Ekoka ǃKung

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Ekoka ǃKung_table_infobox_0

Ekoka ǃKungEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_0_0_0
Native toEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_0_1_0 South Africa, Namibia, AngolaEkoka ǃKung_cell_0_1_1
Language familyEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_0_2_0 KxʼaEkoka ǃKung_cell_0_2_1
DialectsEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_0_3_0 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_0_3_1
Language codesEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_0_4_0
ISO 639-3Ekoka ǃKung_header_cell_0_5_0 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_0_5_1
GlottologEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_0_6_0 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_0_6_1

Ekoka ǃKung (Ekoka ǃXuun, Ekoka-ǃXû, ǃKung-Ekoka) or Western ǃXuun (North-Central Ju) is a variety of the ǃKung dialect cluster, spoken originally in the area of the central NamibianAngolan border, west of the Okavango River, but since the Angolan Civil War also in South Africa. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_0

Dialects Ekoka ǃKung_section_0

Heine & Honken (2010) place Ekoka in the Northern–Western branch of ǃXuun (ǃKung), where Ekoka is equivalent to the Western branch. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_1

They distinguish three varieties: Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_2

Ekoka ǃKung_unordered_list_0

  • Western ǃXuun (Kung-Ekoka)Ekoka ǃKung_item_0_0
    • Tsintsabis (natively ǃxūún; spoken in Tsintsabis, Tsumeb district, N Namibia)Ekoka ǃKung_item_0_1
    • ǀAkhwe (natively ǃxūún, ǀʼākhòè ǃxòān "Kwanyama ǃXuun"; spoken in Eenhana, N Namibia)Ekoka ǃKung_item_0_2
    • [no name] (natively ǃxūún, ǃʼālè ǃxòān "Valley ǃXuun"; spoken in Eenhana district, N Namibia)Ekoka ǃKung_item_0_3

Sands et al. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_3

place it in its own branch, which they call North-Central Ju: Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_4

Ekoka ǃKung_unordered_list_1

  • North-Central Ju (Namibia, between the Ovambo River and the Angolan border, around the tributaries of the Okavango River east of Rundu to the Etosha Pan)Ekoka ǃKung_item_1_4
    • TsintsabisEkoka ǃKung_item_1_5
    • ǀʼAkhweEkoka ǃKung_item_1_6
    • OkongoEkoka ǃKung_item_1_7
    • OvamboEkoka ǃKung_item_1_8
    • MpunguvleiEkoka ǃKung_item_1_9

Tsintsabis might actually be Central ǃKung. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_5

Phonology Ekoka ǃKung_section_1

Consonants Ekoka ǃKung_section_2

Ekoka ǃKung has a indistinguishable sound system to Juǀʼhoansi. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_6

However, the series of palatal clicks, /ǂ/ etc, have a fricated lateral release (see fricated palatal clicks). Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_7

These are provisionally transcribed ⟨ǃ͡s⟩ or ⟨⨎⟩, etc., and behave similarly to palatal (rather than alveolar) clicks in terms of not following the back-vowel constraint. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_8

In addition to the twelve 'accompaniments' of clicks in Juǀʼhoansi, Ekoka has preglottalized nasal clicks, such as /ʔᵑǃ/. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_9

These are not common cross-linguistically, but are also found in Taa and ǂHoan. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_10

König & Heine (2001) report the following inventory, with the clicks as analyzed by Miller (2011). Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_11

One of the click series, called 'fortis' in König & Heine, is only attested at two places of articulation; it is not clear which this corresponds to in the table below. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_12

There are also prenasalized /mb, nd, ŋɡ/ in Bantu loans. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_13

Ekoka ǃKung_table_general_1

Ekoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_0_0 BilabialEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_0_1 AlveolarEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_0_3 Post- alveolarEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_0_5 PalatalEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_0_7 VelarEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_0_9 Corresponding

ClickEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_0_11

GlottalEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_0_13
NasalEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_1_0 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_1 m

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_2

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_3 n

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_4

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_5 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_7 ɲEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_8 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_9 ŋEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_10 ᵑ̊ǃʰEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_11 ᵑǃ

ᵑǃʱEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_12

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_1_13
Stop/AffricateEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_2_0 p

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_1


Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_2

tEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_3 d

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_4

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_5

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_6 tʃʰEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_7 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_8 k

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_9


Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_10


ᵏǃʰEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_11


ᶢǃʱEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_12

ʔEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_13 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_2_14
Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_3_0 ᵑ̊ǃˀEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_3_10 ᵑǃˀEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_3_11 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_3_12
Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_0 tᵡEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_2 dᵡEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_3 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_4 tʃᵡEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_6 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_7 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_8 ᵏǃᵡEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_10 ᶢǃʶEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_11 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_4_12
Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_0 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_2 tʃʼEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_4 dʒʼEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_5 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_6 dʃᵡʼEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_7 kxʼEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_8 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_9 ǃ͡kxʼEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_10 ᶢǃ͡kxʼEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_11 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_5_12
FricativeEkoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_6_0 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_1 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_3 ʃEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_5 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_6 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_7 xEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_9 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_10 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_11 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_13 ɦEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_6_14

(Lateral)Ekoka ǃKung_header_cell_1_7_0

Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_7_1 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_7_3 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_7_5 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_7_7 jEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_7_8 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_7_9 wEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_7_10 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_7_11
Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_8_0 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_8_2 lEkoka ǃKung_cell_1_8_3 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_8_4 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_8_6 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_8_8 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_8_10 Ekoka ǃKung_cell_1_8_12

Ekoka ǃKung_description_list_2

  • /tʰ/ is shown as post-alveolar; cf. the epiglottalized /tᵸ/ found in Juǀ'hoan, though this could be an alignment error. Similarly, /tʃʰ/ is shown as palatal, along with /tʃᵡ, dʃᵡʼ/ and in contrast to post-alveolar /tʃ/.Ekoka ǃKung_item_2_10

More recently, Heine & König find that Ekoka ǃKung also has a series of preglottalized nasal consonants, including preglottalized nasal clicks: Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_14

Ekoka ǃKung_description_list_3

  • /ˀm, ˀn, ˀᵑǀ, ˀᵑǃ, ˀᵑǂ, ˀᵑǁ/Ekoka ǃKung_item_3_11

Vowels Ekoka ǃKung_section_3

Ekoka has a full set of modal and murmured (breathy) vowels, as well as pharyngealized back vowels, and a reduced set of modal, murmured, and pharyngealized nasal vowels: Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_15

Ekoka ǃKung_description_list_4

  • i e a o u – ih eh ah oh uh – aq oq uq – in an un – ahn ohn – aqn oqn uqnEkoka ǃKung_item_4_12

Grammar Ekoka ǃKung_section_4

Linguistically, ǃKung is generally termed isolating, meaning that words' meanings are changed by the addition of other, separate words, rather than by the addition of affixes or the changing of word structure. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_16

A few suffixes exist - for example, distributive plurals are formed with the noun suffix -si or -mhi, but in the main meaning is given only by series of words rather than by grouping of affixes. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_17

ǃKung distinguishes no formal plural, and the suffixes -si and -mhi are optional in usage. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_18

The language's word order is adverb–subject–verb–object, and in this it is similar to English: "the snake bites the man" is represented by ǂʼaama nǃei zhu (ǂʼaama - snake, nǃei - to bite, zhu - man). Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_19

ǃKung-ekoka uses word and sentence tone contours, and has a very finely differentiated vocabulary for the animals, plants and conditions native to the Kalahari Desert, where the language is spoken. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_20

For example, the plant genus Grewia is referred to by five different words, representing five different species in this genus. Ekoka ǃKung_sentence_21

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekoka ǃKung.