as native forests or grasslands.
Eligibility and subsidy rates for this program are determined based on the poverty in the region, the number of hectares that will be protected, and the type of ecosystem of the land to be protected, among other factors.
Despite being on the UNESCO list, the Galápagos are endangered by a range of negative environmental effects, threatening the existence of this exotic ecosystem.
Additionally, oil exploitation of the Amazon rainforest has led to the release of billions of gallons of untreated wastes, gas, and crude oil into the environment, contaminating ecosystems and causing detrimental health effects to Amerindian peoples.
One of the best known examples is the Texaco-Chevron case.
This American oil company operated in the Ecuadorian Amazon region between 1964 and 1992.
During this period, Texaco drilled 339 wells in 15 petroleum fields and abandoned 627 toxic wastewater pits, as well as other elements of the oil infrastructure.
It is now known that these highly polluting and now obsolete technologies were used as a way to reduce expenses.
Main article: Economy of Ecuador
Ecuador has a developing economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.
The country is classified as an upper-middle-income country.
Ecuador's economy is the eighth largest in Latin America and experienced an average growth of 4.6% between 2000 and 2006.
From 2007 to 2012, Ecuador's GDP grew at an annual average of 4.3 percent, above the average for Latin America and the Caribbean, which was 3.5%, according to the United Nations' Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean (ECLAC).
Ecuador was able to maintain relatively superior growth during the crisis.
In January 2009, the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE) put the 2010 growth forecast at 6.88%.
In 2011, its GDP grew at 8% and ranked 3rd highest in Latin America, behind Argentina (2nd) and Panama (1st).
Between 1999 and 2007, GDP doubled, reaching $65,490 million according to BCE.
The inflation rate until January 2008, was about 1.14%, the highest in the past year, according to the government.
The monthly unemployment rate remained at about 6 and 8 percent from December 2007 until September 2008; however, it went up to about 9 percent in October and dropped again in November 2008 to 8 percent.
Unemployment mean annual rate for 2009 in Ecuador was 8.5% because the global economic crisis continued to affect the Latin American economies.
From this point, unemployment rates started a downward trend: 7.6% in 2010, 6.0% in 2011, and 4.8% in 2012.
The extreme poverty rate has declined significantly between 1999 and 2010.
In 2001, it was estimated at 40% of the population, while by 2011 the figure dropped to 17.4% of the total population.
This is explained to an extent by emigration and the economic stability achieved after adopting the U.S. dollar as official means of transaction (before 2000, the Ecuadorian sucre was prone to rampant inflation).
However, starting in 2008, with the bad economic performance of the nations where most Ecuadorian emigrants work, the reduction of poverty has been realized through social spending, mainly in education and health.
Oil accounts for 40% of exports and contributes to maintaining a positive trade balance.
Since the late 1960s, the exploitation of oil increased production, and proven reserves are estimated at 6.51 billion barrels as of 2011.
The overall trade balance for August 2012 was a surplus of almost $390 million for the first six months of 2012, a huge figure compared with that of 2007, which reached only $5.7 million; the surplus had risen by about $425 million compared to 2006.
The oil trade balance positive had revenues of $3.295 million in 2008, while non-oil was negative, amounting to $2.842 million.
The trade balance with the United States, Chile, the European Union, Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, and Mexico is positive.
The trade balance with Argentina, Colombia, and Asia is negative.
In the agricultural sector, Ecuador is a major exporter of bananas (first place worldwide in production and export), flowers, and the seventh largest producer of cocoa.
Ecuador also produces coffee, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), plantains and sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork and dairy products; fish, and shrimp; and balsa wood.
The country's vast resources include large amounts of timber across the country, like eucalyptus and mangroves.
Pines and cedars are planted in the region of La Sierra and walnuts, rosemary, and balsa wood in the Guayas River Basin.
The industry is concentrated mainly in Guayaquil, the largest industrial center, and in Quito, where in recent years the industry has grown considerably.
This city is also the largest business center of the country.
Industrial production is directed primarily to the domestic market.
Despite this, there is limited export of products produced or processed industrially.
These include canned foods, liquor, jewelry, furniture, and more.
A minor industrial activity is also concentrated in Cuenca.
Incomes from tourism has been increasing during the last few years because of the Government showing the variety of climates and the biodiversity of Ecuador.
It also serves on the World Trade Organization (WTO), in addition to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) and other multilateral agencies.
In April 2007, Ecuador paid off its debt to the IMF, thus ending an era of interventionism of the Agency in the country.
The public finance of Ecuador consists of the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE), the National Development Bank (BNF), the State Bank.
Main article: Tourism in Ecuador
The Ministry of Information and Tourism was created on August 10, 1992, at the beginning of the government of Sixto Durán Ballén, who viewed tourism as a fundamental activity for the economic and social development of the peoples.
Faced with the growth of the tourism sector, in June 1994, the decision was taken to separate tourism from information, so that it is exclusively dedicated to promoting and strengthening this activity.
Ecuador is a country with vast natural wealth.
The diversity of its four regions has given rise to thousands of species of flora and fauna.
It has around 1640 kinds of birds.
The species of butterflies border the 4,500, the reptiles 345, the amphibians 358 and the mammals 258, among others.
Not in vain, Ecuador is considered one of the 17 countries where the planet's highest biodiversity is concentrated, being also the largest country with diversity per km2 in the world.
Most of its fauna and flora lives in 26 protected areas by the State.
Also, it has a huge culture spectrum.
Since 2007, with the government of Rafael Correa, the tourism brand "Ecuador Ama la Vida" has been transformed, with which the nation's tourism promotion would be sold.
Focused on considering it as a country friendly and respectful of the nature, natural biodiversity and cultural diversity of the peoples.
And for this, means of exploiting them are developed along with the private economy.
The country has two cities UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Quito and Cuenca, as well as two natural UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Galapagos Islands and Sangay National Park in addition to one World Biosphere Reserve, such as the Cajas Massif.
Culturally, the Toquilla straw hat and the culture of the Zapara indigenous people are recognized.
The most popular sites for national and foreign tourists have different nuances due to the various tourist activities offered by the country.
Among the main tourist destinations are:
- Nature attractions: Galápagos Islands, Yasuni National Park, El Cajas National Park, Sangay National Park, Podocarpus National Park, Vilcabamba, Baños de Agua Santa.
- Cultural attractions: Historic center of Quito, Ciudad Mitad del Mundo, Ingapirca, Historic center of Cuenca, Latacunga and its Mama Negra festival.
- Snowy mountains: Antisana volcano, Cayambe volcano, Chimborazo volcano, Cotopaxi volcano, Illinizas volcanoes.
- Beaches: Atacames, Bahía de Caráquez, Crucita, Esmeraldas, Manta, Montañita, Playas, Salinas
Main article: Transport in Ecuador
The rehabilitation and reopening of the Ecuadorian railroad and use of it as a tourist attraction is one of the recent developments in transportation matters.
The roads of Ecuador in recent years have undergone important improvement.
The major routes are Pan American (under enhancement from four to six lanes from Rumichaca to Ambato, the conclusion of 4 lanes on the entire stretch of Ambato and Riobamba and running via Riobamba to Loja).
In the absence of the section between Loja and the border with Peru, there are the Route Espondilus and/or Ruta del Sol (oriented to travel along the Ecuadorian coastline) and the Amazon backbone (which crosses from north to south along the Ecuadorian Amazon, linking most and more major cities of it).
Another major project is developing the road Manta – Tena, the highway Guayaquil – Salinas Highway Aloag Santo Domingo, Riobamba – Macas (which crosses Sangay National Park).
Other new developments include the National Unity bridge complex in Guayaquil, the bridge over the Napo river in Francisco de Orellana, the Esmeraldas River Bridge in the city of the same name, and, perhaps the most remarkable of all, the Bahia – San Vincente Bridge, being the largest on the Latin American Pacific coast.
Cuenca's tramway is the largest public transport system in the city and the first modern tramway in Ecuador.
It was inaugurated on March 8, 2019.
It has 20,4 km and 27 stations.
It will transport 120 000 passagers daily.
Its route starts in the south of Cuenca and ends in the north at the Parque Industrial neighbourhood.
In the case of Guayaquil it involved a new air terminal, once considered the best in South America and the best in Latin America and in Quito where an entire new airport has been built in Tababela and was inaugurated in February 2013, with Canadian assistance.
However, the main road leading from Quito city centre to the new airport will only be finished in late 2014, making current travelling from the airport to downtown Quito as long as two hours during rush hour.
Quito's old city-centre airport is being turned into parkland, with some light industrial use.
Main article: Ecuadorian people
Ecuador's population is ethnically diverse and the 2018 estimates put Ecuador's population at 17,084,358.
The largest ethnic group (as of 2010) is the Mestizos, who are Amerindians with mixture or cultural influence from Spanish colonists, and constitute about 71% of the population.
The White Ecuadorians (White Latin American) are a minority accounting for 6.1% of the population of Ecuador and can be found throughout all of Ecuador, primarily around the urban areas.
Even though Ecuador's white population during its colonial era were mainly descendants from Spain, today Ecuador's white population is a result of a mixture of European immigrants, predominantly from Spain with people from Italy, Germany, France, and Switzerland who have settled in the early 20th century.
Ecuador also has people of middle eastern extraction that have also joined the ranks of the white minority.
These include economically well off immigrants of Lebanese and Palestinian descent, who are either Christian or Muslim (Islam in Ecuador).
In addition, there is a small European Jewish (Ecuadorian Jews) population, which is based mainly in Quito and to a lesser extent in Guayaquil.
Amerindians account for 7% of the current population.
The mostly rural Montubio population of the coastal provinces of Ecuador, who might be classified as Pardo account for 7.4% of the population.
The Afro-Ecuadorians are a minority population (7%) in Ecuador, that includes the Mulattos and zambos, and are largely based in the Esmeraldas province and to a lesser degree in the predominantly Mestizo provinces of Coastal Ecuador - Guayas and Manabi.
In the Highland Andes where a predominantly Mestizo, white and Amerindian population exist, the African presence is almost non-existent except for a small community in the province of Imbabura called Chota Valley.
Main article: Religion in Ecuador
Among the people that have a religion, 80.44% are Roman Catholic Latin Rite (see List of Roman Catholic dioceses in Ecuador), 11.30% are Evangelical Protestants, 1.29% are Jehovah's Witnesses and 6.97% other (mainly Jewish, Buddhists and Latter-day Saints).
In the rural parts of Ecuador, Amerindian beliefs and Catholicism are sometimes syncretized.
Most festivals and annual parades are based on religious celebrations, many incorporating a mixture of rites and icons.
According to their own estimates, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints accounts for about 1.4% of the population, or 211,165 members at the end of 2012.
According to their own sources, in 2017 there were 92,752 Jehovah's Witnesses in the country.
The first Jews arrived in Ecuador in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Today the Jewish Community of Ecuador (Comunidad Judía del Ecuador) has its seat in Quito and has approximately 200 members.
Nevertheless, this number is declining because young people leave the country for the United States or Israel.
The Community has a Jewish Center with a synagogue, a country club, and a cemetery.
It supports the "Albert Einstein School", where Jewish history, religion, and Hebrew classes are offered.
There are very small communities in Cuenca.
The "Comunidad de Culto Israelita" reunites the Jews of Guayaquil.
This community works independently from the "Jewish Community of Ecuador" and is composed of only 30 people.
Main article: Indigenous peoples in Ecuador
The Ecuadorian constitution recognizes the "pluri-nationality" of those who want to exercise their affiliation with their native ethnic groups.
Thus, in addition to criollos, mestizos, and Afro-Ecuadorians, some people belong to the Amerindian nations scattered in a few places in the coast, Quechua Andean villages, and the Amazonian jungle.
The majority of Ecuadorians live in the central provinces, the Andes mountains, or along the Pacific coast.
The tropical forest region to the east of the mountains (El Oriente) remains sparsely populated and contains only about 3% of the population.
Birth rate is 2-1 for each death.
Marriages are usually from 14 and above using parental consent.
About 12.4% of the population is married in the ages 15–19.
Divorce rates are moderate.
The five largest cities in the country are Guayaquil (2.99 million inhabitants), Quito (1.87 million inhabitants), Cuenca (636,996 inhabitants), Santo Domingo (458,580 inhabitants), and Ambato (387,309 inhabitants).
Immigration and emigration
See also: Emigration from Ecuador
A prominent East Asian Latino community mainly consists of those of Japanese and Chinese descent, whose ancestors arrived as miners, farmhands and fishermen in the late 19th century.
In the early years of World War II, Ecuador still admitted a certain number of immigrants, and in 1939, when several South American countries refused to accept 165 Jewish refugees from Germany aboard the ship Koenigstein, Ecuador granted them entry permits.
In the 1950's the Italians were the third largest national group in terms of numbers of immigrants, since Ecuador like Mexico and the Andean countries did not receive a significant total number of immigrants.
It can be noted that, after World War I, people from Liguria, still constituted the majority of the flow, even though they then represented only one third of the total number of immigrants in Ecuador.
This situation came from the improvement of the economic situation in Liguria.
The classic paradigm of the Italian immigrant today was not that of the small trader from Liguria as it had been before; those who emigrated to Ecuador were professionals and technicians, employees and religious people from South-Central Italy.
It must be remembered that many immigrants, a remarkable number of Italians among them, moved to the Ecuadorian port from Peru to escape from the Peruvian war with Chile.
The Italian government came to be more interested in the emigration phenomenon in Ecuador because of the necessity of finding an outlet for the large number of immigrants who traditionally went to the United States but who could no longer enter this country because of the new measures that imposed restrictions in the 1920s.
Most of these communities and their descendants are located in the Guayas region of the country.
In recent years, Ecuador has grown in popularity among North American expatriates.
Another perk that draws many expats to Ecuador is its low cost of living.
Since everything from gas to groceries costs far less than in North America, it is a popular choice for those who are looking to make the most of their retirement budget.
Main article: Culture of Ecuador
Ecuador's mainstream culture is defined by its Hispanic mestizo majority, and, like their ancestry, it is traditionally of Spanish heritage, influenced in different degrees by Amerindian traditions and in some cases by African elements.
The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Ecuador consisted of Spanish colonists, following the arrival of Europeans in 1499.
A lower number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War.
Since African slavery was not the workforce of the Spanish colonies in the Andes Mountains, given the subjugation of the Amerindian people through proselytization and encomiendas, the minority population of African descent is mostly found in the coastal northern province of Esmeraldas.
This is largely owing to the 17th-century shipwreck of a slave-trading galleon off the northern coast of Ecuador.
The few black African survivors swam to the shore and penetrated the then-thick jungle under the leadership of Anton, the chief of the group, where they remained as free men maintaining their original culture, not influenced by the typical elements found in other provinces of the coast or in the Andean region.
A little later, freed slaves from Colombia known as cimarrones joined them.
In the small Chota Valley of the province of Imbabura exists a small community of Africans among the province's predominantly mestizo population.
These blacks are descendants of Africans, who were brought over from Colombia by Jesuits to work their colonial sugar plantations as slaves.
As a general rule, small elements of zambos and mulattoes coexisted among the overwhelming mestizo population of coastal Ecuador throughout its history as gold miners in Loja, Zaruma, and Zamora and as shipbuilders and plantation workers around the city of Guayaquil.
Today you can find a small community of Africans in the Catamayo valley of the predominantly mestizo population of Loja.
Ecuador's Amerindian communities are integrated into the mainstream culture to varying degrees, but some may also practice their own native cultures, particularly the more remote Amerindian communities of the Amazon basin.
Spanish is spoken as the first language by more than 90% of the population and as a first or second language by more than 98%.
Part of Ecuador's population can speak Amerindian languages, in some cases as a second language.
Two percent of the population speak only Amerindian languages.
Main article: Languages of Ecuador
Most Ecuadorians speak Spanish as their first language, with its ubiquity permeating and dominating most of the country, though there are many who speak an Amerindian language, such as Kichwa (also spelled Quechua), which is one of the Quechuan languages and is spoken by approximately 2.5 million people in Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru.
Other Amerindian languages spoken in Ecuador include Awapit (spoken by the Awá), A'ingae (spoken by the Cofan), Shuar Chicham (spoken by the Shuar), Achuar-Shiwiar (spoken by the Achuar and the Shiwiar), Cha'palaachi (spoken by the Chachi), Tsa'fiki (spoken by the Tsáchila), Paicoca (spoken by the Siona and Secoya), and Wao Tededeo (spoken by the Waorani).
Use of these Amerindian languages are, however, gradually diminishing due to Spanish's widespread use in education.
Though most features of Ecuadorian Spanish are universal to the Spanish-speaking world, there are several idiosyncrasies.
Main article: Music of Ecuador
The music of Ecuador has a long history.
Pasillo is a genre of indigenous Latin music.
In Ecuador it is the "national genre of music".
Through the years, many cultures have brought their influences together to create new types of music.
There are also different kinds of traditional music like albazo, pasacalle, fox incaico, tonada, capishca, Bomba (highly established in Afro-Ecuadorian societies), and so on.
Tecnocumbia and Rockola are clear examples of the influence of foreign cultures.
One of the most traditional forms of dancing in Ecuador is Sanjuanito.
It is originally from northern Ecuador (Otavalo-Imbabura).
Sanjuanito is a type of dance music played during festivities by the mestizo and Amerindian communities.
According to the Ecuadorian musicologist Segundo Luis Moreno, Sanjuanito was danced by Amerindian people during San Juan Bautista's birthday.
This important date was established by the Spaniards on June 24, coincidentally the same date when Amerindian people celebrated their rituals of Inti Raymi.
See also: List of Ecuadorian dishes and foods
Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with the altitude and associated agricultural conditions.
Most regions in Ecuador follow the traditional three-course meal of soup, a course that includes rice and a protein, and then dessert and coffee to finish.
Supper is usually lighter and sometimes consists only of coffee or herbal tea with bread.
In the highland region, various dishes of pork, chicken, beef, and cuy (guinea pig) are popular and are served with a variety of grains (especially rice and mote) or potatoes.
In the coastal region, seafood is very popular, with fish, shrimp, and ceviche being key parts of the diet.
Plantain- and peanut-based dishes are the basis of most coastal meals.
Encocados (dishes that contain a coconut sauce) are also very popular.
Arroz con menestra y carne asada (rice with beans and grilled beef) is one of the traditional dishes of Guayaquil, as is fried plantain, which is often served with it.
In the Amazon region, a dietary staple is the yuca, elsewhere called cassava.
Early literature in colonial Ecuador, as in the rest of Spanish America, was influenced by the Spanish Golden Age.
One of the earliest examples is Jacinto Collahuazo, an Amerindian chief of a northern village in today's Ibarra, born in the late 1600s.
The use of Quipu was banned by the Spanish, and in order to preserve their work, many Inca poets had to resort to the use of the Latin alphabet to write in their native Quechua language.
The history behind the Inca drama "Ollantay", the oldest literary piece in existence for any Amerindian language in America, shares some similarities with the work of Collahuazo.
Collahuazo was imprisoned and all of his work burned.
The existence of his literary work came to light many centuries later, when a crew of masons was restoring the walls of a colonial church in Quito and found a hidden manuscript.
The salvaged fragment is a Spanish translation from Quechua of the "Elegy to the Dead of Atahualpa", a poem written by Collahuazo, which describes the sadness and impotence of the Inca people of having lost their king Atahualpa.
De Velasco wrote about the nations and chiefdoms that had existed in the Kingdom of Quito (today Ecuador) before the arrival of the Spanish.
His historical accounts are nationalistic, featuring a romantic perspective of precolonial history.
Famous authors from the late colonial and early republic period include Eugenio Espejo, a printer and main author of the first newspaper in Ecuadorian colonial times; Jose Joaquin de Olmedo (born in Guayaquil), famous for his ode to Simón Bolívar titled Victoria de Junin; Juan Montalvo, a prominent essayist and novelist; Juan Leon Mera, famous for his work "Cumanda" or "Tragedy among Savages" and the Ecuadorian National Anthem; Juan A. Martinez with A la Costa; Dolores Veintimilla; and others.
Contemporary Ecuadorian writers include the novelist Jorge Enrique Adoum; the poet Jorge Carrera Andrade; the essayist Benjamín Carrión; the poets Medardo Angel Silva, Jorge Carrera Andrade, and Luis Alberto Costales; the novelist Enrique Gil Gilbert; the novelist Jorge Icaza (author of the novel Huasipungo, translated to many languages); the short story author Pablo Palacio; and the novelist Alicia Yanez Cossio.
In spite of Ecuador's considerable mystique, it is rarely featured as a setting in contemporary western literature.
One exception is "The Ecuadorian Deception," a murder mystery/thriller authored by American Bear Mills.
In it, George d'Hout, a website designer from the United States is lured under false pretenses to Guayaquil.
A corrupt American archaeologist is behind the plot, believing d'Hout holds the keys to locating a treasure hidden by a buccaneer ancestor.
The story is based on a real pirate by the name of George d'Hout who terrorized Guayaquil in the 16th Century.
The best known art styles from Ecuador belonged to the Escuela Quiteña (Quito School), which developed from the 16th to 18th centuries, examples of which are on display in various old churches in Quito.
Ecuadorian painters include Eduardo Kingman, Oswaldo Guayasamín, and Camilo Egas from the Indiginist Movement; Manuel Rendon, Jaime Zapata, Enrique Tábara, Aníbal Villacís, Theo Constanté, Luis Molinari, Araceli Gilbert, Judith Gutierrez, Felix Arauz, and Estuardo Maldonado from the Informalist Movement; Teddy Cobeña from expressionism and figurative style and Luis Burgos Flor with his abstract, futuristic style.
The Amerindian people of Tigua, Ecuador, are also world-renowned for their traditional paintings.
Main article: Sport in Ecuador
The most popular sport in Ecuador, as in most South American countries, is football.
Its best known professional teams include; Emelec from Guayaquil, Liga De Quito from Quito; Barcelona S.C. from Guayaquil, the most popular team in Ecuador, also the team with most local championships; Deportivo Quito, and El Nacional from Quito; Olmedo from Riobamba; and Deportivo Cuenca from Cuenca.
Currently the most successful football team in Ecuador is LDU Quito, and it is the only Ecuadorian team that has won the Copa Libertadores, the Copa Sudamericana, and the Recopa Sudamericana; they were also runners-up in the 2008 FIFA Club World Cup.
The matches of the Ecuadorian national team are the most-watched sporting events in the country.
The 2002 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign was considered a huge success for the country and its inhabitants.
The unusually high elevation of the home stadium in Quito often affects the performance of visiting teams.
They were defeated by England in the second round.
Pérez also set a world best in the 2003 World Championships of 1:17:21 for the 20-km (12 mi) distance.
He won the 2019 Giro d'Italia
Main article: Health in Ecuador
The current structure of the Ecuadorian public health care system dates back to 1967.
The Ministry of the Public Health (Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador) is the responsible entity of the regulation and creation of the public health policies and health care plans.
The Minister of Public Health is appointed directly by the President of the Republic.
The current minister, or Ecuadorian general surgeon, is Margarita Guevara.
The philosophy of the Ministry of Public Health is the social support and service to the most vulnerable population, and its main plan of action lies around communitarian health and preventive medicine.
The public healthcare system allows patients to be treated without an appointment in public general hospitals by general practitioners and specialists in the outpatient clinic (Consulta Externa) at no cost.
This is done in the four basic specialties of pediatric, gynecology, clinic medicine, and surgery.
There are also public hospitals specialized to treat chronic diseases, target a particular group of the population, or provide better treatment in some medical specialties.
Some examples in this group are the Gynecologic Hospitals, or Maternities, Children Hospitals, Geriatric Hospitals, and Oncology Institutes.
Although well-equipped general hospitals are found in the major cities or capitals of provinces, there are basic hospitals in the smaller towns and canton cities for family care consultation and treatments in pediatrics, gynecology, clinical medicine, and surgery.
Community health care centers (Centros de Salud) are found inside metropolitan areas of cities and in rural areas.
These are day hospitals that provide treatment to patients whose hospitalization is under 24 hours.
The doctors assigned to rural communities, where the Amerindian population can be substantial, have small clinics under their responsibility for the treatment of patients in the same fashion as the day hospitals in the major cities.
The treatment in this case respects the culture of the community.
The public healthcare system should not be confused with the Ecuadorian Social Security healthcare service, which is dedicated to individuals with formal employment and who are affiliated obligatorily through their employers.
Citizens with no formal employment may still contribute to the social security system voluntarily and have access to the medical services rendered by the social security system.
The Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS) has several major hospitals and medical sub-centers under its administration across the nation.
Ecuador currently ranks 20, in most efficient health care countries, compared to 111 back in the year 2000.
Ecuadorians have a life expectancy of 77.1 years.
The infant mortality rate is 13 per 1,000 live births, a major improvement from approximately 76 in the early 1980s and 140 in 1950.
23% of children under five are chronically malnourished.
Population in some rural areas have no access to potable water, and its supply is provided by mean of water tankers.
There are 686 malaria cases per 100,000 people.
Basic health care, including doctor's visits, basic surgeries, and basic medications, has been provided free since 2008.
However, some public hospitals are in poor condition and often lack necessary supplies to attend the high demand of patients.
Private hospitals and clinics are well equipped but still expensive for the majority of the population.
Between 2008 and 2016, new public hospitals have been built, the number of civil servants has increased significantly and salaries have been increased.
In 2008, the government introduced universal and compulsory social security coverage.
In 2015, corruption remains a problem.
Overbilling is recorded in 20% of public establishments and in 80% of private establishments.
Main article: Education in Ecuador
The Ecuadorian Constitution requires that all children attend school until they achieve a "basic level of education", which is estimated at nine school years.
In 1996, the net primary enrollment rate was 96.9%, and 71.8% of children stayed in school until the fifth grade / age 10.
The cost of primary and secondary education is borne by the government, but families often face significant additional expenses such as fees and transportation costs.
Provision of public schools falls far below the levels needed, and class sizes are often very large, and families of limited means often find it necessary to pay for education.
In rural areas, only 10% of the children go on to high school.
The Ministry of Education states that the mean number of years completed is 6.7.
Ecuador has 61 universities, many of which still confer terminal degrees according to the traditional Spanish education system, honoring a long tradition of having some of the oldest universities in the Americas: University of San Fulgencio, founded in 1586 by the Augustines; San Gregorio Magno University, founded in 1651 by the Jesuits; and University of Santo Tomás of Aquino, founded in 1681 by the Dominican order.
Among the traditional conferred terminal degrees can be noted the doctorate for medicine and law schools or engineering, physics, chemistry, or mathematics for polytechnic or technology institutes.
These terminal degrees, as in the case of the PhD in other countries, were the main requirement for an individual to be accepted in academia as a professor or researcher.
In the professional realm, a terminal degree granted by an accredited institution automatically provides a professional license to the individual.
However, in 2004, the National Council of Higher Education (CONESUP), started the reorganization of all the degree-granting schemes of the accredited universities in order to pair them with foreign counterparts.
The new structure of some careers caused the dropping of subjects, credits, or even the name of the previously conferred diplomas.
The terminal degree in law, previously known as JD Juris Doctor (Doctor en Jurisprudencia) was replaced by the one of abogado (attorney) with the exception of the modification of the number of credits to equate it to an undergraduate degree.
In the same fashion for medical school, the required time of education was considerably reduced from nine years (the minimum needed to obtain the title of MD in Medicine and Surgery) to almost five, with the provision that the diploma is not terminal anymore, and it is given with the title of médico (medic).
Therefore, an MD or PhD in medicine is only to be obtained overseas until the universities adjust themselves to granting schemes and curriculum as in foreign counterparts.
Nonetheless, a "médico" can start a career as family practitioner or general medicine physician.
This new reorganization, although very ambitious, lacked the proper path to the homologation of diplomas for highly educated professionals graduated in the country or even for the ones graduated in foreign institutions.
One of the points of conflict was the imposition of obtaining foreign degrees to current academicians.
As today, a master's degree is a requirement to keep an academic position and at least a foreign PhD to attain or retain the status of rector (president of a university) or décano (dean).
For Ecuadorian researchers and many academicians trained in the country, these regulations sounded illogical, disappointing, and unlawful since it appeared a question of a title name conflict rather than specialization or science advancement.
A debate to modify this and other reforms, especially the one which granted control of the Higher Education System by the government, was practically passed with consensus by the multi-partisan National Assembly on August 4, 2010, but vetoed by President Rafael Correa, who wanted to keep the law strictly as it was originally redacted by his political party and SENPLADES (National Secretary of Planning and Development).
Due to this change, there are many highly educated professionals and academicians under the old structure but estimated that only 87% of the faculty in public universities have already obtained a master's degree, and fewer than 5% have a PhD (although many of them already have Ecuadorian-granted doctorate degrees).
About 300 institutes of higher education offer two to three years of post-secondary vocational or technical training.
Sciences and research
Ecuador is currently placed in 96th position of innovation in technology.
The most notable icons in Ecuadorian sciences are the mathematician and cartographer Pedro Vicente Maldonado, born in Riobamba in 1707, and the printer, independence precursor, and medical pioneer Eugenio Espejo, born in 1747 in Quito.
Among other notable Ecuadorian scientists and engineers are Lieutenant Jose Rodriguez Labandera, a pioneer who built the first submarine in Latin America in 1837; (1898–1950), a botanist and biologist of Andean flora; and (1880–1961), a chemist and inventor of a method of textile serigraphy.
The major areas of scientific research in Ecuador have been in the medical fields, tropical and infectious diseases treatments, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical research, and bioengineering.
Being a small country and a consumer of foreign technology, Ecuador has favored research supported by entrepreneurship in information technology.
The antivirus program Checkprogram, banking protection system MdLock, and Core Banking Software Cobis are products of Ecuadorian development.
The scientific production in hard sciences has been limited due to lack of funding but focused around physics, statistics, and partial differential equations in mathematics.
In the case of engineering fields, the majority of scientific production comes from the top three polytechnic institutions: Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral - ESPOL, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas - ESPE, and Escuela Politécnica Nacional EPN.
The Center for Research and Technology Development in Ecuador is an autonomous center for research and technology development funded by Senecyt.
However, according to Nature, the multidisciplinary scientific journal the top 10 institutions that carry the most outstanding scientific contributions are: Yachay Tech University (Yachay Tech), Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN), and Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ).
Nature Index - Top 10 institutions from Ecuador
|1.||Yachay Tech University (YT)||12||3.50|
|2.||National Polytechnic School (EPN)||63||1.41|
|3.||Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ)||61||1.20|
|5.||Center for Research on Health in Latin America (CISeAL)||1||0.26|
|6.||University of the Pacific/Ecuador||2||0.23|
|7.||Central University of Ecuador (UCE)||4||0.20|
|8.||Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador (PUCE)||4||0.18|
|9.||Universidad de Cuenca (UC)||3||0.14|
|10.||Coordinadora de las Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica (COICA)||1||0.11|
EPN adopted the polytechnic university model that stresses laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering.
The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory and is located in Quito, Ecuador.
The Quito Astronomical Observatory, which gives the global community of a Virtual Telescope System that is connected via the Internet and allows the world to watch by streaming, is managed by EPN.
Contemporary Ecuadorian scientists who have been recognized by international institutions are Eugenia del Pino (born 1945), the first Ecuadorian to be elected to the United States National Academy of Science, and Arturo Villavicencio, who was part of the working group of the IPCC, which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore for their dissemination of the effects of climate change.
High Performance Computing
Institutions that have High Performance Computing centers:
- National Polytechnic School (EPN)
- Armed Forces University (ESPE)
- Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ)
- Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL)
- University of Cuenca
- Yachay Tech University (YT)
Currently, the politics of research and investigation are managed by the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Technology (Senescyt).
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecuador.