Edward Hitchcock

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For other people named Edward Hitchcock, see Edward Hitchcock (disambiguation). Edward Hitchcock_sentence_0

Edward Hitchcock_table_infobox_0

Edward HitchcockEdward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_0_0
BornEdward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_1_0 May 24, 1793

Deerfield, MassachusettsEdward Hitchcock_cell_0_1_1

DiedEdward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_2_0 February 27, 1864(1864-02-27) (aged 70)

Amherst, MassachusettsEdward Hitchcock_cell_0_2_1

CitizenshipEdward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_3_0 United StatesEdward Hitchcock_cell_0_3_1
Alma materEdward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_4_0 Deerfield AcademyEdward Hitchcock_cell_0_4_1
Spouse(s)Edward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_5_0 Orra White HitchcockEdward Hitchcock_cell_0_5_1
FieldsEdward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_6_0 Geology

Natural historyEdward Hitchcock_cell_0_6_1

InfluencedEdward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_7_0 Charles Henry HitchcockEdward Hitchcock_cell_0_7_1
Author abbrev. (botany)Edward Hitchcock_header_cell_0_8_0 E.Hitchc.Edward Hitchcock_cell_0_8_1

Edward Hitchcock (May 24, 1793 – February 27, 1864) was an American geologist and the third President of Amherst College (1845–1854). Edward Hitchcock_sentence_1

Life Edward Hitchcock_section_0

Born to poor parents, he attended newly founded Deerfield Academy, where he was later principal, from 1815 to 1818. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_2

In 1821 he was ordained as a Congregationalist pastor and served as pastor of the Congregational Church in Conway, Massachusetts, 1821-25. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_3

He left the ministry to become Professor of Chemistry and Natural History at Amherst College. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_4

He held that post from 1825 to 1845, serving as Professor of Natural Theology and Geology from 1845 until his death in 1864. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_5

In 1845, Hitchcock became President of the College, a post he held until 1854. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_6

As president, Hitchcock was responsible for Amherst's recovery from severe financial difficulties. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_7

He is also credited with developing the college's scientific resources and establishing its reputation for scientific teaching. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_8

In addition to his positions at Amherst, Hitchcock was a well-known early geologist. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_9

He ran the first geological survey of Massachusetts, and in 1830 was appointed state geologist of Massachusetts (he held the post until 1844). Edward Hitchcock_sentence_10

He also played a role in the geological surveys of New York and Vermont. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_11

His chief project, however, was natural theology, which attempted to unify and reconcile science and religion, focusing on geology. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_12

His major work in this area was The Religion of Geology and Its Connected Sciences (1851). Edward Hitchcock_sentence_13

In this book, he sought out ways to re-interpret the Bible to agree with the latest geological theories. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_14

For example, knowing that the earth was at least hundreds of thousands of years old, vastly older than the 6,000 years posited by Biblical scholars, Hitchcock devised a way to read the original Hebrew so that a single letter in Genesis—a "v", meaning "afterwards"—implied the vast timespans during which the earth was formed. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_15

Randy Moore described Hitchcock as "America's leading advocate of catastrophism-based gap creationism." Edward Hitchcock_sentence_16

Hitchcock left his mark in paleontology. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_17

He discovered some of the first fossil fishes in the United States. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_18

He published papers on fossilized tracks in the Connecticut Valley, including Eubrontes and Otozoum, that were later associated with dinosaurs, though he believed, with a certain prescience, that they were made by gigantic ancient birds. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_19

In the Hitchcock Ichnological Cabinet he established a remarkable collection of fossil footmarks. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_20

His son, Edward "Doc" Hitchcock, named one of the earliest dinosaurs discovered in North America and the United States, Megadactylus polyzelus. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_21

Later it was reclassified as the type specimen of Anchisaurus polyzelus (ACM 41109), a prosauropod. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_22

This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation E.Hitchc. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_23

when citing a botanical name. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_24

As he had researched the geologic lake which once filled the Connecticut River basin, this prehistoric lake was named after him. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_25

Since he had done geological research on the Holyoke Range, one of the mountains there, Mount Hitchcock, was named after him. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_26

He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1834. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_27

From 1856 to 1861, Hitchcock was the State Geologist for Vermont. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_28

His collections, a bust and portrait can be viewed at the Amherst College Museum of Natural History. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_29

The Archives and Special Collections at Amherst holds his papers. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_30

In 1821, he married Orra White, one of the earliest women botanical and scientific illustrators in the U.S. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_31

The two worked closely together, and she contributed more than 1,000 illustrations to his many scientific publications. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_32

Paleontological chart Edward Hitchcock_section_1

He inserted a paleontological chart in his Elementary Geology (1840). Edward Hitchcock_sentence_33

It shows a branching diagram of the plant and animal kingdom against a geological background. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_34

He referred to it as a tree. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_35

This "tree of life" is the earliest known version that incorporates paleontological and geological information. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_36

Hitchcock was an advocate of gap creationism. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_37

Hitchcock saw God as the agent of change. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_38

He explicitly rejected evolution and a religious six-day creation. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_39

He perceived that new species were introduced by a Deity at the right time in the history of the earth. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_40

The chart is present in all editions between 1840 and 1859. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_41

After Charles Darwin (1859) published his On the Origin of Species, a tree of life image was generally interpreted as an evolutionary tree. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_42

In the 1860 edition of Elementary Geology Hitchcock dropped the chart. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_43

In 1863 Hitchcock wrote an article in which he criticized Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_44

After his death in 1864, his son Charles Henry Hitchcock (1836–1919) published a new edition (1870) also without a paleontological chart. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_45

Charles then published books and articles of his own. Edward Hitchcock_sentence_46

Writings Edward Hitchcock_section_2

Edward Hitchcock_unordered_list_0

  • Geology of the Connecticut Valley (1823)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_0
  • "Retrospection: A Sermon Delivered at Amherst, MA, at Close of Spring Term". May 13, 1823. Northampton, MA: Sylvester Judd, Jr., 1823.Edward Hitchcock_item_0_1
  • (1829)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_2
  • , 1840. (31 editions)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_3
  • (1851)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_4
  • Edward Hitchcock_item_0_5
  • Lectures on the Peculiar Phenomena of the Four Seasons (1850)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_6
  • Reports on the Geology of Massachusetts (1833, 1835, 1838, 1841)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_7
  • (1853)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_8
  • Illustrations of Surface Geology (1857)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_9
  • (1863)Edward Hitchcock_item_0_10

See also Edward Hitchcock_section_3

Edward Hitchcock_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward Hitchcock.