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For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation). Egypt_sentence_0

Egypt (/ˈiːdʒɪpt/ (listen) EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصر‎ Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt_sentence_1

Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Egypt_sentence_2

Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt_sentence_3

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage along the Nile Delta back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Egypt_sentence_4

Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Egypt_sentence_5

Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt_sentence_6

Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt_sentence_7

Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. Egypt_sentence_8

Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. Egypt_sentence_9

Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt declared itself a republic, and in 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Egypt_sentence_10

Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. Egypt_sentence_11

In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. Egypt_sentence_12

The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt_sentence_13

Egypt's current government is a semi-presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, which has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian or heading an authoritarian regime, responsible for perpetuating the country's problematic human rights record. Egypt_sentence_14

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. Egypt_sentence_15

With over 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the thirteenth-most populous in the world. Egypt_sentence_16

The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. Egypt_sentence_17

The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. Egypt_sentence_18

About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta. Egypt_sentence_19

Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. Egypt_sentence_20

With one of the largest and most diversified economies in the Middle East, which is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century, Egypt has the third-largest economy in Africa, the world's 40th-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 19-largest by PPP. Egypt_sentence_21

Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the African Union, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Egypt_sentence_22

Names Egypt_section_0

"Miṣr" (Arabic pronunciation: [mesˤɾ; "مِصر") is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mɑsˤɾ; مَصر) is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. Egypt_sentence_23

The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם‎" ("Mitzráyim"). Egypt_sentence_24

The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" ("miṣru") related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". Egypt_sentence_25

The Neo-Assyrian Empire used the derived term , Mu-ṣur. Egypt_sentence_26

History Egypt_section_1

Main article: History of Egypt Egypt_sentence_27

Prehistory and Ancient Egypt Egypt_section_2

Main articles: Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt Egypt_sentence_28

There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. Egypt_sentence_29

In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Egypt_sentence_30

Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Egypt_sentence_31

Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. Egypt_sentence_32

By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. Egypt_sentence_33

During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. Egypt_sentence_34

The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. Egypt_sentence_35

The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Egypt_sentence_36

Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. Egypt_sentence_37

The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. Egypt_sentence_38

A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egypt_sentence_39

Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs. Egypt_sentence_40

The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BCE, which constructed many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza pyramids. Egypt_sentence_41

The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years. Egypt_sentence_42

Stronger Nile floods and stabilisation of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. 2040 BCE, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. Egypt_sentence_43

A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. Egypt_sentence_44

The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BCE and founded a new capital at Avaris. Egypt_sentence_45

They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes. Egypt_sentence_46

The New Kingdom c. 1550–1070 BCE began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Tombos in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. Egypt_sentence_47

This period is noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. Egypt_sentence_48

The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism. Egypt_sentence_49

Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. Egypt_sentence_50

The country was later invaded and conquered by Libyans, Nubians and Assyrians, but native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country. Egypt_sentence_51

Achaemenid Egypt Egypt_section_3

In 525 BCE, the powerful Achaemenid Persians, led by Cambyses II, began their conquest of Egypt, eventually capturing the pharaoh Psamtik III at the battle of Pelusium. Egypt_sentence_52

Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh, but ruled Egypt from his home of Susa in Persia (modern Iran), leaving Egypt under the control of a satrapy. Egypt_sentence_53

The entire Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, from 525 to 402 BCE, save for Petubastis III, was an entirely Persian ruled period, with the Achaemenid Emperors all being granted the title of pharaoh. Egypt_sentence_54

A few temporarily successful revolts against the Persians marked the fifth century BCE, but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the Persians. Egypt_sentence_55

The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. Egypt_sentence_56

It fell to the Persians again in 343 BCE after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II, was defeated in battle. Egypt_sentence_57

This Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt, however, did not last long, for the Persians were toppled several decades later by Alexander the Great. Egypt_sentence_58

The Macedonian Greek general of Alexander, Ptolemy I Soter, founded the Ptolemaic dynasty. Egypt_sentence_59

Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt Egypt_section_4

Main articles: Ptolemaic Kingdom and Egypt (Roman province) Egypt_sentence_60

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Egypt_sentence_61

Alexandria became the capital city and a centre of Greek culture and trade. Egypt_sentence_62

To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. Egypt_sentence_63

The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life. Egypt_sentence_64

The last ruler from the Ptolemaic line was Cleopatra VII, who committed suicide following the burial of her lover Mark Antony who had died in her arms (from a self-inflicted stab wound), after Octavian had captured Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled. Egypt_sentence_65

The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians often caused by an unwanted regime and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome. Egypt_sentence_66

Nevertheless, Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest. Egypt_sentence_67

Christianity was brought to Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the 1st century. Egypt_sentence_68

Diocletian's reign (284–305 CE) marked the transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted. Egypt_sentence_69

The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. Egypt_sentence_70

After the Council of Chalcedon in CE 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established. Egypt_sentence_71

Middle Ages (7th century – 1517) Egypt_section_5

Main article: Egypt in the Middle Ages Egypt_sentence_72

The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Sasanian Persian invasion early in the 7th century amidst the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 during which they established a new short-lived province for ten years known as Sasanian Egypt, until 639–42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs. Egypt_sentence_73

When they defeated the Byzantine armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country. Egypt_sentence_74

Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. Egypt_sentence_75

These earlier rites had survived the period of Coptic Christianity. Egypt_sentence_76

In 639 an army of some 4,000 men were sent against Egypt by the second caliph, Umar, under the command of Amr ibn al-As. Egypt_sentence_77

This army was joined by another 5,000 men in 640 and defeated a Byzantine army at the battle of Heliopolis. Egypt_sentence_78

Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on 8 November 641. Egypt_sentence_79

Alexandria was regained for the Byzantine Empire in 645 but was retaken by Amr in 646. Egypt_sentence_80

In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. Egypt_sentence_81

From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country. Egypt_sentence_82

The Arabs founded the capital of Egypt called Fustat, which was later burned down during the Crusades. Egypt_sentence_83

Cairo was later built in the year 986 to grow to become the largest and richest city in the Arab Empire, and one of the biggest and richest in the world. Egypt_sentence_84

Abbasid period Egypt_section_6

The Abbasid period was marked by new taxations, and the Copts revolted again in the fourth year of Abbasid rule. Egypt_sentence_85

At the beginning of the 9th century the practice of ruling Egypt through a governor was resumed under Abdallah ibn Tahir, who decided to reside at Baghdad, sending a deputy to Egypt to govern for him. Egypt_sentence_86

In 828 another Egyptian revolt broke out, and in 831 the Copts joined with native Muslims against the government. Egypt_sentence_87

Eventually the power loss of the Abbasids in Baghdad has led for general upon general to take over rule of Egypt, yet being under Abbasid allegiance, the Tulunid dynasty (868–905) and Ikhshidid dynasty (935–969) were among the most successful to defy the Abbasid Caliph. Egypt_sentence_88

The Fatimid Caliphate and the Mamluks Egypt_section_7

See also: Fatimid Caliphate and Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) Egypt_sentence_89

Muslim rulers nominated by the Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, with Cairo as the seat of the Fatimid Caliphate. Egypt_sentence_90

With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took control about 1250. Egypt_sentence_91

By the late 13th century, Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies. Egypt_sentence_92

The mid-14th-century Black Death killed about 40% of the country's population. Egypt_sentence_93

Early modern: Ottoman Egypt (1517–1867) Egypt_section_8

Main article: Egypt Eyalet Egypt_sentence_94

Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1517, after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. Egypt_sentence_95

The defensive militarisation damaged its civil society and economic institutions. Egypt_sentence_96

The weakening of the economic system combined with the effects of plague left Egypt vulnerable to foreign invasion. Egypt_sentence_97

Portuguese traders took over their trade. Egypt_sentence_98

Between 1687 and 1731, Egypt experienced six famines. Egypt_sentence_99

The 1784 famine cost it roughly one-sixth of its population. Egypt_sentence_100

Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluks, the Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries. Egypt_sentence_101

Egypt remained semi-autonomous under the Mamluks until it was invaded by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798 (see French campaign in Egypt and Syria). Egypt_sentence_102

After the French were defeated by the British, a power vacuum was created in Egypt, and a three-way power struggle ensued between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries, and Albanian mercenaries in the service of the Ottomans. Egypt_sentence_103

The Muhammad Ali dynasty Egypt_section_9

Main article: History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty Egypt_sentence_104

After the French were expelled, power was seized in 1805 by Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian military commander of the Ottoman army in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_105

While he carried the title of viceroy of Egypt, his subordination to the Ottoman porte was merely nominal. Egypt_sentence_106

Muhammad Ali massacred the Mamluks and established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952. Egypt_sentence_107

The introduction in 1820 of long-staple cotton transformed its agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end of the century, concentrating land ownership and shifting production towards international markets. Egypt_sentence_108

Muhammad Ali annexed Northern Sudan (1820–1824), Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and Anatolia; but in 1841 the European powers, fearful lest he topple the Ottoman Empire itself, forced him to return most of his conquests to the Ottomans. Egypt_sentence_109

His military ambition required him to modernise the country: he built industries, a system of canals for irrigation and transport, and reformed the civil service. Egypt_sentence_110

He constructed a military state with around four percent of the populace serving the army to raise Egypt to a powerful positioning in the Ottoman Empire in a way showing various similarities to the Soviet strategies (without communism) conducted in the 20th century. Egypt_sentence_111

Muhammad Ali Pasha evolved the military from one that convened under the tradition of the corvée to a great modernised army. Egypt_sentence_112

He introduced conscription of the male peasantry in 19th century Egypt, and took a novel approach to create his great army, strengthening it with numbers and in skill. Egypt_sentence_113

Education and training of the new soldiers became mandatory; the new concepts were furthermore enforced by isolation. Egypt_sentence_114

The men were held in barracks to avoid distraction of their growth as a military unit to be reckoned with. Egypt_sentence_115

The resentment for the military way of life eventually faded from the men and a new ideology took hold, one of nationalism and pride. Egypt_sentence_116

It was with the help of this newly reborn martial unit that Muhammad Ali imposed his rule over Egypt. Egypt_sentence_117

The policy that Mohammad Ali Pasha followed during his reign explains partly why the numeracy in Egypt compared to other North-African and Middle-Eastern countries increased only at a remarkably small rate, as investment in further education only took place in the military and industrial sector. Egypt_sentence_118

Muhammad Ali was succeeded briefly by his son Ibrahim (in September 1848), then by a grandson Abbas I (in November 1848), then by Said (in 1854), and Isma'il (in 1863) who encouraged science and agriculture and banned slavery in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_119

Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914) Egypt_section_10

Main article: Khedivate of Egypt Egypt_sentence_120

Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty remained nominally an Ottoman province. Egypt_sentence_121

It was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state or Khedivate in 1867, a legal status which was to remain in place until 1914 although the Ottomans had no power or presence. Egypt_sentence_122

The Suez Canal, built in partnership with the French, was completed in 1869. Egypt_sentence_123

Its construction was financed by European banks. Egypt_sentence_124

Large sums also went to patronage and corruption. Egypt_sentence_125

New taxes caused popular discontent. Egypt_sentence_126

In 1875 Isma'il avoided bankruptcy by selling all Egypt's shares in the canal to the British government. Egypt_sentence_127

Within three years this led to the imposition of British and French controllers who sat in the Egyptian cabinet, and, "with the financial power of the bondholders behind them, were the real power in the Government." Egypt_sentence_128

Other circumstances like epidemic diseases (cattle disease in the 1880s), floods and wars drove the economic downturn and increased Egypt's dependency on foreign debt even further. Egypt_sentence_129

Local dissatisfaction with the Khedive and with European intrusion led to the formation of the first nationalist groupings in 1879, with Ahmed ʻUrabi a prominent figure. Egypt_sentence_130

After increasing tensions and nationalist revolts, the United Kingdom invaded Egypt in 1882, crushing the Egyptian army at the Battle of Tell El Kebir and militarily occupying the country. Egypt_sentence_131

Following this, the Khedivate became a de facto British protectorate under nominal Ottoman sovereignty. Egypt_sentence_132

In 1899 the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement was signed: the Agreement stated that Sudan would be jointly governed by the Khedivate of Egypt and the United Kingdom. Egypt_sentence_133

However, actual control of Sudan was in British hands only. Egypt_sentence_134

In 1906, the Denshawai incident prompted many neutral Egyptians to join the nationalist movement. Egypt_sentence_135

Sultanate of Egypt (1914–1922) Egypt_section_11

Main article: Sultanate of Egypt Egypt_sentence_136

In 1914 the Ottoman Empire entered World War I in alliance with the Central Empires; Khedive Abbas II (who had grown increasingly hostile to the British in preceding years) decided to support the motherland in war. Egypt_sentence_137

Following such decision, the British forcibly removed him from power and replaced him with his brother Hussein Kamel. Egypt_sentence_138

Hussein Kamel declared Egypt's independence from the Ottoman Empire, assuming the title of Sultan of Egypt. Egypt_sentence_139

Shortly following independence, Egypt was declared a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Egypt_sentence_140

After World War I, Saad Zaghlul and the Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement to a majority at the local Legislative Assembly. Egypt_sentence_141

When the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta on 8 March 1919, the country arose in its first modern revolution. Egypt_sentence_142

The revolt led the UK government to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on 22 February 1922. Egypt_sentence_143

Kingdom of Egypt (1922–1953) Egypt_section_12

Main article: Kingdom of Egypt Egypt_sentence_144

Following independence from the United Kingdom, Sultan Fuad I assumed the title of King of Egypt; despite being nominally independent, the Kingdom was still under British military occupation and the UK still had great influence over the state. Egypt_sentence_145

The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system. Egypt_sentence_146

The nationalist Wafd Party won a landslide victory in the 1923–1924 election and Saad Zaghloul was appointed as the new Prime Minister. Egypt_sentence_147

In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded and British troops withdrew from Egypt, except for the Suez Canal. Egypt_sentence_148

The treaty did not resolve the question of Sudan, which, under the terms of the existing Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899, stated that Sudan should be jointly governed by Egypt and Britain, but with real power remaining in British hands. Egypt_sentence_149

Britain used Egypt as a base for Allied operations throughout the region, especially the battles in North Africa against Italy and Germany. Egypt_sentence_150

Its highest priorities were control of the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially keeping the Suez Canal open for merchant ships and for military connections with India and Australia. Egypt_sentence_151

The government of Egypt, and the Egyptian population, played a minor role in the Second World War. Egypt_sentence_152

When the war began in September 1939, Egypt declared martial law and broke off diplomatic relations with Germany. Egypt_sentence_153

It did not declare war on Germany, but the Prime Minister associated Egypt with the British war effort. Egypt_sentence_154

It broke diplomatic relations with Italy in 1940, but never declared war, even when the Italian army invaded Egypt. Egypt_sentence_155

King Farouk took practically a neutral position, which accorded with elite opinion among the Egyptians. Egypt_sentence_156

The Egyptian army did no fighting. Egypt_sentence_157

It was apathetic about the war, with the leading officers looking on the British as occupiers and sometimes holding some private sympathy with the Axis. Egypt_sentence_158

In June 1940 the King dismissed Prime Minister Aly Maher, who got on poorly with the British. Egypt_sentence_159

A new coalition Government was formed with the Independent Hassan Pasha Sabri as Prime Minister. Egypt_sentence_160

Following a ministerial crisis in February 1942, the ambassador Sir Miles Lampson, pressed Farouk to have a Wafd or Wafd-coalition government replace Hussein Sirri Pasha's government. Egypt_sentence_161

On the night of 4 February 1942, British troops and tanks surrounded Abdeen Palace in Cairo and Lampson presented Farouk with an ultimatum. Egypt_sentence_162

Farouk capitulated, and Nahhas formed a government shortly thereafter. Egypt_sentence_163

However, the humiliation meted out to Farouk, and the actions of the Wafd in cooperating with the British and taking power, lost support for both the British and the Wafd among both civilians and, more importantly, the Egyptian military. Egypt_sentence_164

Most British troops were withdrawn to the Suez Canal area in 1947 (although the British army maintained a military base in the area), but nationalist, anti-British feelings continued to grow after the War. Egypt_sentence_165

Anti-monarchy sentiments further increased following the disastrous performance of the Kingdom in the First Arab-Israeli War. Egypt_sentence_166

The 1950 election saw a landslide victory of the nationalist Wafd Party and the King was forced to appoint Mostafa El-Nahas as new Prime Minister. Egypt_sentence_167

In 1951 Egypt unilaterally withdrew from the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 and ordered all remaining British troops to leave the Suez Canal. Egypt_sentence_168

As the British refused to leave their base around the Suez Canal, the Egyptian government cut off the water and refused to allow food into the Suez Canal base, announced a boycott of British goods, forbade Egyptian workers from entering the base and sponsored guerrilla attacks, turning the area around the Suez Canal into a low level war zone. Egypt_sentence_169

On 24 January 1952, Egyptian guerrillas staged a fierce attack on the British forces around the Suez Canal, during which the Egyptian Auxiliary Police were observed helping the guerrillas. Egypt_sentence_170

In response, on 25 January, General George Erskine sent out British tanks and infantry to surround the auxiliary police station in Ismailia and gave the policemen an hour to surrender their arms on the grounds the police were arming the guerrillas. Egypt_sentence_171

The police commander called the Interior Minister, Fouad Serageddin, Nahas's right-hand man, who was smoking cigars in his bath at the time, to ask if he should surrender or fight. Egypt_sentence_172

Serageddin ordered the police to fight "to the last man and the last bullet". Egypt_sentence_173

The resulting battle saw the police station levelled and 43 Egyptian policemen killed together with 3 British soldiers. Egypt_sentence_174

The Ismailia incident outraged Egypt. Egypt_sentence_175

The next day, 26 January 1952 was "Black Saturday", as the anti-British riot was known, that saw much of downtown Cairo which the Khedive Ismail the Magnificent had rebuilt in the style of Paris, burned down. Egypt_sentence_176

Farouk blamed the Wafd for the Black Saturday riot, and dismissed Nahas as prime minister the next day. Egypt_sentence_177

He was replaced by Aly Maher Pasha. Egypt_sentence_178

On July 22–23, 1952, the Free Officers Movement, led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser, launched a coup d'état (Egyptian Revolution of 1952) against the king. Egypt_sentence_179

Farouk I abdicated the throne to his son Fouad II, who was, at the time, a seven month old baby. Egypt_sentence_180

The Royal Family left Egypt some days later and the Council of Regency, led by Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim was formed, The council, however, held only nominal authority and the real power was actually in the hands of the Revolutionary Command Council, led by Naguib and Nasser. Egypt_sentence_181

Popular expectations for immediate reforms led to the workers' riots in Kafr Dawar on 12 August 1952, which resulted in two death sentences. Egypt_sentence_182

Following a brief experiment with civilian rule, the Free Officers abrogated the monarchy and the 1923 constitution and declared Egypt a republic on 18 June 1953. Egypt_sentence_183

Naguib was proclaimed as president, while Nasser was appointed as the new Prime Minister. Egypt_sentence_184

Republic of Egypt (1953–1958) Egypt_section_13

Main article: History of the Republic of Egypt Egypt_sentence_185

Following the 1952 Revolution by the Free Officers Movement, the rule of Egypt passed to military hands and all political parties were banned. Egypt_sentence_186

On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic, serving in that capacity for a little under one and a half years. Egypt_sentence_187

President Nasser (1956–1970) Egypt_section_14

Naguib was forced to resign in 1954 by Gamal Abdel Nasser – a Pan-Arabist and the real architect of the 1952 movement – and was later put under house arrest. Egypt_sentence_188

After Naguib's resignation, the position of President was vacant until the election of Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1956. Egypt_sentence_189

In October 1954 Egypt and the United Kingdom agreed to abolish the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899 and grant Sudan independence; the agreement came into force on 1 January 1956. Egypt_sentence_190

Nasser assumed power as president in June 1956. Egypt_sentence_191

British forces completed their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone on 13 June 1956. Egypt_sentence_192

He nationalised the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956; his hostile approach towards Israel and economic nationalism prompted the beginning of the Second Arab-Israeli War (Suez Crisis), in which Israel (with support from France and the United Kingdom) occupied the Sinai peninsula and the Canal. Egypt_sentence_193

The war came to an end because of US and USSR diplomatic intervention and the status quo was restored. Egypt_sentence_194

United Arab Republic (1958–1971) Egypt_section_15

In 1958, Egypt and Syria formed a sovereign union known as the United Arab Republic. Egypt_sentence_195

The union was short-lived, ending in 1961 when Syria seceded, thus ending the union. Egypt_sentence_196

During most of its existence, the United Arab Republic was also in a loose confederation with North Yemen (or the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen), known as the United Arab States. Egypt_sentence_197

In 1959, the All-Palestine Government of the Gaza Strip, an Egyptian client state, was absorbed into the United Arab Republic under the pretext of Arab union, and was never restored. Egypt_sentence_198

The Arab Socialist Union, a new nasserist state-party was founded in 1962. Egypt_sentence_199

In the early 1960s, Egypt became fully involved in the North Yemen Civil War. Egypt_sentence_200

The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, supported the Yemeni republicans with as many as 70,000 Egyptian troops and chemical weapons. Egypt_sentence_201

Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Egypt_sentence_202

Egyptian commitment in Yemen was greatly undermined later. Egypt_sentence_203

In mid May 1967, the Soviet Union issued warnings to Nasser of an impending Israeli attack on Syria. Egypt_sentence_204

Although the chief of staff Mohamed Fawzi verified them as "baseless", Nasser took three successive steps that made the war virtually inevitable: on 14 May he deployed his troops in Sinai near the border with Israel, on 19 May he expelled the UN peacekeepers stationed in the Sinai Peninsula border with Israel, and on 23 May he closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. Egypt_sentence_205

On 26 May Nasser declared, "The battle will be a general one and our basic objective will be to destroy Israel". Egypt_sentence_206

Israel re-iterated that the Straits of Tiran closure was a Casus belli. Egypt_sentence_207

This prompted the beginning of the Third Arab Israeli War (Six-Day War) in which Israel attacked Egypt, and occupied Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, which Egypt had occupied since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Egypt_sentence_208

During the 1967 war, an Emergency Law was enacted, and remained in effect until 2012, with the exception of an 18-month break in 1980/81. Egypt_sentence_209

Under this law, police powers were extended, constitutional rights suspended and censorship legalised. Egypt_sentence_210

At the time of the fall of the Egyptian monarchy in the early 1950s, less than half a million Egyptians were considered upper class and rich, four million middle class and 17 million lower class and poor. Egypt_sentence_211

Fewer than half of all primary-school-age children attended school, most of them being boys. Egypt_sentence_212

Nasser's policies changed this. Egypt_sentence_213

Land reform and distribution, the dramatic growth in university education, and government support to national industries greatly improved social mobility and flattened the social curve. Egypt_sentence_214

From academic year 1953–54 through 1965–66, overall public school enrolments more than doubled. Egypt_sentence_215

Millions of previously poor Egyptians, through education and jobs in the public sector, joined the middle class. Egypt_sentence_216

Doctors, engineers, teachers, lawyers, journalists, constituted the bulk of the swelling middle class in Egypt under Nasser. Egypt_sentence_217

During the 1960s, the Egyptian economy went from sluggish to the verge of collapse, the society became less free, and Nasser's appeal waned considerably. Egypt_sentence_218

Arab Republic of Egypt (1971–present) Egypt_section_16

President Sadat (1970–1981) Egypt_section_17

In 1970, President Nasser died of a heart attack and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Egypt_sentence_219

Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. Egypt_sentence_220

He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition. Egypt_sentence_221

In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the Fourth Arab-Israeli War (Yom Kippur War), a surprise attack to regain part of the Sinai territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier. Egypt_sentence_222

It presented Sadat with a victory that allowed him to regain the Sinai later in return for peace with Israel. Egypt_sentence_223

In 1975, Sadat shifted Nasser's economic policies and sought to use his popularity to reduce government regulations and encourage foreign investment through his program of Infitah. Egypt_sentence_224

Through this policy, incentives such as reduced taxes and import tariffs attracted some investors, but investments were mainly directed at low risk and profitable ventures like tourism and construction, abandoning Egypt's infant industries. Egypt_sentence_225

Even though Sadat's policy was intended to modernise Egypt and assist the middle class, it mainly benefited the higher class, and, because of the elimination of subsidies on basic foodstuffs, led to the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots. Egypt_sentence_226

In 1977, Sadat dissolved the Arab Socialist Union and replaced it with the National Democratic Party. Egypt_sentence_227

Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Egypt_sentence_228

Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League, but it was supported by most Egyptians. Egypt_sentence_229

Sadat was assassinated by an Islamic extremist in October 1981. Egypt_sentence_230

President Mubarak (1981–2011) Egypt_section_18

Hosni Mubarak came to power after the assassination of Sadat in a referendum in which he was the only candidate. Egypt_sentence_231

Hosni Mubarak reaffirmed Egypt's relationship with Israel yet eased the tensions with Egypt's Arab neighbours. Egypt_sentence_232

Domestically, Mubarak faced serious problems. Egypt_sentence_233

Even though farm and industry output expanded, the economy could not keep pace with the population boom. Egypt_sentence_234

Mass poverty and unemployment led rural families to stream into cities like Cairo where they ended up in crowded slums, barely managing to survive. Egypt_sentence_235

On 25 February 1986 Security Police started rioting, protesting against reports that their term of duty was to be extended from 3 to 4 years. Egypt_sentence_236

Hotels, nightclubs, restaurants and casinos were attacked in Cairo and there were riots in other cities. Egypt_sentence_237

A day time curfew was imposed. Egypt_sentence_238

It took the army 3 days to restore order. Egypt_sentence_239

107 people were killed. Egypt_sentence_240

In the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, terrorist attacks in Egypt became numerous and severe, and began to target Christian Copts, foreign tourists and government officials. Egypt_sentence_241

In the 1990s an Islamist group, Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, engaged in an extended campaign of violence, from the murders and attempted murders of prominent writers and intellectuals, to the repeated targeting of tourists and foreigners. Egypt_sentence_242

Serious damage was done to the largest sector of Egypt's economy—tourism—and in turn to the government, but it also devastated the livelihoods of many of the people on whom the group depended for support. Egypt_sentence_243

During Mubarak's reign, the political scene was dominated by the National Democratic Party, which was created by Sadat in 1978. Egypt_sentence_244

It passed the 1993 Syndicates Law, 1995 Press Law, and 1999 Nongovernmental Associations Law which hampered freedoms of association and expression by imposing new regulations and draconian penalties on violations. Egypt_sentence_245

As a result, by the late 1990s parliamentary politics had become virtually irrelevant and alternative avenues for political expression were curtailed as well. Egypt_sentence_246

On 17 November 1997, 62 people, mostly tourists, were massacred near Luxor. Egypt_sentence_247

In late February 2005, Mubarak announced a reform of the presidential election law, paving the way for multi-candidate polls for the first time since the 1952 movement. Egypt_sentence_248

However, the new law placed restrictions on the candidates, and led to Mubarak's easy re-election victory. Egypt_sentence_249

Voter turnout was less than 25%. Egypt_sentence_250

Election observers also alleged government interference in the election process. Egypt_sentence_251

After the election, Mubarak imprisoned Ayman Nour, the runner-up. Egypt_sentence_252

Human Rights Watch's 2006 report on Egypt detailed serious human rights violations, including routine torture, arbitrary detentions and trials before military and state security courts. Egypt_sentence_253

In 2007, Amnesty International released a report alleging that Egypt had become an international centre for torture, where other nations send suspects for interrogation, often as part of the War on Terror. Egypt_sentence_254

Egypt's foreign ministry quickly issued a rebuttal to this report. Egypt_sentence_255

Constitutional changes voted on 19 March 2007 prohibited parties from using religion as a basis for political activity, allowed the drafting of a new anti-terrorism law, authorised broad police powers of arrest and surveillance, and gave the president power to dissolve parliament and end judicial election monitoring. Egypt_sentence_256

In 2009, Dr. Ali El Deen Hilal Dessouki, Media Secretary of the National Democratic Party (NDP), described Egypt as a "pharaonic" political system, and democracy as a "long-term goal". Egypt_sentence_257

Dessouki also stated that "the real center of power in Egypt is the military". Egypt_sentence_258

Revolution (2011) Egypt_section_19

Main article: Egyptian revolution of 2011 Egypt_sentence_259

On 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak's government. Egypt_sentence_260

On 11 February 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo. Egypt_sentence_261

Jubilant celebrations broke out in Cairo's Tahrir Square at the news. Egypt_sentence_262

The Egyptian military then assumed the power to govern. Egypt_sentence_263

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, became the de facto interim head of state. Egypt_sentence_264

On 13 February 2011, the military dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution. Egypt_sentence_265

A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March 2011. Egypt_sentence_266

On 28 November 2011, Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power. Egypt_sentence_267

Turnout was high and there were no reports of major irregularities or violence. Egypt_sentence_268

President Morsi (2012–2013) Egypt_section_20

Mohamed Morsi was elected president on 24 June 2012. Egypt_sentence_269

On 2 August 2012, Egypt's Prime Minister Hisham Qandil announced his 35-member cabinet comprising 28 newcomers, including four from the Muslim Brotherhood. Egypt_sentence_270

Liberal and secular groups walked out of the constituent assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while Muslim Brotherhood backers threw their support behind Morsi. Egypt_sentence_271

On 22 November 2012, President Morsi issued a temporary declaration immunising his decrees from challenge and seeking to protect the work of the constituent assembly. Egypt_sentence_272

The move led to massive protests and violent action throughout Egypt. Egypt_sentence_273

On 5 December 2012, tens of thousands of supporters and opponents of President Morsi clashed, in what was described as the largest violent battle between Islamists and their foes since the country's revolution. Egypt_sentence_274

Mohamed Morsi offered a "national dialogue" with opposition leaders but refused to cancel the December 2012 constitutional referendum. Egypt_sentence_275

Political crisis (2013) Egypt_section_21

Main article: 2013 Egyptian coup d'état Egypt_sentence_276

On 3 July 2013, after a wave of public discontent with autocratic excesses of Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood government, the military removed Morsi from office, dissolved the Shura Council and installed a temporary interim government. Egypt_sentence_277

On 4 July 2013, 68-year-old Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour was sworn in as acting president over the new government following the removal of Morsi. Egypt_sentence_278

The new Egyptian authorities cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood and its supporters, jailing thousands and forcefully dispersing pro-Morsi and/or pro-Brotherhood protests. Egypt_sentence_279

Many of the Muslim Brotherhood leaders and activists have either been sentenced to death or life imprisonment in a series of mass trials. Egypt_sentence_280

On 18 January 2014, the interim government instituted a new constitution following a referendum approved by an overwhelming majority of voters (98.1%). Egypt_sentence_281

38.6% of registered voters participated in the referendum a higher number than the 33% who voted in a referendum during Morsi's tenure. Egypt_sentence_282

President el-Sisi (2014–present) Egypt_section_22

On 26 March 2014, Field Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Egyptian Defence Minister and Commander-in-Chief Egyptian Armed Forces, retired from the military, announcing he would stand as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election. Egypt_sentence_283

The poll, held between 26 and 28 May 2014, resulted in a landslide victory for el-Sisi. Egypt_sentence_284

Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt on 8 June 2014. Egypt_sentence_285

The Muslim Brotherhood and some liberal and secular activist groups boycotted the vote. Egypt_sentence_286

Even though the interim authorities extended voting to a third day, the 46% turnout was lower than the 52% turnout in the 2012 election. Egypt_sentence_287

A new parliamentary election was held in December 2015, resulting in a landslide victory for pro-Sisi parties, which secured a strong majority in the newly formed House of Representatives. Egypt_sentence_288

In 2016, Egypt entered in a diplomatic crisis with Italy following the murder of researcher Giulio Regeni: in April 2016, Prime Minister Matteo Renzi recalled the Italian ambassador from Cairo because of lack of co-operation from the Egyptian Government in the investigation. Egypt_sentence_289

The ambassador was sent back to Egypt in 2017 by the new Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni. Egypt_sentence_290

El-Sisi was re-elected in 2018, facing no serious opposition. Egypt_sentence_291

In 2019, a series of constitutional amendments were approved by the parliament, further increasing the President's and the military's power, increasing presidential terms from 4 years to 6 years and allowing El-Sisi to run for other two mandates. Egypt_sentence_292

The proposals were approved in a referendum. Egypt_sentence_293

The dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam escalated in 2020. Egypt_sentence_294

Egypt sees the dam as an existential threat, fearing that the dam will reduce the amount of water it receives from the Nile. Egypt_sentence_295

Geography Egypt_section_23

Main article: Geography of Egypt Egypt_sentence_296

Egypt lies primarily between latitudes 22° and 32°N, and longitudes 25° and 35°E. Egypt_sentence_297

At 1,001,450 square kilometres (386,660 sq mi), it is the world's 30th-largest country. Egypt_sentence_298

Due to the extreme aridity of Egypt's climate, population centres are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that about 99% of the population uses about 5.5% of the total land area. Egypt_sentence_299

98% of Egyptians live on 3% of the territory. Egypt_sentence_300

Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, the Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Egypt_sentence_301

Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea. Egypt_sentence_302

Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert, with a few oases scattered about. Egypt_sentence_303

Winds create prolific sand dunes that peak at more than 30 metres (100 ft) high. Egypt_sentence_304

Egypt includes parts of the Sahara desert and of the Libyan Desert. Egypt_sentence_305

These deserts protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats and were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt. Egypt_sentence_306

Towns and cities include Alexandria, the second largest city; Aswan; Asyut; Cairo, the modern Egyptian capital and largest city; El Mahalla El Kubra; Giza, the site of the Pyramid of Khufu; Hurghada; Luxor; Kom Ombo; Port Safaga; Port Said; Sharm El Sheikh; Suez, where the south end of the Suez Canal is located; Zagazig; and Minya. Egypt_sentence_307

Oases include Bahariya, Dakhla, Farafra, Kharga and Siwa. Egypt_sentence_308

Protectorates include Ras Mohamed National Park, Zaranik Protectorate and Siwa. Egypt_sentence_309

On 13 March 2015, plans for a proposed new capital of Egypt were announced. Egypt_sentence_310

Climate Egypt_section_24

Main article: Climate of Egypt Egypt_sentence_311

Most of Egypt's rain falls in the winter months. Egypt_sentence_312

South of Cairo, rainfall averages only around 2 to 5 mm (0.1 to 0.2 in) per year and at intervals of many years. Egypt_sentence_313

On a very thin strip of the northern coast the rainfall can be as high as 410 mm (16.1 in), mostly between October and March. Egypt_sentence_314

Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta, Baltim and Sidi Barrani, and rarely in Alexandria. Egypt_sentence_315

A very small amount of snow fell on Cairo on 13 December 2013, the first time in many decades. Egypt_sentence_316

Frost is also known in mid-Sinai and mid-Egypt. Egypt_sentence_317

Egypt is the driest and the sunniest country in the world, and most of its land surface is desert. Egypt_sentence_318

Egypt has an unusually hot, sunny and dry climate. Egypt_sentence_319

Average high temperatures are high in the north but very to extremely high in the rest of the country during summer. Egypt_sentence_320

The cooler Mediterranean winds consistently blow over the northern sea coast, which helps to get more moderated temperatures, especially at the height of the summertime. Egypt_sentence_321

The Khamaseen is a hot, dry wind that originates from the vast deserts in the south and blows in the spring or in the early summer. Egypt_sentence_322

It brings scorching sand and dust particles, and usually brings daytime temperatures over 40 °C (104 °F) and sometimes over 50 °C (122 °F) in the interior, while the relative humidity can drop to 5% or even less. Egypt_sentence_323

The absolute highest temperatures in Egypt occur when the Khamaseen blows. Egypt_sentence_324

The weather is always sunny and clear in Egypt, especially in cities such as Aswan, Luxor and Asyut. Egypt_sentence_325

It is one of the least cloudy and least rainy regions on Earth. Egypt_sentence_326

Prior to the construction of the Aswan Dam, the Nile flooded annually (colloquially The Gift of the Nile) replenishing Egypt's soil. Egypt_sentence_327

This gave Egypt a consistent harvest throughout the years. Egypt_sentence_328

The potential rise in sea levels due to global warming could threaten Egypt's densely populated coastal strip and have grave consequences for the country's economy, agriculture and industry. Egypt_sentence_329

Combined with growing demographic pressures, a significant rise in sea levels could turn millions of Egyptians into environmental refugees by the end of the 21st century, according to some climate experts. Egypt_sentence_330

Biodiversity Egypt_section_25

Main article: Wildlife of Egypt Egypt_sentence_331

Egypt signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 9 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 2 June 1994. Egypt_sentence_332

It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 31 July 1998. Egypt_sentence_333

Where many CBD National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans neglect biological kingdoms apart from animals and plants, Egypt's plan was unusual in providing balanced information about all forms of life. Egypt_sentence_334

The plan stated that the following numbers of species of different groups had been recorded from Egypt: algae (1483 species), animals (about 15,000 species of which more than 10,000 were insects), fungi (more than 627 species), monera (319 species), plants (2426 species), protozoans (371 species). Egypt_sentence_335

For some major groups, for example lichen-forming fungi and nematode worms, the number was not known. Egypt_sentence_336

Apart from small and well-studied groups like amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and reptiles, the many of those numbers are likely to increase as further species are recorded from Egypt. Egypt_sentence_337

For the fungi, including lichen-forming species, for example, subsequent work has shown that over 2200 species have been recorded from Egypt, and the final figure of all fungi actually occurring in the country is expected to be much higher. Egypt_sentence_338

For the grasses, 284 native and naturalised species have been identified and recorded in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_339

Government Egypt_section_26

Main article: Politics of Egypt Egypt_sentence_340

The House of Representatives, whose members are elected to serve five-year terms, specialises in legislation. Egypt_sentence_341

Elections were last held between November 2011 and January 2012 which was later dissolved. Egypt_sentence_342

The next parliamentary election was announced to be held within 6 months of the constitution's ratification on 18 January 2014, and were held in two phases, from 17 October to 2 December 2015. Egypt_sentence_343

Originally, the parliament was to be formed before the president was elected, but interim president Adly Mansour pushed the date. Egypt_sentence_344

The Egyptian presidential election, 2014, took place on 26–28 May 2014. Egypt_sentence_345

Official figures showed a turnout of 25,578,233 or 47.5%, with Abdel Fattah el-Sisi winning with 23.78 million votes, or 96.9% compared to 757,511 (3.1%) for Hamdeen Sabahi. Egypt_sentence_346

After a wave of public discontent with autocratic excesses of the Muslim Brotherhood government of President Mohamed Morsi, on 3 July 2013 then-General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi announced the removal of Morsi from office and the suspension of the constitution. Egypt_sentence_347

A 50-member constitution committee was formed for modifying the constitution which was later published for public voting and was adopted on 18 January 2014. Egypt_sentence_348

In 2013, Freedom House rated political rights in Egypt at 5 (with 1 representing the most free and 7 the least), and civil liberties at 5, which gave it the freedom rating of "Partly Free". Egypt_sentence_349

Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the 19th century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists and intellectuals until the early 20th century. Egypt_sentence_350

The ideology espoused by Islamists such as the Muslim Brotherhood is mostly supported by the lower-middle strata of Egyptian society. Egypt_sentence_351

Egypt has the oldest continuous parliamentary tradition in the Arab world. Egypt_sentence_352

The first popular assembly was established in 1866. Egypt_sentence_353

It was disbanded as a result of the British occupation of 1882, and the British allowed only a consultative body to sit. Egypt_sentence_354

In 1923, however, after the country's independence was declared, a new constitution provided for a parliamentary monarchy. Egypt_sentence_355

Law Egypt_section_27

Main article: Egyptian Civil Code Egypt_sentence_356

The legal system is based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); and judicial review by a Supreme Court, which accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction only with reservations. Egypt_sentence_357

Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation. Egypt_sentence_358

Sharia courts and qadis are run and licensed by the Ministry of Justice. Egypt_sentence_359

The personal status law that regulates matters such as marriage, divorce and child custody is governed by Sharia. Egypt_sentence_360

In a family court, a woman's testimony is worth half of a man's testimony. Egypt_sentence_361

On 26 December 2012, the Muslim Brotherhood attempted to institutionalise a controversial new constitution. Egypt_sentence_362

It was approved by the public in a referendum held 15–22 December 2012 with 64% support, but with only 33% electorate participation. Egypt_sentence_363

It replaced the 2011 Provisional Constitution of Egypt, adopted following the revolution. Egypt_sentence_364

The Penal code was unique as it contains a "Blasphemy Law." Egypt_sentence_365

The present court system allows a death penalty including against an absent individual tried in absentia. Egypt_sentence_366

Several Americans and Canadians were sentenced to death in 2012. Egypt_sentence_367

On 18 January 2014, the interim government successfully institutionalised a more secular constitution. Egypt_sentence_368

The president is elected to a four-year term and may serve 2 terms. Egypt_sentence_369

The parliament may impeach the president. Egypt_sentence_370

Under the constitution, there is a guarantee of gender equality and absolute freedom of thought. Egypt_sentence_371

The military retains the ability to appoint the national Minister of Defence for the next two full presidential terms since the constitution took effect. Egypt_sentence_372

Under the constitution, political parties may not be based on "religion, race, gender or geography". Egypt_sentence_373

Human rights Egypt_section_28

Main article: Human rights in Egypt Egypt_sentence_374

See also: Sudanese refugees in Egypt, August 2013 Rabaa massacre, and Persecution of Copts Egypt_sentence_375

The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights is one of the longest-standing bodies for the defence of human rights in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_376

In 2003, the government established the National Council for Human Rights. Egypt_sentence_377

Shortly after its foundation, the council came under heavy criticism by local activists, who contend it was a propaganda tool for the government to excuse its own violations and to give legitimacy to repressive laws such as the Emergency Law. Egypt_sentence_378

The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life ranks Egypt as the fifth worst country in the world for religious freedom. Egypt_sentence_379

The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, a bipartisan independent agency of the US government, has placed Egypt on its watch list of countries that require close monitoring due to the nature and extent of violations of religious freedom engaged in or tolerated by the government. Egypt_sentence_380

According to a 2010 Pew Global Attitudes survey, 84% of Egyptians polled supported the death penalty for those who leave Islam; 77% supported whippings and cutting off of hands for theft and robbery; and 82% support stoning a person who commits adultery. Egypt_sentence_381

Coptic Christians face discrimination at multiple levels of the government, ranging from underrepresentation in government ministries to laws that limit their ability to build or repair churches. Egypt_sentence_382

Intolerance towards followers of the Baháʼí Faith, and those of the non-orthodox Muslim sects, such as Sufis, Shi'a and Ahmadis, also remains a problem. Egypt_sentence_383

When the government moved to computerise identification cards, members of religious minorities, such as Baháʼís, could not obtain identification documents. Egypt_sentence_384

An Egyptian court ruled in early 2008 that members of other faiths may obtain identity cards without listing their faiths, and without becoming officially recognised. Egypt_sentence_385

Clashes continued between police and supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi. Egypt_sentence_386

During violent clashes that ensued as part of the August 2013 sit-in dispersal, 595 protesters were killed with 14 August 2013 becoming the single deadliest day in Egypt's modern history. Egypt_sentence_387

Egypt actively practices capital punishment. Egypt_sentence_388

Egypt's authorities do not release figures on death sentences and executions, despite repeated requests over the years by human rights organisations. Egypt_sentence_389

The United Nations human rights office and various NGOs expressed "deep alarm" after an Egyptian Minya Criminal Court sentenced 529 people to death in a single hearing on 25 March 2014. Egypt_sentence_390

Sentenced supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi were to be executed for their alleged role in violence following his removal in July 2013. Egypt_sentence_391

The judgement was condemned as a violation of international law. Egypt_sentence_392

By May 2014, approximately 16,000 people (and as high as more than 40,000 by one independent count, according to The Economist), mostly Brotherhood members or supporters, have been imprisoned after Morsi's removal after the Muslim Brotherhood was labelled as terrorist organisation by the post-Morsi interim Egyptian government. Egypt_sentence_393

According to human rights groups there are some 60,000 political prisoners in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_394

After Morsi was ousted by the military, the judiciary system aligned itself with the new government, actively supporting the repression of Muslim Brotherhood members. Egypt_sentence_395

This resulted in a sharp increase in mass death sentences that arose criticism from then-U.S. President Barack Obama and the General Secretary of the UN, Ban Ki Moon. Egypt_sentence_396

Homosexuality is illegal in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_397

According to a 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 95% of Egyptians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society. Egypt_sentence_398

In 2017, Cairo was voted the most dangerous megacity for women with more than 10 million inhabitants in a poll by Thomson Reuters Foundation. Egypt_sentence_399

Sexual harassment was described as occurring on a daily basis. Egypt_sentence_400

Freedom of the press Egypt_section_29

Reporters Without Borders ranked Egypt in their 2017 World Press Freedom Index at No. Egypt_sentence_401

160 out of 180 nations. Egypt_sentence_402

At least 18 journalists were imprisoned in Egypt, as of August 2015. Egypt_sentence_403

A new anti-terror law was enacted in August 2015 that threatens members of the media with fines ranging from about US$25,000 to $60,000 for the distribution of wrong information on acts of terror inside the country "that differ from official declarations of the Egyptian Department of Defense". Egypt_sentence_404

Some critics of the government have been arrested for allegedly spreading false information about the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_405

Military and foreign relations Egypt_section_30

Main articles: Egyptian Armed Forces and Foreign relations of Egypt Egypt_sentence_406

The military is influential in the political and economic life of Egypt and exempts itself from laws that apply to other sectors. Egypt_sentence_407

It enjoys considerable power, prestige and independence within the state and has been widely considered part of the Egyptian "deep state". Egypt_sentence_408

According to the former chair of Israel's Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, Yuval Steinitz, the Egyptian Air Force has roughly the same number of modern warplanes as the Israeli Air Force and far more Western tanks, artillery, anti-aircraft batteries and warships than the IDF. Egypt_sentence_409

Egypt is speculated by Israel to be the second country in the region with a spy satellite, EgyptSat 1 in addition to EgyptSat 2 launched on 16 April 2014. Egypt_sentence_410

The United States provides Egypt with annual military assistance, which in 2015 amounted to US$1.3 billion. Egypt_sentence_411

In 1989, Egypt was designated as a major non-NATO ally of the United States. Egypt_sentence_412

Nevertheless, ties between the two countries have partially soured since the July 2013 overthrow of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi, with the Obama administration denouncing Egypt over its crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood, and cancelling future military exercises involving the two countries. Egypt_sentence_413

There have been recent attempts, however, to normalise relations between the two, with both governments frequently calling for mutual support in the fight against regional and international terrorism. Egypt_sentence_414

However, following the election of Republican Donald Trump as the President of the United States, the two countries were looking to improve the Egyptian-American relations. Egypt_sentence_415

al-Sisi and Trump had met during the opening of the seventy-first session of the United Nations General Assembly in September 2016. Egypt_sentence_416

The absence of Egypt in President Trump's travel ban towards seven Muslim countries was noted in Washington although the Congress has voiced human rights concerns over the handling of dissidents. Egypt_sentence_417

On 3 April 2017 al-Sisi met with Trump at the White House, marking the first visit of an Egyptian president to Washington in 8 years. Egypt_sentence_418

Trump praised al-Sisi in what was reported as a public relations victory for the Egyptian president, and signaled it was time for a normalization of the relations between Egypt and the US. Egypt_sentence_419

The Egyptian military has dozens of factories manufacturing weapons as well as consumer goods. Egypt_sentence_420

The Armed Forces' inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world. Egypt_sentence_421

Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern US, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams tank. Egypt_sentence_422

Relations with Russia have improved significantly following Mohamed Morsi's removal and both countries have worked since then to strengthen military and trade ties among other aspects of bilateral co-operation. Egypt_sentence_423

Relations with China have also improved considerably. Egypt_sentence_424

In 2014, Egypt and China established a bilateral "comprehensive strategic partnership". Egypt_sentence_425

In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Egypt, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region. Egypt_sentence_426

The permanent headquarters of the Arab League are located in Cairo and the body's secretary general has traditionally been Egyptian. Egypt_sentence_427

This position is currently held by former foreign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit. Egypt_sentence_428

The Arab League briefly moved from Egypt to Tunis in 1978 to protest the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, but it later returned to Cairo in 1989. Egypt_sentence_429

Gulf monarchies, including the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, have pledged billions of dollars to help Egypt overcome its economic difficulties since the overthrow of Morsi. Egypt_sentence_430

Following the 1973 war and the subsequent peace treaty, Egypt became the first Arab nation to establish diplomatic relations with Israel. Egypt_sentence_431

Despite that, Israel is still widely considered as a hostile state by the majority of Egyptians. Egypt_sentence_432

Egypt has played a historical role as a mediator in resolving various disputes in the Middle East, most notably its handling of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the peace process. Egypt_sentence_433

Egypt's ceasefire and truce brokering efforts in Gaza have hardly been challenged following Israel's evacuation of its settlements from the strip in 2005, despite increasing animosity towards the Hamas government in Gaza following the ouster of Mohamed Morsi, and despite recent attempts by countries like Turkey and Qatar to take over this role. Egypt_sentence_434

Ties between Egypt and other non-Arab Middle Eastern nations, including Iran and Turkey, have often been strained. Egypt_sentence_435

Tensions with Iran are mostly due to Egypt's peace treaty with Israel and Iran's rivalry with traditional Egyptian allies in the Gulf. Egypt_sentence_436

Turkey's recent support for the now-banned Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and its alleged involvement in Libya also made both countries bitter regional rivals. Egypt_sentence_437

Egypt is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. Egypt_sentence_438

It is also a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie, since 1983. Egypt_sentence_439

Former Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served as Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1991 to 1996. Egypt_sentence_440

In 2008, Egypt was estimated to have two million African refugees, including over 20,000 Sudanese nationals registered with UNHCR as refugees fleeing armed conflict or asylum seekers. Egypt_sentence_441

Egypt adopted "harsh, sometimes lethal" methods of border control. Egypt_sentence_442

Administrative divisions Egypt_section_31

Main articles: Governorates of Egypt and Subdivisions of Egypt Egypt_sentence_443

Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. Egypt_sentence_444

The governorates are further divided into regions. Egypt_sentence_445

The regions contain towns and villages. Egypt_sentence_446

Each governorate has a capital, sometimes carrying the same name as the governorate. Egypt_sentence_447

Economy Egypt_section_32

Main article: Economy of Egypt Egypt_sentence_448


Share of world GDP (PPP)Egypt_header_cell_0_0_0
YearEgypt_header_cell_0_1_0 ShareEgypt_header_cell_0_1_1
1980Egypt_cell_0_2_0 0.69%Egypt_cell_0_2_1
1990Egypt_cell_0_3_0 0.83%Egypt_cell_0_3_1
2000Egypt_cell_0_4_0 0.86%Egypt_cell_0_4_1
2010Egypt_cell_0_5_0 0.96%Egypt_cell_0_5_1
2017Egypt_cell_0_6_0 0.95%Egypt_cell_0_6_1

Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum imports, natural gas, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Libya, Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe. Egypt_sentence_449

The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honoured place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. Egypt_sentence_450

A rapidly growing population, limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy. Egypt_sentence_451

The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt_sentence_452

Egypt has received United States foreign aid since 1979 (an average of $2.2 billion per year) and is the third-largest recipient of such funds from the United States following the Iraq war. Egypt_sentence_453

Egypt's economy mainly relies on these sources of income: tourism, remittances from Egyptians working abroad and revenues from the Suez Canal. Egypt_sentence_454

Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. Egypt_sentence_455

Substantial coal deposits in the northeast Sinai are mined at the rate of about 600,000 tonnes (590,000 long tons; 660,000 short tons) per year. Egypt_sentence_456

Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez, and the Nile Delta. Egypt_sentence_457

Egypt has huge reserves of gas, estimated at 2,180 cubic kilometres (520 cu mi), and LNG up to 2012 exported to many countries. Egypt_sentence_458

In 2013, the Egyptian General Petroleum Co (EGPC) said the country will cut exports of natural gas and tell major industries to slow output this summer to avoid an energy crisis and stave off political unrest, Reuters has reported. Egypt_sentence_459

Egypt is counting on top liquid natural gas (LNG) exporter Qatar to obtain additional gas volumes in summer, while encouraging factories to plan their annual maintenance for those months of peak demand, said EGPC chairman, Tarek El Barkatawy. Egypt_sentence_460

Egypt produces its own energy, but has been a net oil importer since 2008 and is rapidly becoming a net importer of natural gas. Egypt_sentence_461

Economic conditions have started to improve considerably, after a period of stagnation, due to the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market. Egypt_sentence_462

In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms. Egypt_sentence_463

Some major economic reforms undertaken by the government since 2003 include a dramatic slashing of customs and tariffs. Egypt_sentence_464

A new taxation law implemented in 2005 decreased corporate taxes from 40% to the current 20%, resulting in a stated 100% increase in tax revenue by the year 2006. Egypt_sentence_465

Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Egypt increased considerably before the removal of Hosni Mubarak, exceeding $6 billion in 2006, due to economic liberalisation and privatisation measures taken by minister of investment Mahmoud Mohieddin. Egypt_sentence_466

Since the fall of Hosni Mubarak in 2011, Egypt has experienced a drastic fall in both foreign investment and tourism revenues, followed by a 60% drop in foreign exchange reserves, a 3% drop in growth, and a rapid devaluation of the Egyptian pound. Egypt_sentence_467

Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the limited trickle down of wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticise their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant. Egypt_sentence_468

Corruption is often cited by Egyptians as the main impediment to further economic growth. Egypt_sentence_469

The government promised major reconstruction of the country's infrastructure, using money paid for the newly acquired third mobile license ($3 billion) by Etisalat in 2006. Egypt_sentence_470

In the Corruption Perceptions Index 2013, Egypt was ranked 114 out of 177. Egypt_sentence_471

Egypt's most prominent multinational companies are the Orascom Group and Raya Contact Center. Egypt_sentence_472

The information technology (IT) sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as many small and medium size enterprises. Egypt_sentence_473

Some of these companies are the Xceed Contact Center, Raya, E Group Connections and C3. Egypt_sentence_474

The IT sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs with government encouragement. Egypt_sentence_475

An estimated 2.7 million Egyptians abroad contribute actively to the development of their country through remittances (US$7.8 billion in 2009), as well as circulation of human and social capital and investment. Egypt_sentence_476

Remittances, money earned by Egyptians living abroad and sent home, reached a record US$21 billion in 2012, according to the World Bank. Egypt_sentence_477

Egyptian society is moderately unequal in terms of income distribution, with an estimated 35–40% of Egypt's population earning less than the equivalent of $2 a day, while only around 2–3% may be considered wealthy. Egypt_sentence_478

Tourism Egypt_section_33

Main article: Tourism in Egypt Egypt_sentence_479

Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt's economy. Egypt_sentence_480

More than 12.8 million tourists visited Egypt in 2008, providing revenues of nearly $11 billion. Egypt_sentence_481

The tourism sector employs about 12% of Egypt's workforce. Egypt_sentence_482

Tourism Minister Hisham Zaazou told industry professionals and reporters that tourism generated some $9.4 billion in 2012, a slight increase over the $9 billion seen in 2011. Egypt_sentence_483

The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's best-known tourist attractions; it is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence. Egypt_sentence_484

Egypt's beaches on the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, which extend to over 3,000 kilometres (1,900 miles), are also popular tourist destinations; the Gulf of Aqaba beaches, Safaga, Sharm el-Sheikh, Hurghada, Luxor, Dahab, Ras Sidr and Marsa Alam are popular sites. Egypt_sentence_485

Energy Egypt_section_34

Main article: Energy in Egypt Egypt_sentence_486

Egypt produced 691,000 bbl/d of oil and 2,141.05 Tcf of natural gas in 2013, making the country the largest non-OPEC producer of oil and the second-largest dry natural gas producer in Africa. Egypt_sentence_487

In 2013, Egypt was the largest consumer of oil and natural gas in Africa, as more than 20% of total oil consumption and more than 40% of total dry natural gas consumption in Africa. Egypt_sentence_488

Also, Egypt possesses the largest oil refinery capacity in Africa 726,000 bbl/d (in 2012). Egypt_sentence_489

Egypt is currently planning to build its first nuclear power plant in El Dabaa, in the northern part of the country, with $25 billion in Russian financing. Egypt_sentence_490

Transport Egypt_section_35

Main article: Transport in Egypt Egypt_sentence_491

Transport in Egypt is centred around Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile. Egypt_sentence_492

The main line of the nation's 40,800-kilometre (25,400 mi) railway network runs from Alexandria to Aswan and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. Egypt_sentence_493

The vehicle road network has expanded rapidly to over 34,000 km (21,000 mi), consisting of 28 line, 796 stations, 1800 train covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases. Egypt_sentence_494

The Cairo Metro in Egypt is the first of only two full-fledged metro systems in Africa and the Arab World. Egypt_sentence_495

It is considered one of the most important recent projects in Egypt which cost around 12 billion Egyptian pounds. Egypt_sentence_496

The system consists of three operational lines with a fourth line expected in the future. Egypt_sentence_497

EgyptAir, which is now the country's flag carrier and largest airline, was founded in 1932 by Egyptian industrialist Talaat Harb, today owned by the Egyptian government. Egypt_sentence_498

The airline is based at Cairo International Airport, its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Egypt_sentence_499

The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplanes. Egypt_sentence_500

Suez Canal Egypt_section_36

Main article: Suez Canal Egypt_sentence_501

The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of the maritime transport in the Middle East, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Egypt_sentence_502

Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. Egypt_sentence_503

The northern terminus is Port Said and the southern terminus is Port Tawfiq at the city of Suez. Egypt_sentence_504

Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 kilometres (1 ⁄8 miles) from the half-way point. Egypt_sentence_505

The canal is 193.30 km (120 ⁄8 mi) long, 24 metres (79 feet) deep and 205 m (673 ft) wide as of 2010. Egypt_sentence_506

It consists of the northern access channel of 22 km (14 mi), the canal itself of 162.25 km (100 ⁄8 mi) and the southern access channel of 9 km (5 ⁄2 mi). Egypt_sentence_507

The canal is a single lane with passing places in the Ballah By-Pass and the Great Bitter Lake. Egypt_sentence_508

It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. Egypt_sentence_509

In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. Egypt_sentence_510

The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez. Egypt_sentence_511

On 26 August 2014 a proposal was made for opening a New Suez Canal. Egypt_sentence_512

Work on the New Suez Canal was completed in July 2015. Egypt_sentence_513

The channel was officially inaugurated with a ceremony attended by foreign leaders and featuring military flyovers on 6 August 2015, in accordance with the budgets laid out for the project. Egypt_sentence_514

Water supply and sanitation Egypt_section_37

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt Egypt_sentence_515

The piped water supply in Egypt increased between 1990 and 2010 from 89% to 100% in urban areas and from 39% to 93% in rural areas despite rapid population growth. Egypt_sentence_516

Over that period, Egypt achieved the elimination of open defecation in rural areas and invested in infrastructure. Egypt_sentence_517

Access to an improved water source in Egypt is now practically universal with a rate of 99%. Egypt_sentence_518

About one half of the population is connected to sanitary sewers. Egypt_sentence_519

Partly because of low sanitation coverage about 17,000 children die each year because of diarrhoea. Egypt_sentence_520

Another challenge is low cost recovery due to water tariffs that are among the lowest in the world. Egypt_sentence_521

This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring. Egypt_sentence_522

Poor operation of facilities, such as water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as limited government accountability and transparency, are also issues. Egypt_sentence_523

Irrigated land and crops Egypt_section_38

Due to the absence of appreciable rainfall, Egypt's agriculture depends entirely on irrigation. Egypt_sentence_524

The main source of irrigation water is the river Nile of which the flow is controlled by the high dam at Aswan. Egypt_sentence_525

It releases, on average, 55 cubic kilometres (45,000,000 acre·ft) water per year, of which some 46 cubic kilometres (37,000,000 acre·ft) are diverted into the irrigation canals. Egypt_sentence_526

In the Nile valley and delta, almost 33,600 square kilometres (13,000 sq mi) of land benefit from these irrigation waters producing on average 1.8 crops per year. Egypt_sentence_527

Demographics Egypt_section_39

Main articles: Demographics of Egypt and Egyptians Egypt_sentence_528

Egypt is the most populated country in the Arab world and the third most populous on the African continent, with about 95 million inhabitants as of 2017. Egypt_sentence_529

Its population grew rapidly from 1970 to 2010 due to medical advances and increases in agricultural productivity enabled by the Green Revolution. Egypt_sentence_530

Egypt's population was estimated at 3 million when Napoleon invaded the country in 1798. Egypt_sentence_531

Egypt's people are highly urbanised, being concentrated along the Nile (notably Cairo and Alexandria), in the Delta and near the Suez Canal. Egypt_sentence_532

Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin, or farmers, that reside in rural villages. Egypt_sentence_533

The total inhabited area constitutes , putting the physiological density at over 1,200 people per km, similar to Bangladesh. Egypt_sentence_534

While emigration was restricted under Nasser, thousands of Egyptian professionals were dispatched abroad in the context of the Arab Cold War. Egypt_sentence_535

Egyptian emigration was liberalised in 1971, under President Sadat, reaching record numbers after the 1973 oil crisis. Egypt_sentence_536

An estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad. Egypt_sentence_537

Approximately 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries (923,600 in Saudi Arabia, 332,600 in Libya, 226,850 in Jordan, 190,550 in Kuwait with the rest elsewhere in the region) and the remaining 30% reside mostly in Europe and North America (318,000 in the United States, 110,000 in Canada and 90,000 in Italy). Egypt_sentence_538

The process of emigrating to non-Arab states has been ongoing since the 1950s. Egypt_sentence_539

Ethnic groups Egypt_section_40

Ethnic Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 99.7% of the total population. Egypt_sentence_540

Ethnic minorities include the Abazas, Turks, Greeks, Bedouin Arab tribes living in the eastern deserts and the Sinai Peninsula, the Berber-speaking Siwis (Amazigh) of the Siwa Oasis, and the Nubian communities clustered along the Nile. Egypt_sentence_541

There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the southeasternmost corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanisation increases. Egypt_sentence_542

Some 5 million immigrants live in Egypt, mostly Sudanese, "some of whom have lived in Egypt for generations." Egypt_sentence_543

Smaller numbers of immigrants come from Iraq, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, and Eritrea. Egypt_sentence_544

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that the total number of "people of concern" (refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless people) was about 250,000. Egypt_sentence_545

In 2015, the number of registered Syrian refugees in Egypt was 117,000, a decrease from the previous year. Egypt_sentence_546

Egyptian government claims that a half-million Syrian refugees live in Egypt are thought to be exaggerated. Egypt_sentence_547

There are 28,000 registered Sudanese refugees in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_548

The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared, with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism. Egypt_sentence_549

Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities. Egypt_sentence_550

Languages Egypt_section_41

Main article: Languages of Egypt Egypt_sentence_551

The official language of the Republic is Arabic. Egypt_sentence_552

The spoken languages are: Egyptian Arabic (68%), Sa'idi Arabic (29%), Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic (1.6%), Sudanese Arabic (0.6%), Domari (0.3%), Nobiin (0.3%), Beja (0.1%), Siwi and others. Egypt_sentence_553

Additionally, Greek, Armenian and Italian, and more recently, African languages like Amharic and Tigrigna are the main languages of immigrants. Egypt_sentence_554

The main foreign languages taught in schools, by order of popularity, are English, French, German and Italian. Egypt_sentence_555

Historically Egyptian was spoken, of which the latest stage is Coptic Egyptian. Egypt_sentence_556

Spoken Coptic was mostly extinct by the 17th century but may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century. Egypt_sentence_557

It remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Egypt_sentence_558

It forms a separate branch among the family of Afroasiatic languages. Egypt_sentence_559

Religion Egypt_section_42

Main article: Religion in Egypt Egypt_sentence_560

Egypt has the largest Muslim population in the Arab world, and the sixth world's largest Muslim population, and home for (5%) of the world's Muslim population. Egypt_sentence_561

Egypt also has the largest Christian population in the Middle East and North Africa. Egypt_sentence_562

Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion. Egypt_sentence_563

The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_564

An estimated 85–90% are identified as Muslim, 10–15% as Coptic Christians, and 1% as other Christian denominations, although without a census the numbers cannot be known. Egypt_sentence_565

Other estimates put the Christian population as high as 15–20%. Egypt_sentence_566

Non-denominational Muslims form roughly 12% of the population. Egypt_sentence_567

Egypt was a Christian country before the 7th century, and after Islam arrived, the country was gradually Islamised into a majority-Muslim country. Egypt_sentence_568

It is not known when Muslims reached a majority variously estimated from c. 1000 CE to as late as the 14th century. Egypt_sentence_569

Egypt emerged as a centre of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Egypt_sentence_570

Under Anwar Sadat, Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law. Egypt_sentence_571

It is estimated that 15 million Egyptians follow Native Sufi orders, with the Sufi leadership asserting that the numbers are much greater as many Egyptian Sufis are not officially registered with a Sufi order. Egypt_sentence_572

At least 305 people were killed during a November 2017 attack on a Sufi mosque in Sinai. Egypt_sentence_573

There is also a Shi'a minority. Egypt_sentence_574

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs estimates the Shia population at 1 to 2.2 million and could measure as much as 3 million. Egypt_sentence_575

The Ahmadiyya population is estimated at less than 50,000, whereas the Salafi (ultra-conservative) population is estimated at five to six million. Egypt_sentence_576

Cairo is famous for its numerous mosque minarets and has been dubbed "The City of 1,000 Minarets". Egypt_sentence_577

Of the Christian population in Egypt over 90% belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox Christian Church. Egypt_sentence_578

Other native Egyptian Christians are adherents of the Coptic Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church of Egypt and various other Protestant denominations. Egypt_sentence_579

Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, such as the Syro-Lebanese, who belong to Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Maronite Catholic denominations. Egypt_sentence_580

Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Egypt_sentence_581

Likewise, Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities. Egypt_sentence_582

Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community, largely made up of Italians and Maltese. Egypt_sentence_583

These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place. Egypt_sentence_584

Egypt hosts the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Egypt_sentence_585

It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest church in the country. Egypt_sentence_586

Egypt is also the home of Al-Azhar University (founded in 969 CE, began teaching in 975 CE), which is today the world's "most influential voice of establishment Sunni Islam" and is, by some measures, the second-oldest continuously operating university in world. Egypt_sentence_587

Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Egypt_sentence_588

Other faiths and minority Muslim sects practised by Egyptians, such as the small Baháʼí Faith and Ahmadiyya communities, are not recognised by the state and face persecution by the government, which labels these groups a threat to Egypt's national security. Egypt_sentence_589

Individuals, particularly Baháʼís and atheists, wishing to include their religion (or lack thereof) on their mandatory state issued identification cards are denied this ability (see Egyptian identification card controversy), and are put in the position of either not obtaining required identification or lying about their faith. Egypt_sentence_590

A 2008 court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank. Egypt_sentence_591

Largest cities Egypt_section_43

See also: List of cities and towns in Egypt Egypt_sentence_592

Culture Egypt_section_44

Main article: Culture of Egypt Egypt_sentence_593

Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. Egypt_sentence_594

Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television. Egypt_sentence_595

Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the 1950s and 1960s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world. Egypt_sentence_596

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam, Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic, and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words. Egypt_sentence_597

The work of early 19th century scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles. Egypt_sentence_598

Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi, who themselves studied the history, language and antiquities of Egypt. Egypt_sentence_599

Egypt's renaissance peaked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the work of people like Muhammad Abduh, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, Muhammad Loutfi Goumah, Tawfiq el-Hakim, Louis Awad, Qasim Amin, Salama Moussa, Taha Hussein and Mahmoud Mokhtar. Egypt_sentence_600

They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress. Egypt_sentence_601

Arts Egypt_section_45

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture. Egypt_sentence_602

Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. Egypt_sentence_603

It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. Egypt_sentence_604

The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Egypt_sentence_605

Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids, temples and monumental tombs. Egypt_sentence_606

Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep, the Sphinx, and the temple of Abu Simbel. Egypt_sentence_607

Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef, to Mahmoud Mokhtar's sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous. Egypt_sentence_608

The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egypt_sentence_609

Literature Egypt_section_46

Main article: Egyptian literature Egypt_sentence_610

Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature. Egypt_sentence_611

Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book. Egypt_sentence_612

It is an important cultural element in the life of Egypt. Egypt_sentence_613

Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature, and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Arab world. Egypt_sentence_614

The first modern Egyptian novel Zaynab by Muhammad Husayn Haykal was published in 1913 in the Egyptian vernacular. Egypt_sentence_615

Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Egypt_sentence_616

Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi, well known for her feminist activism, and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition. Egypt_sentence_617

Vernacular poetry is perhaps the most popular literary genre among Egyptians, represented by the works of Ahmed Fouad Negm (Fagumi), Salah Jaheen and Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi. Egypt_sentence_618

Media Egypt_section_47

Main article: Media of Egypt Egypt_sentence_619

Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World, attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control. Egypt_sentence_620

Freedom of the media is guaranteed in the constitution; however, many laws still restrict this right. Egypt_sentence_621

Cinema Egypt_section_48

Main article: Cinema of Egypt Egypt_sentence_622

Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound. Egypt_sentence_623

In 1936, Studio Misr, financed by industrialist Talaat Harb, emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades. Egypt_sentence_624

For over 100 years, more than 4000 films have been produced in Egypt, three quarters of the total Arab production. Egypt_sentence_625

Egypt is considered the leading country in the field of cinema in the Arab world. Egypt_sentence_626

Actors from all over the Arab world seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. Egypt_sentence_627

The Cairo International Film Festival has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations. Egypt_sentence_628

Music Egypt_section_49

Main article: Music of Egypt Egypt_sentence_629

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. Egypt_sentence_630

It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. Egypt_sentence_631

The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music, which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world. Egypt_sentence_632

Egyptians used music instruments since then. Egypt_sentence_633

Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu al-Hamuli, Almaz and Mahmoud Osman, who influenced the later work of Sayed Darwish, Umm Kulthum, Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez whose age is considered the golden age of music in Egypt and the whole Arab world. Egypt_sentence_634

Prominent contemporary Egyptian pop singers include Amr Diab and Mohamed Mounir. Egypt_sentence_635

Dances Egypt_section_50

Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egypt_sentence_636

Egyptian belly dance has two main styles – raqs baladi and raqs sharqi. Egypt_sentence_637

There are also numerous folkloric and character dances that may be part of an Egyptian-style belly dancer's repertoire, as well as the modern shaabi street dance which shares some elements with raqs baladi. Egypt_sentence_638

Museums Egypt_section_51

Main article: List of museums in Egypt Egypt_sentence_639

Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. Egypt_sentence_640

It has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and has been through so many eras, starting from prehistoric age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages. Egypt_sentence_641

Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts. Egypt_sentence_642

The three main museums in Egypt are The Egyptian Museum which has more than 120,000 items, the Egyptian National Military Museum and the 6th of October Panorama. Egypt_sentence_643

The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM), also known as the Giza Museum, is an under construction museum that will house the largest collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts in the world, it has been described as the world's largest archaeological museum. Egypt_sentence_644

The museum was scheduled to open in 2015 and will be sited on 50 hectares (120 acres) of land approximately two kilometres (1.2 miles) from the Giza Necropolis and is part of a new master plan for the plateau. Egypt_sentence_645

The Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh al-Damaty announced in May 2015 that the museum will be partially opened in May 2018. Egypt_sentence_646

Festivals Egypt_section_52

Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid. Egypt_sentence_647

They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion. Egypt_sentence_648

Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights (local lanterns known as fawanees) and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan. Egypt_sentence_649

The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim (Coptic: Ϭⲱⲙ‘ⲛⲛⲓⲥⲓⲙ shom en nisim) has been celebrated by Egyptians for thousands of years, typically between the Egyptian months of Paremoude (April) and Pashons (May), following Easter Sunday. Egypt_sentence_650

Cuisine Egypt_section_53

Main article: Egyptian cuisine Egypt_sentence_651

Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes. Egypt_sentence_652

Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Egypt_sentence_653

Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed. Egypt_sentence_654

Some consider kushari (a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni) to be the national dish. Egypt_sentence_655

Fried onions can be also added to kushari. Egypt_sentence_656

In addition, ful medames (mashed fava beans) is one of the most popular dishes. Egypt_sentence_657

Fava bean is also used in making falafel (also known as "ta‘miya"), which may have originated in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Middle East. Egypt_sentence_658

Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya, a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit. Egypt_sentence_659

Sports Egypt_section_54

Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. Egypt_sentence_660

The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world. Egypt_sentence_661

Al Ahly is the most successful club of the 20th century in the African continent according to CAF, closely followed by their rivals Zamalek SC. Egypt_sentence_662

They're known as the "African Club of the Century". Egypt_sentence_663

With twenty titles, Al Ahly is currently the world's most successful club in terms of international trophies, surpassing Italy's A.C. Egypt_sentence_664 Milan and Argentina's Boca Juniors, both having eighteen. Egypt_sentence_665

The Egyptian national football team, known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Egypt_sentence_666

Considered the most successful African national team and one which has reached the top 10 of the FIFA world rankings, Egypt has qualified for the FIFA World Cup three times. Egypt_sentence_667

Two goals from star player Mohamed Salah in their last qualifying game took Egypt through to the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Egypt_sentence_668

The Egyptian Youth National team Young Pharaohs won the Bronze Medal of the 2001 FIFA youth world cup in Argentina. Egypt_sentence_669

Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the 1928 and the 1964 Olympics. Egypt_sentence_670

Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_671

The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the 1930s. Egypt_sentence_672

Amr Shabana and Ramy Ashour are Egypt's best players and both were ranked the world's number one squash player. Egypt_sentence_673

Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in 2017. Egypt_sentence_674

In 1999, Egypt hosted the IHF World Men's Handball Championship, and will host it again in 2021. Egypt_sentence_675

In 2001, the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place. Egypt_sentence_676

Egypt has won in the African Men's Handball Championship five times, being the best team in Africa. Egypt_sentence_677

In addition to that, it also championed the Mediterranean Games in 2013, the Beach Handball World Championships in 2004 and the Summer Youth Olympics in 2010. Egypt_sentence_678

Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics. Egypt_sentence_679

Further, the team has won a record number of 16 medals at the African Championship. Egypt_sentence_680

Egypt has taken part in the Summer Olympic Games since 1912 and has hosted several other international competitions including the first Mediterranean Games in 1951, the 1991 All-Africa Games, the 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup and the 1953, 1965 and 2007 editions of the Pan Arab Games. Egypt_sentence_681

Telecommunication Egypt_section_55

Main article: Telecommunications in Egypt Egypt_sentence_682

The wired and wireless telecommunication industry in Egypt started in 1854 with the launch of the country's first telegram line connecting Cairo and Alexandria. Egypt_sentence_683

The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in 1881. Egypt_sentence_684

In September 1999 a national project for a technological renaissance was announced reflecting the commitment of the Egyptian government to developing the country's IT-sector. Egypt_sentence_685

Post Egypt_section_56

Main article: Egypt Post Egypt_sentence_686

Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt. Egypt_sentence_687

Established in 1865, it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt_sentence_688

Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union, initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern. Egypt_sentence_689

Social Media Egypt_section_57

In September 2018, Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls. Egypt_sentence_690

Education Egypt_section_58

Main article: Education in Egypt Egypt_sentence_691

The illiteracy rate has decreased since 1996 from 39.4 to 25.9 percent in 2013. Egypt_sentence_692

The adult literacy rate as of July 2014 was estimated at 73.9%. Egypt_sentence_693

The illiteracy rate is highest among those over 60 years of age being estimated at around 64.9%, while illiteracy among youth between 15 and 24 years of age was listed at 8.6 percent. Egypt_sentence_694

A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers. Egypt_sentence_695

Under British occupation investment in education was curbed drastically, and secular public schools, which had previously been free, began to charge fees. Egypt_sentence_696

In the 1950s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Egypt_sentence_697

The Egyptian curriculum influenced other Arab education systems, which often employed Egyptian-trained teachers. Egypt_sentence_698

Demand soon outstripped the level of available state resources, causing the quality of public education to deteriorate. Egypt_sentence_699

Today this trend has culminated in poor teacher–student ratios (often around one to fifty) and persistent gender inequality. Egypt_sentence_700

Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six. Egypt_sentence_701

After grade 9, students are tracked into one of two strands of secondary education: general or technical schools. Egypt_sentence_702

General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma, the leaving exam. Egypt_sentence_703

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five. Egypt_sentence_704

Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon. Egypt_sentence_705

Cairo University is ranked as 401–500 according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (Shanghai Ranking) and 551–600 according to QS World University Rankings. Egypt_sentence_706

American University in Cairo is ranked as 360 according to QS World University Rankings and Al-Azhar University, Alexandria University and Ain Shams University fall in the 701+ range. Egypt_sentence_707

Egypt is currently opening new research institutes for the aim of modernising research in the nation, the most recent example of which is Zewail City of Science and Technology. Egypt_sentence_708

Health Egypt_section_59

Main article: Health in Egypt Egypt_sentence_709

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was 73.20 years in 2011, or 71.30 years for males and 75.20 years for females. Egypt_sentence_710

Egypt spends 3.7 percent of its gross domestic product on health including treatment costs 22 percent incurred by citizens and the rest by the state. Egypt_sentence_711

In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 4.66% of the country's GDP. Egypt_sentence_712

In 2009, there were 16.04 physicians and 33.80 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants. Egypt_sentence_713

As a result of modernisation efforts over the years, Egypt's healthcare system has made great strides forward. Egypt_sentence_714

Access to healthcare in both urban and rural areas greatly improved and immunisation programs are now able to cover 98% of the population. Egypt_sentence_715

Life expectancy increased from 44.8 years during the 1960s to 72.12 years in 2009. Egypt_sentence_716

There was a noticeable decline of the infant mortality rate (during the 1970s to the 1980s the infant mortality rate was 101-132/1000 live births, in 2000 the rate was 50-60/1000, and in 2008 it was 28-30/1000). Egypt_sentence_717

According to the World Health Organization in 2008, an estimated 91.1% of Egypt's girls and women aged 15 to 49 have been subjected to genital mutilation, despite being illegal in the country. Egypt_sentence_718

In 2016 the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years. Egypt_sentence_719

Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. Egypt_sentence_720

The total number of Egyptians with health insurance reached 37 million in 2009, of which 11 million are minors, providing an insurance coverage of approximately 52 percent of Egypt's population. Egypt_sentence_721

See also Egypt_section_60


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