Electronic musical instrument

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"Electronic instrument" redirects here. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_0

For electronic measuring instruments, see Electronic instrumentation. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_1

For other electric music instruments, see Electric instrument. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_2

An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronic circuitry. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_3

Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digital audio signal that ultimately is plugged into a power amplifier which drives a loudspeaker, creating the sound heard by the performer and listener. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_4

An electronic instrument might include a user interface for controlling its sound, often by adjusting the pitch, frequency, or duration of each note. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_5

A common user interface is the musical keyboard, which functions similarly to the keyboard on an acoustic piano, except that with an electronic keyboard, the keyboard itself does not make any sound. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_6

An electronic keyboard sends a signal to a synth module, computer or other electronic or digital sound generator, which then creates a sound. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_7

However, it is increasingly common to separate user interface and sound-generating functions into a music controller (input device) and a music synthesizer, respectively, with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_8

All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_9

Simple electronic musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects; the border between sound effects and actual musical instruments is often unclear. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_10

In the 2010s, electronic musical instruments are now widely used in most styles of music. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_11

In popular music styles such as electronic dance music, almost all of the instrument sounds used in recordings are electronic instruments (e.g., bass synth, synthesizer, drum machine). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_12

Development of new electronic musical instruments, controllers, and synthesizers continues to be a highly active and interdisciplinary field of research. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_13

Specialized conferences, notably the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, have organized to report cutting-edge work, as well as to provide a showcase for artists who perform or create music with new electronic music instruments, controllers, and synthesizers. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_14

Early examples Electronic musical instrument_section_0

See also: Electronic music Electronic musical instrument_sentence_15

In the 18th-century, musicians and composers adapted a number of acoustic instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_16

Thus, in the broadest sense, the first electrified musical instrument was the Denis d'or keyboard, dating from 1753, followed shortly by the clavecin électrique by the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste de Laborde in 1761. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_17

The Denis d'or consisted of a keyboard instrument of over 700 strings, electrified temporarily to enhance sonic qualities. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_18

The clavecin électrique was a keyboard instrument with plectra (picks) activated electrically. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_19

However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_20

The first electric synthesizer was invented in 1876 by Elisha Gray. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_21

The "Musical Telegraph" was a chance by-product of his telephone technology when Gray accidentally discovered that he could control sound from a self-vibrating electromagnetic circuit and so invented a basic oscillator. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_22

The Musical Telegraph used steel reeds oscillated by electromagnets and transmitted over a telephone line. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_23

Gray also built a simple loudspeaker device into later models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_24

A significant invention, which later had a profound effect on electronic music, was the audion in 1906. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_25

This was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube and which led to the generation and amplification of electrical signals, radio broadcasting, and electronic computation, among other things. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_26

Other early synthesizers included the Telharmonium (1897), the Theremin (1919), Jörg Mager's Spharophon (1924) and Partiturophone, Taubmann's similar Electronde (1933), Maurice Martenot's ondes Martenot ("Martenot waves", 1928), Trautwein's Trautonium (1930). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_27

The Mellertion (1933) used a non-standard scale, Bertrand's Dynaphone could produce octaves and perfect fifths, while the Emicon was an American, keyboard-controlled instrument constructed in 1930 and the German Hellertion combined four instruments to produce chords. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_28

Three Russian instruments also appeared, Oubouhof's Croix Sonore (1934), Ivor Darreg's microtonal 'Electronic Keyboard Oboe' (1937) and the ANS synthesizer, constructed by the Russian scientist Evgeny Murzin from 1937 to 1958. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_29

Only two models of this latter were built and the only surviving example is currently stored at the Lomonosov University in Moscow. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_30

It has been used in many Russian movies—like Solaris—to produce unusual, "cosmic" sounds. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_31

Hugh Le Caine, John Hanert, Raymond Scott, composer Percy Grainger (with Burnett Cross), and others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late 1940s and 1950s. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_32

In 1959 Daphne Oram produced a novel method of synthesis, her "Oramics" technique, driven by drawings on a 35 mm film strip; it was used for a number of years at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_33

This workshop was also responsible for the theme to the TV series Doctor Who a piece, largely created by Delia Derbyshire, that more than any other ensured the popularity of electronic music in the UK. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_34

Telharmonium Electronic musical instrument_section_1

Main article: Telharmonium Electronic musical instrument_sentence_35

In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill patented an instrument called the Telharmonium (or Teleharmonium, also known as the Dynamaphone). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_36

Using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_37

This technology was later used to design the Hammond organ. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_38

Between 1901 and 1910 Cahill had three progressively larger and more complex versions made, the first weighing seven tons, the last in excess of 200 tons. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_39

Portability was managed only by rail and with the use of thirty boxcars. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_40

By 1912, public interest had waned, and Cahill's enterprise was bankrupt. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_41

Theremin Electronic musical instrument_section_2

Main article: Theremin Electronic musical instrument_sentence_42

Another development, which aroused the interest of many composers, occurred in 1919-1920. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_43

In Leningrad, Leon Theremin (actually Lev Termen) built and demonstrated his Etherophone, which was later renamed the Theremin. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_44

This led to the first compositions for electronic instruments, as opposed to noisemakers and re-purposed machines. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_45

The Theremin was notable for being the first musical instrument played without touching it. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_46

In 1929, Joseph Schillinger composed First Airphonic Suite for Theremin and Orchestra, premièred with the Cleveland Orchestra with Leon Theremin as soloist. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_47

The next year Henry Cowell commissioned Theremin to create the first electronic rhythm machine, called the Rhythmicon. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_48

Cowell wrote some compositions for it, and he and Schillinger premiered it in 1932. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_49

Ondes Martenot Electronic musical instrument_section_3

Main article: Ondes Martenot Electronic musical instrument_sentence_50

The 1920s have been called the apex of the Mechanical Age and the dawning of the Electrical Age. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_51

In 1922, in Paris, Darius Milhaud began experiments with "vocal transformation by phonograph speed change." Electronic musical instrument_sentence_52

These continued until 1927. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_53

This decade brought a wealth of early electronic instruments—along with the Theremin, there is the presentation of the Ondes Martenot, which was designed to reproduce the microtonal sounds found in Hindu music, and the Trautonium. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_54

Maurice Martenot invented the Ondes Martenot in 1928, and soon demonstrated it in Paris. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_55

Composers using the instrument ultimately include Boulez, Honegger, Jolivet, Koechlin, Messiaen, Milhaud, Tremblay, and Varèse. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_56

Radiohead guitarist and multi-instrumentalist Jonny Greenwood also uses it in his compositions and a plethora of Radiohead songs. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_57

In 1937, Messiaen wrote Fête des belles eaux for 6 ondes Martenot, and wrote solo parts for it in Trois petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine (1943–44) and the Turangalîla-Symphonie (1946–48/90). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_58

Trautonium Electronic musical instrument_section_4

Main article: Trautonium Electronic musical instrument_sentence_59

The Trautonium was invented in 1928. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_60

It was based on the subharmonic scale, and the resulting sounds were often used to emulate bell or gong sounds, as in the 1950s Bayreuth productions of Parsifal. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_61

In 1942, Richard Strauss used it for the bell- and gong-part in the Dresden première of his Japanese Festival Music. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_62

This new class of instruments, microtonal by nature, was only adopted slowly by composers at first, but by the early 1930s there was a burst of new works incorporating these and other electronic instruments. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_63

Hammond organ and Novachord Electronic musical instrument_section_5

Main articles: Hammond organ and Novachord Electronic musical instrument_sentence_64

In 1929 Laurens Hammond established his company for the manufacture of electronic instruments. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_65

He went on to produce the Hammond organ, which was based on the principles of the Telharmonium, along with other developments including early reverberation units. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_66

The Hammond organ is an electromechanical instrument, as it used both mechanical elements and electronic parts. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_67

A Hammond organ used spinning metal tonewheels to produce different sounds. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_68

A magnetic pickup similar in design to the pickups in an electric guitar is used to transmit the pitches in the tonewheels to an amplifier and speaker enclosure. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_69

While the Hammond organ was designed to be a lower-cost alternative to a pipe organ for church music, musicians soon discovered that the Hammond was an excellent instrument for blues and jazz; indeed, an entire genre of music developed built around this instrument, known as the organ trio (typically Hammond organ, drums, and a third instrument, either saxophone or guitar). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_70

The first commercially manufactured synthesizer was the Novachord, built by the Hammond Organ Company from 1938 to 1942, which offered 72-note polyphony using 12 oscillators driving monostable-based divide-down circuits, basic envelope control and resonant low-pass filters. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_71

The instrument featured 163 vacuum tubes and weighed 500 pounds. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_72

The instrument's use of envelope control is significant, since this is perhaps the most significant distinction between the modern synthesizer and other electronic instruments. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_73

Analogue synthesis 1950–1980 Electronic musical instrument_section_6

Main articles: Analog synthesizer and Synthesizer Electronic musical instrument_sentence_74

The most commonly used electronic instruments are synthesizers, so-called because they artificially generate sound using a variety of techniques. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_75

All early circuit-based synthesis involved the use of analogue circuitry, particularly voltage controlled amplifiers, oscillators and filters. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_76

An important technological development was the invention of the Clavivox synthesizer in 1956 by Raymond Scott with subassembly by Robert Moog. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_77

French composer and engineer Edgard Varèse created a variety of compositions using electronic horns, whistles, and tape. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_78

Most notably, he wrote Poème électronique for the Phillips pavilion at the Brussels World Fair in 1958. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_79

Modular synthesizers Electronic musical instrument_section_7

Main article: Modular synthesizer Electronic musical instrument_sentence_80

RCA produced experimental devices to synthesize voice and music in the 1950s. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_81

The Mark II Music Synthesizer, housed at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York City. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_82

Designed by Herbert Belar and Harry Olson at RCA, with contributions from Vladimir Ussachevsky and Peter Mauzey, it was installed at Columbia University in 1957. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_83

Consisting of a room-sized array of interconnected sound synthesis components, it was only capable of producing music by programming, using a paper tape sequencer punched with holes to control pitch sources and filters, similar to a mechanical player piano but capable of generating a wide variety of sounds. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_84

The vacuum tube system had to be patched to create timbres. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_85

In the 1960s synthesizers were still usually confined to studios due to their size. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_86

They were usually modular in design, their stand-alone signal sources and processors connected with patch cords or by other means and controlled by a common controlling device. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_87

Harald Bode, Don Buchla, Hugh Le Caine, Raymond Scott and Paul Ketoff were among the first to build such instruments, in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_88

Buchla later produced a commercial modular synthesizer, the Buchla Music Easel. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_89

Robert Moog, who had been a student of Peter Mauzey and one of the RCA Mark II engineers, created a synthesizer that could reasonably be used by musicians, designing the circuits while he was at Columbia-Princeton. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_90

The Moog synthesizer was first displayed at the Audio Engineering Society convention in 1964. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_91

It required experience to set up sounds but was smaller and more intuitive than what had come before, less like a machine and more like a musical instrument. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_92

Moog established standards for control interfacing, using a logarithmic 1-volt-per-octave for pitch control and a separate triggering signal. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_93

This standardization allowed synthesizers from different manufacturers to operate simultaneously. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_94

Pitch control was usually performed either with an organ-style keyboard or a music sequencer producing a timed series of control voltages. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_95

During the late 1960s hundreds of popular recordings used Moog synthesizers. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_96

Other early commercial synthesizer manufacturers included ARP, who also started with modular synthesizers before producing all-in-one instruments, and British firm EMS. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_97

Integrated synthesizers Electronic musical instrument_section_8

In 1970, Moog designed the Minimoog, a non-modular synthesizer with a built-in keyboard. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_98

The analogue circuits were interconnected with switches in a simplified arrangement called "normalization." Electronic musical instrument_sentence_99

Though less flexible than a modular design, normalization made the instrument more portable and easier to use. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_100

The Minimoog sold 12,000 units. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_101

Further standardized the design of subsequent synthesizers with its integrated keyboard, pitch and modulation wheels and VCO->VCF->VCA signal flow. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_102

It has become celebrated for its "fat" sound—and its tuning problems. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_103

Miniaturized solid-state components allowed synthesizers to become self-contained, portable instruments that soon appeared in live performance and quickly became widely used in popular music and electronic art music. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_104

Polyphony Electronic musical instrument_section_9

Main article: Polyphony (instrument) § Synthesizer Electronic musical instrument_sentence_105

Many early analog synthesizers were monophonic, producing only one tone at a time. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_106

Popular monophonic synthesizers include the Moog Minimoog. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_107

A few, such as the Moog Sonic Six, ARP Odyssey and EML 101, could produce two different pitches at a time when two keys were pressed. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_108

Polyphony (multiple simultaneous tones, which enables chords) was only obtainable with electronic organ designs at first. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_109

Popular electronic keyboards combining organ circuits with synthesizer processing included the ARP Omni and Moog's Polymoog and Opus 3. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_110

By 1976 affordable polyphonic synthesizers began to appear, notably the Yamaha CS-50, CS-60 and CS-80, the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 and the Oberheim Four-Voice. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_111

These remained complex, heavy and relatively costly. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_112

The recording of settings in digital memory allowed storage and recall of sounds. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_113

The first practical polyphonic synth, and the first to use a microprocessor as a controller, was the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 introduced in late 1977. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_114

For the first time, musicians had a practical polyphonic synthesizer that could save all knob settings in computer memory and recall them at the touch of a button. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_115

The Prophet-5's design paradigm became a new standard, slowly pushing out more complex and recondite modular designs. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_116

Tape recording Electronic musical instrument_section_10

Main articles: Magnetophon, Musique concrète, Multitrack recording, Chamberlin, and Mellotron Electronic musical instrument_sentence_117

In 1935, another significant development was made in Germany. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_118

Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft (AEG) demonstrated the first commercially produced magnetic tape recorder, called the Magnetophon. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_119

Audio tape, which had the advantage of being fairly light as well as having good audio fidelity, ultimately replaced the bulkier wire recorders. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_120

The term "electronic music" (which first came into use during the 1930s) came to include the tape recorder as an essential element: "electronically produced sounds recorded on tape and arranged by the composer to form a musical composition". Electronic musical instrument_sentence_121

It was also indispensable to Musique concrète. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_122

Tape also gave rise to the first, analogue, sample-playback keyboards, the Chamberlin and its more famous successor the Mellotron, an electro-mechanical, polyphonic keyboard originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_123

Sound sequencer Electronic musical instrument_section_11

Main article: Music sequencer Electronic musical instrument_sentence_124

During the 1940s–1960s, Raymond Scott, an American composer of electronic music, invented various kind of music sequencers for his electric compositions. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_125

Step sequencers played rigid patterns of notes using a grid of (usually) 16 buttons, or steps, each step being 1/16 of a measure. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_126

These patterns of notes were then chained together to form longer compositions. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_127

Software sequencers were continuously utilized since the 1950s in the context of computer music, including computer-played music (software sequencer), computer-composed music (music synthesis), and computer sound generation (sound synthesis). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_128

Digital era 1980–2000 Electronic musical instrument_section_12

Digital synthesis Electronic musical instrument_section_13

Main article: Digital synthesizer Electronic musical instrument_sentence_129

The first digital synthesizers were academic experiments in sound synthesis using digital computers. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_130

FM synthesis was developed for this purpose; as a way of generating complex sounds digitally with the smallest number of computational operations per sound sample. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_131

In 1983 Yamaha introduced the first stand-alone digital synthesizer, the DX-7. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_132

It used frequency modulation synthesis (FM synthesis), first developed by John Chowning at Stanford University during the late sixties. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_133

Chowning exclusively licensed his FM synthesis patent to Yamaha in 1975. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_134

Yamaha subsequently released their first FM synthesizers, the GS-1 and GS-2, which were costly and heavy. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_135

There followed a pair of smaller, preset versions, the CE20 and CE25 Combo Ensembles, targeted primarily at the home organ market and featuring four-octave keyboards. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_136

Yamaha's third generation of digital synthesizers was a commercial success; it consisted of the DX7 and DX9 (1983). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_137

Both models were compact, reasonably priced, and dependent on custom digital integrated circuits to produce FM tonalities. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_138

The DX7 was the first mass market all-digital synthesizer. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_139

It became indispensable to many music artists of the 1980s, and demand soon exceeded supply. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_140

The DX7 sold over 200,000 units within three years. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_141

The DX series was not easy to program but offered a detailed, percussive sound that led to the demise of the electro-mechanical Rhodes piano, which was heavier and larger than a DX synth. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_142

Following the success of FM synthesis Yamaha signed a contract with Stanford University in 1989 to develop digital waveguide synthesis, leading to the first commercial physical modeling synthesizer, Yamaha's VL-1, in 1994. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_143

The DX-7 was affordable enough for amateurs and young bands to buy, unlike the costly synthesizers of previous generations, which were mainly used by top professionals. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_144

Sampling Electronic musical instrument_section_14

Main articles: Sampler (musical instrument) and Sampling (music) Electronic musical instrument_sentence_145

The Fairlight CMI (Computer Musical Instrument), the first polyphonic digital sampler, was the harbinger of sample-based synthesizers. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_146

Designed in 1978 by Peter Vogel and Kim Ryrie and based on a dual microprocessor computer designed by Tony Furse in Sydney, Australia, the Fairlight CMI gave musicians the ability to modify volume, attack, decay, and use special effects like vibrato. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_147

Sample waveforms could be displayed on-screen and modified using a light pen. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_148

The Synclavier from New England Digital was a similar system. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_149

Jon Appleton (with Jones and Alonso) invented the Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer, later to become the New England Digital Corp's Synclavier. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_150

The Kurzweil K250, first produced in 1983, was also a successful polyphonic digital music synthesizer, noted for its ability to reproduce several instruments synchronously and having a velocity-sensitive keyboard. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_151

Computer music Electronic musical instrument_section_15

Main articles: Computer music and Software synthesizer Electronic musical instrument_sentence_152

An important new development was the advent of computers for the purpose of composing music, as opposed to manipulating or creating sounds. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_153

Iannis Xenakis began what is called musique stochastique, or stochastic music, which is a method of composing that employs mathematical probability systems. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_154

Different probability algorithms were used to create a piece under a set of parameters. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_155

Xenakis used graph paper and a ruler to aid in calculating the velocity trajectories of glissando for his orchestral composition Metastasis (1953–54), but later turned to the use of computers to compose pieces like ST/4 for string quartet and ST/48 for orchestra (both 1962). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_156

The impact of computers continued in 1956. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_157

Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Issacson composed Illiac Suite for string quartet, the first complete work of computer-assisted composition using algorithmic composition. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_158

In 1957, Max Mathews at Bell Lab wrote MUSIC-N series, a first computer program family for generating digital audio waveforms through direct synthesis. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_159

Then Barry Vercoe wrote MUSIC 11 based on MUSIC IV-BF, a next-generation music synthesis program (later evolving into csound, which is still widely used). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_160

In mid 80s, Miller Puckette at IRCAM developed graphic signal-processing software for 4X called Max (after Max Mathews), and later ported it to Macintosh (with Dave Zicarelli extending it for Opcode ) for real-time MIDI control, bringing algorithmic composition availability to most composers with modest computer programming background. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_161

MIDI Electronic musical instrument_section_16

Main article: Musical Instrument Digital Interface Electronic musical instrument_sentence_162

In 1980, a group of musicians and music merchants met to standardize an interface by which new instruments could communicate control instructions with other instruments and the prevalent microcomputer. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_163

This standard was dubbed MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). Electronic musical instrument_sentence_164

A paper was authored by Dave Smith of Sequential Circuits and proposed to the Audio Engineering Society in 1981. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_165

Then, in August 1983, the MIDI Specification 1.0 was finalized. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_166

The advent of MIDI technology allows a single keystroke, control wheel motion, pedal movement, or command from a microcomputer to activate every device in the studio remotely and in synchrony, with each device responding according to conditions predetermined by the composer. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_167

MIDI instruments and software made powerful control of sophisticated instruments easily affordable by many studios and individuals. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_168

Acoustic sounds became reintegrated into studios via sampling and sampled-ROM-based instruments. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_169

Modern electronic musical instruments Electronic musical instrument_section_17

The increasing power and decreasing cost of sound-generating electronics (and especially of the personal computer), combined with the standardization of the MIDI and Open Sound Control musical performance description languages, has facilitated the separation of musical instruments into music controllers and music synthesizers. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_170

By far the most common musical controller is the musical keyboard. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_171

Other controllers include the radiodrum, Akai's EWI and Yamah's WX wind controllers, the guitar-like SynthAxe, the , the Buchla Thunder, the Continuum Fingerboard, the Roland Octapad, various isomorphic keyboards including the Thummer, and Kaossilator Pro, and kits like I-CubeX. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_172

Reactable Electronic musical instrument_section_18

Main article: Reactable Electronic musical instrument_sentence_173

The Reactable is a round translucent table with a backlit interactive display. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_174

By placing and manipulating blocks called tangibles on the table surface, while interacting with the visual display via finger gestures, a virtual modular synthesizer is operated, creating music or sound effects. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_175

Percussa AudioCubes Electronic musical instrument_section_19

Main article: Audiocubes Electronic musical instrument_sentence_176

AudioCubes are autonomous wireless cubes powered by an internal computer system and rechargeable battery. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_177

They have internal RGB lighting, and are capable of detecting each other's location, orientation and distance. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_178

The cubes can also detect distances to the user's hands and fingers. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_179

Through interaction with the cubes, a variety of music and sound software can be operated. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_180

AudioCubes have applications in sound design, music production, DJing and live performance. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_181

Kaossilator Electronic musical instrument_section_20

Main article: Kaossilator Electronic musical instrument_sentence_182

The Kaossilator and Kaossilator Pro are compact instruments where the position of a finger on the touch pad controls two note-characteristics; usually the pitch is changed with a left-right motion and the tonal property, filter or other parameter changes with an up-down motion. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_183

The touch pad can be set to different musical scales and keys. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_184

The instrument can record a repeating loop of adjustable length, set to any tempo, and new loops of sound can be layered on top of existing ones. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_185

This lends itself to electronic dance-music but is more limited for controlled sequences of notes, as the pad on a regular Kaossilator is featureless. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_186

Eigenharp Electronic musical instrument_section_21

Main article: Eigenharp Electronic musical instrument_sentence_187

The Eigenharp is a large instrument resembling a bassoon, which can be interacted with through big buttons, a drum sequencer and a mouthpiece. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_188

The sound processing is done on a separate computer. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_189

XTH Sense Electronic musical instrument_section_22

AlphaSphere Electronic musical instrument_section_23

Main article: AlphaSphere (instrument) Electronic musical instrument_sentence_190

The AlphaSphere is a spherical instrument that consists of 48 tactile pads that respond to pressure as well as touch. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_191

Custom software allows the pads to be indefinitely programmed individually or by groups in terms of function, note, and pressure parameter among many other settings. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_192

The primary concept of the AlphaSphere is to increase the level of expression available to electronic musicians, by allowing for the playing style of a musical instrument. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_193

Chip music Electronic musical instrument_section_24

Main article: Chiptune Electronic musical instrument_sentence_194

See also: Video game music Electronic musical instrument_sentence_195

Chiptune, chipmusic, or chip music is music written in sound formats where many of the sound textures are synthesized or sequenced in real time by a computer or video game console sound chip, sometimes including sample-based synthesis and low bit sample playback. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_196

Many chip music devices featured synthesizers in tandem with low rate sample playback. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_197

DIY culture Electronic musical instrument_section_25

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, DIY (Do it yourself) designs were published in hobby electronics magazines (notably the Formant modular synth, a DIY clone of the Moog system, published by Elektor) and kits were supplied by companies such as Paia in the US, and Maplin Electronics in the UK. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_198

Circuit bending Electronic musical instrument_section_26

Main article: Circuit bending Electronic musical instrument_sentence_199

In 1966, Reed Ghazala discovered and began to teach math "circuit bending"—the application of the creative short circuit, a process of chance short-circuiting, creating experimental electronic instruments, exploring sonic elements mainly of timbre and with less regard to pitch or rhythm, and influenced by John Cage’s aleatoric music concept. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_200

Much of this manipulation of circuits directly, especially to the point of destruction, was pioneered by Louis and Bebe Barron in the early 1950s, such as their work with John Cage on the Williams Mix and especially in the soundtrack to Forbidden Planet. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_201

Modern circuit bending is the creative customization of the circuits within electronic devices such as low voltage, battery-powered guitar effects, children's toys and small digital synthesizers to create new musical or visual instruments and sound generators. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_202

Emphasizing spontaneity and randomness, the techniques of circuit bending have been commonly associated with noise music, though many more conventional contemporary musicians and musical groups have been known to experiment with "bent" instruments. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_203

Circuit bending usually involves dismantling the machine and adding components such as switches and potentiometers that alter the circuit. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_204

With the revived interest for analogue synthesizer circuit bending became a cheap solution for many experimental musicians to create their own individual analogue sound generators. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_205

Nowadays many schematics can be found to build noise generators such as the Atari Punk Console or the Dub Siren as well as simple modifications for children toys such as the famous Speak & Spell that are often modified by circuit benders. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_206

Modular synthesizers Electronic musical instrument_section_27

Main article: Modular synthesizer Electronic musical instrument_sentence_207

The modular synthesizer is a type of synthesizer consisting of separate interchangeable modules. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_208

These are also available as kits for hobbyist DIY constructors. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_209

Many hobbyist designers also make available bare PCB boards and front panels for sale to other hobbyists. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_210

2010s Electronic musical instrument_section_28

According to a in December 2010, Sixense Entertainment is working on musical control with the Sixense TrueMotion motion controller. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_211

Immersive virtual musical instruments, or immersive virtual instruments for music and sound aim to represent musical events and sound parameters in a virtual reality so that they can be perceived not only through auditory feedback but also visually in 3D and possibly through tactile as well as haptic feedback, allowing the development of novel interaction metaphors beyond manipulation such as prehension. Electronic musical instrument_sentence_212

See also Electronic musical instrument_section_29

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic musical instrument.