Elizabeth I

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For other uses and people with similar names, see Elizabeth I (disambiguation), Elizabeth of England (disambiguation), and Elizabeth Tudor (disambiguation). Elizabeth I_sentence_0

Elizabeth I_table_infobox_0

Elizabeth IElizabeth I_header_cell_0_0_0
Queen of England and Ireland (more...)Elizabeth I_header_cell_0_1_0
ReignElizabeth I_header_cell_0_2_0 17 November 1558 –

24 March 1603Elizabeth I_cell_0_2_1

CoronationElizabeth I_header_cell_0_3_0 15 January 1559Elizabeth I_cell_0_3_1
PredecessorsElizabeth I_header_cell_0_4_0 Mary I and PhilipElizabeth I_cell_0_4_1
SuccessorElizabeth I_header_cell_0_5_0 James IElizabeth I_cell_0_5_1
BornElizabeth I_header_cell_0_7_0 7 September 1533

Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, EnglandElizabeth I_cell_0_7_1

DiedElizabeth I_header_cell_0_8_0 24 March 1603 (aged 69)

Richmond Palace, Surrey, EnglandElizabeth I_cell_0_8_1

BurialElizabeth I_header_cell_0_9_0 28 April 1603

Westminster AbbeyElizabeth I_cell_0_9_1

HouseElizabeth I_header_cell_0_10_0 TudorElizabeth I_cell_0_10_1
FatherElizabeth I_header_cell_0_11_0 Henry VIII of EnglandElizabeth I_cell_0_11_1
MotherElizabeth I_header_cell_0_12_0 Anne BoleynElizabeth I_cell_0_12_1
ReligionElizabeth I_header_cell_0_13_0 Church of EnglandElizabeth I_cell_0_13_1
SignatureElizabeth I_header_cell_0_14_0 Elizabeth I_cell_0_14_1

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Elizabeth I_sentence_1

Sometimes called the Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth I_sentence_2

Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Elizabeth I_sentence_3

Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Elizabeth I_sentence_4

Her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, the Roman Catholic Mary and the younger Elizabeth, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Elizabeth I_sentence_5

Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. Elizabeth I_sentence_6

During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. Elizabeth I_sentence_7

In 1558, upon Mary's death, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne, and set out to rule by good counsel. Elizabeth I_sentence_8

She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley. Elizabeth I_sentence_9

One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the supreme governor. Elizabeth I_sentence_10

This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England. Elizabeth I_sentence_11

It was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir; however, despite numerous courtships, she never did. Elizabeth I_sentence_12

She was eventually succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, laying the foundation for the Kingdom of Great Britain. Elizabeth I_sentence_13

She had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment and execution of James's mother, Mary, Queen of Scots. Elizabeth I_sentence_14

In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. Elizabeth I_sentence_15

One of her mottoes was "video et taceo" ("I see but say nothing"). Elizabeth I_sentence_16

In religion, she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. Elizabeth I_sentence_17

After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570 and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth I_sentence_18

Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of France and Spain. Elizabeth I_sentence_19

She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, and Ireland. Elizabeth I_sentence_20

By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. Elizabeth I_sentence_21

England's victory against the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history. Elizabeth I_sentence_22

As she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. Elizabeth I_sentence_23

A cult of personality grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day. Elizabeth I_sentence_24

Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I_sentence_25

The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Elizabeth I_sentence_26

Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Elizabeth I_sentence_27

Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth I_sentence_28

Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. Elizabeth I_sentence_29

After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth I_sentence_30

Early life Elizabeth I_section_0

Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard. Elizabeth I_sentence_31

She was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Elizabeth I_sentence_32

Her mother was Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth I_sentence_33

At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England. Elizabeth I_sentence_34

Her older half-sister, Mary, had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir and ensure the Tudor succession. Elizabeth I_sentence_35

She was baptised on 10 September 1533; Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, the Marquess of Exeter, the Duchess of Norfolk and the Dowager Marchioness of Dorset stood as her godparents. Elizabeth I_sentence_36

A canopy was carried at the ceremony over the three-day old child by her uncle Viscount Rochford, Lord Hussey, Lord Thomas Howard, and Lord Howard of Effingham. Elizabeth I_sentence_37

Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragon's death from natural causes. Elizabeth I_sentence_38

Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the royal succession. Elizabeth I_sentence_39

Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Edward, in 1537. Elizabeth I_sentence_40

From his birth, Edward was undisputed heir apparent to the throne. Elizabeth I_sentence_41

Elizabeth was placed in his household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening. Elizabeth I_sentence_42

Elizabeth's first governess, Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life". Elizabeth I_sentence_43

Catherine Champernowne, better known by her later, married name of Catherine "Kat" Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth's governess in 1537, and she remained Elizabeth's friend until her death in 1565. Elizabeth I_sentence_44

Champernowne taught Elizabeth four languages: French, Dutch, Italian and Spanish. Elizabeth I_sentence_45

By the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English, Latin, and Italian. Elizabeth I_sentence_46

Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek. Elizabeth I_sentence_47

By age 12 she was able to translate her stepmother Catherine Parr's religious work Prayers or Meditations from English into Italian, Latin, and French, which she presented to her father as a New Year's gift. Elizabeth I_sentence_48

From her teenage years and throughout her life she translated works in Latin and Greek by numerous classical authors, including the Pro Marcello of Cicero, the De consolatione philosophiae of Boethius, a treatise by Plutarch, and the Annals of Tacitus. Elizabeth I_sentence_49

A translation of Tacitus from Lambeth Palace Library, one of only four surviving English translations from the early modern era, was confirmed as Elizabeth's own in 2019, after a detailed analysis of the handwriting and paper was undertaken. Elizabeth I_sentence_50

After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under the tutor of Prince Edward, Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be engaging. Elizabeth I_sentence_51

Our knowledge of Elizabeth's schooling and precocity comes largely from Ascham's memoirs. Elizabeth I_sentence_52

By the time her formal education ended in 1550, Elizabeth was one of the best educated women of her generation. Elizabeth I_sentence_53

At the end of her life, Elizabeth was also believed to speak Welsh, Cornish, Scottish and Irish in addition to the languages mentioned above. Elizabeth I_sentence_54

The Venetian ambassador stated in 1603 that she "possessed [these] languages so thoroughly that each appeared to be her native tongue". Elizabeth I_sentence_55

Historian Mark Stoyle suggests that she was probably taught Cornish by William Killigrew, Groom of the Privy Chamber and later Chamberlain of the Exchequer. Elizabeth I_sentence_56

Thomas Seymour Elizabeth I_section_1

Henry VIII died in 1547 and Elizabeth's half-brother, Edward VI, became king at age nine. Elizabeth I_sentence_57

Catherine Parr, Henry's widow, soon married Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, Edward VI's uncle and the brother of the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset. Elizabeth I_sentence_58

The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea. Elizabeth I_sentence_59

There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that some historians believe affected her for the rest of her life. Elizabeth I_sentence_60

Thomas Seymour engaged in romps and horseplay with the 14-year-old Elizabeth, including entering her bedroom in his nightgown, tickling her, and slapping her on the buttocks. Elizabeth I_sentence_61

Elizabeth rose early and surrounded herself with maids to avoid his unwelcome morning visits. Elizabeth I_sentence_62

Parr, rather than confront her husband over his inappropriate activities, joined in. Elizabeth I_sentence_63

Twice she accompanied him in tickling Elizabeth, and once held her while he cut her black gown "into a thousand pieces". Elizabeth I_sentence_64

However, after Parr discovered the pair in an embrace, she ended this state of affairs. Elizabeth I_sentence_65

In May 1548, Elizabeth was sent away. Elizabeth I_sentence_66

However, Thomas Seymour continued scheming to control the royal family and tried to have himself appointed the governor of the King's person. Elizabeth I_sentence_67

When Parr died after childbirth on 5 September 1548, he renewed his attentions towards Elizabeth, intent on marrying her. Elizabeth I_sentence_68

Mistress Kat Ashley, who was fond of Thomas Seymour, sought to convince Elizabeth to take him as her husband. Elizabeth I_sentence_69

She tried to convince Elizabeth to write to Thomas and "comfort him in his sorrow", but Elizabeth claimed that Thomas was not so saddened by her stepmother's death as to need comfort. Elizabeth I_sentence_70

In January 1549, Thomas was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower on suspicion of conspiring to depose Somerset as the Protector, marry Lady Jane Grey to King Edward VI, and take Elizabeth as his own wife. Elizabeth I_sentence_71

Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House, would admit nothing. Elizabeth I_sentence_72

Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, who reported, "I do see it in her face that she is guilty". Elizabeth I_sentence_73

Seymour was beheaded on 20 March 1549. Elizabeth I_sentence_74

Mary I's reign Elizabeth I_section_2

Edward VI died on 6 July 1553, aged 15. Elizabeth I_sentence_75

His will ignored the Succession to the Crown Act 1543, excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from the succession, and instead declared as his heir Lady Jane Grey, granddaughter of Henry VIII's younger sister, Mary. Elizabeth I_sentence_76

Jane was proclaimed queen by the privy council, but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed after nine days. Elizabeth I_sentence_77

On 3 August 1553, Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side. Elizabeth I_sentence_78

The show of solidarity between the sisters did not last long. Elizabeth I_sentence_79

Mary, a devout Catholic, was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Catholic Mass; Elizabeth had to outwardly conform. Elizabeth I_sentence_80

Mary's initial popularity ebbed away in 1554 when she announced plans to marry Philip of Spain, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and an active Catholic. Elizabeth I_sentence_81

Discontent spread rapidly through the country, and many looked to Elizabeth as a focus for their opposition to Mary's religious policies. Elizabeth I_sentence_82

In January and February 1554, Wyatt's rebellion broke out; it was soon suppressed. Elizabeth I_sentence_83

Elizabeth was brought to court, and interrogated regarding her role, and on 18 March, she was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Elizabeth I_sentence_84

Elizabeth fervently protested her innocence. Elizabeth I_sentence_85

Though it is unlikely that she had plotted with the rebels, some of them were known to have approached her. Elizabeth I_sentence_86

Mary's closest confidant, Charles V's ambassador Simon Renard, argued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner, worked to have Elizabeth put on trial. Elizabeth I_sentence_87

Elizabeth's supporters in the government, including Lord Paget, convinced Mary to spare her sister in the absence of hard evidence against her. Elizabeth I_sentence_88

Instead, on 22 May, Elizabeth was moved from the Tower to Woodstock, where she was to spend almost a year under house arrest in the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield. Elizabeth I_sentence_89

Crowds cheered her all along the way. Elizabeth I_sentence_90

On 17 April 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to attend the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy. Elizabeth I_sentence_91

If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. Elizabeth I_sentence_92

If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply. Elizabeth I_sentence_93

When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child. Elizabeth I_sentence_94

Elizabeth's succession seemed assured. Elizabeth I_sentence_95

King Philip, who ascended the Spanish throne in 1556, acknowledged the new political reality and cultivated his sister-in-law. Elizabeth I_sentence_96

She was a better ally than the chief alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had grown up in France and was betrothed to the Dauphin of France. Elizabeth I_sentence_97

When his wife fell ill in 1558, King Philip sent the Count of Feria to consult with Elizabeth. Elizabeth I_sentence_98

This interview was conducted at Hatfield House, where she had returned to live in October 1555. Elizabeth I_sentence_99

By October 1558, Elizabeth was already making plans for her government. Elizabeth I_sentence_100

On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir. Elizabeth I_sentence_101

On 17 November 1558, Mary died and Elizabeth succeeded to the throne. Elizabeth I_sentence_102

Accession Elizabeth I_section_3

Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and declared her intentions to her council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance. Elizabeth I_sentence_103

The speech contains the first record of her adoption of the medieval political theology of the sovereign's "two bodies": the body natural and the body politic: Elizabeth I_sentence_104

As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour. Elizabeth I_sentence_105

Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished". Elizabeth I_sentence_106

The following day, 15 January 1559, a date chosen by her astrologer John Dee, Elizabeth was crowned and anointed by Owen Oglethorpe, the Catholic bishop of Carlisle, in Westminster Abbey. Elizabeth I_sentence_107

She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells. Elizabeth I_sentence_108

Although Elizabeth was welcomed as queen in England, the country was still in a state of anxiety over the perceived Catholic threat at home and overseas, as well as the choice of whom she would marry. Elizabeth I_sentence_109

Church settlement Elizabeth I_section_4

Main article: Elizabethan Religious Settlement Elizabeth I_sentence_110

Elizabeth's personal religious convictions have been much debated by scholars. Elizabeth I_sentence_111

She was a Protestant, but kept Catholic symbols (such as the crucifix), and downplayed the role of sermons in defiance of a key Protestant belief. Elizabeth I_sentence_112

In terms of public policy she favoured pragmatism in dealing with religious matters. Elizabeth I_sentence_113

The question of her legitimacy was a key concern: although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and Catholic law, her retroactively-declared illegitimacy under the English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was. Elizabeth I_sentence_114

For this reason alone, it was never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace Protestantism. Elizabeth I_sentence_115

Elizabeth and her advisers perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade against heretical England. Elizabeth I_sentence_116

Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching reforms. Elizabeth I_sentence_117

As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head, but with many Catholic elements, such as vestments. Elizabeth I_sentence_118

The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords, particularly from the bishops. Elizabeth I_sentence_119

Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury. Elizabeth I_sentence_120

This enabled supporters amongst peers to outvote the bishops and conservative peers. Elizabeth I_sentence_121

Nevertheless, Elizabeth was forced to accept the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England rather than the more contentious title of Supreme Head, which many thought unacceptable for a woman to bear. Elizabeth I_sentence_122

The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May 1559. Elizabeth I_sentence_123

All public officials were to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as the supreme governor or risk disqualification from office; the heresy laws were repealed, to avoid a repeat of the persecution of dissenters practised by Mary. Elizabeth I_sentence_124

At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer compulsory, though the penalties for recusancy, or failure to attend and conform, were not extreme. Elizabeth I_sentence_125

Marriage question Elizabeth I_section_5

From the start of Elizabeth's reign, it was expected that she would marry and the question arose to whom. Elizabeth I_sentence_126

Although she received many offers for her hand, she never married and was childless; the reasons for this are not clear. Elizabeth I_sentence_127

Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships. Elizabeth I_sentence_128

She considered several suitors until she was about fifty. Elizabeth I_sentence_129

Her last courtship was with Francis, Duke of Anjou, 22 years her junior. Elizabeth I_sentence_130

While risking possible loss of power like her sister, who played into the hands of King Philip II of Spain, marriage offered the chance of an heir. Elizabeth I_sentence_131

However, the choice of a husband might also provoke political instability or even insurrection. Elizabeth I_sentence_132

Robert Dudley Elizabeth I_section_6

In the spring of 1559, it became evident that Elizabeth was in love with her childhood friend Robert Dudley. Elizabeth I_sentence_133

It was said that Amy Robsart, his wife, was suffering from a "malady in one of her breasts" and that the Queen would like to marry Dudley if his wife should die. Elizabeth I_sentence_134

By the autumn of 1559, several foreign suitors were vying for Elizabeth's hand; their impatient envoys engaged in ever more scandalous talk and reported that a marriage with her favourite was not welcome in England: "There is not a man who does not cry out on him and her with indignation ... she will marry none but the favoured Robert." Elizabeth I_sentence_135

Amy Dudley died in September 1560, from a fall from a flight of stairs and, despite the coroner's inquest finding of accident, many people suspected Dudley of having arranged her death so that he could marry the queen. Elizabeth I_sentence_136

Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley for some time. Elizabeth I_sentence_137

However, William Cecil, Nicholas Throckmorton, and some conservative peers made their disapproval unmistakably clear. Elizabeth I_sentence_138

There were even rumours that the nobility would rise if the marriage took place. Elizabeth I_sentence_139

Among other marriage candidates being considered for the queen, Robert Dudley continued to be regarded as a possible candidate for nearly another decade. Elizabeth I_sentence_140

Elizabeth was extremely jealous of his affections, even when she no longer meant to marry him herself. Elizabeth I_sentence_141

In 1564, Elizabeth raised Dudley to the peerage as Earl of Leicester. Elizabeth I_sentence_142

He finally remarried in 1578, to which the queen reacted with repeated scenes of displeasure and lifelong hatred towards his wife, Lettice Knollys. Elizabeth I_sentence_143

Still, Dudley always "remained at the centre of [Elizabeth's] emotional life", as historian Susan Doran has described the situation. Elizabeth I_sentence_144

He died shortly after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. Elizabeth I_sentence_145

After Elizabeth's own death, a note from him was found among her most personal belongings, marked "his last letter" in her handwriting. Elizabeth I_sentence_146

Foreign candidates Elizabeth I_section_7

Marriage negotiations constituted a key element in Elizabeth's foreign policy. Elizabeth I_sentence_147

She turned down Philip's hand early in 1559 but for several years entertained the proposal of King Eric XIV of Sweden. Elizabeth I_sentence_148

For several years she also seriously negotiated to marry Philip's cousin Archduke Charles of Austria. Elizabeth I_sentence_149

By 1569, relations with the Habsburgs had deteriorated. Elizabeth I_sentence_150

Elizabeth considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henry, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother Francis, Duke of Anjou, formerly Duke of Alençon. Elizabeth I_sentence_151

This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands. Elizabeth I_sentence_152

Elizabeth seems to have taken the courtship seriously for a time, and wore a frog-shaped earring that Anjou had sent her. Elizabeth I_sentence_153

In 1563, Elizabeth told an imperial envoy: "If I follow the inclination of my nature, it is this: beggar-woman and single, far rather than queen and married". Elizabeth I_sentence_154

Later in the year, following Elizabeth's illness with smallpox, the succession question became a heated issue in Parliament. Elizabeth I_sentence_155

Members urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death. Elizabeth I_sentence_156

She refused to do either. Elizabeth I_sentence_157

In April she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in 1566. Elizabeth I_sentence_158

Having previously promised to marry, she told an unruly House: Elizabeth I_sentence_159

By 1570, senior figures in the government privately accepted that Elizabeth would never marry or name a successor. Elizabeth I_sentence_160

William Cecil was already seeking solutions to the succession problem. Elizabeth I_sentence_161

For her failure to marry, Elizabeth was often accused of irresponsibility. Elizabeth I_sentence_162

Her silence, however, strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup; she remembered the way that "a second person, as I have been" had been used as the focus of plots against her predecessor. Elizabeth I_sentence_163

Virginity Elizabeth I_section_8

Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity related to that of the Virgin Mary. Elizabeth I_sentence_164

In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman. Elizabeth I_sentence_165

At first, only Elizabeth made a virtue of her ostensible virginity: in 1559, she told the Commons, "And, in the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin". Elizabeth I_sentence_166

Later on, poets and writers took up the theme and developed an iconography that exalted Elizabeth. Elizabeth I_sentence_167

Public tributes to the Virgin by 1578 acted as a coded assertion of opposition to the queen's marriage negotiations with the Duke of Alençon. Elizabeth I_sentence_168

Ultimately, Elizabeth would insist she was married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection. Elizabeth I_sentence_169

In 1599, she spoke of "all my husbands, my good people". Elizabeth I_sentence_170

This claim of virginity was not universally accepted. Elizabeth I_sentence_171

Catholics accused her of engaging in "filthy lust" that symbolically defiled the nation along with her body. Elizabeth I_sentence_172

Henry IV of France said that one of the great questions of Europe was "whether Queen Elizabeth was a maid or no". Elizabeth I_sentence_173

A central issue, when it comes to that question of her virginity, was whether she ever consummated her love affair with Robert Dudley. Elizabeth I_sentence_174

In 1559, Elizabeth had Dudley's bedchambers moved next to her own apartments. Elizabeth I_sentence_175

In 1561, she was mysteriously bedridden with an illness that caused her body to swell. Elizabeth I_sentence_176

In 1587, a young man calling himself Arthur Dudley was arrested on the coast of Spain under suspicion of being a spy. Elizabeth I_sentence_177

The man claimed to be the illegitimate son of Elizabeth and Robert Dudley, with his age being consistent with birth during the 1561 illness. Elizabeth I_sentence_178

He was taken to Madrid for investigation, where he was examined by Francis Englefield, a Catholic aristocrat exiled to Spain and secretary to King Philip II. Elizabeth I_sentence_179

Three letters exist today describing the interview, detailing what Arthur proclaimed to be the story of his life, from birth in the royal palace to the time of his arrival in Spain. Elizabeth I_sentence_180

However, this failed to convince the Spanish: Englefield admitted to the King that Arthur's "claim at present amounts to nothing", but suggested that "he should not be allowed to get away, but [...] kept very secure." Elizabeth I_sentence_181

The King agreed, and Arthur was never heard from again. Elizabeth I_sentence_182

Modern scholarship dismisses the story's basic premise as "impossible", and asserts that Elizabeth's life was so closely observed by contemporaries that she could not have hidden a pregnancy. Elizabeth I_sentence_183

Mary, Queen of Scots Elizabeth I_section_9

Elizabeth's first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there. Elizabeth I_sentence_184

She feared that the French planned to invade England and put her Catholic cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, on the throne. Elizabeth I_sentence_185

Mary was considered by many to be the heir to the English crown, being the granddaughter of Henry VIII's elder sister, Margaret. Elizabeth I_sentence_186

Mary boasted being "the nearest kinswoman she hath". Elizabeth I_sentence_187

Elizabeth was persuaded to send a force into Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, and though the campaign was inept, the resulting Treaty of Edinburgh of July 1560 removed the French threat in the north. Elizabeth I_sentence_188

When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth. Elizabeth I_sentence_189

Mary refused to ratify the treaty. Elizabeth I_sentence_190

In 1563 Elizabeth proposed her own suitor, Robert Dudley, as a husband for Mary, without asking either of the two people concerned. Elizabeth I_sentence_191

Both proved unenthusiastic, and in 1565 Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who carried his own claim to the English throne. Elizabeth I_sentence_192

The marriage was the first of a series of errors of judgement by Mary that handed the victory to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth. Elizabeth I_sentence_193

Darnley quickly became unpopular and was murdered in February 1567 by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. Elizabeth I_sentence_194

Shortly afterwards, on 15 May 1567, Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband. Elizabeth I_sentence_195

Elizabeth confronted Mary about the marriage, writing to her: Elizabeth I_sentence_196

These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle. Elizabeth I_sentence_197

The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James VI, who had been born in June 1566. Elizabeth I_sentence_198

James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant. Elizabeth I_sentence_199

Mary escaped from Loch Leven in 1568 but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth. Elizabeth I_sentence_200

Elizabeth's first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe. Elizabeth I_sentence_201

Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England, where she was imprisoned for the next nineteen years. Elizabeth I_sentence_202

Catholic cause Elizabeth I_section_10

Mary was soon the focus for rebellion. Elizabeth I_sentence_203

In 1569 there was a major Catholic rising in the North; the goal was to free Mary, marry her to Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, and put her on the English throne. Elizabeth I_sentence_204

After the rebels' defeat, over 750 of them were executed on Elizabeth's orders. Elizabeth I_sentence_205

In the belief that the revolt had been successful, Pope Pius V issued a bull in 1570, titled Regnans in Excelsis, which declared "Elizabeth, the pretended Queen of England and the servant of crime" to be excommunicated and a heretic, releasing all her subjects from any allegiance to her. Elizabeth I_sentence_206

Catholics who obeyed her orders were threatened with excommunication. Elizabeth I_sentence_207

The papal bull provoked legislative initiatives against Catholics by Parliament, which were, however, mitigated by Elizabeth's intervention. Elizabeth I_sentence_208

In 1581, to convert English subjects to Catholicism with "the intent" to withdraw them from their allegiance to Elizabeth was made a treasonable offence, carrying the death penalty. Elizabeth I_sentence_209

From the 1570s missionary priests from continental seminaries went to England secretly in the cause of the "reconversion of England". Elizabeth I_sentence_210

Many suffered execution, engendering a cult of martyrdom. Elizabeth I_sentence_211

Regnans in Excelsis gave English Catholics a strong incentive to look to Mary Stuart as the legitimate sovereign of England. Elizabeth I_sentence_212

Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 (which caused Mary's suitor, the Duke of Norfolk, to lose his head) to the Babington Plot of 1586, Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her. Elizabeth I_sentence_213

At first, Elizabeth resisted calls for Mary's death. Elizabeth I_sentence_214

By late 1586, she had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot. Elizabeth I_sentence_215

Elizabeth's proclamation of the sentence announced that "the said Mary, pretending title to the same Crown, had compassed and imagined within the same realm divers things tending to the hurt, death and destruction of our royal person." Elizabeth I_sentence_216

On 8 February 1587, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire. Elizabeth I_sentence_217

After Mary's execution, Elizabeth claimed that she had not intended for the signed execution warrant to be dispatched, and blamed her Secretary, William Davison, for implementing it without her knowledge. Elizabeth I_sentence_218

The sincerity of Elizabeth's remorse and whether or not she wanted to delay the warrant have been called into question both by her contemporaries and later historians. Elizabeth I_sentence_219

Wars and overseas trade Elizabeth I_section_11

Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive. Elizabeth I_sentence_220

The exception was the English occupation of Le Havre from October 1562 to June 1563, which ended in failure when Elizabeth's Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port. Elizabeth I_sentence_221

Elizabeth's intention had been to exchange Le Havre for Calais, lost to France in January 1558. Elizabeth I_sentence_222

Only through the activities of her fleets did Elizabeth pursue an aggressive policy. Elizabeth I_sentence_223

This paid off in the war against Spain, 80% of which was fought at sea. Elizabeth I_sentence_224

She knighted Francis Drake after his circumnavigation of the globe from 1577 to 1580, and he won fame for his raids on Spanish ports and fleets. Elizabeth I_sentence_225

An element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over whom the queen had little control. Elizabeth I_sentence_226

Netherlands Elizabeth I_section_12

After the occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. Elizabeth I_sentence_227

This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and the Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Elizabeth I_sentence_228

In December 1584, an alliance between Philip II and the French Catholic League at Joinville undermined the ability of Anjou's brother, Henry III of France, to counter Spanish domination of the Netherlands. Elizabeth I_sentence_229

It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong, and exposed England to invasion. Elizabeth I_sentence_230

The siege of Antwerp in the summer of 1585 by the Duke of Parma necessitated some reaction on the part of the English and the Dutch. Elizabeth I_sentence_231

The outcome was the Treaty of Nonsuch of August 1585, in which Elizabeth promised military support to the Dutch. Elizabeth I_sentence_232

The treaty marked the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish War, which lasted until the Treaty of London in 1604. Elizabeth I_sentence_233

The expedition was led by her former suitor, the Earl of Leicester. Elizabeth I_sentence_234

Elizabeth from the start did not really back this course of action. Elizabeth I_sentence_235

Her strategy, to support the Dutch on the surface with an English army, while beginning secret peace talks with Spain within days of Leicester's arrival in Holland, had necessarily to be at odds with Leicester's, who wanted and was expected by the Dutch to fight an active campaign. Elizabeth I_sentence_236

Elizabeth, on the other hand, wanted him "to avoid at all costs any decisive action with the enemy". Elizabeth I_sentence_237

He enraged Elizabeth by accepting the post of Governor-General from the Dutch States General. Elizabeth I_sentence_238

Elizabeth saw this as a Dutch ploy to force her to accept sovereignty over the Netherlands, which so far she had always declined. Elizabeth I_sentence_239

She wrote to Leicester: Elizabeth I_sentence_240

Elizabeth's "commandment" was that her emissary read out her letters of disapproval publicly before the Dutch Council of State, Leicester having to stand nearby. Elizabeth I_sentence_241

This public humiliation of her "Lieutenant-General" combined with her continued talks for a separate peace with Spain, irreversibly undermined his standing among the Dutch. Elizabeth I_sentence_242

The military campaign was severely hampered by Elizabeth's repeated refusals to send promised funds for her starving soldiers. Elizabeth I_sentence_243

Her unwillingness to commit herself to the cause, Leicester's own shortcomings as a political and military leader, and the faction-ridden and chaotic situation of Dutch politics led to the failure of the campaign. Elizabeth I_sentence_244

Leicester finally resigned his command in December 1587. Elizabeth I_sentence_245

Spanish Armada Elizabeth I_section_13

Meanwhile, Sir Francis Drake had undertaken a major voyage against Spanish ports and ships in the Caribbean in 1585 and 1586. Elizabeth I_sentence_246

In 1587 he made a successful raid on Cádiz, destroying the Spanish fleet of war ships intended for the Enterprise of England, as Philip II had decided to take the war to England. Elizabeth I_sentence_247

On 12 July 1588, the Spanish Armada, a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the Netherlands. Elizabeth I_sentence_248

A combination of miscalculation, misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelines, which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast, defeated the Armada. Elizabeth I_sentence_249

The Armada straggled home to Spain in shattered remnants, after disastrous losses on the coast of Ireland (after some ships had tried to struggle back to Spain via the North Sea, and then back south past the west coast of Ireland). Elizabeth I_sentence_250

Unaware of the Armada's fate, English militias mustered to defend the country under the Earl of Leicester's command. Elizabeth I_sentence_251

He invited Elizabeth to inspect her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August. Elizabeth I_sentence_252

Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most famous speeches: Elizabeth I_sentence_253

When no invasion came, the nation rejoiced. Elizabeth I_sentence_254

Elizabeth's procession to a thanksgiving service at St Paul's Cathedral rivalled that of her coronation as a spectacle. Elizabeth I_sentence_255

The defeat of the armada was a potent propaganda victory, both for Elizabeth and for Protestant England. Elizabeth I_sentence_256

The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen. Elizabeth I_sentence_257

However, the victory was not a turning point in the war, which continued and often favoured Spain. Elizabeth I_sentence_258

The Spanish still controlled the southern provinces of the Netherlands, and the threat of invasion remained. Elizabeth I_sentence_259

Sir Walter Raleigh claimed after her death that Elizabeth's caution had impeded the war against Spain: Elizabeth I_sentence_260

Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds, Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair. Elizabeth I_sentence_261

Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory". Elizabeth I_sentence_262

In 1589, the year after the Spanish Armada, Elizabeth sent to Spain the English Armada or Counter Armada with 23,375 men and 150 ships, led by Sir Francis Drake as admiral and Sir John Norreys as general. Elizabeth I_sentence_263

The English fleet suffered a catastrophic defeat with 11,000–15,000 killed, wounded or died of disease and 40 ships sunk or captured. Elizabeth I_sentence_264

The advantage England had won upon the destruction of the Spanish Armada was lost, and the Spanish victory marked a revival of Philip II's naval power through the next decade. Elizabeth I_sentence_265

France Elizabeth I_section_14

When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589, Elizabeth sent him military support. Elizabeth I_sentence_266

It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in 1563. Elizabeth I_sentence_267

Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports. Elizabeth I_sentence_268

The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective. Elizabeth I_sentence_269

Lord Willoughby, largely ignoring Elizabeth's orders, roamed northern France to little effect, with an army of 4,000 men. Elizabeth I_sentence_270

He withdrew in disarray in December 1589, having lost half his troops. Elizabeth I_sentence_271

In 1591, the campaign of John Norreys, who led 3,000 men to Brittany, was even more of a disaster. Elizabeth I_sentence_272

As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders. Elizabeth I_sentence_273

Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support. Elizabeth I_sentence_274

In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May 1591. Elizabeth I_sentence_275

In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen. Elizabeth I_sentence_276

The result was just as dismal. Elizabeth I_sentence_277

Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January 1592. Elizabeth I_sentence_278

Henry abandoned the siege in April. Elizabeth I_sentence_279

As usual, Elizabeth lacked control over her commanders once they were abroad. Elizabeth I_sentence_280

"Where he is, or what he doth, or what he is to do," she wrote of Essex, "we are ignorant". Elizabeth I_sentence_281

Ireland Elizabeth I_section_15

Main article: Tudor conquest of Ireland Elizabeth I_sentence_282

Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile, and in places virtually autonomous, Irish population that adhered to Catholicism and was willing to defy her authority and plot with her enemies. Elizabeth I_sentence_283

Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England. Elizabeth I_sentence_284

In the course of a series of uprisings, Crown forces pursued scorched-earth tactics, burning the land and slaughtering man, woman and child. Elizabeth I_sentence_285

During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmond, in 1582, an estimated 30,000 Irish people starved to death. Elizabeth I_sentence_286

The poet and colonist Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same". Elizabeth I_sentence_287

Elizabeth advised her commanders that the Irish, "that rude and barbarous nation", be well treated; but she or her commanders showed no remorse when force and bloodshed served their authoritarian purpose. Elizabeth I_sentence_288

Between 1594 and 1603, Elizabeth faced her most severe test in Ireland during the Nine Years' War, a revolt that took place at the height of hostilities with Spain, who backed the rebel leader, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. Elizabeth I_sentence_289

In spring 1599, Elizabeth sent Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, to put the revolt down. Elizabeth I_sentence_290

To her frustration, he made little progress and returned to England in defiance of her orders. Elizabeth I_sentence_291

He was replaced by Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, who took three years to defeat the rebels. Elizabeth I_sentence_292

O'Neill finally surrendered in 1603, a few days after Elizabeth's death. Elizabeth I_sentence_293

Soon afterwards, a peace treaty was signed between England and Spain. Elizabeth I_sentence_294

Russia Elizabeth I_section_16

Elizabeth continued to maintain the diplomatic relations with the Tsardom of Russia that were originally established by her half-brother, Edward VI. Elizabeth I_sentence_295

She often wrote to Ivan the Terrible on amicable terms, though the Tsar was often annoyed by her focus on commerce rather than on the possibility of a military alliance. Elizabeth I_sentence_296

The Tsar even proposed to her once, and during his later reign, asked for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardised. Elizabeth I_sentence_297

English merchant and explorer Anthony Jenkinson, who began his career as a representative of the Muscovy Company, became the queen's special ambassador to the court of Ivan the Terrible. Elizabeth I_sentence_298

Upon Ivan's death in 1584, he was succeeded by his less-ambitious son Feodor. Elizabeth I_sentence_299

Unlike his father, Feodor had no enthusiasm in maintaining exclusive trading rights with England. Elizabeth I_sentence_300

Feodor declared his kingdom open to all foreigners, and dismissed the English ambassador Sir Jerome Bowes, whose pomposity had been tolerated by Ivan. Elizabeth I_sentence_301

Elizabeth sent a new ambassador, Dr. Giles Fletcher, to demand from the regent Boris Godunov that he convince the Tsar to reconsider. Elizabeth I_sentence_302

The negotiations failed, due to Fletcher addressing Feodor with two of his many titles omitted. Elizabeth I_sentence_303

Elizabeth continued to appeal to Feodor in half appealing, half reproachful letters. Elizabeth I_sentence_304

She proposed an alliance, something which she had refused to do when offered one by Feodor's father, but was turned down. Elizabeth I_sentence_305

Muslim states Elizabeth I_section_17

Trade and diplomatic relations developed between England and the Barbary states during the rule of Elizabeth. Elizabeth I_sentence_306

England established a trading relationship with Morocco in opposition to Spain, selling armour, ammunition, timber, and metal in exchange for Moroccan sugar, in spite of a Papal ban. Elizabeth I_sentence_307

In 1600, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, the principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur, visited England as an ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I, to negotiate an Anglo-Moroccan alliance against Spain. Elizabeth I_sentence_308

Elizabeth "agreed to sell munitions supplies to Morocco, and she and Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur talked on and off about mounting a joint operation against the Spanish". Elizabeth I_sentence_309

Discussions, however, remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy. Elizabeth I_sentence_310

Diplomatic relations were also established with the Ottoman Empire with the chartering of the Levant Company and the dispatch of the first English ambassador to the Porte, William Harborne, in 1578. Elizabeth I_sentence_311

For the first time, a Treaty of Commerce was signed in 1580. Elizabeth I_sentence_312

Numerous envoys were dispatched in both directions and epistolar exchanges occurred between Elizabeth and Sultan Murad III. Elizabeth I_sentence_313

In one correspondence, Murad entertained the notion that Islam and Protestantism had "much more in common than either did with Roman Catholicism, as both rejected the worship of idols", and argued for an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire. Elizabeth I_sentence_314

To the dismay of Catholic Europe, England exported tin and lead (for cannon-casting) and ammunitions to the Ottoman Empire, and Elizabeth seriously discussed joint military operations with Murad III during the outbreak of war with Spain in 1585, as Francis Walsingham was lobbying for a direct Ottoman military involvement against the common Spanish enemy. Elizabeth I_sentence_315

America Elizabeth I_section_18

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed west to establish a colony on Newfoundland. Elizabeth I_sentence_316

He never returned to England. Elizabeth I_sentence_317

Gilbert's relative Sir Walter Raleigh explored the Atlantic Coast and claimed the territory of Virginia, perhaps named in honour of Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen". Elizabeth I_sentence_318

This territory was much larger than the present-day state of Virginia, extending from New England to the Carolinas. Elizabeth I_sentence_319

In 1585, Raleigh returned to Virginia with a small group of people. Elizabeth I_sentence_320

They landed on the island of Roanoke, off present-day North Carolina. Elizabeth I_sentence_321

After the failure of the first colony, Raleigh recruited another group and put John White in command. Elizabeth I_sentence_322

When Raleigh returned in 1590, there was no trace of the Roanoke Colony he had left, but it was the first English Settlement in North America. Elizabeth I_sentence_323

East India Company Elizabeth I_section_19

The East India Company was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region and China, and received its charter from Queen Elizabeth on 31 December 1600. Elizabeth I_sentence_324

For a period of 15 years, the company was awarded a monopoly on English trade with all countries East of the Cape of Good Hope and West of the Straits of Magellan. Elizabeth I_sentence_325

Sir James Lancaster commanded the first expedition in 1601. Elizabeth I_sentence_326

The Company eventually controlled half of world trade and substantial territory in India in the 18th and 19th centuries. Elizabeth I_sentence_327

Later years Elizabeth I_section_20

The period after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 brought new difficulties for Elizabeth that lasted until the end of her reign. Elizabeth I_sentence_328

The conflicts with Spain and in Ireland dragged on, the tax burden grew heavier, and the economy was hit by poor harvests and the cost of war. Elizabeth I_sentence_329

Prices rose and the standard of living fell. Elizabeth I_sentence_330

During this time, repression of Catholics intensified, and Elizabeth authorised commissions in 1591 to interrogate and monitor Catholic householders. Elizabeth I_sentence_331

To maintain the illusion of peace and prosperity, she increasingly relied on internal spies and propaganda. Elizabeth I_sentence_332

In her last years, mounting criticism reflected a decline in the public's affection for her. Elizabeth I_sentence_333

One of the causes for this "second reign" of Elizabeth, as it is sometimes called, was the changed character of Elizabeth's governing body, the privy council in the 1590s. Elizabeth I_sentence_334

A new generation was in power. Elizabeth I_sentence_335

With the exception of Lord Burghley, the most important politicians had died around 1590: the Earl of Leicester in 1588; Sir Francis Walsingham in 1590; and Sir Christopher Hatton in 1591. Elizabeth I_sentence_336

Factional strife in the government, which had not existed in a noteworthy form before the 1590s, now became its hallmark. Elizabeth I_sentence_337

A bitter rivalry arose between the Earl of Essex and Robert Cecil, son of Lord Burghley and their respective adherents, and the struggle for the most powerful positions in the state marred politics. Elizabeth I_sentence_338

The queen's personal authority was lessening, as is shown in the 1594 affair of Dr. Lopez, her trusted physician. Elizabeth I_sentence_339

When he was wrongly accused by the Earl of Essex of treason out of personal pique, she could not prevent his execution, although she had been angry about his arrest and seems not to have believed in his guilt. Elizabeth I_sentence_340

During the last years of her reign, Elizabeth came to rely on the granting of monopolies as a cost-free system of patronage, rather than asking Parliament for more subsidies in a time of war. Elizabeth I_sentence_341

The practice soon led to price-fixing, the enrichment of courtiers at the public's expense, and widespread resentment. Elizabeth I_sentence_342

This culminated in agitation in the House of Commons during the parliament of 1601. Elizabeth I_sentence_343

In her famous "Golden Speech" of 30 November 1601 at Whitehall Palace to a deputation of 140 members, Elizabeth professed ignorance of the abuses, and won the members over with promises and her usual appeal to the emotions: Elizabeth I_sentence_344

This same period of economic and political uncertainty, however, produced an unsurpassed literary flowering in England. Elizabeth I_sentence_345

The first signs of a new literary movement had appeared at the end of the second decade of Elizabeth's reign, with John Lyly's Euphues and Edmund Spenser's The Shepheardes Calender in 1578. Elizabeth I_sentence_346

During the 1590s, some of the great names of English literature entered their maturity, including William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe. Elizabeth I_sentence_347

Continuing into the Jacobean era, the English theatre would reach its peak. Elizabeth I_sentence_348

The notion of a great Elizabethan era depends largely on the builders, dramatists, poets, and musicians who were active during Elizabeth's reign. Elizabeth I_sentence_349

They owed little directly to the queen, who was never a major patron of the arts. Elizabeth I_sentence_350

As Elizabeth aged her image gradually changed. Elizabeth I_sentence_351

She was portrayed as Belphoebe or Astraea, and after the Armada, as Gloriana, the eternally youthful Faerie Queene of Edmund Spenser's poem. Elizabeth I_sentence_352

Elizabeth gave Edmund Spenser a pension, as this was unusual for her, it indicates that she liked his work. Elizabeth I_sentence_353

Her painted portraits became less realistic and more a set of enigmatic icons that made her look much younger than she was. Elizabeth I_sentence_354

In fact, her skin had been scarred by smallpox in 1562, leaving her half bald and dependent on wigs and cosmetics. Elizabeth I_sentence_355

Her love of sweets and fear of dentists contributed to severe tooth decay and loss to such an extent that foreign ambassadors had a hard time understanding her speech. Elizabeth I_sentence_356

André Hurault de Maisse, Ambassador Extraordinary from Henry IV of France, reported an audience with the queen, during which he noticed, "her teeth are very yellow and unequal ... and on the left side less than on the right. Elizabeth I_sentence_357

Many of them are missing, so that one cannot understand her easily when she speaks quickly." Elizabeth I_sentence_358

Yet he added, "her figure is fair and tall and graceful in whatever she does; so far as may be she keeps her dignity, yet humbly and graciously withal." Elizabeth I_sentence_359

Sir Walter Raleigh called her "a lady whom time had surprised". Elizabeth I_sentence_360

The more Elizabeth's beauty faded, the more her courtiers praised it. Elizabeth I_sentence_361

Elizabeth was happy to play the part, but it is possible that in the last decade of her life she began to believe her own performance. Elizabeth I_sentence_362

She became fond and indulgent of the charming but petulant young Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who was Leicester's stepson and took liberties with her for which she forgave him. Elizabeth I_sentence_363

She repeatedly appointed him to military posts despite his growing record of irresponsibility. Elizabeth I_sentence_364

After Essex's desertion of his command in Ireland in 1599, Elizabeth had him placed under house arrest and the following year deprived him of his monopolies. Elizabeth I_sentence_365

In February 1601, the earl tried to raise a rebellion in London. Elizabeth I_sentence_366

He intended to seize the queen but few rallied to his support, and he was beheaded on 25 February. Elizabeth I_sentence_367

Elizabeth knew that her own misjudgements were partly to blame for this turn of events. Elizabeth I_sentence_368

An observer wrote in 1602: "Her delight is to sit in the dark, and sometimes with shedding tears to bewail Essex." Elizabeth I_sentence_369

Death Elizabeth I_section_21

Elizabeth's senior adviser, William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, died on 4 August 1598. Elizabeth I_sentence_370

His political mantle passed to his son, Robert Cecil, who soon became the leader of the government. Elizabeth I_sentence_371

One task he addressed was to prepare the way for a smooth succession. Elizabeth I_sentence_372

Since Elizabeth would never name her successor, Cecil was obliged to proceed in secret. Elizabeth I_sentence_373

He therefore entered into a coded negotiation with James VI of Scotland, who had a strong but unrecognised claim. Elizabeth I_sentence_374

Cecil coached the impatient James to humour Elizabeth and "secure the heart of the highest, to whose sex and quality nothing is so improper as either needless expostulations or over much curiosity in her own actions". Elizabeth I_sentence_375

The advice worked. Elizabeth I_sentence_376

James's tone delighted Elizabeth, who responded: "So trust I that you will not doubt but that your last letters are so acceptably taken as my thanks cannot be lacking for the same, but yield them to you in grateful sort". Elizabeth I_sentence_377

In historian J. E. Neale's view, Elizabeth may not have declared her wishes openly to James, but she made them known with "unmistakable if veiled phrases". Elizabeth I_sentence_378

The Queen's health remained fair until the autumn of 1602, when a series of deaths among her friends plunged her into a severe depression. Elizabeth I_sentence_379

In February 1603, the death of Catherine Carey, Countess of Nottingham, the niece of her cousin and close friend Lady Knollys, came as a particular blow. Elizabeth I_sentence_380

In March, Elizabeth fell sick and remained in a "settled and unremovable melancholy", and sat motionless on a cushion for hours on end. Elizabeth I_sentence_381

When Robert Cecil told her that she must go to bed, she snapped: "Must is not a word to use to princes, little man." Elizabeth I_sentence_382

She died on 24 March 1603 at Richmond Palace, between two and three in the morning. Elizabeth I_sentence_383

A few hours later, Cecil and the council set their plans in motion and proclaimed James King of England. Elizabeth I_sentence_384

While it has become normative to record the death of the Queen as occurring in 1603, following English calendar reform in the 1750s, at the time England observed New Year's Day on 25 March, commonly known as Lady Day. Elizabeth I_sentence_385

Thus Elizabeth died on the last day of the year 1602 in the old calendar. Elizabeth I_sentence_386

The modern convention is to use the old calendar for the date and month while using the new for the year. Elizabeth I_sentence_387

Elizabeth's coffin was carried downriver at night to Whitehall, on a barge lit with torches. Elizabeth I_sentence_388

At her funeral on 28 April, the coffin was taken to Westminster Abbey on a hearse drawn by four horses hung with black velvet. Elizabeth I_sentence_389

In the words of the chronicler John Stow: Elizabeth I_sentence_390

Elizabeth was interred in Westminster Abbey, in a tomb shared with her half-sister, Mary I. Elizabeth I_sentence_391

The Latin inscription on their tomb, "Regno consortes & urna, hic obdormimus Elizabetha et Maria sorores, in spe resurrectionis", translates to "Consorts in realm and tomb, here we sleep, Elizabeth and Mary, sisters, in hope of resurrection". Elizabeth I_sentence_392

Legacy Elizabeth I_section_22

Further information: Cultural depictions of Elizabeth I of England Elizabeth I_sentence_393

Elizabeth was lamented by many of her subjects, but others were relieved at her death. Elizabeth I_sentence_394

Expectations of King James started high but then declined, so by the 1620s there was a nostalgic revival of the cult of Elizabeth. Elizabeth I_sentence_395

Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age. Elizabeth I_sentence_396

James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court. Elizabeth I_sentence_397

The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties, was taken at face value and her reputation inflated. Elizabeth I_sentence_398

Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: "When we had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive. Elizabeth I_sentence_399

Then was her memory much magnified." Elizabeth I_sentence_400

Elizabeth's reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance. Elizabeth I_sentence_401

The picture of Elizabeth painted by her Protestant admirers of the early 17th century has proved lasting and influential. Elizabeth I_sentence_402

Her memory was also revived during the Napoleonic Wars, when the nation again found itself on the brink of invasion. Elizabeth I_sentence_403

In the Victorian era, the Elizabethan legend was adapted to the imperial ideology of the day, and in the mid-20th century, Elizabeth was a romantic symbol of the national resistance to foreign threat. Elizabeth I_sentence_404

Historians of that period, such as J. Elizabeth I_sentence_405 E. Neale (1934) and A. Elizabeth I_sentence_406 L. Rowse (1950), interpreted Elizabeth's reign as a golden age of progress. Elizabeth I_sentence_407

Neale and Rowse also idealised the Queen personally: she always did everything right; her more unpleasant traits were ignored or explained as signs of stress. Elizabeth I_sentence_408

Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth. Elizabeth I_sentence_409

Her reign is famous for the defeat of the Armada, and for successful raids against the Spanish, such as those on Cádiz in 1587 and 1596, but some historians point to military failures on land and at sea. Elizabeth I_sentence_410

In Ireland, Elizabeth's forces ultimately prevailed, but their tactics stain her record. Elizabeth I_sentence_411

Rather than as a brave defender of the Protestant nations against Spain and the Habsburgs, she is more often regarded as cautious in her foreign policies. Elizabeth I_sentence_412

She offered very limited aid to foreign Protestants and failed to provide her commanders with the funds to make a difference abroad. Elizabeth I_sentence_413

Elizabeth established an English church that helped shape a national identity and remains in place today. Elizabeth I_sentence_414

Those who praised her later as a Protestant heroine overlooked her refusal to drop all practices of Catholic origin from the Church of England. Elizabeth I_sentence_415

Historians note that in her day, strict Protestants regarded the Acts of Settlement and Uniformity of 1559 as a compromise. Elizabeth I_sentence_416

In fact, Elizabeth believed that faith was personal and did not wish, as Francis Bacon put it, to "make windows into men's hearts and secret thoughts". Elizabeth I_sentence_417

Though Elizabeth followed a largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised England's status abroad. Elizabeth I_sentence_418

"She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island," marvelled Pope Sixtus V, "and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all". Elizabeth I_sentence_419

Under Elizabeth, the nation gained a new self-confidence and sense of sovereignty, as Christendom fragmented. Elizabeth I_sentence_420

Elizabeth was the first Tudor to recognise that a monarch ruled by popular consent. Elizabeth I_sentence_421

She therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth—a style of government that her Stuart successors failed to follow. Elizabeth I_sentence_422

Some historians have called her lucky; she believed that God was protecting her. Elizabeth I_sentence_423

Priding herself on being "mere English", Elizabeth trusted in God, honest advice, and the love of her subjects for the success of her rule. Elizabeth I_sentence_424

In a prayer, she offered thanks to God that: Elizabeth I_sentence_425

Family tree Elizabeth I_section_23

See also Elizabeth I_section_24

Elizabeth I_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth I.