Electronic music

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For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). Electronic music_sentence_0

"Electronic musician" redirects here. Electronic music_sentence_1

For the magazine, see Electronic Musician. Electronic music_sentence_2

Electronic music_table_infobox_0

Electronic musicElectronic music_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsElectronic music_header_cell_0_1_0 Electronic music_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsElectronic music_header_cell_0_2_0 Late 19th century Europe and

early 20th century North America.Electronic music_cell_0_2_1

Derivative formsElectronic music_header_cell_0_3_0 Electronic music_cell_0_3_1
SubgenresElectronic music_header_cell_0_4_0
Other topicsElectronic music_header_cell_0_5_0

Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments or circuitry-based music technology. Electronic music_sentence_3

A distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means (electroacoustic music) and that produced using electronics only. Electronic music_sentence_4

Electromechanical instruments have mechanical elements, such as strings, hammers and electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Electronic music_sentence_5

Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, electric piano and the electric guitar, which are typically made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Electronic music_sentence_6

Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers or other sound-producing mechanisms. Electronic music_sentence_7

Devices such as the theremin, synthesizer and computer can produce electronic sounds. Electronic music_sentence_8

The first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century and shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical. Electronic music_sentence_9

During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. Electronic music_sentence_10

By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and then modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Electronic music_sentence_11

Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Electronic music_sentence_12

Music produced solely from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music_sentence_13

Electronic music was also created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. Electronic music_sentence_14

An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Electronic music_sentence_15

Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s (although algorithmic composition per se without a computer had occurred much earlier, for example Mozart's Musikalisches Würfelspiel). Electronic music_sentence_16

In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry and Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. Electronic music_sentence_17

In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music. Electronic music_sentence_18

In the 1970s, electronic music began to have a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines and turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, krautrock, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. Electronic music_sentence_19

In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers and the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. Electronic music_sentence_20

In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 became popular and a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI). Electronic music_sentence_21

Electronically produced music became popular by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Electronic music_sentence_22

Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Electronic music_sentence_23

Pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream than preceding forms which were popular in niche markets. Electronic music_sentence_24

Origins: late 19th century to early 20th century Electronic music_section_0

At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. Electronic music_sentence_25

These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances. Electronic music_sentence_26

The audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. Electronic music_sentence_27

While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of several orchestral instruments with reasonable precision. Electronic music_sentence_28

It achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Electronic music_sentence_29

Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Electronic music_sentence_30

Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments. Electronic music_sentence_31

He predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music (1907). Electronic music_sentence_32

Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery. Electronic music_sentence_33

They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises (1913). Electronic music_sentence_34

Early compositions Electronic music_section_1

Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller, amplified, and more practical for performance. Electronic music_sentence_35

In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. Electronic music_sentence_36

From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them. Electronic music_sentence_37

They were typically used within orchestras, and most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Electronic music_sentence_38

Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes. Electronic music_sentence_39

The instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Electronic music_sentence_40

Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation entirely, while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music. Electronic music_sentence_41

Recording experiments Electronic music_section_2

Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. Electronic music_sentence_42

The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Electronic music_sentence_43

Record players became a common household item, and by the 1920s composers were using them to play short recordings in performances. Electronic music_sentence_44

The introduction of electrical recording in 1925 was followed by increased experimentation with record players. Electronic music_sentence_45

Paul Hindemith and Ernst Toch composed several pieces in 1930 by layering recordings of instruments and vocals at adjusted speeds. Electronic music_sentence_46

Influenced by these techniques, John Cage composed Imaginary Landscape No. Electronic music_sentence_47 1 in 1939 by adjusting the speeds of recorded tones. Electronic music_sentence_48

Concurrently, composers began to experiment with newly developed sound-on-film technology. Electronic music_sentence_49

Recordings could be spliced together to create sound collages, such as those by Tristan Tzara, Kurt Schwitters, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Walter Ruttmann and Dziga Vertov. Electronic music_sentence_50

Further, the technology allowed sound to be graphically created and modified. Electronic music_sentence_51

These techniques were used to compose soundtracks for several films in Germany and Russia, in addition to the popular Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the United States. Electronic music_sentence_52

Experiments with graphical sound were continued by Norman McLaren from the late 1930s. Electronic music_sentence_53

Development: 1940s to 1950s Electronic music_section_3

Electroacoustic tape music Electronic music_section_4

Further information: Electroacoustic music and Sound recording and reproduction Electronic music_sentence_54

The first practical audio tape recorder was unveiled in 1935. Electronic music_sentence_55

Improvements to the technology were made using the AC biasing technique, which significantly improved recording fidelity. Electronic music_sentence_56

As early as 1942, test recordings were being made in stereo. Electronic music_sentence_57

Although these developments were initially confined to Germany, recorders and tapes were brought to the United States following the end of World War II. Electronic music_sentence_58

These were the basis for the first commercially produced tape recorder in 1948. Electronic music_sentence_59

In 1944, prior to the use of magnetic tape for compositional purposes, Egyptian composer Halim El-Dabh, while still a student in Cairo, used a cumbersome wire recorder to record sounds of an ancient zaar ceremony. Electronic music_sentence_60

Using facilities at the Middle East Radio studios El-Dabh processed the recorded material using reverberation, echo, voltage controls, and re-recording. Electronic music_sentence_61

What resulted is believed to be the earliest tape music composition. Electronic music_sentence_62

The resulting work was entitled The Expression of Zaar and it was presented in 1944 at an art gallery event in Cairo. Electronic music_sentence_63

While his initial experiments in tape-based composition were not widely known outside of Egypt at the time, El-Dabh is also known for his later work in electronic music at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in the late 1950s. Electronic music_sentence_64

Musique concrète Electronic music_section_5

Main article: Musique concrète Electronic music_sentence_65

See also: Acousmatic music Electronic music_sentence_66

Following his work with Studio d'Essai at Radiodiffusion Française (RDF), during the early 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer is credited with originating the theory and practice of musique concrète. Electronic music_sentence_67

In the late 1940s, experiments in sound based composition using shellac record players were first conducted by Schaeffer. Electronic music_sentence_68

In 1950, the techniques of musique concrete were expanded when magnetic tape machines were used to explore sound manipulation practices such as speed variation (pitch shift) and tape splicing (, 14). Electronic music_sentence_69

On 5 October 1948, RDF broadcast Schaeffer's Etude aux chemins de fer. Electronic music_sentence_70

This was the first "movement" of Cinq études de bruits, and marked the beginning of studio realizations and musique concrète (or acousmatic art). Electronic music_sentence_71

Schaeffer employed a disk-cutting lathe, four turntables, a four-channel mixer, filters, an echo chamber, and a mobile recording unit. Electronic music_sentence_72

Not long after this, Pierre Henry began collaborating with Schaeffer, a partnership that would have profound and lasting effects on the direction of electronic music. Electronic music_sentence_73

Another associate of Schaeffer, Edgard Varèse, began work on Déserts, a work for chamber orchestra and tape. Electronic music_sentence_74

The tape parts were created at Pierre Schaeffer's studio, and were later revised at Columbia University. Electronic music_sentence_75

In 1950, Schaeffer gave the first public (non-broadcast) concert of musique concrète at the École Normale de Musique de Paris. Electronic music_sentence_76

"Schaeffer used a PA system, several turntables, and mixers. Electronic music_sentence_77

The performance did not go well, as creating live montages with turntables had never been done before." Electronic music_sentence_78

Later that same year, Pierre Henry collaborated with Schaeffer on Symphonie pour un homme seul (1950) the first major work of musique concrete. Electronic music_sentence_79

In Paris in 1951, in what was to become an important worldwide trend, RTF established the first studio for the production of electronic music. Electronic music_sentence_80

Also in 1951, Schaeffer and Henry produced an opera, Orpheus, for concrete sounds and voices. Electronic music_sentence_81

By 1951 the work of Schaeffer, composer-percussionist Pierre Henry, and sound engineer Jacques Poullin had received official recognition and The Groupe de Recherches de Musique Concrète, Club d 'Essai de la Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française was established at RTF in Paris, the ancestor of the ORTF. Electronic music_sentence_82

Elektronische Musik Electronic music_section_6

Karlheinz Stockhausen worked briefly in Schaeffer's studio in 1952, and afterward for many years at the WDR Cologne's Studio for Electronic Music. Electronic music_sentence_83

1954 saw the advent of what would now be considered authentic electric plus acoustic compositions—acoustic instrumentation augmented/accompanied by recordings of manipulated or electronically generated sound. Electronic music_sentence_84

Three major works were premiered that year: Varèse's Déserts, for chamber ensemble and tape sounds, and two works by Otto Luening and Vladimir Ussachevsky: Rhapsodic Variations for the Louisville Symphony and A Poem in Cycles and Bells, both for orchestra and tape. Electronic music_sentence_85

Because he had been working at Schaeffer's studio, the tape part for Varèse's work contains much more concrete sounds than electronic. Electronic music_sentence_86

"A group made up of wind instruments, percussion and piano alternates with the mutated sounds of factory noises and ship sirens and motors, coming from two loudspeakers." Electronic music_sentence_87

At the German premiere of Déserts in Hamburg, which was conducted by Bruno Maderna, the tape controls were operated by Karlheinz Stockhausen. Electronic music_sentence_88

The title Déserts suggested to Varèse not only "all physical deserts (of sand, sea, snow, of outer space, of empty streets), but also the deserts in the mind of man; not only those stripped aspects of nature that suggest bareness, aloofness, timelessness, but also that remote inner space no telescope can reach, where man is alone, a world of mystery and essential loneliness." Electronic music_sentence_89

In Cologne, what would become the most famous electronic music studio in the world, was officially opened at the radio studios of the NWDR in 1953, though it had been in the planning stages as early as 1950 and early compositions were made and broadcast in 1951. Electronic music_sentence_90

The brainchild of Werner Meyer-Eppler, Robert Beyer, and Herbert Eimert (who became its first director), the studio was soon joined by Karlheinz Stockhausen and Gottfried Michael Koenig. Electronic music_sentence_91

In his 1949 thesis Elektronische Klangerzeugung: Elektronische Musik und Synthetische Sprache, Meyer-Eppler conceived the idea to synthesize music entirely from electronically produced signals; in this way, elektronische Musik was sharply differentiated from French musique concrète, which used sounds recorded from acoustical sources. Electronic music_sentence_92

In 1954, Stockhausen composed his Elektronische Studie II—the first electronic piece to be published as a score. Electronic music_sentence_93

In 1955, more experimental and electronic studios began to appear. Electronic music_sentence_94

Notable were the creation of the Studio di fonologia musicale di Radio Milano, a studio at the NHK in Tokyo founded by Toshiro Mayuzumi, and the Philips studio at Eindhoven, the Netherlands, which moved to the University of Utrecht as the Institute of Sonology in 1960. Electronic music_sentence_95

"With Stockhausen and Mauricio Kagel in residence, it became a year-round hive of charismatic avante-gardism sic" on two occasions combining electronically generated sounds with relatively conventional orchestras—in Mixtur (1964) and Hymnen, dritte Region mit Orchester (1967). Electronic music_sentence_96

Stockhausen stated that his listeners had told him his electronic music gave them an experience of "outer space", sensations of flying, or being in a "fantastic dream world". Electronic music_sentence_97

More recently, Stockhausen turned to producing electronic music in his own studio in Kürten, his last work in the medium being Cosmic Pulses (2007). Electronic music_sentence_98

Japanese electronic music Electronic music_section_7

The earliest group of electronic musical instruments in Japan, Yamaha Magna Organ was built in 1935, however after the World War II, Japanese composers such as Minao Shibata knew of the development of electronic musical instruments. Electronic music_sentence_99

By the late 1940s, Japanese composers began experimenting with electronic music and institutional sponsorship enabled them to experiment with advanced equipment. Electronic music_sentence_100

Their infusion of Asian music into the emerging genre would eventually support Japan's popularity in the development of music technology several decades later. Electronic music_sentence_101

Following the foundation of electronics company Sony in 1946, composers Toru Takemitsu and Minao Shibata independently explored possible uses for electronic technology to produce music. Electronic music_sentence_102

Takemitsu had ideas similar to musique concrète, which he was unaware of, while Shibata foresaw the development of synthesizers and predicted a drastic change in music. Electronic music_sentence_103

Sony began producing popular magnetic tape recorders for government and public use. Electronic music_sentence_104

The avant-garde collective Jikken Kōbō (Experimental Workshop), founded in 1950, was offered access to emerging audio technology by Sony. Electronic music_sentence_105

The company hired Toru Takemitsu to demonstrate their tape recorders with compositions and performances of electronic tape music. Electronic music_sentence_106

The first electronic tape pieces by the group were "Toraware no Onna" ("Imprisoned Woman") and "Piece B", composed in 1951 by Kuniharu Akiyama. Electronic music_sentence_107

Many of the electroacoustic tape pieces they produced were used as incidental music for radio, film, and theatre. Electronic music_sentence_108

They also held concerts employing a slide show synchronized with a recorded soundtrack. Electronic music_sentence_109

Composers outside of the Jikken Kōbō, such as Yasushi Akutagawa, Saburo Tominaga and Shirō Fukai, were also experimenting with radiophonic tape music between 1952 and 1953. Electronic music_sentence_110

Musique concrète was introduced to Japan by Toshiro Mayuzumi, who was influenced by a Pierre Schaeffer concert. Electronic music_sentence_111

From 1952, he composed tape music pieces for a comedy film, a radio broadcast, and a radio drama. Electronic music_sentence_112

However, Schaeffer's concept of sound object was not influential among Japanese composers, who were mainly interested in overcoming the restrictions of human performance. Electronic music_sentence_113

This led to several Japanese electroacoustic musicians making use of serialism and twelve-tone techniques, evident in Yoshirō Irino's 1951 dodecaphonic piece "Concerto da Camera", in the organization of electronic sounds in Mayuzumi's "X, Y, Z for Musique Concrète", and later in Shibata's electronic music by 1956. Electronic music_sentence_114

Modelling the NWDR studio in Cologne, NHK established an electronic music studio in Tokyo in 1955, which became one of the world's leading electronic music facilities. Electronic music_sentence_115

The NHK Studio was equipped with technologies such as tone-generating and audio processing equipment, recording and radiophonic equipment, ondes Martenot, Monochord and Melochord, sine-wave oscillators, tape recorders, ring modulators, band-pass filters, and four- and eight-channel mixers. Electronic music_sentence_116

Musicians associated with the studio included Toshiro Mayuzumi, Minao Shibata, Joji Yuasa, Toshi Ichiyanagi, and Toru Takemitsu. Electronic music_sentence_117

The studio's first electronic compositions were completed in 1955, including Mayuzumi's five-minute pieces "Studie I: Music for Sine Wave by Proportion of Prime Number", "Music for Modulated Wave by Proportion of Prime Number" and "Invention for Square Wave and Sawtooth Wave" produced using the studio's various tone-generating capabilities, and Shibata's 20-minute stereo piece "Musique Concrète for Stereophonic Broadcast". Electronic music_sentence_118

American electronic music Electronic music_section_8

In the United States, electronic music was being created as early as 1939, when John Cage published Imaginary Landscape, No. Electronic music_sentence_119 1, using two variable-speed turntables, frequency recordings, muted piano, and cymbal, but no electronic means of production. Electronic music_sentence_120

Cage composed five more "Imaginary Landscapes" between 1942 and 1952 (one withdrawn), mostly for percussion ensemble, though No. Electronic music_sentence_121

4 is for twelve radios and No. Electronic music_sentence_122

5, written in 1952, uses 42 recordings and is to be realized as a magnetic tape. Electronic music_sentence_123

According to Otto Luening, Cage also performed a William sic Mix at Donaueschingen in 1954, using eight loudspeakers, three years after his alleged collaboration. Electronic music_sentence_124

Williams Mix was a success at the Donaueschingen Festival, where it made a "strong impression". Electronic music_sentence_125

The Music for Magnetic Tape Project was formed by members of the New York School (John Cage, Earle Brown, Christian Wolff, David Tudor, and Morton Feldman), and lasted three years until 1954. Electronic music_sentence_126

Cage wrote of this collaboration: "In this social darkness, therefore, the work of Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, and Christian Wolff continues to present a brilliant light, for the reason that at the several points of notation, performance, and audition, action is provocative." Electronic music_sentence_127

Cage completed Williams Mix in 1953 while working with the Music for Magnetic Tape Project. Electronic music_sentence_128

The group had no permanent facility, and had to rely on borrowed time in commercial sound studios, including the studio of Louis and Bebe Barron. Electronic music_sentence_129

Columbia-Princeton Center Electronic music_section_9

Further information: Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center Electronic music_sentence_130

See also: Vladimir Ussachevsky and RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer Electronic music_sentence_131

In the same year Columbia University purchased its first tape recorder—a professional Ampex machine—for the purpose of recording concerts. Electronic music_sentence_132

Vladimir Ussachevsky, who was on the music faculty of Columbia University, was placed in charge of the device, and almost immediately began experimenting with it. Electronic music_sentence_133

Herbert Russcol writes: "Soon he was intrigued with the new sonorities he could achieve by recording musical instruments and then superimposing them on one another." Electronic music_sentence_134

Ussachevsky said later: "I suddenly realized that the tape recorder could be treated as an instrument of sound transformation." Electronic music_sentence_135

On Thursday, May 8, 1952, Ussachevsky presented several demonstrations of tape music/effects that he created at his Composers Forum, in the McMillin Theatre at Columbia University. Electronic music_sentence_136

These included Transposition, Reverberation, Experiment, Composition, and Underwater Valse. Electronic music_sentence_137

In an interview, he stated: "I presented a few examples of my discovery in a public concert in New York together with other compositions I had written for conventional instruments." Electronic music_sentence_138

Otto Luening, who had attended this concert, remarked: "The equipment at his disposal consisted of an Ampex tape recorder . Electronic music_sentence_139

. Electronic music_sentence_140

. Electronic music_sentence_141

and a simple box-like device designed by the brilliant young engineer, Peter Mauzey, to create feedback, a form of mechanical reverberation. Electronic music_sentence_142

Other equipment was borrowed or purchased with personal funds." Electronic music_sentence_143

Just three months later, in August 1952, Ussachevsky traveled to Bennington, Vermont at Luening's invitation to present his experiments. Electronic music_sentence_144

There, the two collaborated on various pieces. Electronic music_sentence_145

Luening described the event: "Equipped with earphones and a flute, I began developing my first tape-recorder composition. Electronic music_sentence_146

Both of us were fluent improvisors and the medium fired our imaginations." Electronic music_sentence_147

They played some early pieces informally at a party, where "a number of composers almost solemnly congratulated us saying, 'This is it' ('it' meaning the music of the future)." Electronic music_sentence_148

Word quickly reached New York City. Electronic music_sentence_149

Oliver Daniel telephoned and invited the pair to "produce a group of short compositions for the October concert sponsored by the American Composers Alliance and Broadcast Music, Inc., under the direction of Leopold Stokowski at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Electronic music_sentence_150

After some hesitation, we agreed. Electronic music_sentence_151

. Electronic music_sentence_152

. Electronic music_sentence_153

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Henry Cowell placed his home and studio in Woodstock, New York, at our disposal. Electronic music_sentence_155

With the borrowed equipment in the back of Ussachevsky's car, we left Bennington for Woodstock and stayed two weeks. Electronic music_sentence_156

. Electronic music_sentence_157

. Electronic music_sentence_158

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In late September, 1952, the travelling laboratory reached Ussachevsky's living room in New York, where we eventually completed the compositions." Electronic music_sentence_160

Two months later, on October 28, Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening presented the first Tape Music concert in the United States. Electronic music_sentence_161

The concert included Luening's Fantasy in Space (1952)—"an impressionistic virtuoso piece" using manipulated recordings of flute—and Low Speed (1952), an "exotic composition that took the flute far below its natural range." Electronic music_sentence_162

Both pieces were created at the home of Henry Cowell in Woodstock, NY. Electronic music_sentence_163

After several concerts caused a sensation in New York City, Ussachevsky and Luening were invited onto a live broadcast of NBC's Today Show to do an interview demonstration—the first televised electroacoustic performance. Electronic music_sentence_164

Luening described the event: "I improvised some [flute] sequences for the tape recorder. Electronic music_sentence_165

Ussachevsky then and there put them through electronic transformations." Electronic music_sentence_166

The score for Forbidden Planet, by Louis and Bebe Barron, was entirely composed using custom built electronic circuits and tape recorders in 1956 (but no synthesizers in the modern sense of the word). Electronic music_sentence_167

Australia Electronic music_section_10

The world's first computer to play music was CSIRAC, which was designed and built by Trevor Pearcey and Maston Beard. Electronic music_sentence_168

Mathematician Geoff Hill programmed the CSIRAC to play popular musical melodies from the very early 1950s. Electronic music_sentence_169

In 1951 it publicly played the Colonel Bogey March, of which no known recordings exist, only the accurate reconstruction. Electronic music_sentence_170

However, CSIRAC played standard repertoire and was not used to extend musical thinking or composition practice. Electronic music_sentence_171

CSIRAC was never recorded, but the music played was accurately reconstructed. Electronic music_sentence_172

The oldest known recordings of computer-generated music were played by the Ferranti Mark 1 computer, a commercial version of the Baby Machine from the University of Manchester in the autumn of 1951. Electronic music_sentence_173

The music program was written by Christopher Strachey. Electronic music_sentence_174

Mid-to-late 1950s Electronic music_section_11

The impact of computers continued in 1956. Electronic music_sentence_175

Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson composed Illiac Suite for string quartet, the first complete work of computer-assisted composition using algorithmic composition. Electronic music_sentence_176

"... Hiller postulated that a computer could be taught the rules of a particular style and then called on to compose accordingly." Electronic music_sentence_177

Later developments included the work of Max Mathews at Bell Laboratories, who developed the influential MUSIC I program in 1957, one of the first computer programs to play electronic music. Electronic music_sentence_178

Vocoder technology was also a major development in this early era. Electronic music_sentence_179

In 1956, Stockhausen composed Gesang der Jünglinge, the first major work of the Cologne studio, based on a text from the Book of Daniel. Electronic music_sentence_180

An important technological development of that year was the invention of the Clavivox synthesizer by Raymond Scott with subassembly by Robert Moog. Electronic music_sentence_181

In 1957, Kid Baltan (Dick Raaymakers) and Tom Dissevelt released their debut album, Song Of The Second Moon, recorded at the Philips studio in the Netherlands. Electronic music_sentence_182

The public remained interested in the new sounds being created around the world, as can be deduced by the inclusion of Varèse's Poème électronique, which was played over four hundred loudspeakers at the Philips Pavilion of the 1958 Brussels World Fair. Electronic music_sentence_183

That same year, Mauricio Kagel, an Argentine composer, composed Transición II. Electronic music_sentence_184

The work was realized at the WDR studio in Cologne. Electronic music_sentence_185

Two musicians performed on a piano, one in the traditional manner, the other playing on the strings, frame, and case. Electronic music_sentence_186

Two other performers used tape to unite the presentation of live sounds with the future of prerecorded materials from later on and its past of recordings made earlier in the performance. Electronic music_sentence_187

In 1958, Columbia-Princeton developed the RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer, the first programmable synthesizer. Electronic music_sentence_188

Prominent composers such as Vladimir Ussachevsky, Otto Luening, Milton Babbitt, Charles Wuorinen, Halim El-Dabh, Bülent Arel and Mario Davidovsky used the RCA Synthesizer extensively in various compositions. Electronic music_sentence_189

One of the most influential composers associated with the early years of the studio was Egypt's Halim El-Dabh who, after having developed the earliest known electronic tape music in 1944, became more famous for Leiyla and the Poet, a 1959 series of electronic compositions that stood out for its immersion and seamless fusion of electronic and folk music, in contrast to the more mathematical approach used by serial composers of the time such as Babbitt. Electronic music_sentence_190

El-Dabh's Leiyla and the Poet, released as part of the album Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in 1961, would be cited as a strong influence by a number of musicians, ranging from Neil Rolnick, Charles Amirkhanian and Alice Shields to rock musicians Frank Zappa and The West Coast Pop Art Experimental Band. Electronic music_sentence_191

Following the emergence of differences within the GRMC (Groupe de Recherche de Musique Concrète) Pierre Henry, Philippe Arthuys, and several of their colleagues, resigned in April 1958. Electronic music_sentence_192

Schaeffer created a new collective, called Groupe de Recherches Musicales (GRM) and set about recruiting new members including Luc Ferrari, Beatriz Ferreyra, François-Bernard Mâche, Iannis Xenakis, Bernard Parmegiani, and Mireille Chamass-Kyrou. Electronic music_sentence_193

Later arrivals included Ivo Malec, Philippe Carson, Romuald Vandelle, Edgardo Canton and François Bayle. Electronic music_sentence_194

Expansion: 1960s Electronic music_section_12

See also: Synthesizer, Harald Bode, Modular synthesizer, Buchla, and Moog Music Electronic music_sentence_195

These were fertile years for electronic music—not just for academia, but for independent artists as synthesizer technology became more accessible. Electronic music_sentence_196

By this time, a strong community of composers and musicians working with new sounds and instruments was established and growing. Electronic music_sentence_197

1960 witnessed the composition of Luening's Gargoyles for violin and tape as well as the premiere of Stockhausen's Kontakte for electronic sounds, piano, and percussion. Electronic music_sentence_198

This piece existed in two versions—one for 4-channel tape, and the other for tape with human performers. Electronic music_sentence_199

"In Kontakte, Stockhausen abandoned traditional musical form based on linear development and dramatic climax. Electronic music_sentence_200

This new approach, which he termed 'moment form,' resembles the 'cinematic splice' techniques in early twentieth century film." Electronic music_sentence_201

The theremin had been in use since the 1920s but it attained a degree of popular recognition through its use in science-fiction film soundtrack music in the 1950s (e.g., Bernard Herrmann's classic score for The Day the Earth Stood Still). Electronic music_sentence_202

In the UK in this period, the BBC Radiophonic Workshop (established in 1958) came to prominence, thanks in large measure to their work on the BBC science-fiction series Doctor Who. Electronic music_sentence_203

One of the most influential British electronic artists in this period was Workshop staffer Delia Derbyshire, who is now famous for her 1963 electronic realisation of the iconic Doctor Who theme, composed by Ron Grainer. Electronic music_sentence_204

In 1961 Josef Tal established the Centre for Electronic Music in Israel at The Hebrew University, and in 1962 Hugh Le Caine arrived in Jerusalem to install his Creative Tape Recorder in the centre. Electronic music_sentence_205

In the 1990s Tal conducted, together with Dr Shlomo Markel, in cooperation with the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, and VolkswagenStiftung a research project (Talmark) aimed at the development of a novel musical notation system for electronic music. Electronic music_sentence_206

Milton Babbitt composed his first electronic work using the synthesizer—his Composition for Synthesizer (1961)—which he created using the RCA synthesizer at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. Electronic music_sentence_207

The collaborations also occurred across oceans and continents. Electronic music_sentence_208

In 1961, Ussachevsky invited Varèse to the Columbia-Princeton Studio (CPEMC). Electronic music_sentence_209

Upon arrival, Varese embarked upon a revision of Déserts. Electronic music_sentence_210

He was assisted by Mario Davidovsky and Bülent Arel. Electronic music_sentence_211

The intense activity occurring at CPEMC and elsewhere inspired the establishment of the San Francisco Tape Music Center in 1963 by Morton Subotnick, with additional members Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Anthony Martin, and Terry Riley. Electronic music_sentence_212

Later, the Center moved to Mills College, directed by Pauline Oliveros, where it is today known as the Center for Contemporary Music. Electronic music_sentence_213

Simultaneously in San Francisco, composer Stan Shaff and equipment designer Doug McEachern, presented the first “Audium” concert at San Francisco State College (1962), followed by a work at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (1963), conceived of as in time, controlled movement of sound in space. Electronic music_sentence_214

Twelve speakers surrounded the audience, four speakers were mounted on a rotating, mobile-like construction above. Electronic music_sentence_215

In an SFMOMA performance the following year (1964), San Francisco Chronicle music critic Alfred Frankenstein commented, "the possibilities of the space-sound continuum have seldom been so extensively explored". Electronic music_sentence_216

In 1967, the first Audium, a "sound-space continuum" opened, holding weekly performances through 1970. Electronic music_sentence_217

In 1975, enabled by seed money from the National Endowment for the Arts, a new Audium opened, designed floor to ceiling for spatial sound composition and performance. Electronic music_sentence_218

“In contrast, there are composers who manipulated sound space by locating multiple speakers at various locations in a performance space and then switching or panning the sound between the sources. Electronic music_sentence_219

In this approach, the composition of spatial manipulation is dependent on the location of the speakers and usually exploits the acoustical properties of the enclosure. Electronic music_sentence_220

Examples include Varese's Poeme Electronique (tape music performed in the Philips Pavilion of the 1958 World Fair, Brussels) and Stanley Schaff's sic Audium installation, currently active in San Francisco”. Electronic music_sentence_221

Through weekly programs (over 4,500 in 40 years), Shaff “sculpts” sound, performing now-digitized spatial works live through 176 speakers. Electronic music_sentence_222

A well-known example of the use of Moog's full-sized Moog modular synthesizer is the Switched-On Bach album by Wendy Carlos, which triggered a craze for synthesizer music. Electronic music_sentence_223

In 1969 David Tudor brought a Moog modular synthesizer and Ampex tape machines to the National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad with the support of the Sarabhai family, forming the foundation of India's first electronic music studio. Electronic music_sentence_224

Here a group of composers Jinraj Joshipura, Gita Sarabhai, SC Sharma, IS Mathur and Atul Desai developed experimental sound compositions between 1969 and 1973 Electronic music_sentence_225

Along with the Moog modular synthesizer, other makes of this period included ARP and Buchla. Electronic music_sentence_226

Pietro Grossi was an Italian pioneer of computer composition and tape music, who first experimented with electronic techniques in the early sixties. Electronic music_sentence_227

Grossi was a cellist and composer, born in Venice in 1917. Electronic music_sentence_228

He founded the S 2F M (Studio de Fonologia Musicale di Firenze) in 1963 in order to experiment with electronic sound and composition. Electronic music_sentence_229

Computer music Electronic music_section_13

Main article: Computer music Electronic music_sentence_230

See also: Music-N and Algorithmic composition Electronic music_sentence_231

Musical melodies were first generated by the computer CSIRAC in Australia in 1950. Electronic music_sentence_232

There were newspaper reports from America and England (early and recently) that computers may have played music earlier, but thorough research has debunked these stories as there is no evidence to support the newspaper reports (some of which were obviously speculative). Electronic music_sentence_233

Research has shown that people speculated about computers playing music, possibly because computers would make noises, but there is no evidence that they actually did it. Electronic music_sentence_234

The world's first computer to play music was CSIRAC, which was designed and built by Trevor Pearcey and Maston Beard in the 1950s. Electronic music_sentence_235

Mathematician Geoff Hill programmed the CSIRAC to play popular musical melodies from the very early 1950s. Electronic music_sentence_236

In 1951 it publicly played the "Colonel Bogey March" of which no known recordings exist. Electronic music_sentence_237

However, CSIRAC played standard repertoire and was not used to extend musical thinking or composition practice which is current computer-music practice. Electronic music_sentence_238

The first music to be performed in England was a performance of the British National Anthem that was programmed by Christopher Strachey on the Ferranti Mark I, late in 1951. Electronic music_sentence_239

Later that year, short extracts of three pieces were recorded there by a BBC outside broadcasting unit: the National Anthem, "Ba, Ba Black Sheep", and "In the Mood" and this is recognised as the earliest recording of a computer to play music. Electronic music_sentence_240

This recording can be heard at . Electronic music_sentence_241

Researchers at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch declicked and restored this recording in 2016 and the results may be heard on SoundCloud. Electronic music_sentence_242

The late 1950s, 1960s and 1970s also saw the development of large mainframe computer synthesis. Electronic music_sentence_243

Starting in 1957, Max Mathews of Bell Labs developed the MUSIC programs, culminating in MUSIC V, a direct digital synthesis language Electronic music_sentence_244

Laurie Spiegel developed the algorithmic musical composition software "Music Mouse" (1986) for Macintosh, Amiga, and Atari computers. Electronic music_sentence_245

Live electronics Electronic music_section_14

Main article: Live electronic music Electronic music_sentence_246

In Europe in 1964, Karlheinz Stockhausen composed Mikrophonie I for tam-tam, hand-held microphones, filters, and potentiometers, and Mixtur for orchestra, four sine-wave generators, and four ring modulators. Electronic music_sentence_247

In 1965 he composed Mikrophonie II for choir, Hammond organ, and ring modulators. Electronic music_sentence_248

In 1966–67, Reed Ghazala discovered and began to teach "circuit bending"—the application of the creative short circuit, a process of chance short-circuiting, creating experimental electronic instruments, exploring sonic elements mainly of timbre and with less regard to pitch or rhythm, and influenced by John Cage's aleatoric music sic concept. Electronic music_sentence_249

Japanese instruments Electronic music_section_15

Jamaican dub music Electronic music_section_16

Main article: Dub music Electronic music_sentence_250

See also: Sound system (Jamaican) Electronic music_sentence_251

In Jamaica, a form of popular electronic music emerged in the 1960s, dub music, rooted in sound system culture. Electronic music_sentence_252

Dub music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, and Scientist, producing reggae-influenced experimental music with electronic sound technology, in recording studios and at sound system parties. Electronic music_sentence_253

Their experiments included forms of tape-based composition comparable to aspects of musique concrète, an emphasis on repetitive rhythmic structures (often stripped of their harmonic elements) comparable to minimalism, the electronic manipulation of spatiality, the sonic electronic manipulation of pre-recorded musical materials from mass media, deejays toasting over pre-recorded music comparable to live electronic music, remixing music, turntablism, and the mixing and scratching of vinyl. Electronic music_sentence_254

Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Electronic music_sentence_255

King Tubby, for example, was a sound system proprietor and electronics technician, whose small front-room studio in the Waterhouse ghetto of western Kingston was a key site of dub music creation. Electronic music_sentence_256

Late 1960s to early 1980s Electronic music_section_17

Rise of popular electronic music Electronic music_section_18

Main articles: Electronic rock, Synth-pop, Electropop, Electro music, and House music Electronic music_sentence_257

See also: Progressive rock, Krautrock, Space rock, and Contemporary electronic music Electronic music_sentence_258

In the late 1960s, pop and rock musicians, including the Beach Boys and the Beatles, began to use electronic instruments, like the theremin and Mellotron, to supplement and define their sound. Electronic music_sentence_259

In his book Electronic and Experimental Music, Thom Holmes recognises the Beatles' 1966 recording "Tomorrow Never Knows" as the song that "ushered in a new era in the use of electronic music in rock and pop music" due to the band's incorporation of tape loops and reversed and speed-manipulated tape sounds. Electronic music_sentence_260

Also in the late 1960s, the music duo Silver Apples and experimental rock bands like White Noise and the United States of America, are regarded as pioneers to the electronic rock and electronica genres for their work in melding psychedelic rock with oscillators and synthesizers. Electronic music_sentence_261

Gershon Kingsley's "Popcorn" composed in 1969 was the first international electronic dance hit popularised by Hot Butter in 1972 (which leads to a wave of bubblegum pop the following years). Electronic music_sentence_262

By the end of the 1960 decade, the Moog synthesizer took a leading place in the sound of emerging progressive rock with bands including Pink Floyd, Yes, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, and Genesis making them part of their sound. Electronic music_sentence_263

Instrumental prog rock was particularly significant in continental Europe, allowing bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can, Neu! Electronic music_sentence_264 , and Faust to circumvent the language barrier. Electronic music_sentence_265

Their synthesiser-heavy "krautrock", along with the work of Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on subsequent electronic rock. Electronic music_sentence_266

Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo, equalization and psychedelic electronic effects. Electronic music_sentence_267

It featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep basslines and harmonic sounds. Electronic music_sentence_268

Techniques such as a long echo delay were also used. Electronic music_sentence_269

Other notable artists within the genre include Dreadzone, Higher Intelligence Agency, The Orb, Ott, Loop Guru, Woob and Transglobal Underground. Electronic music_sentence_270

Dub music influenced electronic musical techniques later adopted by hip hop music, when Jamaican immigrant DJ Kool Herc in the early 1970s introduced Jamaica's sound system culture and dub music techniques to America. Electronic music_sentence_271

One such technique that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables in alternation, extending the b-dancers' favorite section. Electronic music_sentence_272

The turntable eventually went on to become the most visible electronic musical instrument, and occasionally the most virtuosic, in the 1980s and 1990s. Electronic music_sentence_273

Electronic rock was also produced by several Japanese musicians, including Isao Tomita's Electric Samurai: Switched on Rock (1972), which featured Moog synthesizer renditions of contemporary pop and rock songs, and Osamu Kitajima's progressive rock album Benzaiten (1974). Electronic music_sentence_274

The mid-1970s saw the rise of electronic art music musicians such as Jean Michel Jarre, Vangelis, Tomita and Klaus Schulze were a significant influence on the development of new-age music. Electronic music_sentence_275

The hi-tech appeal of these works created for some years the trend of listing the electronic musical equipment employed in the album sleeves, as a disctintive feature. Electronic music_sentence_276

Electronic music began to enter regularly in radio programming and top-sellers charts, as the French band Space with their 1977 single Magic Fly. Electronic music_sentence_277

In this era, the sound of rock musicians like Mike Oldfield and The Alan Parsons Project (who is credited the first rock song to feature a digital vocoder in 1975, The Raven) used to be arranged and blended with electronic effects and/or music as well, which became much more prominent in the mid-1980s. Electronic music_sentence_278

Jeff Wayne achieved a long lasting success with his 1978 electronic rock musical version of The War of the Worlds. Electronic music_sentence_279

Film soundtracks also benefit of the electronic sound. Electronic music_sentence_280

In 1977, Gene Page recorded a disco version of the hit theme by John Williams from Steven Spielberg film Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Electronic music_sentence_281

Page's version peaked on the R&B chart at #30 in 1978. Electronic music_sentence_282

The score of 1978 film Midnight Express composed by Italian synth-pioneer Giorgio Moroder won the Academy Award for Best Original Score in 1979, as did it again in 1981 the score by Vangelis for Chariots of Fire. Electronic music_sentence_283

After the arrival of punk rock, a form of basic electronic rock emerged, increasingly using new digital technology to replace other instruments. Electronic music_sentence_284

The American duo Suicide, who arose from the punk scene in New York, utilized drum machines and synthesizers in a hybrid between electronics and punk on their eponymous 1977 album. Electronic music_sentence_285

Synth-pop pioneering bands which enjoyed success for years included Ultravox with their 1977 track "Hiroshima Mon Amour" on Ha!-Ha!-Ha! Electronic music_sentence_286 , Yellow Magic Orchestra with their self-titled album (1978), The Buggles with their prominent 1979 debut single Video Killed the Radio Star, Gary Numan with his solo debut album The Pleasure Principle and single Cars in 1979, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark with their 1979 single Electricity featured on their eponymous debut album, Depeche Mode with their first single Dreaming of Me recorded in 1980 and released in 1981 album Speak & Spell, A Flock of Seagulls with their 1981 single Talking, New Order with Ceremony in 1981, and The Human League with their 1981 hit Don't You Want Me from debut album Dare. Electronic music_sentence_287

The definition of MIDI and the development of digital audio made the development of purely electronic sounds much easier, with audio engineers, producers and composers exploring frequently the possibilities of virtually every new model of electronic sound equipment launched by manufacturers. Electronic music_sentence_288

Synth-pop sometimes used synthesizers to replace all other instruments, but was more common that bands had one of more keyboardists in their line-ups along with guitarists, bassists, and/or drummers. Electronic music_sentence_289

These developments led to the growth of synth-pop, which after it was adopted by the New Romantic movement, allowed synthesizers to dominate the pop and rock music of the early 1980s, until the style began to fall from popularity in the mid-to-end of the decade. Electronic music_sentence_290

Along with aforementioned successful pioneers, key acts included Yazoo, Duran Duran, Spandau Ballet, Culture Club, Talk Talk, Japan, and Eurythmics. Electronic music_sentence_291

Synth-pop was taken up across the world, with international hits for acts including Men Without Hats, Trans-X and Lime from Canada, Telex from Belgium, Peter Schilling, Sandra, Modern Talking, Propaganda and Alphaville from Germany, Yello from Switzerland and Azul y Negro from Spain. Electronic music_sentence_292

Also, the synth sound is a key feature of Italo-disco. Electronic music_sentence_293

Some synth-pop bands created futuristic visual styles of themselves to reinforce the idea of electronic sounds were linked primarily with technology, as Americans Devo and Spaniards Aviador Dro. Electronic music_sentence_294

Keyboard synthesizers became so common that even heavy metal rock bands, a genre often regarded as the opposite in aesthetics, sound and lifestyle from that of electronic pop artists by fans of both sides, achieved worldwide success with themes as 1983 Jump by Van Halen and 1986 The Final Countdown by Europe, which feature synths prominently. Electronic music_sentence_295

Proliferation of electronic music research institutions Electronic music_section_19

Elektronmusikstudion (EMS), formerly known as Electroacoustic Music in Sweden, is the Swedish national centre for electronic music and sound art. Electronic music_sentence_296

The research organisation started in 1964 and is based in Stockholm. Electronic music_sentence_297

STEIM is a center for research and development of new musical instruments in the electronic performing arts, located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic music_sentence_298

STEIM has existed since 1969. Electronic music_sentence_299

It was founded by Misha Mengelberg, Louis Andriessen, Peter Schat, Dick Raaymakers, Jan van Vlijmen, Reinbert de Leeuw, and Konrad Boehmer. Electronic music_sentence_300

This group of Dutch composers had fought for the reformation of Amsterdam's feudal music structures; they insisted on Bruno Maderna's appointment as musical director of the Concertgebouw Orchestra and enforced the first public fundings for experimental and improvised electronic music in The Netherlands. Electronic music_sentence_301

IRCAM in Paris became a major center for computer music research and realization and development of the Sogitec 4X computer system, featuring then revolutionary real-time digital signal processing. Electronic music_sentence_302

Pierre Boulez's Répons (1981) for 24 musicians and 6 soloists used the 4X to transform and route soloists to a loudspeaker system. Electronic music_sentence_303

Barry Vercoe describes one of his experiences with early computer sounds: Electronic music_sentence_304

Keyboard synthesizers Electronic music_section_20

See also: Modular synthesizer, Buchla, Electronic Music Studios, and Korg Electronic music_sentence_305

Released in 1970 by Moog Music, the Mini-Moog was among the first widely available, portable and relatively affordable synthesizers. Electronic music_sentence_306

It became once the most widely used synthesizer at that time in both popular and electronic art music. Electronic music_sentence_307

Patrick Gleeson, playing live with Herbie Hancock in the beginning of the 1970s, pioneered the use of synthesizers in a touring context, where they were subject to stresses the early machines were not designed for. Electronic music_sentence_308

In 1974, the WDR studio in Cologne acquired an EMS Synthi 100 synthesizer, which a number of composers used to produce notable electronic works—including Rolf Gehlhaar's Fünf deutsche Tänze (1975), Karlheinz Stockhausen's Sirius (1975–76), and John McGuire's Pulse Music III (1978). Electronic music_sentence_309

Thanks to miniaturization of electronics in the 1970s, by the start of the 1980s keyboard synthesizers became lighter and affordable, integrating in a single slim unit all the necessary audio synthesys electronics and the piano-style keyboard itself, in sharp contrast with the bulky machinery and "cable spaguetty" employed along the 1960s and 1970s. Electronic music_sentence_310

First with analog synthesizers, the trend followed with digital synthesizers and samplers as well (see below). Electronic music_sentence_311

Digital synthesis Electronic music_section_21

See also: Digital synthesizer, Digitally controlled oscillator, Additive synthesis § Implementations, Subtractive synthesis, Phase distortion synthesis, and Bell Labs Digital Synthesizer Electronic music_sentence_312

In 1975, the Japanese company Yamaha licensed the algorithms for frequency modulation synthesis (FM synthesis) from John Chowning, who had experimented with it at Stanford University since 1971. Electronic music_sentence_313

Yamaha's engineers began adapting Chowning's algorithm for use in a digital synthesizer, adding improvements such as the "key scaling" method to avoid the introduction of distortion that normally occurred in analog systems during frequency modulation. Electronic music_sentence_314

In 1980, Yamaha eventually released the first FM digital synthesizer, the Yamaha GS-1, but at an expensive price. Electronic music_sentence_315

In 1983, Yamaha introduced the first stand-alone digital synthesizer, the DX7, which also used FM synthesis and would become one of the best-selling synthesizers of all time. Electronic music_sentence_316

The DX7 was known for its recognizable bright tonalities that was partly due to an overachieving sampling rate of 57 kHz. Electronic music_sentence_317

The Korg Poly-800 is a synthesizer released by Korg in 1983. Electronic music_sentence_318

Its initial list price of $795 made it the first fully programmable synthesizer that sold for less than $1000. Electronic music_sentence_319

It had 8-voice polyphony with one Digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) per voice. Electronic music_sentence_320

The Casio CZ-101 was the first and best-selling phase distortion synthesizer in the Casio CZ line. Electronic music_sentence_321

Released in November 1984, it was one of the first (if not the first) fully programmable polyphonic synthesizers that was available for under $500. Electronic music_sentence_322

The Roland D-50 is a digital synthesizer produced by Roland and released in April 1987. Electronic music_sentence_323

Its features include subtractive synthesis, on-board effects, a joystick for data manipulation, and an analogue synthesis-styled layout design. Electronic music_sentence_324

The external Roland PG-1000 (1987-1990) programmer could also be attached to the D-50 for more complex manipulation of its sounds. Electronic music_sentence_325

Samplers Electronic music_section_22

See also: Sampling (music), Fairlight CMI, and Synclavier Electronic music_sentence_326

A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument which uses sound recordings (or "samples") of real instrument sounds (e.g., a piano, violin or trumpet), excerpts from recorded songs (e.g., a five-second bass guitar riff from a funk song) or found sounds (e.g., sirens and ocean waves). Electronic music_sentence_327

The samples are loaded or recorded by the user or by a manufacturer. Electronic music_sentence_328

These sounds are then played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device (e.g., electronic drums) to perform or compose music. Electronic music_sentence_329

Because these samples are usually stored in digital memory, the information can be quickly accessed. Electronic music_sentence_330

A single sample may often be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords. Electronic music_sentence_331

Prior to computer memory-based samplers, musicians used tape replay keyboards, which store recordings on analog tape. Electronic music_sentence_332

When a key is pressed the tape head contacts the moving tape and plays a sound. Electronic music_sentence_333

The Mellotron was the most notable model, used by a number of groups in the late 1960s and the 1970s, but such systems were expensive and heavy due to the multiple tape mechanisms involved, and the range of the instrument was limited to three octaves at the most. Electronic music_sentence_334

To change sounds a new set of tapes had to be installed in the instrument. Electronic music_sentence_335

The emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical. Electronic music_sentence_336

The earliest digital sampling was done on the EMS Musys system, developed by Peter Grogono (software), David Cockerell (hardware and interfacing) and Peter Zinovieff (system design and operation) at their London (Putney) Studio c. 1969. Electronic music_sentence_337

The first commercially available sampling synthesizer was the Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendell (1976). Electronic music_sentence_338

First released in 1977–78, the Synclavier I using FM synthesis, re-licensed from Yamaha, and sold mostly to universities, proved to be highly influential among both electronic music composers and music producers, including Mike Thorne, an early adopter from the commercial world, due to its versatility, its cutting-edge technology, and distinctive sounds. Electronic music_sentence_339

The first polyphonic digital sampling synthesizer was the Australian-produced Fairlight CMI, first available in 1979. Electronic music_sentence_340

These early sampling synthesizers used wavetable sample-based synthesis. Electronic music_sentence_341

Birth of MIDI Electronic music_section_23

Main article: MIDI Electronic music_sentence_342

In 1980, a group of musicians and music merchants met to standardize an interface that new instruments could use to communicate control instructions with other instruments and computers. Electronic music_sentence_343

This standard was dubbed Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) and resulted from a collaboration between leading manufacturers, initially Sequential Circuits, Oberheim, Roland—and later, other participants that included Yamaha, Korg, and Kawai. Electronic music_sentence_344

A paper was authored by Dave Smith of Sequential Circuits and proposed to the Audio Engineering Society in 1981. Electronic music_sentence_345

Then, in August 1983, the MIDI Specification 1.0 was finalized. Electronic music_sentence_346

MIDI technology allows a single keystroke, control wheel motion, pedal movement, or command from a microcomputer to activate every device in the studio remotely and in synchrony, with each device responding according to conditions predetermined by the composer. Electronic music_sentence_347

MIDI instruments and software made powerful control of sophisticated instruments easily affordable by many studios and individuals. Electronic music_sentence_348

Acoustic sounds became reintegrated into studios via sampling and sampled-ROM-based instruments. Electronic music_sentence_349

Miller Puckette developed graphic signal-processing software for 4X called Max (after Max Mathews) and later ported it to Macintosh (with Dave Zicarelli extending it for Opcode) for real-time MIDI control, bringing algorithmic composition availability to most composers with modest computer programming background. Electronic music_sentence_350

Sequencers and drum machines Electronic music_section_24

Main articles: Music sequencer and Drum machine Electronic music_sentence_351

The early 1980s saw the rise of bass synthesizers, the most influential being the Roland TB-303, a bass synthesizer and sequencer released in late 1981 that later became a fixture in electronic dance music, particularly acid house. Electronic music_sentence_352

One of the first to use it was Charanjit Singh in 1982, though it wouldn't be popularized until Phuture's "Acid Tracks" in 1987. Electronic music_sentence_353

Music sequencers began being used around the mid 20th century, and Tomita's albums in mid-1970s being later examples. Electronic music_sentence_354

In 1978, Yellow Magic Orchestra were using computer-based technology in conjunction with a synthesiser to produce popular music, making their early use of the microprocessor-based Roland MC-8 Microcomposer sequencer. Electronic music_sentence_355

Drum machines, also known as rhythm machines, also began being used around the late-1950s, with a later example being Osamu Kitajima's progressive rock album Benzaiten (1974), which used a rhythm machine along with electronic drums and a synthesizer. Electronic music_sentence_356

In 1977, Ultravox's "Hiroshima Mon Amour" was one of the first singles to use the metronome-like percussion of a Roland TR-77 drum machine. Electronic music_sentence_357

In 1980, Roland Corporation released the TR-808, one of the first and most popular programmable drum machines. Electronic music_sentence_358

The first band to use it was Yellow Magic Orchestra in 1980, and it would later gain widespread popularity with the release of Marvin Gaye's "Sexual Healing" and Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock" in 1982. Electronic music_sentence_359

The TR-808 was a fundamental tool in the later Detroit techno scene of the late 1980s, and was the drum machine of choice for Derrick May and Juan Atkins. Electronic music_sentence_360

Chiptunes Electronic music_section_25

Main article: Chiptune Electronic music_sentence_361

See also: Video game music Electronic music_sentence_362

The characteristic lo-fi sound of chip music was initially the result of early computer's sound chips and sound cards' technical limitations; however, the sound has since become sought after in its own right. Electronic music_sentence_363

Common cheap popular sound chips of the firsts home computers of the 1980s include the SID of the Commodore 64 and General Instrument AY series and clones (as the Yamaha YM2149) used in ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, MSX compatibles and Atari ST models, among others. Electronic music_sentence_364

Late 1980s to 1990s Electronic music_section_26

Rise of dance music Electronic music_section_27

Main article: Electronic dance music Electronic music_sentence_365

See also: Italo disco and Contemporary electronic music Electronic music_sentence_366

Synth-pop continued into the late 1980s, with a format that moved closer to dance music, including the work of acts such as British duos Pet Shop Boys, Erasure and The Communards, achieving success along much of the 1990s. Electronic music_sentence_367

The trend has continued to the present day with modern nightclubs worldwide regularly playing electronic dance music (EDM). Electronic music_sentence_368

Today, electronic dance music has radio stations, websites, and publications like Mixmag dedicated solely to the genre. Electronic music_sentence_369

Moreover, the genre has found commercial and cultural significance in the United States and North America, thanks to the wildly popular big room house/EDM sound that has been incorporated into U.S. pop music and the rise of large-scale commercial raves such as Electric Daisy Carnival, Tomorrowland and Ultra Music Festival. Electronic music_sentence_370

Advancements Electronic music_section_28

Other recent developments included the Tod Machover (MIT and IRCAM) composition Begin Again Again for "hypercello", an interactive system of sensors measuring physical movements of the cellist. Electronic music_sentence_371

Max Mathews developed the "Conductor" program for real-time tempo, dynamic and timbre control of a pre-input electronic score. Electronic music_sentence_372

Morton Subotnick released a multimedia CD-ROM All My Hummingbirds Have Alibis. Electronic music_sentence_373

2000s and 2010s Electronic music_section_29

As computer technology has become more accessible and music software has advanced, interacting with music production technology is now possible using means that bear no relationship to traditional musical performance practices: for instance, laptop performance (laptronica), live coding and Algorave. Electronic music_sentence_374

In general, the term Live PA refers to any live performance of electronic music, whether with laptops, synthesizers, or other devices. Electronic music_sentence_375

Beginning around the year 2000, a number of software-based virtual studio environments emerged, with products such as Propellerhead's Reason and Ableton Live finding popular appeal. Electronic music_sentence_376

Such tools provide viable and cost-effective alternatives to typical hardware-based production studios, and thanks to advances in microprocessor technology, it is now possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. Electronic music_sentence_377

Such advances have democratized music creation, leading to a massive increase in the amount of home-produced electronic music available to the general public via the internet. Electronic music_sentence_378

Software based instruments and effect units (so called "plugins") can be incorporated in a computer-based studio using the VST platform. Electronic music_sentence_379

Some of these instruments are more or less exact replicas of existing hardware (such as the Roland D-50, ARP Odyssey, Yamaha DX7 or Korg M1). Electronic music_sentence_380

In many cases, these software-based instruments are sonically indistinguishable from their physical counterpart. Electronic music_sentence_381

Circuit bending Electronic music_section_30

Circuit bending is the modification of battery powered toys and synthesizers to create new unintended sound effects. Electronic music_sentence_382

It was pioneered by Reed Ghazala in the 1960s and Reed coined the name "circuit bending" in 1992. Electronic music_sentence_383

Modular synth revival Electronic music_section_31

Following the circuit bending culture, musicians also began to build their own modular synthesizers, causing a renewed interest for the early 1960s designs. Electronic music_sentence_384

Eurorack became a popular system. Electronic music_sentence_385

See also Electronic music_section_32

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic music.