Edward Drinker Cope

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Edward Drinker Cope_table_infobox_0

Edward Drinker CopeEdward Drinker Cope_header_cell_0_0_0
BornEdward Drinker Cope_header_cell_0_1_0 (1840-07-28)July 28, 1840

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.Edward Drinker Cope_cell_0_1_1

DiedEdward Drinker Cope_header_cell_0_2_0 April 12, 1897(1897-04-12) (aged 56)

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.Edward Drinker Cope_cell_0_2_1

CitizenshipEdward Drinker Cope_header_cell_0_3_0 AmericanEdward Drinker Cope_cell_0_3_1
AwardsEdward Drinker Cope_header_cell_0_4_0 Edward Drinker Cope_cell_0_4_1
FieldsEdward Drinker Cope_header_cell_0_5_0 Paleontology, zoology, herpetologyEdward Drinker Cope_cell_0_5_1

Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_0

He was a founder of the Neo-Lamarckism school of thought. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_1

Born to a wealthy Quaker family, Cope distinguished himself as a child prodigy interested in science; he published his first scientific paper at the age of 19. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_2

Though his father tried to raise Cope as a gentleman farmer, he eventually acquiesced to his son's scientific aspirations. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_3

Cope married his cousin and had one child; the family moved from Philadelphia to Haddonfield, New Jersey, although Cope would maintain a residence and museum in Philadelphia in his later years. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_4

Cope had little formal scientific training, and he eschewed a teaching position for field work. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_5

He made regular trips to the American West, prospecting in the 1870s and 1880s, often as a member of United States Geological Survey teams. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_6

A personal feud between Cope and paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh led to a period of intense fossil-finding competition now known as the Bone Wars. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_7

Cope's financial fortunes soured after failed mining ventures in the 1880s, forcing him to sell off much of his fossil collection. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_8

He experienced a resurgence in his career toward the end of his life before dying on April 12, 1897. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_9

Though Cope's scientific pursuits nearly bankrupted him, his contributions helped to define the field of American paleontology. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_10

He was a prodigious writer, with 1,400 papers published over his lifetime, although his rivals debated the accuracy of his rapidly published works. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_11

He discovered, described, and named more than 1,000 vertebrate species, including hundreds of fishes and dozens of dinosaurs. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_12

His proposal for the origin of mammalian molars is notable among his theoretical contributions. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_13

"Cope's rule", however, the hypothesis that mammalian lineages gradually grow larger over geologic time, while named after him, is "neither explicit nor implicit" in his work. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_14

Biography Edward Drinker Cope_section_0

Early life Edward Drinker Cope_section_1

Edward Drinker Cope was born on July 28, 1840, the eldest son of Alfred and Hanna Cope. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_15

The death of his mother when he was three years old seemed to have had little effect on young Edward, as he mentioned in his letters that he had no recollection of her. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_16

His stepmother, Rebecca Biddle, filled the maternal role; Cope referred to her warmly, as well as his younger stepbrother, James Biddle Cope. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_17

Alfred, an orthodox member of the Religious Society of Friends or Quakers, operated a lucrative shipping business started by his father, Thomas P. Cope, in 1821. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_18

He was a philanthropist who gave money to the Society of Friends, the Philadelphia Zoological Gardens, and the Institute for Colored Youth. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_19

Edward was born and raised in a large stone house called "Fairfield", whose location is now within the boundaries of Philadelphia. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_20

The 8 acres (3.2 ha) of pristine and exotic gardens of the house offered a landscape that Edward was able to explore. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_21

The Copes began teaching their children to read and write at a very young age, and took Edward on trips across New England and to museums, zoos, and gardens. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_22

Cope's interest in animals became apparent at a young age, as did his natural artistic ability. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_23

Alfred intended to give his son the same education he himself had received. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_24

At age nine, Edward was sent to a day school in Philadelphia and in 1853 at the age of 12, Edward was sent to the Friends' Boarding School at Westtown, near West Chester, Pennsylvania. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_25

The school was founded in 1799 with fundraising by members of the Society of Friends (Quakers), and provided much of the Cope family's education. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_26

The prestigious school was expensive, costing Alfred $500 in tuition each year, and in his first year, Edward studied algebra, chemistry, scripture, physiology, grammar, astronomy, and Latin. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_27

Edward's letters home requesting a larger allowance show he was able to manipulate his father, and he was, according to author and Cope biographer Jane Davidson, "a bit of a spoiled brat". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_28

His letters suggest he was lonely at the school—it was the first time he had been away from his home for an extended period. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_29

Otherwise, Edward's studies progressed much like a typical boy—he consistently had "less than perfect" or "not quite satisfactory" marks for conduct from his teachers, and did not work hard on his penmanship lessons, which may have contributed to his often illegible handwriting as an adult. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_30

Edward returned to Westtown in 1855, accompanied by two of his sisters. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_31

Biology began to interest him more that year, and he studied natural history texts in his spare time. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_32

While at the school, he frequently visited the Academy of Natural Sciences. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_33

Edward often obtained bad marks due to quarreling and bad conduct. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_34

His letters to his father show he chafed at farm work and betrayed flashes of the temper for which he would later become well known. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_35

After sending Edward back to the farm for summer break in 1854 and 1855, Alfred did not return Edward to school after spring 1856. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_36

Instead, Alfred attempted to turn his son into a gentleman farmer, which he considered a wholesome profession that would yield enough profit to lead a comfortable life, and improve the undersized Edward's health. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_37

Until 1863, Cope's letters to his father continually expressed his yearning for a more professional scientific career than that of a farmer, which he called "dreadfully boring". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_38

While working on farms, Edward continued his education on his own. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_39

In 1858, he began working part-time at the Academy of Natural Sciences, reclassifying and cataloguing specimens, and published his first series of research results in January 1859. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_40

Cope began taking French and German classes with a former Westtown teacher. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_41

Though Alfred resisted his son's pursuit of a science career, he paid for his son's private studies. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_42

Instead of working the farm his father bought for him, Edward rented out the land and used the income to further his scientific endeavors. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_43

Alfred finally gave in to Edward's wishes and paid for university classes. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_44

Cope attended the University of Pennsylvania in the 1861 and/or 1862 academic years, studying comparative anatomy under Joseph Leidy, one of the most influential anatomists and paleontologists at the time. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_45

Cope asked his father to pay for a tutor in both German and French, "not so much for their own sake," wrote Edward, "but as for their value in enabling me to read their books of a literary or scientific character." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_46

During this period, he had a job recataloging the herpetological collection at the Academy of Natural Sciences, where he became a member at Leidy's urging. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_47

Cope's job lasted two years and he visited the Smithsonian Institution on occasion, where he became acquainted with Spencer Baird, who was an expert in the fields of ornithology and ichthyology. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_48

In 1861, he published his first paper on Salamandridae classification; over the next five years he published primarily on reptiles and amphibians. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_49

Cope's membership in the Academy of Natural Sciences and American Philosophical Society gave him outlets to publish and announce his work; many of his early paleontological works were published by the Philosophical Society. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_50

European travels Edward Drinker Cope_section_2

In 1863–1864 during the American Civil War, Cope traveled through Europe, taking the opportunity to visit the most esteemed museums and societies of the time. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_51

Initially, he seemed interested in helping out at a field hospital, but in letters to his father later on in the war, this aspiration seemed to disappear; instead he considered working in the American South to assist freed African Americans. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_52

Davidson suggests Cope's correspondence with Leidy and Ferdinand Hayden, who worked as field surgeons during the war, might have informed Cope of the horrors of the occupation. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_53

Edward was involved in a love affair; his father did not approve. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_54

Whether Edward or the unnamed woman (whom he at one point intended to marry) broke off the relationship is unknown, but he took the breakup poorly. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_55

Biographer and paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn attributed Edward's sudden departure for Europe as a method of keeping him from being drafted into the Civil War. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_56

Cope did write to his father from London on February 11, 1864, "I shall get home in time to catch and be caught by the new draft. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_57

I shall not be sorry for this, as I know certain persons who would be mean enough to say that I have gone to Europe to avoid the war." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_58

Eventually, Cope took the pragmatic approach and waited out the conflict. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_59

He may have suffered from mild depression during this period, and often complained of boredom. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_60

Despite his torpor, Edward proceeded with his tour of Europe, and met with some of the most highly esteemed scientists of the world during his travels through France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Austria, Italy, and Eastern Europe, most likely with introductory letters from Leidy and Spencer Baird. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_61

In the winter of 1863, Edward met Othniel Charles Marsh while in Berlin. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_62

Marsh, age 32, was attending the University of Berlin. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_63

He held two university degrees in comparison to Edward's lack of formal schooling past 16, but Edward had written 37 scientific papers in comparison to Marsh's two published works. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_64

While they would later become rivals, on meeting, the two men appeared to take a liking to each other. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_65

Marsh led Edward on a tour of the city, and they stayed together for days. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_66

After Edward left Berlin, the two maintained correspondence, exchanging manuscripts, fossils, and photographs. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_67

Edward burned many of his journals and letters from Europe upon his return to the United States. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_68

Friends intervened and stopped Cope from destroying some of his drawings and notes, in what author Url Lanham deemed a "partial suicide". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_69

Family and early career Edward Drinker Cope_section_3

When Cope returned to Philadelphia in 1864, his family made every effort to secure him a teaching post as the Professor of Zoology at Haverford College, a small Quaker school where the family had philanthropic ties. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_70

The college awarded him an honorary master's degree so he could have the position. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_71

Cope even began to think about marriage and consulted his father in the matter, telling him of the girl he would like to marry: "an amiable woman, not over sensitive, with considerable energy, and especially one inclined to be serious and not inclined to frivolity and display—the more truly Christian of course the better—seems to be the most practically the most suitable for me, though intellect and accomplishments have more charm." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_72

Cope thought of Annie Pim, a member of the Society of Friends, as less a lover than companion, declaring, "her amiability and domestic qualities generally, her capability of taking care of a house, etc., as well as her steady seriousness weigh far more with me than any of the traits which form the theme of poets!" Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_73

Cope's family approved of his choice, and the marriage took place in July 1865 at Pim's farmhouse in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_74

The two had a single daughter, Julia Biddle Cope, born June 10, 1866. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_75

Cope's return to the United States also marked an expansion of his scientific studies; in 1864, he described several fishes, a whale, and the amphibian Amphibamus grandiceps (his first paleontological contribution.) Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_76

During the period between 1866 and 1867, Cope went on trips to western parts of the country. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_77

He related to his father his scientific experiences; to his daughter he sent descriptions of animal life as part of her education. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_78

Cope found educating his students at Haverford "a pleasure", but wrote to his father that he "could not get any work done." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_79

He resigned from his position at Haverford and moved his family to Haddonfield, in part to be closer to the fossil beds of western New Jersey. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_80

Due to the time-consuming nature of his Haverford position, Cope had not had time to attend to his farm and had let it out to others, but eventually found he was in need of more money to fuel his scientific habits. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_81

Pleading with his father for money to pursue his career, he finally sold the farm in 1869. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_82

Alfred apparently did not press his son to continue farming, and Edward focused on his scientific career. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_83

He continued his continental travels, including trips to Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_84

He visited caves across the region. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_85

He stopped these cave explorations after an 1871 trip to the Wyandotte Caves in Indiana, but remained interested in the subject. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_86

Cope had visited Haddonfield many times in the 1860s, paying periodic visits to the marl pits. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_87

The fossils he found in these pits became the focus of several papers, including a description in 1868 of Elasmosaurus platyurus and Laelaps. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_88

Marsh accompanied him on one of these excursions. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_89

Cope's proximity to the beds after moving to Haddonfield made more frequent trips possible. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_90

The Copes lived comfortably in a frame house backed by an apple orchard. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_91

Two maids tended the estate, which entertained a number of guests. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_92

Cope's only concern was for more money to spend on his scientific work. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_93

The 1870s were the golden years of Cope's career, marked by his most prominent discoveries and rapid flow of publications. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_94

Among his descriptions were the therapsid Lystrosaurus (1870), the archosauromorph Champsosaurus (1876), and the sauropod Amphicoelias (1878), possibly the largest dinosaur ever discovered. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_95

In the period of one year, from 1879 to 1880, Cope published 76 papers based on his travels through New Mexico and Colorado, and on the findings of his collectors in Texas, Kansas, Oregon, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_96

During the peak years, Cope published around 25 reports and preliminary observations each year. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_97

The hurried publications led to errors in interpretation and naming—many of his scientific names were later canceled or withdrawn. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_98

In comparison, Marsh wrote and published less frequently and more succinctly—his works appearance in the widespread American Journal of Science led to faster reception abroad, and subsequently Marsh's reputation grew more rapidly than Cope's. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_99

In autumn 1871, Cope began prospecting farther west to the fossil fields of Kansas. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_100

Leidy and Marsh had been to the region earlier, and Cope employed one of Marsh's guides, Benjamin Mudge, who was in want of a job. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_101

Cope's companion Charles Sternberg described the lack of water and good food available to Cope and his helpers on these expeditions. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_102

Cope would suffer from a "severe attack of nightmare" in which "every animal of which we had found trace during the day played with him at night ... sometimes he would lose half the night in this exhausting slumber." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_103

Nevertheless, Cope continued to lead the party from sunrise to sunset, sending letters to his wife and child describing his finds. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_104

The severe desert conditions and Cope's habit of overworking himself till he was bedridden caught up with him, and in 1872, he broke down from exhaustion. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_105

Cope maintained a regular pattern of summers spent prospecting and winters writing up his findings from 1871 to 1879. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_106

Throughout the decade, Cope traveled across the West, exploring rocks of the Eocene in 1872 and the Titanothere Beds of Colorado in 1873. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_107

In 1874, Cope was employed with the Wheeler survey, a group of surveys led by George Montague Wheeler that mapped parts of the United States west of the 100th meridian. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_108

The survey traveled through New Mexico, whose Puerco formations, he wrote to his father, provided "the most important find in geology I have ever made". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_109

The New Mexico bluffs contained millions of years of formation and subsequent deformation, and were in an area which had not been visited by Leidy or Marsh. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_110

Being part of the survey had other advantages; Cope was able to draw on fort commissaries and defray publishing costs. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_111

While there was no salary, his findings would be published in the annual reports the surveys printed. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_112

Cope brought Annie and Julia along on one such survey, and rented a house for them at Fort Bridger, but he spent more of his own money on these survey trips than he would have liked. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_113

Alfred died December 4, 1875, and left Edward with an inheritance of nearly a quarter of a million dollars. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_114

Alfred's death was a blow to Cope; his father was a constant confidant. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_115

The same year marked a suspension of much of Cope's field work and a new emphasis on writing up discoveries of the previous years. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_116

His chief publication of the time, The Vertebrata of the Cretaceous Formations of the West, was a collection of 303 pages and 54 illustration plates. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_117

The memoir summarized his experiences prospecting in New Jersey and Kansas. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_118

Cope now had the finances to hire multiple teams to search for fossils for him year-round and he advised the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition on their fossil displays. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_119

Cope's studies of marine reptiles of Kansas closed in 1876, opening a new focus on terrestrial reptiles. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_120

The same year, Cope moved from Haddonfield to 2100 and 2102 Pine Street in Philadelphia. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_121

He converted one of the two houses into a museum where he stored his growing collection of fossils. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_122

Cope's expeditions took him across Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Montana. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_123

His initial journey into the Clarendon beds of Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene of Texas led to an affiliation with the Geological Survey of Texas. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_124

Cope's papers on the region constitute some of his most important paleontological contributions. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_125

In 1877, he purchased half the rights to the American Naturalist to publish the papers he produced at a rate so high, Marsh questioned their dating. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_126

Cope returned to Europe in August 1878 in response to an invitation to join the British Association for the Advancement of Science's Dublin meeting. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_127

He was warmly welcomed in England and France, and met with the distinguished paleontologists and archeologists of the period. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_128

Marsh's attempts to sully Cope's reputation had made little impact on anyone save paleontologist Thomas Henry Huxley, who according to Osborn, "alone treated [Cope] with coolness". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_129

Following the Dublin meeting, Cope spent two days with the French Association for the Advancement of Science. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_130

At each gathering, Cope exhibited dinosaur restorations by Philadelphia colleague John A. Ryder and various charts and plates from geological surveys of the 1870s led by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_131

He returned to London on October 12, meeting with anatomist Richard Owen, ichthyologist Albert Günther, and paleontologist H. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_132 G. Seeley. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_133

While in Europe, Cope purchased a great collection of fossils from Argentina. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_134

Cope never found time to describe the collection and many of the boxes remained unopened until his death. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_135

Bone Wars Edward Drinker Cope_section_4

Main article: Bone Wars Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_136

Cope's relations with Marsh turned into a competition for fossils between the two, known today as the Bone Wars. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_137

The conflict's seeds began upon the men's return to the United States in the 1860s, although Cope named Colosteus marshii for Marsh in 1867, and Marsh returned the favor, naming Mosasaurus copeanus for Cope in 1869. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_138

Cope introduced his colleague to the marl pit owner Albert Vorhees when the two visited the site. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_139

Marsh went behind Cope's back and made a private agreement with Vorhees: any fossils that Vorhees's men found were sent back to Marsh at New Haven. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_140

When Marsh was at Haddonfield examining one of Cope's fossil finds—a complete skeleton of a large aquatic plesiosaur, Elasmosaurus, that had four flippers and a long neck—he commented that the fossil's head was on the wrong end, evidently stating that Cope had put the skull at the end of the vertebrae of the tail. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_141

Cope was outraged and the two argued for some time until they agreed to have Leidy examine the bones and determine who was right. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_142

Leidy came, picked up the head of the fossil and put it on the other end. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_143

Cope was horrified since he had already published a paper on the fossil with the error at the American Philosophical Society. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_144

He immediately tried to buy back the copies, but some remained with their buyers (Marsh and Leidy kept theirs). Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_145

The whole ordeal might have passed easily enough had Leidy not exposed the cover-up at the next society meeting, not to alienate Cope, but only in response to Cope's brief statement where he never admitted he was wrong. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_146

Cope and Marsh would never talk to each other amicably again, and by 1873, open hostility had broken out between them. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_147

The rivalry between the two increased towards the latter half of the 1870s. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_148

In 1877, Marsh received a letter from Arthur Lakes, a schoolteacher in Golden, Colorado. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_149

Lakes had been hiking in the mountains near the town of Morrison with his friend, H. C. Beckwith, looking for fossilized leaves in the Dakota sandstone. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_150

Instead, the pair found large bones embedded in the rock. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_151

Lakes wrote that the bones were "apparently a vertebra and a humerus bone of some gigantic saurian." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_152

While Lakes sent Marsh some 1,500 pounds of bone, he also sent Cope some of the specimens. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_153

Marsh published his finds first, and having been paid $100 for the finds Lakes wrote to Cope that the samples should be forwarded to Marsh. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_154

Cope was offended by the slight. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_155

Meanwhile, Cope received bones from school superintendent O.W. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_156

Lucas in March 1877 from Canon City; the remains were of a dinosaur even bigger than Lakes' that Marsh had described. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_157

Word that Lakes had notified Cope of his finds galvanized Marsh into action. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_158

When Marsh heard from Union Pacific Railroad workers W.E. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_159

Carlin and W.H. Reed about a vast boneyard northwest of Laramie in Como Bluff, Marsh sent his agent, Samuel Wendell Williston, to take charge of the digging. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_160

Cope, in response, learned of Carlin and Reed's discoveries and sent his own men to find bones in the area. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_161

The two scientists attempted to sabotage each other's progress. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_162

Cope was described as a genius and what Marsh lacked in intelligence, he easily made up for in connections—Marsh's uncle was George Peabody, a rich banker who supported Marsh with money, and a secure position at the Peabody Museum. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_163

Marsh lobbied John Wesley Powell to act against Cope and attempted to persuade Hayden to "muzzle" Cope's publishing. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_164

Both men tried to spy on the other's whereabouts and attempted to offer their collectors more money in the hopes of recruiting them to their own side. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_165

Cope was able to recruit David Baldwin in New Mexico and Frank Williston in Wyoming from Marsh. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_166

Cope and Marsh were extremely secretive as to the source of their fossils. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_167

When Henry Fairfield Osborn, at the time a student at Princeton, visited Cope to ask where to travel to look for fossils in the West, Cope politely refused to answer. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_168

When Cope arrived back in the United States after his tour of Europe in 1878, he had nearly two years of fossil findings from Lucas. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_169

Among these dinosaurs was Camarasaurus, one of the most recognizable dinosaur recreations of the time. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_170

The summer of 1879 took Cope to Salt Lake City, San Francisco, and north to Oregon, where he was amazed at the rich flora and the blueness of the Pacific Ocean. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_171

In 1879, the United States Congress consolidated the various government survey teams into the United States Geological Survey with Clarence King as its leader. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_172

This was discouraging to Cope because King named Marsh, an old college friend, as the chief paleontologist. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_173

The period of Cope's and Marsh's paleontological digs in the American West spanned from 1877 to 1892, by which time both men exhausted much of their financial resources. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_174

Later years Edward Drinker Cope_section_5

The 1880s proved disastrous for Cope. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_175

Marsh's close association with the Geological Survey gave him the resources to employ 54 staff members over the course of ten years. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_176

His teaching position at Yale meant he had guaranteed access to the American Journal of Science for publication. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_177

Cope had his interest in the Naturalist, but it drained him of funds. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_178

After Hayden was removed from the survey, Cope lost his source of government funding. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_179

His fortune was not enough to support his rivalry, so Cope invested in mining. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_180

Most of his properties were silver mines in New Mexico; one mine yielded an ore vein worth $3 million in silver chloride. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_181

Cope visited the mines each summer from 1881 to 1885, taking the opportunity to supervise or collect other minerals. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_182

For a while he made good money, but the mines stopped producing and by 1886 he had to give up his now-worthless stocks. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_183

The same year he received a teaching position at the University of Pennsylvania. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_184

He continued to travel west, but realized he would not be able to best Marsh in cornering the market for bones; he had to release the collectors he had hired and sell his collections. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_185

During this period, he published 40 to 75 papers each year. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_186

With the failure of his mines, Cope began searching for a job, but was turned down at the Smithsonian and American Museum of Natural History. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_187

He turned to giving lectures for hire and writing magazine articles. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_188

Each year, he lobbied Congress for an appropriation with which to finish his work on "Cope's Bible", a volume on Tertiary vertebrates, but was continually turned down. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_189

Rather than work with Powell and the survey, Cope tried to inflame sentiment against them. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_190

At Marsh's urging, Powell pushed for Cope to return specimens he had unearthed during his employment under the government surveys. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_191

This was an outrage to Cope, who had used his own money while working as a volunteer. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_192

In response, Cope went to the editor of the New York Herald and promised a scandalous headline. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_193

Since 1885, Cope had kept an elaborate journal of mistakes and misdeeds that both Marsh and Powell had committed over the years. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_194

From scientific errors to publishing mistakes, he had them written down in a journal he kept in the bottom drawer of his Pine Street desk. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_195

Cope sought out Marsh's assistants, who complained of being denied access and credit by their employer and of being chronically underpaid. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_196

Reporter William Hosea Ballou ran the first article on January 12, 1890, in what would become a series of newspaper debates between Marsh, Powell, and Cope. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_197

Cope attacked Marsh for plagiarism and financial mismanagement, and attacked Powell for his geological classification errors and misspending of government-allocated funds. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_198

Marsh and Powell published their own side of the story and, in the end, little changed. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_199

No congressional hearing was created to investigate Powell's alleged misallocation of funds, while Cope and Marsh were not held responsible for any mistakes. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_200

Indirectly, however, the attacks may have been influential in Marsh's fall from power in the survey. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_201

Due to pressure from Powell over bad press, Marsh was removed from his position for the government surveys. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_202

Cope's relations with the president of the University of Pennsylvania soured, and the entire funding for paleontology in the government surveys was pulled. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_203

Cope took his sinking fortunes in stride. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_204

In writing to Osborn about the articles, he laughed at the outcome, saying, "It will now rest largely with you whether or not I am supposed to be a liar and am actuated by jealousy and disappointment. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_205

I think Marsh is impaled on the horns of Monoclonius sphenocerus." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_206

Cope was well aware of his enemies and was carefree enough to name a species after a combination of "Cope" and "hater", Anisonchus cophater. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_207

Through his years of financial hardship, he was able to continue publishing papers—his most productive years were 1884 and 1885, with 79 and 62 papers published, respectively. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_208

The 1880s marked the publication of two of the best-known fossil taxa described by Cope: the pelycosaur Edaphosaurus in 1882 and the early dinosaur Coelophysis in 1889. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_209

In 1889, he succeeded Leidy, who had died the previous year, as professor of zoology at the University of Pennsylvania. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_210

The small yearly stipend was enough for Cope's family to move back into one of the townhouses he had been forced to relinquish earlier. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_211

In 1892, Cope (then 52 years old) was granted expense money for field work from the Texas Geological Survey. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_212

With his finances improved, he was able to publish a massive work on the Batrachians of North America, which was the most detailed analysis and organization of the continent's frogs and amphibians ever mastered, and the 1,115-page The Crocodilians Lizards and Snakes of North America. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_213

In the 1890s, his publication rate increased to an average of 43 articles a year. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_214

His final expedition to the West took place in 1894, when he prospected for dinosaurs in South Dakota and visited sites in Texas and Oklahoma. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_215

The same year, Julia was married to William H. Collins, a Haverford astronomy professor. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_216

The couple's ages—Julia was 28 and the groom 35—were past the conventions of Victorian marriage. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_217

After their European honeymoon, the couple returned to Haverford. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_218

While Annie moved to Haverford, as well, Cope did not. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_219

His official reason was the long commute and late lectures he gave in Philadelphia. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_220

In private correspondence, however, Osborn wrote that the two had essentially separated, though they remained on amiable terms. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_221

Cope sold his collections to the American Museum of Natural History in 1895; his set of 10,000 American fossil mammals sold for $32,000, lower than Cope's asking price of $50,000. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_222

The purchase was financed by the donations from New York's high society. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_223

Cope sold three other collections for $29,000. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_224

While his collection contained more than 13,000 specimens, Cope's fossil hoard was still much smaller than Marsh's collection, valued at over a million dollars. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_225

The University of Pennsylvania bought part of Cope's ethnological artifact collection for $5,500. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_226

The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia's foremost museum, did not bid on any of Cope's sales due to bad blood between Cope and the museum's leaders; as a result, many of Cope's major finds left the city. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_227

Cope's proceeds from the sales allowed him to rehire Sternberg to prospect for fossils on his behalf. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_228

Death Edward Drinker Cope_section_6

In 1896, Cope began suffering from a gastrointestinal illness he said was cystitis. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_229

His wife cared for him in Philadelphia when she was able; at other times, Cope's university secretary, Anna Brown, tended to him. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_230

Cope at this time lived in his Pine Street museum and rested on a cot surrounded by his fossil finds. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_231

Cope often prescribed himself medications, including large amounts of morphine, belladonna, and formalin, a substance based on formaldehyde used to preserve specimens. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_232

Osborn was horrified by Cope's actions and made arrangements for surgery, but the plans were put on hold after a temporary improvement in Cope's health. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_233

Cope went to Virginia looking for fossils, became ill again, and returned to his home very weak. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_234

Osborn visited Cope on April 5, inquiring about Cope's health, but the sick paleontologist pressed his friend for his views on the origin of mammals. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_235

Word of Cope's illness spread, and he was visited by friends and colleagues; even in a feverish condition Cope delivered lectures from his bed. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_236

Cope died on April 12, 1897, 16 weeks short of his 57th birthday. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_237

Sternberg, still prospecting for Cope that spring, was woken by a liveryman who relayed word from Annie that Cope had died three days earlier. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_238

Sternberg wrote in his memoirs, "I had lost friends before, and I had known what it was to bury my own dead, even my firstborn son, but I had never sorrowed more deeply than I did over the news." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_239

Cope's Quaker funeral consisted of six men: Osborn, his colleague William Berryman Scott, Cope's friend Persifor Frazer, son-in-law Collins, Horatio Wood, and Harrison Allen. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_240

The six sat around Cope's coffin among the fossils and Cope's pets, a tortoise and a Gila monster, for what Osborn called "a perfect Quaker silence ... an interminable length of time." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_241

Anticipating the quiet, Osborn had brought along a Bible and read an excerpt from the Book of Job, ending by saying, "These are the problems to which our friend devoted his life." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_242

The coffin was loaded on a hearse and carried to a gathering at Fairfield; much of the gathering was spent in silence. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_243

After the coffin was removed, the assembled began talking. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_244

Frazer recalled that each person remembered Cope differently, and "Few men succeeded so well in concealing from anyone ... all the sides of his multiform character." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_245

Osborn, intending to follow the coffin to the graveyard, was instead pulled aside by Collins and taken to the reading of Cope's will—Osborn and Cope's brother-in-law John Garrett were named executors. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_246

Cope gave his family a choice of his books, with the remainder to be sold or donated to the University of Pennsylvania. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_247

After debts were handled, Cope left small bequests to friends and family—Anna Brown and Julia received $5000 each, while the remainder went to Annie. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_248

Cope's estate was valued at $75,327, not including additional revenue raised by sales of fossils to the American Museum of Natural History, for a total of $84,600. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_249

Some specimens preserved in alcohol made their way to the Academy of Natural Sciences, including a few Gordian worms. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_250

Cope insisted through his will that no graveside service or burial be held; he had donated his body to science. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_251

He issued a final challenge to Marsh at his death: he had his skull donated to science so his brain could be measured, hoping his brain would be larger than that of his adversary; at the time, brain size was thought to be the true measure of intelligence. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_252

Marsh never accepted the challenge, and Cope's skull is reportedly still preserved at the University of Pennsylvania. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_253

His ashes were placed at the institute with those of Leidy, while his bones were extracted and kept in a locked drawer to be studied by anatomy students. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_254

Osborn listed Cope's cause of death as uremic poisoning, combined with a large prostate, but the true cause of death is unknown. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_255

Many believed Cope had died of syphilis contracted from the women with whom he fraternized during his travels. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_256

In 1995, Davidson gained permission to have the skeleton examined by a medical doctor at the university. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_257

Dr. Morrie Kricun, a professor of radiology, concluded no evidence of bony syphilis was found on Cope's skeleton. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_258

Public mentions of Cope's death were relatively slight. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_259

The Naturalist ran four photographs, a six-page obituary by editor J. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_260 S. Kingsley, and a two-page remembrance by Frazer. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_261

The National Academy of Sciences' official memoir was submitted years later and written by Osborn. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_262

The American Journal of Science devoted six paragraphs to Cope's passing, and incorrectly gave his age as 46. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_263

Cope was outlived by his rival Marsh, who was suffering poor health. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_264

Evolution Edward Drinker Cope_section_7

Further information: Orthogenesis Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_265

As a young man, Cope read Charles Darwin's Voyage of a Naturalist, which had little effect on him. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_266

The only comment about Darwin's book recorded by Cope was that Darwin discussed "too much geology" from the account of his voyage. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_267

Due to his background in taxonomy and paleontology, Cope focused on evolution in terms of changing structure, rather than emphasizing geography and variation within populations as Darwin had. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_268

Over his lifetime, Cope's views on evolution shifted. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_269

His original view, described in the paper "On the Origin of Genera" (1868), held that while Darwin's natural selection may affect the preservation of superficial characteristics in organisms, natural selection alone could not explain the formation of genera. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_270

Cope's suggested mechanism for this action was a "steady progressive development of organization" through what Cope termed "a continual crowding backward of the successive steps of individual development". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_271

In Cope's view, during embryological development, an organism could complete its growth with a new stage of development beyond its parents, taking it to a higher level of organization. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_272

Later individuals would inherit this new level of development—thus evolution was a continuous advance of organization, sometimes slowly and other times suddenly; this view is known as the law of acceleration. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_273

Cope's beliefs later evolved to one with an increased emphasis on continual and utilitarian evolution with less involvement of a Creator. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_274

He became one of the founders of the Neo-Lamarckism school of thought, which holds that an individual can pass on traits acquired in its lifetime to offspring. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_275

Although the view has been shown incorrect, it was the prevalent theory among paleontologists in Cope's time. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_276

In 1887, Cope published his own "Origin of the Fittest: Essays in Evolution", detailing his views on the subject. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_277

He was a strong believer in the law of use and disuse—that an individual will slowly, over time, favor an anatomical part of its body so much that it will become stronger and larger as time progresses down the generations. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_278

The giraffe, for example, stretched its neck to reach taller trees and passed this acquired characteristic to its offspring in a developmental phase that is added to gestation in the womb. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_279

Cope's Theology of Evolution (1887) argued that consciousness comes from the mind of the universe and governs evolution by directing animals to new goals. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_280

According to Sideris (2003), "[Cope] argued that organisms respond to changes in their environments by an exercise of choice. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_281

Consciousness itself, he maintained, was the principal force in evolution. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_282

Cope credited God with having built into evolution a life force that propelled organisms toward even higher levels of consciousness." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_283

Personality and views Edward Drinker Cope_section_8

Julia assisted Osborn in writing a biography of her father, titled Cope: Master Naturalist. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_284

She would not comment on the name of the woman with whom her father had had an affair prior to his first European travel. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_285

Julia is believed to have burned any of the scandalous letters and journals Cope had kept, but many of his friends were able to give their recollections of the scandalous nature of some of Cope's unpublished routines. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_286

Charles R. Knight, a former friend called, "Cope's mouth the filthiest, from hearsay that in [Cope's] heyday no woman was safe within five miles of him." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_287

As Julia was the major financier behind The Master Naturalist, she wanted to keep her father's name in good standing and refused to comment on any misdeeds her father may have committed. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_288

Cope was described by zoologist Henry Weed Fowler as "a man of medium height and build, but always impressive with his great energy and activity". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_289

To him, Fowler wrote, "[Cope] was both genial and always interesting, easily approachable, and both kindly and helpful." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_290

Cope's affability during visits to the Academy of Natural Sciences to compare specimens was later recalled by his colleague Witmer Stone: "I have often seen him busily engaged in such comparisons, all the while whistling whole passages from grand opera, or else counting the scales on the back of a lizard, while he conversed in a most amusing manner with some small street urchin who had drifted into the museum and was watching in awe with eyes and mouth wide open." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_291

His self-taught nature, however, meant that he was largely hostile to bureaucracy and politics. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_292

He had a famous temper; one friend called Cope a "militant paleontologist". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_293

Despite his faults, he was generally well liked by his contemporaries. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_294

American paleontologist Alfred Romer wrote that, "[Cope's] little slips from virtue were those we might make ourselves, were we bolder". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_295

Cope was raised as a Quaker, and was taught that the Bible was literal truth. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_296

Although he never confronted his family about their religious views, Osborn writes that Cope was at least aware of the conflict between his scientific career and his religion. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_297

Osborn writes: "If Edward harbored intellectual doubts about the literalness of the Bible ... he did not express them in his letters to his family but there can be little question ... that he shared the intellectual unrest of the period." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_298

Lanham writes that Cope's religious fervor (which seems to have subsided after his father's death) was embarrassing to even his devout Quaker associates. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_299

Biographer Jane Davidson believes that Osborn overstated Cope's internal religious conflicts. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_300

She ascribes Cope's deference to his father's beliefs as an act of respect or a measure to retain his father's financial support. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_301

Frazer's reminiscences about his friend suggest Cope often told people what they wanted to hear, rather than his true views. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_302

Cope's views on human races would today be considered racist, and his beliefs were used by scientists of the time to justify imperialism. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_303

He believed that if, "a race was not white then it was inherently more ape-like". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_304

He was opposed to blacks because of their "degrading vices", believing that the "inferior Negro should go back to Africa." Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_305

He did not blame blacks for their perceived "poor virtue", but wrote, "A vulture will always eat carrion when surrounded on all hands by every kind of cleaner food. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_306

It is the nature of the bird". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_307

Cope was against the modern view of women's rights, believing in the husband's role as protector; he was opposed to women's suffrage, as he felt they would be unduly influenced by their husbands. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_308

Scientific legacy Edward Drinker Cope_section_9

In fewer than 40 years as a scientist, Cope published over 1,400 scientific papers, a record that is rivaled by few other scientists. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_309

His major works include three volumes: On the Origin of Genera (1867), The Vertebrata of the Tertiary Formations of the West (1884) and "Essays in Evolution". Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_310

He discovered a total of 56 new dinosaur species during the Bone Wars compared to Marsh's 80. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_311

Although Cope is today known as a herpetologist and paleontologist, his contributions extended to ichthyology, in which he catalogued 300 species of fishes and described over 300 species of reptiles over three decades. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_312

In total, he discovered and described over 1,000 species of fossil vertebrates and published 600 separate titles. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_313

The salamander Dicamptodon copei , 1970, the dinosaur Drinker nisti Bakker et al., 1990, the lizards Alopoglossus copii Boulenger, 1885, Gambelia copeii (Yarrow, 1882), Plestiodon copei (Taylor, 1933), Sepsina copei Bocage, 1873,Sphaerodactylus copei Steindachner, 1867, the snakes Adelophis copei Dugès, 1879, Aspidura copei Günther, 1864, Cemophora coccinea copei Jan, 1863, Coniophanes imperialis copei Hartweg & J. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_314 Oliver, 1938,Dipsas copei Günther, 1872, Cope's gray treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis Cope, 1880, and the splash tetra genus Copella G.S. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_315 Myers, 1956 are among the many taxa named in honor of Cope. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_316

Currently, 21 fish species named copei are distributed among 11 families. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_317

Cope lent his name to the journal of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH) from 1913 to 2020. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_318

Cope's Pine Street home is recognized as a national landmark. Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_319

Cope named a species of Caribbean snake, Liophis juliae, in honor of his daughter Julia Cope Collins (1866–1959). Edward Drinker Cope_sentence_320

See also Edward Drinker Cope_section_10

Edward Drinker Cope_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward Drinker Cope.