Egyptian Arabic

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Egyptian Arabic_table_infobox_0

Egyptian ArabicEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_1_0 [elˈlæhgæ l.mɑsˤˈɾejjɑEgyptian Arabic_cell_0_1_1
Native toEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_2_0 EgyptEgyptian Arabic_cell_0_2_1
Native speakersEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_3_0 68,000,000 (2020)Egyptian Arabic_cell_0_3_1
Language familyEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_4_0 Afro-AsiaticEgyptian Arabic_cell_0_4_1
Writing systemEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_5_0 Arabic alphabetEgyptian Arabic_cell_0_5_1
Language codesEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_6_0
ISO 639-3Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_7_0 Egyptian Arabic_cell_0_7_1
GlottologEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_0_8_0 Egyptian Arabic_cell_0_8_1

Egyptian Arabic, locally known as Colloquial Egyptian (Arabic: العامية المصرية‎, [el.ʕæmˈmejjæ l.mɑsˤˈɾejjɑ), or simply Masri (مَصرى), is the spoken vernacular Arabic dialect of Egypt. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_0

Egyptian is a dialect of the Arabic language which is also part of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_1

It originated in the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_2

Egyptian Arabic evolved from the Quranic Arabic which was brought to Egypt during the seventh-century AD Muslim conquest that aimed to spread the Islamic faith among the Egyptians. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_3

Egyptian Arabic is mainly influenced by the Egyptian Coptic language in its grammar structure which was the native language of the vast majority of Nile Valley Egyptians prior to the Islamic conquest and later it had small influences by European and foreign languages such as French, Italian, Greek, Turkish and English. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_4

The 100 million Egyptians speak a continuum of dialects, among which Cairene is the most prominent. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_5

It is also understood across most of the Arabic-speaking countries due to broad Egyptian influence on the region. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_6

Furthermore, Egyptian media including cinema has had a big influence in the MENA region for more than a century, along with the music industry. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_7

These factors help to make it the most widely spoken and by far the most widely studied variety of Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_8

While it is primarily a spoken language, the written form is used in novels, plays and poems (vernacular literature), as well as in comics, advertising, some newspapers and transcriptions of popular songs. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_9

In most other written media and in television news reporting, Literary Arabic is used. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_10

Literary Arabic is a standardized language based on the language of the Quran, that is, Classical Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_11

The Egyptian vernacular is almost universally written in the Arabic alphabet for local consumption, although it is commonly transcribed into Latin letters or in the International Phonetic Alphabet in linguistics text and textbooks aimed at teaching non-native learners. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_12

Naming Egyptian Arabic_section_0

Egyptians generally call their vernacular "Arabic" (عربى, [ˈʕɑrɑbi) when juxtaposed with non-Arabic languages; "Colloquial Egyptian" (العاميه المصريه, [el.ʕæmˈmejjæ l.mɑsˤˈɾejjɑ) or simply "'Aamiyya" (عامية, colloquial) when juxtaposed with Standard Arabic and the Egyptian dialect (اللهجه المصريه, [elˈlæhɡæ l.mɑsˤˈɾejjɑ) or simply Masri (مَصرى, [ˈmɑsˤɾi, Egyptian) when juxtaposed with other vernacular Arabic dialects. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_13

Sometimes it is also called Modern Egyptian language (اللغه المصريه الحديثه, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [elˈloɣæ l.mɑsˤˈɾejjɑ l.ħæˈdiːsæ). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_14

The term Egyptian Arabic is usually used synonymously with "Cairene Arabic", which is technically a dialect of Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_15

The country's native name, Maṣr, is often used locally to refer to Cairo itself. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_16

As is the case with Parisian French, Cairene Arabic is by far the most prevalent dialect in the country. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_17

Geographic distribution Egyptian Arabic_section_1

The total number of Egyptian Arabic users in all countries is over 51 million, 49 million of whom are native speakers in Egypt, including several regional dialects. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_18

In addition, there are immigrant Egyptian communities in the Middle East, Europe, North America, Latin America, Australia and South East Asia. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_19

Among the spoken varieties of Arabic, Standard Egyptian Arabic (based on the dialect of the Egyptian capital) is the only one to have become a lingua franca in other parts of the Arabic-speaking world for two main reasons: the proliferation and popularity of Egyptian films and other media in the region since the early 20th century as well as the great number of Egyptian teachers and professors who were instrumental in setting up the education systems of various countries in the Arabian Peninsula and also taught there and in other countries such as Algeria and Libya. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_20

Also, many Lebanese artists choose to sing in Egyptian and Lebanese. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_21

Standard Egyptian Arabic when used in documents, broadcast media, prepared speeches and sometimes in liturgical purpose, is Cairene Arabic with loanwords from Modern Standard Arabic origin or code-switching between Cairene Arabic and . Egyptian Arabic_sentence_22

History Egyptian Arabic_section_2

Status Egyptian Arabic_section_3

Egyptian Arabic has no official status and is not officially recognized as a language. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_23

Standard Arabic is the official language of the state as per constitutional law . Egyptian Arabic_sentence_24

Interest in the local vernacular began in the 1800s (in opposition to the language of the ruling class, Turkish), as the Egyptian national movement for self-determination was taking shape. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_25

For many decades to follow, questions about the reform and the modernization of Arabic were hotly debated in Egyptian intellectual circles. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_26

Proposals ranged from developing neologisms to replace archaic terminology in Modern Standard Arabic to the simplification of syntactical and morphological rules and the introduction of colloquialisms to even complete "Egyptianization" (tamṣīr) by abandoning the so-called Modern Standard Arabic in favor of Masri or Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_27

Proponents of language reform in Egypt included Qasim Amin, who also wrote the first Egyptian feminist treatise, former President of the Egyptian University, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, and noted intellectual Salama Moussa. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_28

They adopted a modernist, secular approach and disagreed with the assumption that Arabic was an immutable language because of its association with the Qur'an. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_29

The first modern Egyptian novel in which the dialogue was written in the vernacular was Muhammad Husayn Haykal's Zaynab in 1913. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_30

It was only in 1966 that Mustafa Musharafa's Kantara Who Disbelieved was released, the first novel to be written entirely in Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_31

Other notable novelists, such as Ihsan Abdel Quddous and Yusuf Idris, and poets, such as Salah Jahin, Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi and Ahmed Fouad Negm, helped solidify vernacular literature as a distinct literary genre. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_32

Amongst certain groups within Egypt's elite, Egyptian Arabic enjoyed a brief period of rich literary output. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_33

That dwindled with the rise of Egyptian Arab nationalism, which had gained wide popularity in Egypt by the final years of the Muhammad Ali dynasty, as demonstrated vividly by Egypt's involvement in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War under King Farouk of Egypt. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_34

The Egyptian revolution of 1952, led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser, further enhanced the significance of Arab nationalism, making it a central element of Egyptian state policy. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_35

The importance of Modern Standard Arabic was reemphasised in the public sphere by the revolutionary government, and efforts to accord any formal language status to the Egyptian vernacular were ignored. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_36

Egyptian Arabic was identified as a mere dialect, one that was not spoken even in all of Egypt, as almost all of Upper Egypt speaks Sa'idi Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_37

Though the revolutionary government heavily sponsored the use of the Egyptian vernacular in films, plays, television programmes, and music, the prerevolutionary use of Modern Standard Arabic in official publications was retained. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_38

Linguistic commentators have noted the multi-faceted approach of the Egyptian revolutionaries towards the Arabic language. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_39

Whereas Egypt's first president, Mohammed Naguib exhibited a preference for using Modern Standard Arabic in his public speeches, his successor, Gamal Abdel Nasser was renowned for using the vernacular and for punctuating his speeches with traditional Egyptian words and expressions. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_40

Conversely, Modern Standard Arabic was the norm for state news outlets, including newspapers, magazines, television, and radio. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_41

That was especially true of Egypt's national broadcasting company, the Arab Radio and Television Union, which was established with the intent of providing content for the entire Arab world, not merely Egypt, hence the need to broadcast in the standard, rather than the vernacular, language. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_42

The Voice of the Arabs radio station, in particular, had an audience from across the region, and the use of anything other than Modern Standard Arabic was viewed as eminently incongruous. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_43

As the status of Egyptian Arabic as opposed to Classical Arabic can have such political and religious implications in Egypt, the question of whether Egyptian Arabic should be considered a "dialect" or "language" can be a source of debate. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_44

In sociolinguistics, Egyptian Arabic can be seen as one of many distinct varieties that, despite arguably being languages on abstand grounds, are united by a common dachsprache in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_45

Publications Egyptian Arabic_section_4

During the early 1900s many portions of the Bible were published in Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_46

These were published by the Nile Mission Press. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_47

By 1932 the whole New Testament and some books of the Old Testament had been published in Egyptian Arabic in Arabic script. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_48

Spoken varieties Egyptian Arabic_section_5

Sa‘īdi Arabic is a different variety than Egyptian Arabic in Ethnologue.com and ISO 639-3 and in other sources, and the two varieties have limited mutual intelligibility. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_49

It carries little prestige nationally but continues to be widely spoken, with 19,000,000 speakers. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_50

The traditional division between Upper and Lower Egypt and their respective differences go back to ancient times. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_51

Egyptians today commonly call the people of the north baḥarwa ([bɑˈħɑɾwɑ]) and those of the south ṣaʿayda ([sˤɑˈʕɑjdɑ]). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_52

The differences throughout Egypt, however, are more wide-ranging and do not neatly correspond to the simple division. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_53

The language shifts from the eastern to the western parts of the Nile Delta, and the varieties spoken from Giza to Minya are further grouped into a Middle Egypt cluster. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_54

Despite the differences, there are features distinguishing all the Egyptian Arabic varieties of the Nile Valley from any other varieties of Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_55

Such features include reduction of long vowels in open and unstressed syllables, the postposition of demonstratives and interrogatives, the modal meaning of the imperfect and the integration of the participle. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_56

The Western Egyptian Bedawi Arabic variety of the western desert differs from all other Arabic varieties in Egypt in that it linguistically is part of Maghrebi Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_57

Northwest Arabian Arabic is also distinct from Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_58

Regional variation Egyptian Arabic_section_6

Nouns Egyptian Arabic_section_7

In contrast to CA and MSA, nouns are not inflected for case and lack nunation (with the exception of certain fixed phrases in the accusative case, such as شكراً [ˈʃokɾɑn], "thank you"). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_59

As all nouns take their pausal forms, singular words and broken plurals simply lose their case endings. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_60

In sound plurals and dual forms, where, in MSA, difference in case is present even in pausal forms, the genitive/accusative form is the one preserved. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_61

Fixed expressions in the construct state beginning in abu, often geographic names, retain their -u in all cases. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_62

Plurals Egyptian Arabic_section_8

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_1

Secondary broken plural patternsEgyptian Arabic_table_caption_1
SingularEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_1_0_0 PluralEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_1_0_1 NotesEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_1_0_2 ExamplesEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_1_0_3
CVCCVVCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_1_0 CaCaCCaEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_1_1 occupational nounsEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_1_2 tilmiiz, talamza "student"; ʔustaaz, ʔasatza "teacher"; simsaaṛ, samasṛa "broker"; duktoor, dakatra "doctor"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_1_3
CaCVVCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_2_0 CawaaCiiCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_2_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_2_2 qamuus, qawamiis "dictionary"; maʕaad, mawaʕiid "appointment"; ṭabuuṛ, ṭawabiiṛ "line, queue"; meʃwar, maʃaweer "Walk, Appointment"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_2_3
CaCaCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_3_0 CiCaaCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_3_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_3_2 gamal, gimaal "camel"; gabal, gibaal "mountain, hill"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_3_3
CaCCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_4_0 ʔaCCuCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_4_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_4_2 ʃahṛ, ʔaʃhur "month"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_4_3
CiCaaC, CaCiiC(a)Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_5_0 CuCuCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_5_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_5_2 kitaab, kutub "book"; madiina, mudun "city"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_5_3
CaCC(a)Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_6_0 CaCaaCiEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_6_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_6_2 maʕna, maʕaani "meaning"; makwa, makaawi "iron"; ʔahwa, ʔahaawi "coffee"; ʔaṛḍ, ʔaṛaaḍi "ground, land"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_6_3
CaaCa, CaaCi, CaCyaEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_7_0 CawaaCiEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_7_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_7_2 ḥaaṛa, ḥawaaṛi "alley"; naadi, nawaadi "club"; naḥya, nawaaḥi "side"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_7_3
CaCaC, CiCaaCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_8_0 ʔaCCiCa/ʔiCCiCaEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_8_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_8_2 ḥizaam, ʔaḥzima "belt"; masal, ʔamsila "example"; sabat, ʔisbita "basket"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_8_3
CiCiyyaEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_9_0 CaCaayaEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_9_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_9_2 hidiyya, hadaaya "gift"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_9_3
CaaCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_10_0 CiCaaCEgyptian Arabic_cell_1_10_1 Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_10_2 faaṛ, firaan "mouse"; gaaṛ, giraan "neighbor"; xaal, xilaan "maternal uncle"Egyptian Arabic_cell_1_10_3

Color/defect nouns Egyptian Arabic_section_9

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_2

Examples of "color and defect" nounsEgyptian Arabic_table_caption_2
MeaningEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_0 (template)Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_1 greenEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_2 blueEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_3 blackEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_4 whiteEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_5 deafEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_6 blindEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_7 one-eyedEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_0_8
MasculineEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_1_0 ʔaCCaCEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_1_1 ʔaxḍaṛEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_1_2 ʔazraʔEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_1_3 ʔiswidEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_1_4 ʔabyaḍEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_1_5 ʔaṭṛaʃEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_1_6 ʔaʕmaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_1_7 ʔaʕwaṛEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_1_8
FeminineEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_2_0 CaCCaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_2_1 xaḍṛaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_2_2 zarʔaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_2_3 soodaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_2_4 beeḍaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_2_5 ṭaṛʃaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_2_6 ʕamyaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_2_7 ʕooṛaEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_2_8
PluralEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_2_3_0 CuCCEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_3_1 xuḍrEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_3_2 zurʔEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_3_3 suudEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_3_4 biiḍEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_3_5 ṭurʃEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_3_6 ʕumyEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_3_7 ʕuurEgyptian Arabic_cell_2_3_8

A common set of nouns referring to colors, as well as a number of nouns referring to physical defects of various sorts (ʔaṣlaʕ "bald"; ʔaṭṛaʃ "deaf"; ʔaxṛas "dumb"), take a special inflectional pattern, as shown in the table. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_63

Note that only a small number of common colors inflect this way: ʔaḥmaṛ "red"; ʔazraʔ "blue"; ʔaxḍaṛ "green"; ʔaṣfaṛ "yellow"; ʔabyaḍ "white"; ʔiswid "black"; ʔasmaṛ "brown-skinned, brunette"; ʔaʃʔaṛ "blond(e)". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_64

The remaining colors are invariable, and mostly so-called nisba adjectives derived from colored objects: bunni "brown" (< bunn "coffee powder"); ṛamaadi "gray" (< ṛamaad "ashes"); banafsigi "purple" (< banafsig "violet"); burtuʔaani "orange" (< burtuʔaan "oranges"); zibiibi "maroon" (< zibiib "raisins"); etc., or of foreign origin: beeع "beige" from the French; bamba "pink" from Turkish . Egyptian Arabic_sentence_65

Pronouns Egyptian Arabic_section_10

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_3

Forms of the independent and clitic pronounsEgyptian Arabic_table_caption_3
MeaningEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_0_0 SubjectEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_0_1 Direct object/PossessiveEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_0_2 Indirect objectEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_0_11
After vowelEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_1_0 After 1 cons.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_1_3 After 2 cons.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_1_6 After vowelEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_1_9 After 1 cons.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_1_11 After 2 cons.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_1_13
NormalEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_0 + ʃEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_1 + l-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_2 NormalEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_3 + ʃEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_4 + l-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_5 NormalEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_6 + ʃEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_7 + l-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_8 NormalEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_9 + ʃEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_10 NormalEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_11 + ʃEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_12 NormalEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_13 + ʃEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_3_2_14
"my" (nominal)Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_3_0 Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_3_1 - ́yaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_3_2 -iEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_3_5 Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_3_11
"I/me" (verbal)Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_4_0 ánaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_4_1 - ́niEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_4_2 -íniEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_4_8 - ́liEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_4_11 -íliEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_4_15
"you(r) (masc.)"Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_5_0 íntaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_5_1 - ́kEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_5_2 -akEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_5_5 - ́lakEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_5_11 -ílakEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_5_15
"you(r) (fem.)"Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_0 íntiEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_1 - ́kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_2 -ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_5 -kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_6 -ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_8 -ikiEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_9 - ́likEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_11 -lkíEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_12 -likEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_13 -likíEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_14 -ílikEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_15 -ilkíEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_6_16
"he/him/his"Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_0 huwwaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_1 - ́Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_2 -huEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_3 -uEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_5 -huEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_7 -uEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_8 -uhuEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_10 - ́luEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_11 -íluEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_7_15
"she/her"Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_8_0 hiyyaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_8_1 - ́haEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_8_2 -áhaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_8_8 - ́lhaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_8_11 -láhaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_8_13 -ílhaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_8_15
"we/us/our"Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_9_0 íḥnaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_9_1 - ́naEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_9_2 -ínaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_9_8 - ́lnaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_9_11 -línaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_9_13 -ílnaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_9_15
"you(r) (pl.)"Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_10_0 íntuEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_10_1 - ́kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_10_2 -úkuEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_10_8 - ́lkuEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_10_11 -lúkuEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_10_13 -ílkuEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_10_15
"they/them/their"Egyptian Arabic_cell_3_11_0 hummaEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_11_1 - ́humEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_11_2 -úhumEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_11_8 - ́lhumEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_11_11 -lúhumEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_11_13 -ílhumEgyptian Arabic_cell_3_11_15

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_4

Examples of possessive constructsEgyptian Arabic_table_caption_4
Base WordEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_0_0 béet

"house"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_0_1

biyúut

"houses"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_0_2

bánk

"bank"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_0_3

sikkíina

"knife"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_0_4

máṛa

"wife"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_0_5

ʔább

"father"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_0_6

ʔidéen

"hands"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_0_7

Construct BaseEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_1_0 béet-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_1_1 biyúut-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_1_2 bánk-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_1_3 sikkíin(i)t-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_1_4 miṛáat-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_1_5 ʔabúu-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_1_6 ʔidée-Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_4_1_7
"my ..."Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_2_0 béet-iEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_2_1 biyúut-iEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_2_2 bánk-iEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_2_3 sikkínt-iEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_2_4 miṛáat-iEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_2_5 ʔabúu-yaEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_2_6 ʔidáy-yaEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_2_7
"your (masc.) ..."Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_3_0 béet-akEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_3_1 biyúut-akEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_3_2 bánk-akEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_3_3 sikkínt-akEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_3_4 miṛáat-akEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_3_5 ʔabúu-kEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_3_6 ʔidée-kEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_3_7
"your (fem.) ..."Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_4_0 béet-ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_4_1 biyúut-ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_4_2 bánk-ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_4_3 sikkínt-ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_4_4 miṛáat-ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_4_5 ʔabúu-kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_4_6 ʔidée-kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_4_7
"his ..."Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_5_0 béet-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_5_1 biyúut-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_5_2 bánk-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_5_3 sikkínt-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_5_4 miṛáat-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_5_5 ʔabúu-(h)Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_5_6 ʔidée-(h)Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_5_7
"her ..."Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_6_0 bét-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_6_1 biyút-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_6_2 bank-áhaEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_6_3 sikkinít-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_6_4 miṛát-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_6_5 ʔabúu-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_6_6 ʔidée-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_6_7
"our ..."Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_7_0 bét-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_7_1 biyút-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_7_2 bank-ínaEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_7_3 sikkinít-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_7_4 miṛát-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_7_5 ʔabúu-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_7_6 ʔidée-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_7_7
"your (pl.) ..."Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_8_0 bét-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_8_1 biyút-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_8_2 bank-úkuEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_8_3 sikkinít-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_8_4 miṛát-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_8_5 ʔabúu-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_8_6 ʔidée-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_8_7
"their ..."Egyptian Arabic_cell_4_9_0 bét-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_9_1 biyút-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_9_2 bank-úhumEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_9_3 sikkinít-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_9_4 miṛát-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_9_5 ʔabúu-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_9_6 ʔidée-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_4_9_7

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_5

Suffixed prepositionsEgyptian Arabic_table_caption_5
Base WordEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_5_0_0 fi

"in"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_5_0_1

bi

"by, in, with"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_5_0_2

li

"to"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_5_0_3

wayya

"with"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_5_0_4

ʕala

"on"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_5_0_5

ʕand

"in the possession of, to have"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_5_0_6

min

"from"Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_5_0_7

"... me"Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_1_0 fíy-yaEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_1_1 bíy-yaEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_1_2 líy-yaEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_1_3 wayyáa-yaEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_1_4 ʕaláy-yaEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_1_5 ʕánd-iEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_1_6 mínn-iEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_1_7
"... you (masc.)"Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_2_0 fíi-kEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_2_1 bíi-kEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_2_2 líi-k, l-akEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_2_3 wayyáa-kEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_2_4 ʕalée-kEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_2_5 ʕánd-akEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_2_6 mínn-akEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_2_7
"... you (fem.)"Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_3_0 fíi-kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_3_1 bíi-kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_3_2 líi-ki, li-kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_3_3 wayyáa-kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_3_4 ʕalée-kiEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_3_5 ʕánd-ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_3_6 mínn-ikEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_3_7
"... him"Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_4_0 fíi-(h)Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_4_1 bíi-(h)Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_4_2 líi-(h), l-u(h)Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_4_3 wayyáa-(h)Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_4_4 ʕalée-(h)Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_4_5 ʕánd-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_4_6 mínn-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_4_7
"... her"Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_5_0 fíi-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_5_1 bíi-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_5_2 líi-ha, la-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_5_3 wayyáa-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_5_4 ʕalée-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_5_5 ʕand-áhaEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_5_6 minn-áha, mín-haEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_5_7
"... us"Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_6_0 fíi-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_6_1 bíi-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_6_2 líi-na, li-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_6_3 wayyáa-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_6_4 ʕalée-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_6_5 ʕand-ínaEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_6_6 minn-ínaEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_6_7
"... you (pl.)"Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_7_0 fíi-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_7_1 bíi-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_7_2 líi-ku, li-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_7_3 wayyáa-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_7_4 ʕalée-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_7_5 ʕand-úkuEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_7_6 minn-úku, mín-kuEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_7_7
"... them"Egyptian Arabic_cell_5_8_0 fíi-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_8_1 bíi-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_8_2 líi-hum, li-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_8_3 wayyáa-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_8_4 ʕalée-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_8_5 ʕand-úhumEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_8_6 minn-úhum, mín-humEgyptian Arabic_cell_5_8_7

Egyptian Arabic object pronouns are clitics, in that they attach to the end of a noun, verb, or preposition, with the result forming a single phonological word rather than separate words. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_66

Clitics can be attached to the following types of words: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_67

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_0

  • A clitic pronoun attached to a noun indicates possession: béet "house", béet-i "my house"; sikkíina "knife", sikkínt-i "my knife"; ʔább "father", ʔabúu-ya "my father". Note that the form of a pronoun may vary depending on the phonological form of the word being attached to (ending with a vowel or with one or two consonants), and the noun being attached to may also have a separate "construct" form before possessive clitic suffixes.Egyptian Arabic_item_0_0
  • A clitic pronoun attached to a preposition indicates the object of the preposition: minno "from it (masculine object)", ʕaleyha "on it (feminine object)"Egyptian Arabic_item_0_1
  • A clitic pronoun attached to a verb indicates the object of the verb: ʃúft "I saw", ʃúft-u "I saw him", ʃuft-áha "I saw her".Egyptian Arabic_item_0_2

With verbs, indirect object clitic pronouns can be formed using the preposition li- plus a clitic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_68

Both direct and indirect object clitic pronouns can be attached to a single verb: agíib "I bring", agíb-hu "I bring it", agib-húu-lik "I bring it to you", m-agib-hu-lkíi-ʃ "I do not bring it to you". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_69

Verbs Egyptian Arabic_section_11

Verbs in Arabic are based on a stem made up of three or four consonants. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_70

The set of consonants communicates the basic meaning of a verb. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_71

Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes and/or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as tense, person, and number, in addition to changes in the meaning of the verb that embody grammatical concepts such as causative, intensive, passive or reflexive. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_72

Each particular lexical verb is specified by two stems, one used for the past tense and one used for non-past tenses along with as subjunctive and imperative moods. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_73

To the former stem, suffixes are added to mark the verb for person, number, and gender, while to the latter stem, a combination of prefixes and suffixes are added. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_74

(Very approximately, the prefixes specify the person and the suffixes indicate number and gender.) Egyptian Arabic_sentence_75

The third person masculine singular past tense form serves as the "dictionary form" used to identify a verb, similar to the infinitive in English (Arabic has no infinitive). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_76

For example, the verb meaning "write" is often specified as kátab, which actually means "he wrote". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_77

In the paradigms below, a verb will be specified as kátab/yíktib (where kátab means "he wrote" and yíktib means "he writes"), indicating the past stem (katab-) and non-past stem (-ktib-, obtained by removing the prefix yi-). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_78

The verb classes in Arabic are formed along two axes. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_79

One axis (described as "form I", "form II", etc.) is used to specify grammatical concepts such as causative, intensive, passive, or reflexive, and involves varying the stem form. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_80

For example, from the root K-T-B "write" is derived form I kátab/yíktib "write", form II káttib/yikáttib "cause to write", form III ká:tib/yiká:tib "correspond", etc. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_81

The other axis is determined by the particular consonants making up the root. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_82

For example, defective verbs have a W or Y as the last root consonant, which is often reflected in paradigms with an extra final vowel in the stem (e.g. ráma/yírmi "throw" from R-M-Y); meanwhile, hollow verbs have a W or Y as the middle root consonant, and the stems of such verbs appear to have only two consonants (e.g. gá:b/yigí:b "bring" from G-Y-B). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_83

Strong verbs Egyptian Arabic_section_12

Strong verbs are those that have no "weakness" (e.g. W or Y) in the root consonants. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_84

Each verb has a given vowel pattern for Past (a or i) and Present (a or i or u). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_85

Combinations of each exist. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_86

Regular verbs, form I Egyptian Arabic_section_13

Form I verbs have a given vowel pattern for past (a or i) and present (a, i or u). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_87

Combinations of each exist: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_88

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_6

Vowel patternsEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_6_0_0 ExampleEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_6_0_2
PastEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_6_1_0 PresentEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_6_1_1
aEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_2_0 aEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_2_1 ḍárab – yíḍrab to beatEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_2_2
aEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_3_0 iEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_3_1 kátab – yíktib to writeEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_3_2
aEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_4_0 uEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_4_1 ṭálab – yíṭlub~yúṭlub to order, to demandEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_4_2
iEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_5_0 aEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_5_1 fíhim – yífham to understandEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_5_2
iEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_6_0 iEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_6_1 misik – yímsik to hold, to touchEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_6_2
iEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_7_0 uEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_7_1 sikit – yískut~yúskut to be silent, to shut upEgyptian Arabic_cell_6_7_2
Regular verb, form I, fáʕal/yífʕil Egyptian Arabic_section_14

Example: kátab/yíktib "write" Egyptian Arabic_sentence_89

Note that, in general, the present indicative is formed from the subjunctive by the addition of bi- (bi-a- is elided to ba-). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_90

Similarly, the future is formed from the subjunctive by the addition of ḥa- (ḥa-a- is elided to ḥa-). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_91

The i in bi- or in the following prefix will be deleted according to the regular rules of vowel syncope: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_92

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_1

  • híyya b-tíktib "she writes" (híyya + bi- + tíktib)Egyptian Arabic_item_1_3
  • híyya bi-t-ʃú:f "she sees" (híyya + bi- + tiʃú:f)Egyptian Arabic_item_1_4
  • an-áktib "I write (subjunctive)" (ána + áktib)Egyptian Arabic_item_1_5

Example: kátab/yíktib "write": non-finite forms Egyptian Arabic_sentence_93

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_7

Number/GenderEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_7_0_0 Active ParticipleEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_7_0_1 Passive ParticipleEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_7_0_2 Verbal NounEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_7_0_3
Masc. Sg.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_7_1_0 ká:tibEgyptian Arabic_cell_7_1_1 maktú:bEgyptian Arabic_cell_7_1_2 kitá:baEgyptian Arabic_cell_7_1_3
Fem. Sg.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_7_2_0 kátb-aEgyptian Arabic_cell_7_2_1 maktú:b-aEgyptian Arabic_cell_7_2_2
Pl.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_7_3_0 katb-í:nEgyptian Arabic_cell_7_3_1 maktub-í:nEgyptian Arabic_cell_7_3_2
Regular verb, form I, fíʕil/yífʕal Egyptian Arabic_section_15

Example: fíhim/yífham "understand" Egyptian Arabic_sentence_94

Boldfaced forms fíhm-it and fíhm-u differ from the corresponding forms of katab (kátab-it and kátab-u due to vowel syncope). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_95

Note also the syncope in ána fhím-t "I understood". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_96

Regular verb, form II, fáʕʕil/yifáʕʕil Egyptian Arabic_section_16

Example: dárris/yidárris "teach" Egyptian Arabic_sentence_97

Boldfaced forms indicate the primary differences from the corresponding forms of katab: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_98

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_2

  • The prefixes ti-, yi-, ni- have elision of i following bi- or ḥa- (all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant behave this way).Egyptian Arabic_item_2_6
  • The imperative prefix i- is missing (again, all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant behave this way).Egyptian Arabic_item_2_7
  • Due to the regular operation of the stress rules, the stress in the past tense forms darrís-it and darrís-u differs from kátab-it and kátab-u.Egyptian Arabic_item_2_8
Regular verb, form III, fá:ʕil/yifá:ʕil Egyptian Arabic_section_17

Example: sá:fir/yisá:fir "travel" Egyptian Arabic_sentence_99

The primary differences from the corresponding forms of darris (shown in boldface) are: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_100

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_3

  • The long vowel a: becomes a when unstressed.Egyptian Arabic_item_3_9
  • The i in the stem sa:fir is elided when a suffix beginning with a vowel follows.Egyptian Arabic_item_3_10

Defective verbs Egyptian Arabic_section_18

Defective verbs have a W or Y as the last root consonant. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_101

Defective verb, form I, fáʕa/yífʕi Egyptian Arabic_section_19

Example: ráma/yírmi "throw away" (i.e. trash, etc.) Egyptian Arabic_sentence_102

The primary differences from the corresponding forms of katab (shown in boldface) are: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_103

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_4

  • In the past, there are three stems: ráma with no suffix, ramé:- with a consonant-initial suffix, rám- with a vowel initial suffix.Egyptian Arabic_item_4_11
  • In the non-past, the stem rmi becomes rm- before a (vowel initial) suffix, and the stress remains on the prefix, since the stem vowel has been elided.Egyptian Arabic_item_4_12
  • Note also the accidental homonymy between masculine tí-rmi, í-rmi and feminine tí-rm-i, í-rm-i.Egyptian Arabic_item_4_13
Defective verb, form I, fíʕi/yífʕa Egyptian Arabic_section_20

Example: nísi/yínsa "forget" Egyptian Arabic_sentence_104

This verb type is quite similar to the defective verb type ráma/yírmi. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_105

The primary differences are: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_106

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_5

  • The occurrence of i and a in the stems are reversed: i in the past, a in the non-past.Egyptian Arabic_item_5_14
  • In the past, instead of the stems ramé:- and rám-, the verb has nisí:- (with a consonant-initial suffix) and nísy- (with a vowel initial suffix). Note in particular the |y| in nísyit and nísyu as opposed to rámit and rámu.Egyptian Arabic_item_5_15
  • Elision of i in nisí:- can occur, e.g. ána nsí:t "I forgot".Egyptian Arabic_item_5_16
  • In the non-past, because the stem has a instead of i, there is no homonymy between masculine tí-nsa, í-nsa and feminine tí-ns-i, í-ns-i.Egyptian Arabic_item_5_17

Note that some other verbs have different stem variations, e.g. míʃi/yímʃi "walk" (with i in both stems) and báʔa/yíbʔa "become, remain" (with a in both stems). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_107

The verb láʔa/yilá:ʔi "find" is unusual in having a mixture of a form I past and form III present (note also the variations líʔi/yílʔa and láʔa/yílʔa). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_108

Verbs other than form I have consistent stem vowels. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_109

All such verbs have a in the past (hence form stems with -é:-, not -í:-). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_110

Forms V, VI, X and IIq have a in the present (indicated by boldface below); others have i; forms VII, VIIt, and VIII have i in both vowels of the stem (indicated by italics below); form IX verbs, including "defective" verbs, behave as regular doubled verbs: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_111

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_6

  • Form II: wádda/yiwáddi "take away"; ʔáwwa/yiʔáwwi "strengthen"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_18
  • Form III: ná:da/yiná:di "call"; dá:wa/yidá:wi "treat, cure"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_19
  • Form IV (rare, classicized): ʔárḍa/yírḍi "please, satisfyEgyptian Arabic_item_6_20
  • Form V: itʔáwwa/yitʔáwwa "become strong"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_21
  • Form VI: itdá:wa/yitdá:wa "be treated, be cured"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_22
  • Form VII (rare in the Cairene dialect): inḥáka/yinḥíki "be told"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_23
  • Form VIIt: itnása/yitnísi "be forgotten"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_24
  • Form VIII: iʃtára/yiʃtíri "buy"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_25
  • Form IX (very rare): iḥláww/yiḥláww "be/become sweet"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_26
  • Form X: istákfa/yistákfa "have enough"Egyptian Arabic_item_6_27
  • Form Iq: need exampleEgyptian Arabic_item_6_28
  • Form IIq: need exampleEgyptian Arabic_item_6_29

Hollow verbs Egyptian Arabic_section_21

Hollow have a W or Y as the middle root consonant. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_112

Note that for some forms (e.g. form II and form III), hollow verbs are conjugated as strong verbs (e.g. form II ʕáyyin/yiʕáyyin "appoint" from ʕ-Y-N, form III gá:wib/yigá:wib "answer" from G-W-B). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_113

Hollow verb, form I, fá:l/yifí:l Egyptian Arabic_section_22

Example: gá:b/yigí:b "bring" Egyptian Arabic_sentence_114

This verb works much like dárris/yidárris "teach". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_115

Like all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant, the prefixes differ in the following way from those of regular and defective form I verbs: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_116

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_7

  • The prefixes ti-, yi-, ni- have elision of i following bi- or ḥa-.Egyptian Arabic_item_7_30
  • The imperative prefix i- is missing.Egyptian Arabic_item_7_31

In addition, the past tense has two stems: gíb- before consonant-initial suffixes (first and second person) and gá:b- elsewhere (third person). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_117

Hollow verb, form I, fá:l/yifú:l Egyptian Arabic_section_23

Example: ʃá:f/yiʃú:f "see" Egyptian Arabic_sentence_118

This verb class is identical to verbs such as gá:b/yigí:b except in having stem vowel u in place of i. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_119

Doubled verbs Egyptian Arabic_section_24

Doubled verbs have the same consonant as middle and last root consonant, e.g. ḥább/yiḥíbb "love" from Ḥ-B-B. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_120

Doubled verb, form I, fáʕʕ/yifíʕʕ Egyptian Arabic_section_25

Example: ḥább/yiḥíbb "love" Egyptian Arabic_sentence_121

This verb works much like gá:b/yigí:b "bring". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_122

Like that class, it has two stems in the past, which are ḥabbé:- before consonant-initial suffixes (first and second person) and ḥább- elsewhere (third person). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_123

Note that é:- was borrowed from the defective verbs; the Classical Arabic equivalent form would be *ḥabáb-, e.g. *ḥabáb-t. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_124

Other verbs have u or a in the present stem: baṣṣ/yibúṣṣ "to look", ṣaḥḥ/yiṣáḥḥ "be right, be proper". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_125

As for the other forms: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_126

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_8

  • Form II, V doubled verbs are strong: ḥáddid/yiḥáddid "limit, fix (appointment)"Egyptian Arabic_item_8_32
  • Form III, IV, VI, VIII doubled verbs seem non-existentEgyptian Arabic_item_8_33
  • Form VII and VIIt doubled verbs (same stem vowel a in both stems): inbáll/yinbáll "be wetted", itʕádd/yitʕáddEgyptian Arabic_item_8_34
  • Form VIII doubled verbs (same stem vowel a in both stems): ihtámm/yihtámm "be interested (in)"Egyptian Arabic_item_8_35
  • Form IX verbs (automatically behave as "doubled" verbs, same stem vowel a in both stems): iḥmárr/yiḥmárr "be red, blush", iḥláww/yiḥláww "be sweet"Egyptian Arabic_item_8_36
  • Form X verbs (stem vowel either a or i in non-past): istaḥáʔʔ/yistaḥáʔʔ "deserve" vs. istaʕádd/yistaʕídd "be ready", istamárr/yistamírr "continue".Egyptian Arabic_item_8_37

Assimilated verbs Egyptian Arabic_section_26

Assimilated verbs have W or Y as the first root consonant. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_127

Most of these verbs have been regularized in Egyptian Arabic, e.g. wázan/yíwzin "to weigh" or wíṣíl/yíwṣal "to arrive". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_128

Only a couple of irregular verbs remain, e.g. wíʔif/yúʔaf "stop" and wíʔiʕ/yúʔaʕ "fall" (see below). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_129

Doubly weak verbs Egyptian Arabic_section_27

"Doubly weak" verbs have more than one "weakness", typically a W or Y as both the second and third consonants. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_130

This term is in fact a misnomer, as such verbs actually behave as normal defective verbs (e.g. káwa/yíkwi "iron (clothes)" from K-W-Y, ʔáwwa/yiʔáwwi "strengthen" from ʔ-W-Y, dá:wa/yidá:wi "treat, cure" from D-W-Y). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_131

Irregular verbs Egyptian Arabic_section_28

The irregular verbs are as follows: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_132

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_9

  • ídda/yíddi "give" (endings like a normal defective verb)Egyptian Arabic_item_9_38
  • wíʔif/yúʔaf "stop" and wíʔiʕ/yúʔaʕ "fall" (áʔaf, báʔaf, ḥáʔaf "I (will) stop"; úʔaf "stop!")Egyptian Arabic_item_9_39
  • kal/yá:kul "eat" and xad/yá:xud "take" (kalt, kal, kálit, kálu "I/he/she/they ate", also regular ákal, etc. "he/etc. ate"; á:kul, bá:kul, ḥá:kul "I (will) eat", yáklu "they eat"; kúl, kúli, kúlu "eat!"; wá:kil "eating"; mittá:kil "eaten")Egyptian Arabic_item_9_40
  • gé/yí:gi "come". This verb is extremely irregular (with particularly unusual forms in boldface):Egyptian Arabic_item_9_41

Example: gé/yí:gi "come": non-finite forms Egyptian Arabic_sentence_133

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_8

Number/GenderEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_8_0_0 Active ParticipleEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_8_0_1 Verbal NounEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_8_0_2
Masc. Sg.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_8_1_0 gayyEgyptian Arabic_cell_8_1_1 nigíyyEgyptian Arabic_cell_8_1_2
Fem. Sg.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_8_2_0 gáyy-aEgyptian Arabic_cell_8_2_1
Pl.Egyptian Arabic_header_cell_8_3_0 gayy-í:nEgyptian Arabic_cell_8_3_1

Table of verb forms Egyptian Arabic_section_29

In this section all verb classes and their corresponding stems are listed, excluding the small number of irregular verbs described above. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_134

Verb roots are indicated schematically using capital letters to stand for consonants in the root: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_135

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_10

  • F = first consonant of rootEgyptian Arabic_item_10_42
  • M = middle consonant of three-consonant rootEgyptian Arabic_item_10_43
  • S = second consonant of four-consonant rootEgyptian Arabic_item_10_44
  • T = third consonant of four-consonant rootEgyptian Arabic_item_10_45
  • L = last consonant of rootEgyptian Arabic_item_10_46

Hence, the root F-M-L stands for all three-consonant roots, and F-S-T-L stands for all four-consonant roots. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_136

(Traditional Arabic grammar uses F-ʕ-L and F-ʕ-L-L, respectively, but the system used here appears in a number of grammars of spoken Arabic dialects and is probably less confusing for English speakers, since the forms are easier to pronounce than those involving ʕ.) Egyptian Arabic_sentence_137

The following table lists the prefixes and suffixes to be added to mark tense, person, number and gender, and the stem form to which they are added. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_138

The forms involving a vowel-initial suffix, and corresponding stem PAv or NPv, are highlighted in silver. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_139

The forms involving a consonant-initial suffix, and corresponding stem PAc, are highlighted in gold. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_140

The forms involving a no suffix, and corresponding stem PA0 or NP0, are unhighlighted. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_141

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_9

Tense/MoodEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_0_0 PastEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_0_2 Non-PastEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_0_4
PersonEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_1_0 SingularEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_1_2 PluralEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_1_3 SingularEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_1_4 PluralEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_1_5
1stEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_2_0 PAc-tEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_2_2 PAc-naEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_2_3 a-NP0Egyptian Arabic_cell_9_2_4 ni-NP0Egyptian Arabic_cell_9_2_5
2ndEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_3_0 masculineEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_3_1 PAc-tEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_3_2 PAc-tuEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_3_3 ti-NP0Egyptian Arabic_cell_9_3_4 ti-NPv-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_3_5
feminineEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_4_0 PAc-tiEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_4_1 ti-NPv-iEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_4_2
3rdEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_5_0 masculineEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_5_1 PA0Egyptian Arabic_cell_9_5_2 PAv-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_5_3 yi-NP0Egyptian Arabic_cell_9_5_4 yi-NPv-uEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_5_5
feminineEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_9_6_0 PAv-itEgyptian Arabic_cell_9_6_1 ti-NP0Egyptian Arabic_cell_9_6_2

The following table lists the verb classes along with the form of the past and non-past stems, active and passive participles, and verbal noun, in addition to an example verb for each class. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_142

Notes: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_143

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_11

  • Italicized forms are those that follow automatically from the regular rules of vowel shortening and deletion.Egyptian Arabic_item_11_47
  • Multisyllabic forms without a stress mark have variable stress, depending on the nature of the suffix added, following the regular rules of stress assignment.Egyptian Arabic_item_11_48
  • Many participles and verbal nouns have acquired an extended sense. In fact, participles and verbal nouns are the major sources for lexical items based on verbs, especially derived (i.e. non-Form-I) verbs.Egyptian Arabic_item_11_49
  • Some verb classes do not have a regular verbal noun form; rather, the verbal noun varies from verb to verb. Even in verb classes that do have a regular verbal noun form, there are exceptions. In addition, some verbs share a verbal noun with a related verb from another class (in particular, many passive verbs use the corresponding active verb's verbal noun, which can be interpreted in either an active or passive sense). Some verbs appear to lack a verbal noun entirely. (In such a case, a paraphrase would be used involving a clause beginning with inn.)Egyptian Arabic_item_11_50
  • Outside of Form I, passive participles as such are usually non-existent; instead, the active participle of the corresponding passive verb class (e.g. Forms V, VI, VIIt/VIIn for Forms II, III, I respectively) is used. The exception is certain verbs in Forms VIII and X that contain a "classicized" passive participle that is formed in imitation of the corresponding participle in Classical Arabic, e.g. mistáʕmil "using", mustáʕmal "used".Egyptian Arabic_item_11_51
  • Not all forms have a separate verb class for hollow or doubled roots. When no such class is listed below, roots of that shape appear as strong verbs in the corresponding form, e.g. Form II strong verb ḍáyyaʕ/yiḍáyyaʕ "waste, lose" related to Form I hollow verb ḍá:ʕ/yiḍí:ʕ "be lost", both from root Ḍ-Y-ʕ.Egyptian Arabic_item_11_52

Negation Egyptian Arabic_section_30

Main article: Negation in Arabic Egyptian Arabic_sentence_144

One characteristic of Egyptian syntax which it shares with other North African varieties as well as some southern Levantine dialect areas is in the two-part negative verbal circumfix /ma-...-ʃ(i)/ Egyptian Arabic_sentence_145

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_12

  • Past: /ˈkatab/ "he wrote" /ma-katab-ʃ(i)/ "he didn't write" ما كتبشِEgyptian Arabic_item_12_53
  • Present: /ˈjik-tib/ "he writes" /ma-bjik-tib-ʃ(i)/ "he doesn't write" ما بيكتبشِEgyptian Arabic_item_12_54

/ma-/ comes from the Classical Arabic negator /maː/. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_146

/-ʃ(i)/ is a development of Classical /ʃajʔ/ "thing". Egyptian Arabic_sentence_147

This negating circumfix is similar in function to the French circumfix ne ... pas. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_148

The structure can end in a consonant /ʃ/ or in a vowel /i/, varying according to the individual or region. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_149

The fuller ending /ʃi/ is considered rural, and nowadays Cairene speakers usually use the shorter /ʃ/. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_150

However, /ʃi/ was more common in the past, as attested in old films. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_151

The negative circumfix often surrounds the entire verbal composite including direct and indirect object pronouns: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_152

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_13

  • /ma-katab-hum-ˈliː-ʃ/ "he didn't write them to me"Egyptian Arabic_item_13_55

However, verbs in the future tense typically instead use the prefix /miʃ/: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_153

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_14

  • /miʃ-ħa-ˈjiktib/ (or /ma-ħa-jikˈtibʃ/ "he won't write"Egyptian Arabic_item_14_56

Interrogative sentences can be formed by adding the negation clitic "(miʃ)" before the verb: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_154

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_15

  • Past: /ˈkatab/ "he wrote"; /miʃ-ˈkatab/ "didn't he write?"Egyptian Arabic_item_15_57
  • Present: /ˈjiktib/ "he writes"; /miʃ-bi-ˈjiktib/ "doesn't he write?"Egyptian Arabic_item_15_58
  • Future: /ħa-ˈjiktib/ "he will write"; /miʃ-ħa-ˈjiktib/ "won't he write?"Egyptian Arabic_item_15_59

Addition of the circumfix can cause complex changes to the verbal cluster, due to the application of the rules of vowel syncope, shortening, lengthening, insertion and elision described above: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_155

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_16

  • The addition of /ma-/ may trigger elision or syncope:Egyptian Arabic_item_16_60
    • A vowel following /ma-/ is elided: (ixtáːr) "he chose" → (maxtárʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_16_61
    • A short vowel /i/ or /u/ in the first syllable may be deleted by syncope: (kíbir) "he grew" → (makbírʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_16_62
  • The addition of /-ʃ/ may result in vowel shortening or epenthesis:Egyptian Arabic_item_16_63
    • A final long vowel preceding a single consonant shortens: (ixtáːr) "he chose" → (maxtárʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_16_64
    • An unstressed epenthetic /i/ is inserted when the verbal complex ends in two consonants: /kunt/ "I was" → (makúntiʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_16_65
  • In addition, the addition of /-ʃ/ triggers a stress shift, which may in turn result in vowel shortening or lengthening:Egyptian Arabic_item_16_66
    • The stress shifts to the syllable preceding /ʃ/: (kátab) "he wrote" → (makatábʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_16_67
    • A long vowel in the previously stressed syllable shortens: (ʃáːfit) "she saw" → (maʃafítʃ); (ʃá:fu) "they saw" or "he saw it" → (maʃafú:ʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_16_68
    • A final short vowel directly preceding /ʃ/ lengthens: (ʃáːfu) "they saw" or "he saw it" → (maʃafú:ʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_16_69

In addition, certain other morphological changes occur: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_156

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_17

  • (ʃafúː) "they saw him" → (maʃafuhúːʃ) (to avoid a clash with (maʃafúːʃ) "they didn't see/he didn't see him").Egyptian Arabic_item_17_70
  • (ʃáːfik) "He saw you (fem. sg.)" → (maʃafkíːʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_17_71
  • (ʃúftik) "I saw you (fem. sg.)" → (maʃuftikíːʃ).Egyptian Arabic_item_17_72

Syntax Egyptian Arabic_section_31

In contrast with Classical Arabic, but much like the other varieties of Arabic, Egyptian Arabic prefers subject–verb–object (SVO) word order; CA and to a lesser extent MSA prefer verb–subject–object (VSO). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_157

For example, in MSA "Adel read the book" would be قرأَ عادل الكتاب Qaraʾa ʿĀdilu l-kitāb IPA: [ˈqɑɾɑʔɑ ˈʕæːdel ol keˈtæːb whereas EA would say عادل قرا الكتاب ʕādil ʔara l-kitāb IPA: [ˈʕæːdel ˈʔɑɾɑ lkeˈtæːb. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_158

Also in common with other Arabic varieties is the loss of unique agreement in the dual form: while the dual remains productive to some degree in nouns, dual nouns are analyzed as plural for the purpose of agreement with verbs, demonstratives, and adjectives. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_159

Thus "These two Syrian professors are walking to the university" in MSA (in an SVO sentence for ease of comparison) would be "هذان الأستاذان السوريان يمشيان إلى الجامعة" Haḏān al-ʾustāḏān as-Sūriyyān yamšiyān ʾilā l-ǧāmiʿah IPA: [hæːˈzæːn æl ʔostæːˈzæːn as suːrejˈjæːn jæmʃeˈjæːn ˈʔelæ lɡæːˈmeʕæ, which becomes in EA "الأستاذين السوريين دول بيمشو للجامعة" il-ʔustazēn il-Suriyyīn dōl biyimʃu lil-gamʕa, IPA: [el ʔostæˈzeːn el soɾejˈjiːn ˈdoːl beˈjemʃo lelˈɡæmʕæ. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_160

Unlike most other forms of Arabic, however, Egyptian prefers final placement of question words in interrogative sentences. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_161

This is a feature characteristic of the Coptic substratum of Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_162

Coptic substratum Egyptian Arabic_section_32

Egyptian Arabic appears to have retained a significant Coptic substratum in its lexicon, phonology, and syntax. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_163

Coptic is the latest stage of the indigenous Egyptian language spoken until the mid-17th century when it was finally completely supplanted among Egyptian Muslims and a majority of Copts by the Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_164

Some features that Egyptian Arabic shares with the original ancient Egyptian language include certain prefix and suffix verbal conjugations, certain emphatic and glottalized consonants, as well as a large number of biliteral and triliteral lexical correspondences. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_165

Two syntactic features that are particular to Egyptian Arabic inherited from Coptic are: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_166

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_18

  • postposed demonstratives "this" and "that" are placed after the noun.Egyptian Arabic_item_18_73

Egyptian Arabic_description_list_19

  • Examples: /ir-rˤaːɡil da/ "this man" (lit. "the man this"; in Literary Arabic /haːðaː r-raɡul/) and /il-bitt di/ "this girl" (lit. "the girl this"; in Literary Arabic /haːðihi l-bint/).Egyptian Arabic_item_19_74

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_20

  • Wh words (i.e. "who", "when", "why" remain in their "logical" positions in a sentence rather than being preposed, or moved to the front of the sentence, as in Literary Arabic or English).Egyptian Arabic_item_20_75

Egyptian Arabic_description_list_21

  • Examples:Egyptian Arabic_item_21_76

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_22

  • Egyptian Arabic_item_22_77
    • /rˤaːħ masˤrI ʔimta/ (راح مصر إمتا؟) "When (/ʔimta/) did he go to Egypt?" (lit. "He went to Egypt when?")Egyptian Arabic_item_22_78
    • /rˤaːħ masˤrI leːh/ (راح مصر ليه؟) "Why (/leːh/) did he go to Egypt? (lit. "He went to Egypt why?")Egyptian Arabic_item_22_79
    • /miːn rˤaːħ masˤr/ or /miːn illi rˤaːħ masˤr/ (مين [اللى] راح مصر؟) "Who (/miːn/) went to Egypt/Cairo? (literally – same order)Egyptian Arabic_item_22_80

Egyptian Arabic_description_list_23

  • The same sentences in Literary Arabic (with all the question words (wh-words) in the beginning of the sentence) would be:Egyptian Arabic_item_23_81

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_24

  • Egyptian Arabic_item_24_82
    • متى ذهب إلى مصر؟  /mataː ðahaba ʔilaː misˤr/Egyptian Arabic_item_24_83
    • لِمَ ذهب إلى مصر؟  /lima ðahaba ʔilaː misˤr/Egyptian Arabic_item_24_84
    • من ذهب إلى مصر؟  /man ðahaba ʔilaː misˤr/Egyptian Arabic_item_24_85

Also since Coptic lacked interdental consonants it could possibly have influenced the manifestation of their occurrences in Classical Arabic /θ/ /ð/ /ðˤ/ as their dental counterparts /t/ /d/ and the emphatic dental // respectively. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_167

(see consonants) Egyptian Arabic_sentence_168

Sociolinguistic features Egyptian Arabic_section_33

Egyptian Arabic is used in most social situations, with Modern Standard and Classical Arabic generally being used only in writing and in highly-religious and/or formal situations. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_169

However, within Egyptian Arabic, there is a wide range of variation. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_170

El-Said Badawi identifies three distinct levels of Egyptian Arabic based chiefly on the quantity of non-Arabic lexical items in the vocabulary: ʿĀmmiyyat al-Musaqqafīn (Cultured Colloquial or Formal Spoken Arabic), ʿĀmmiyyat al-Mutanawwirīn (Enlightened or Literate Colloquial), and ʿĀmmiyyat al-'Ummiyīn (Illiterate Colloquial). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_171

Cultured Colloquial/Formal Spoken Arabic is characteristic of the educated classes and is the language of discussion of high-level subjects, but it is still Egyptian Arabic; it is characterized by use of technical terms imported from foreign languages and MSA and closer attention to the pronunciation of certain letters (particularly qāf). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_172

It is relatively standardized and, being closer to the standard, it is understood fairly well across the Arab world. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_173

On the opposite end of the spectrum, Illiterate Colloquial, common to rural areas and to working-class neighborhoods in the cities, has an almost-exclusively Arabic vocabulary; the few loanwords generally are very old borrowings (e.g. جمبرى gambari, [ɡæmˈbæɾi] "shrimp", from Italian gamberi, "shrimp" (pl.)) or refer to technological items that find no or poor equivalents in Arabic (e.g. تلفزيون tel(e)vezyōn/tel(e)fezyōn [tel(e)vezˈjoːn, tel(e)fezˈjoːn], television). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_174

Enlightened Colloquial (ʿĀmmiyyat al-Mutanawwirīn) is the language of those who have had some schooling and are relatively affluent; loanwords tend to refer to items of popular culture, consumer products, and fashions. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_175

It is also understood widely in the Arab world, as it is the lingua franca of Egyptian cinema and television. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_176

In contrast to MSA and most other varieties of Arabic, Egyptian Arabic has a form of the T-V distinction. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_177

In the singular, انت enta/enti is acceptable in most situations, but to address clear social superiors (e.g. older persons, superiors at work, certain government officials), the form حضرتك ḥaḍretak/ḥaḍretek, meaning "Your Grace" is preferred (compare Spanish usted). Egyptian Arabic_sentence_178

This use of ḥaḍretak/ḥaḍretek is linked to the system of honorifics in daily Egyptian speech. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_179

The honorific taken by a given person is determined by their relationship to the speaker and their occupation. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_180

Egyptian Arabic_table_general_10

Examples of Egyptian honorificsEgyptian Arabic_table_caption_10
HonorificEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_10_0_0 IPAEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_10_0_1 Origin/meaningEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_10_0_2 Usage and notesEgyptian Arabic_header_cell_10_0_3
seyattakEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_1_0 [seˈjættæk]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_1_1 Standard Arabic siyādatuka, "Your Lordship"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_1_2 Persons with a far higher social standing than the speaker, particularly at work. Also applied to high government officials, including the President. Equivalent in practical terms to "Your Excellency" or "The Most Honourable".Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_1_3
saʿattakEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_2_0 [sæˈʕættæk]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_2_1 Standard Arabic saʿādatuka, "Your Happiness"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_2_2 Government officials and others with significantly higher social standing. Equivalent in governmental contexts "Your Excellency", or "Your Honor" when addressing a judge.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_2_3
maʿalīkEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_3_0 [mæʕæˈliːk]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_3_1 Standard Arabic maʿālīka, "Your Highness"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_3_2 Government ministers. Equivalent in practical terms to "Your Excellency" or "The Right Honourable".Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_3_3
ḥagg/ḥaggaEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_4_0 [ˈħæɡ(ɡ)]/[ˈħæɡɡæ]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_4_1 Standard Arabic ḥāǧEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_4_2 Traditionally, any Muslim who has made the Hajj, or any Christian who has made pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Currently also used as a general term of respect for all elderly.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_4_3
bāshaEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_5_0 [ˈbæːʃæ]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_5_1 Ottoman Turkish pashaEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_5_2 Informal address to a male of equal or lesser social status. Roughly equivalent to "man" or "dude" in informal English speech.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_5_3
bēhEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_6_0 [beː]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_6_1 Ottoman Turkish beyEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_6_2 Informal address to a male of equal or lesser social status. Essentially equivalent to but less current than bāsha.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_6_3
afandiEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_7_0 [æˈfændi]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_7_1 Ottoman Turkish efendiEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_7_2 (Archaic); address to a male of a less social standard than bēh and bāsha.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_7_3
hānemEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_8_0 [ˈhæːnem]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_8_1 Ottoman Turkish hanım/khanum, "Lady"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_8_2 Address to a woman of high social standing, or esteemed as such by the speaker. Somewhat archaic.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_8_3
settEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_9_0 [ˈset(t)]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_9_1 Standard Arabic sayyida(t) "mistress"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_9_2 The usual word for "woman". When used as a term of address, it conveys a modicum of respect.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_9_3
madāmEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_10_0 [mæˈdæːm]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_10_1 French madameEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_10_2 Respectful term of address for an older or married woman.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_10_3
ānesaEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_11_0 [ʔæˈnesæ]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_11_1 Standard Arabic ānisah, "young lady"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_11_2 Semi-formal address to an unmarried young woman.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_11_3
ostāzEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_12_0 [ʔosˈtæːz]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_12_1 Standard Arabic ustādh, "professor", "gentleman"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_12_2 Besides actual university professors and schoolteachers, used for experts in certain fields. May also be used as a generic informal reference, as bēh or bāsha.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_12_3
osṭa/asṭaEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_13_0 [ˈostˤɑ]/[ˈɑstˤɑ]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_13_1 Turkish usta, "master"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_13_2 Drivers and also skilled laborers.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_13_3
rayyesEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_14_0 [ˈɾɑjjes]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_14_1 Standard Arabic raʿīs, "chief"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_14_2 Skilled laborers. The term predates the use of the same word to mean "president", and traditionally referred to the chief of a village.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_14_3
bash-mohandesEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_15_0 [bæʃmoˈhændes]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_15_1 Ottoman Turkish baş mühendis, "chief engineer"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_15_2 Certain types of highly skilled laborers (e.g. electricians).Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_15_3
meʿallemEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_16_0 [meˈʕællem]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_16_1 Standard Arabic muʿallim, "teacher"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_16_2 Most working class men, particularly semi-skilled and unskilled laborers.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_16_3
ʿammEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_17_0 [ˈʕæm(m)]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_17_1 Standard Arabic ʿamm, "paternal uncle"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_17_2 Older male servants or social subordinates with whom the speaker has a close relationship. It can also be used as a familiar term of address, much like basha. The use of the word in its original meaning is also current, for third-person reference. The second-person term of address to a paternal uncle is ʿammo [ˈʕæmmo]; onkel [ˈʔonkel], from French , may also be used, particularly for uncles unrelated by blood.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_17_3
dādaEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_18_0 [ˈdæːdæ]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_18_1 ?Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_18_2 Older female servants or social subordinates with whom the speaker has a close relationship.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_18_3
abēEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_19_0 [ʔæˈbeː]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_19_1 Ottoman Turkish abi/ağabey, "elder brother"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_19_2 Male relatives older than the speaker by about 10–15 years. Upper-class, and somewhat archaic.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_19_3
ablaEgyptian Arabic_cell_10_20_0 [ˈʔɑblɑ]Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_20_1 Ottoman Turkish abla, "elder sister"Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_20_2 Female relatives older than the speaker by about 10–15 years.Egyptian Arabic_cell_10_20_3

Other honorifics also exist. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_181

In usage, honorifics are used in the second and third person. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_182

Study Egyptian Arabic_section_34

Egyptian Arabic has been a subject of study by scholars and laypersons in the past and the present for many reasons, including personal interest, egyptomania, business, news reporting, and diplomatic and political interactions. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_183

Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) is now a field of study in both graduate and undergraduate levels in many higher education institutions and universities in the world. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_184

When added to academic instruction, Arabic -language schools and university programs provide Egyptian Arabic courses in a classroom fashion, and others facilitate classes for online study. Egyptian Arabic_sentence_185

Sample text Egyptian Arabic_section_35

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Egyptian Arabic_sentence_186

Egyptian/Masri (Arabic script; spelling not standardised): Egyptian Arabic_sentence_187

Franco/Arabic Chat Alphabet (has no strict standard): Egyptian Arabic_sentence_188

IPA Phonemic transcription (for comparison with Literary Arabic): Egyptian Arabic_sentence_189

IPA phonemic transcription (for a general demonstration of Egyptian phonology): Egyptian Arabic_sentence_190

IPA phonetic transcription morphologically (in fast speech, long vowels are half-long or without distinctive length): Egyptian Arabic_sentence_191

A suggested alphabet: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_192

English: Egyptian Arabic_sentence_193

Sample words and sentences Egyptian Arabic_section_36

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_25

  • إزيك [ezˈzæjjæk] ("How are you [m.]")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_86
  • إزيك [ezˈzæjjek] ("How are you [f.]")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_87
  • إزيكو [ezzæjˈjoko] ("How are you [pl.]")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_88
  • ايه ده [ˈʔeː ˈdæ] ("What's all this?", "What's the point", "What's this?" – expression of annoyance)Egyptian Arabic_item_25_89
    • Ex.: إنتا بتقوللهم عليا كده ليه, ايه ده؟ [entæ betʔolˈlohom ʕæˈlæjjæ ˈkedæ ˈleː ˈʔeː dæ] ("Why are you telling them such things about me, what's all this?")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_90
  • خلاص [xɑˈlɑːsˤ]: several meanings, though its main meaning is "enough", often adverbialEgyptian Arabic_item_25_91
    • "Stop it!" Ex.: زهقت, خلاص [zeˈheʔte xɑˈlɑːsˤ] ("I'm annoyed, stop it!")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_92
    • "It's over!", "finally, eventually" مامتى كانت عيانه و ماتت, خلاص Ex.: [ˈmɑmti kæːnet ʕajˈjæːnæ wˈmæːtet xɑˈlɑːsˤ]| ("My mother was ill and died finally." [or "...and it's over now"])Egyptian Arabic_item_25_93
    • "Ok, then!" Ex.: خلاص, أشوفك بكرا [xɑˈlɑːsˤ ʔæˈʃuːfæk ˈbokɾɑ] ("I'll see you tomorrow then")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_94
  • خالص [ˈxɑːlesˤ] ("at all")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_95
    • ماعندناش حاجه نقولها خالص [mæʕændeˈnæːʃ ˈħæːɡæ nˈʔolhæ ˈxɑːlesˤ] ("We have nothing at all to say")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_96
  • كفاية [keˈfæːjæ] ("It's enough!" or "That's enough")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_97
  • يعنى [ˈjæʕni] ("that's to say" or "meaning" or "y'know")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_98
    • As answer to إنتا عامل إيه؟ [entæ ˈʕæːmel ˈ(ʔ)eː] ("How do you do [m.]?") (as an answer: مش أد كده [meʃ ˈʔædde ˈkedæ] "I am so so" or نص نص [ˈnosˤse ˈnosˤ] "half half" = مش تمام [meʃ tæˈmæːm] "not perfect")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_99
    • يعنى ايه؟ [jæʕni ˈʔeː] ("What does that mean?")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_100
    • إمتا هتخلص يعنى؟ [ˈemtæ hɑtˈxɑllɑsˤ ˈjæʕni] ("When are you finishing exactly, then?)Egyptian Arabic_item_25_101
  • بقى [ˈbæʔæ] (particle of enforcement → "just" in imperative clauses and "well,...then?" in questions)Egyptian Arabic_item_25_102
    • هاته بقى [ˈhæːto ˈbæʔæ] ("Just give it to me!)" عمل ايه بقى؟ [ˈʕæmæl ˈ(ʔ)eː ˈbæʔæ] or  [ˈʕæmæl ˈ(ʔ)eː ˈbæʔæ] ("Well, what did he do then?")Egyptian Arabic_item_25_103

See also Egyptian Arabic_section_37

Egyptian Arabic_unordered_list_26


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian Arabic.