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This article is about the country. England_sentence_0

For other uses, see England (disambiguation). England_sentence_1


StatusEngland_header_cell_0_1_0 CountryEngland_cell_0_1_1

and largest cityEngland_header_cell_0_2_0

National languageEngland_header_cell_0_3_0 EnglishEngland_cell_0_3_1
Regional languagesEngland_header_cell_0_4_0 CornishEngland_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groups (2011)England_header_cell_0_5_0 England_cell_0_5_1
ReligionEngland_header_cell_0_6_0 Church of EnglandEngland_cell_0_6_1
Demonym(s)England_header_cell_0_7_0 EnglishEngland_cell_0_7_1
England_header_cell_0_8_0 England_cell_0_8_1
GovernmentEngland_header_cell_0_9_0 Part of a constitutional monarchy, direct government exercised by the government of the United KingdomEngland_cell_0_9_1
MonarchEngland_header_cell_0_10_0 Elizabeth IIEngland_cell_0_10_1
Parliament of the United KingdomEngland_header_cell_0_11_0
House of CommonsEngland_header_cell_0_12_0 533 MPs (of 650)England_cell_0_12_1
LegislatureEngland_header_cell_0_13_0 UK ParliamentEngland_cell_0_13_1
Unification of Angles, Saxons and DanesEngland_header_cell_0_15_0 12 July 927England_cell_0_15_1
Union with ScotlandEngland_header_cell_0_16_0 1 May 1707England_cell_0_16_1
Area England_header_cell_0_17_0
LandEngland_header_cell_0_18_0 130,279 km (50,301 sq mi)England_cell_0_18_1
2019 estimateEngland_header_cell_0_20_0 56,286,961England_cell_0_20_1
2011 censusEngland_header_cell_0_21_0 53,012,500England_cell_0_21_1
DensityEngland_header_cell_0_22_0 432/km (1,118.9/sq mi)England_cell_0_22_1
GVAEngland_header_cell_0_23_0 2018 estimateEngland_cell_0_23_1
TotalEngland_header_cell_0_24_0 £1.8 trillion


Per capitaEngland_header_cell_0_25_0 £33,000


CurrencyEngland_header_cell_0_26_0 Pound sterling (GBP£)England_cell_0_26_1
Time zoneEngland_header_cell_0_27_0 UTC (Greenwich Mean Time)England_cell_0_27_1
Summer (DST)England_header_cell_0_28_0 UTC+1 (British Summer Time)England_cell_0_28_1
Date formatEngland_header_cell_0_29_0 dd/mm/yyyy (AD)England_cell_0_29_1
Driving sideEngland_header_cell_0_30_0 leftEngland_cell_0_30_1
Calling codeEngland_header_cell_0_31_0 +44England_cell_0_31_1
ISO 3166 codeEngland_header_cell_0_32_0 GB-ENGEngland_cell_0_32_1

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. England_sentence_2

It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. England_sentence_3

The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England_sentence_4

England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. England_sentence_5

The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. England_sentence_6

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England_sentence_7

England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. England_sentence_8

The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. England_sentence_9

The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England_sentence_10

England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. England_sentence_11

However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). England_sentence_12

The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and, prior to Brexit, the European Union. England_sentence_13

England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century. England_sentence_14

The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. England_sentence_15

In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act of Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. England_sentence_16

In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England_sentence_17

Toponymy England_section_0

See also: Toponymy of England England_sentence_18

The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". England_sentence_19

The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. England_sentence_20

The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area (present-day German state of Schleswig–Holstein) of the Baltic Sea. England_sentence_21

The earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. England_sentence_22

The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria. England_sentence_23

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense. England_sentence_24

The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. England_sentence_25

The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. England_sentence_26

How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons (Eald-Seaxe) of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. England_sentence_27

In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn); similarly, the Welsh name for the English language is "Saesneg". England_sentence_28

A romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend. England_sentence_29

Albion is also applied to England in a more poetic capacity, though its original meaning is the island of Britain as a whole. England_sentence_30

History England_section_1

Main article: History of England England_sentence_31

Prehistory and antiquity England_section_2

Main article: Prehistoric Britain England_sentence_32

The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. England_sentence_33

The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago. England_sentence_34

Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years. England_sentence_35

After the last ice age only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and woolly rhinoceros remained. England_sentence_36

Roughly 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area; genetic research suggests they came from the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. England_sentence_37

The sea level was lower than now and Britain was connected by land bridge to Ireland and Eurasia. England_sentence_38

As the seas rose, it was separated from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two millennia later. England_sentence_39

The Beaker culture arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing drinking and food vessels constructed from clay, as well as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores. England_sentence_40

It was during this time that major Neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. England_sentence_41

By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze, and later iron from iron ores. England_sentence_42

The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs, advancing agriculture (for instance, with Celtic fields), as well as the production of more effective weapons. England_sentence_43

During the Iron Age, Celtic culture, deriving from the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, arrived from Central Europe. England_sentence_44

Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. England_sentence_45

Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. England_sentence_46

Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. England_sentence_47

Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans. England_sentence_48

Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade twice in 55 BC; although largely unsuccessful, he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes. England_sentence_49

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius, subsequently conquering much of Britain, and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province. England_sentence_50

The best-known of the native tribes who attempted to resist were the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus. England_sentence_51

Later, an uprising led by Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, ended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street. England_sentence_52

The author of one study of Roman Britain suggested that from 43 AD to 84 AD, the Roman invaders killed somewhere between 100,000 and 250,000 people from a population of perhaps 2,000,000. England_sentence_53

This era saw a Greco-Roman culture prevail with the introduction of Roman law, Roman architecture, aqueducts, sewers, many agricultural items and silk. England_sentence_54

In the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus died at Eboracum (now York), where Constantine was subsequently proclaimed emperor. England_sentence_55

There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier. England_sentence_56

According to Bede, missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in 180 AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church. England_sentence_57

There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea, while others claim through Lucius of Britain. England_sentence_58

By 410, during the Decline of the Roman Empire, Britain was left exposed by the end of Roman rule in Britain and the withdrawal of Roman army units, to defend the frontiers in continental Europe and partake in civil wars. England_sentence_59

Celtic Christian monastic and missionary movements flourished: Patrick (5th-century Ireland) and in the 6th century Brendan (Clonfert), Comgall (Bangor), David (Wales), Aiden (Lindisfarne) and Columba (Iona). England_sentence_60

This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. England_sentence_61

Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church. England_sentence_62

Middle Ages England_section_3

Main article: England in the Middle Ages England_sentence_63

Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles, Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province. England_sentence_64

These groups then began to settle in increasing numbers over the course of the fifth and sixth centuries, initially in the eastern part of the country. England_sentence_65

Their advance was contained for some decades after the Britons' victory at the Battle of Mount Badon, but subsequently resumed, over-running the fertile lowlands of Britain and reducing the area under Brittonic control to a series of separate enclaves in the more rugged country to the west by the end of the 6th century. England_sentence_66

Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. England_sentence_67

The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement; the emerging consensus is that it occurred on a large scale in the south and east but was less substantial to the north and west, where Celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control. England_sentence_68

Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from 597 onwards. England_sentence_69

Disputes between the Roman- and Celtic-dominated forms of Christianity ended in victory for the Roman tradition at the Council of Whitby (664), which was ostensibly about tonsures (clerical haircuts) and the date of Easter, but more significantly, about the differences in Roman and Celtic forms of authority, theology, and practice (Lehane). England_sentence_70

During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Kent and Sussex. England_sentence_71

Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. England_sentence_72

The 7th century saw a struggle for hegemony between Northumbria and Mercia, which in the 8th century gave way to Mercian preeminence. England_sentence_73

In the early 9th century Mercia was displaced as the foremost kingdom by Wessex. England_sentence_74

Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. England_sentence_75

Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw. England_sentence_76

This brought about the political unification of England, first accomplished under Æthelstan in 927 and definitively established after further conflicts by Eadred in 953. England_sentence_77

A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway. England_sentence_78

However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1042. England_sentence_79

A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in 1066, accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy. England_sentence_80

The Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy in the late 9th and early 10th centuries. England_sentence_81

This conquest led to the almost total dispossession of the English elite and its replacement by a new French-speaking aristocracy, whose speech had a profound and permanent effect on the English language. England_sentence_82

Subsequently, the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine. England_sentence_83

They reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V. England_sentence_84

The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the signing of the Magna Carta, an English legal charter used to limit the sovereign's powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen. England_sentence_85

Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. England_sentence_86

The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope. England_sentence_87

During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War. England_sentence_88

The Black Death epidemic hit England; starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England's inhabitants. England_sentence_89

From 1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of the royal family – the Yorkists and Lancastrians – known as the Wars of the Roses. England_sentence_90

Eventually it led to the Yorkists losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the Tudors, a branch of the Lancastrians headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the Yorkist king Richard III was killed. England_sentence_91

Early modern England_section_4

During the Tudor period, the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity. England_sentence_92

England began to develop naval skills, and exploration to the West intensified. England_sentence_93

Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England. England_sentence_94

In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. England_sentence_95

He also legally incorporated his ancestral land Wales into the Kingdom of England with the 1535–1542 acts. England_sentence_96

There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. England_sentence_97

The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism. England_sentence_98

Competing with Spain, the first English colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. England_sentence_99

The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. England_sentence_100

With the East India Company, England also competed with the Dutch and French in the East. England_sentence_101

During the Elizabethan period, England was at war with Spain. England_sentence_102

An armada sailed from Spain in 1588 as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy. England_sentence_103

The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham. England_sentence_104

This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in 1596 and 1597, but both were driven back by storms. England_sentence_105

The political structure of the island changed in 1603, when the King of Scots, James VI, a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I, thereby creating a personal union. England_sentence_106

He styled himself King of Great Britain, although this had no basis in English law. England_sentence_107

Under the auspices of King James VI and I the Authorised King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. England_sentence_108

It was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century. England_sentence_109

Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I, known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively. England_sentence_110

This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms, involving Scotland and Ireland. England_sentence_111

The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. England_sentence_112

Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653; a period of personal rule followed. England_sentence_113

After Cromwell's death and the resignation of his son Richard as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as monarch in 1660, in a move called the Restoration. England_sentence_114

After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power. England_sentence_115

This was established with the Bill of Rights in 1689. England_sentence_116

Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament. England_sentence_117

Also since that time, no British monarch has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting, which is annually commemorated at the State Opening of Parliament by the British monarch when the doors of the House of Commons are slammed in the face of the monarch's messenger, symbolising the rights of Parliament and its independence from the monarch. England_sentence_118

With the founding of the Royal Society in 1660, science was greatly encouraged. England_sentence_119

In 1666 the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren. England_sentence_120

In Parliament two factions had emerged – the Tories and Whigs. England_sentence_121

Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs, during the Revolution of 1688 invited Dutch prince William of Orange to defeat James and ultimately to become William III of England. England_sentence_122

Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons. England_sentence_123

After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, the two countries joined in political union, to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. England_sentence_124

To accommodate the union, institutions such as the law and national churches of each remained separate. England_sentence_125

Late modern and contemporary England_section_5

Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire. England_sentence_126

Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution, a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development. England_sentence_127

The opening of Northwest England's Bridgewater Canal in 1761 ushered in the canal age in Britain. England_sentence_128

In 1825 the world's first permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railway – the Stockton and Darlington Railway – opened to the public. England_sentence_129

During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester, dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively. England_sentence_130

England maintained relative stability throughout the French Revolution; William Pitt the Younger was British Prime Minister for the reign of George III. England_sentence_131

During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. England_sentence_132

However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington. England_sentence_133

The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people, shared with the Scots and Welsh. England_sentence_134

London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era, and trade within the British Empire – as well as the standing of the British military and navy – was prestigious. England_sentence_135

Political agitation at home from radicals such as the Chartists and the suffragettes enabled legislative reform and universal suffrage. England_sentence_136

Power shifts in east-central Europe led to World War I; hundreds of thousands of English soldiers died fighting for the United Kingdom as part of the Allies. England_sentence_137

Two decades later, in World War II, the United Kingdom was again one of the Allies. England_sentence_138

At the end of the Phoney War, Winston Churchill became the wartime Prime Minister. England_sentence_139

Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. England_sentence_140

Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation, and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel. England_sentence_141

Residential patterns were altered in England by private motoring, and by the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948. England_sentence_142

The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. England_sentence_143

Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the mid-20th century. England_sentence_144

Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles, but also from the Commonwealth, particularly the Indian subcontinent. England_sentence_145

Since the 1970s there has been a large move away from manufacturing and an increasing emphasis on the service industry. England_sentence_146

As part of the United Kingdom, the area joined a common market initiative called the European Economic Community which became the European Union. England_sentence_147

Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England_sentence_148

England and Wales continues to exist as a jurisdiction within the United Kingdom. England_sentence_149

Devolution has stimulated a greater emphasis on a more English-specific identity and patriotism. England_sentence_150

There is no devolved English government, but an attempt to create a similar system on a sub-regional basis was rejected by referendum. England_sentence_151

Governance England_section_6

Politics England_section_7

Main article: Politics of England England_sentence_152

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. England_sentence_153

There has not been a government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. England_sentence_154

Before the union England was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England. England_sentence_155

Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments. England_sentence_156

In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total. England_sentence_157

As of the 2019 United Kingdom general election, England is represented by 345 MPs from the Conservative Party, 179 from the Labour Party, seven from the Liberal Democrats, one from the Green Party, and the Speaker, Lindsay Hoyle. England_sentence_158

Since devolution, in which other countries of the United Kingdom – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England. England_sentence_159

Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a 2004 referendum, this has not been carried out. England_sentence_160

One major issue is the West Lothian question, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters. England_sentence_161

This when placed in the context of England being the only country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the elderly and free top-up university fees, has led to a steady rise in English nationalism. England_sentence_162

Some have suggested the creation of a devolved English parliament, while others have proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which only affects England to English MPs. England_sentence_163

Law England_section_8

Main article: English law England_sentence_164

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States (except Louisiana). England_sentence_165

Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union, as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland. England_sentence_166

The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedentstare decisis – to the facts before them. England_sentence_167

The court system is headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice for civil cases, and the Crown Court for criminal cases. England_sentence_168

The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court for criminal and civil cases in England and Wales. England_sentence_169

It was created in 2009 after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. England_sentence_170

A decision of the Supreme Court is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, which must follow its directions. England_sentence_171

Crime increased between 1981 and 1995 but fell by 42% in the period 1995–2006. England_sentence_172

The prison population doubled over the same period, giving it one of highest incarceration rate in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000. England_sentence_173

Her Majesty's Prison Service, reporting to the Ministry of Justice, manages most prisons, housing over 85,000 convicts. England_sentence_174

Regions, counties, and districts England_section_9

Main article: Subdivisions of England England_sentence_175

See also: Regions of England, Counties of England, and Districts of England England_sentence_176

The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government. England_sentence_177

The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and London. England_sentence_178

These were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in 2011 the regional government offices were abolished. England_sentence_179

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight. England_sentence_180

London accepted in 1998: the London Assembly was created two years later. England_sentence_181

However, when the proposal was rejected by the 2004 North East England devolution referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled. England_sentence_182

The regional assemblies outside London were abolished in 2010, and their functions transferred to respective Regional Development Agencies and a new system of Local authority leaders' boards. England_sentence_183

Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. England_sentence_184

These are used primarily as a geographical frame of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages, with some established as recently as 1974. England_sentence_185

Each has a Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff; these posts are used to represent the British monarch locally. England_sentence_186

Outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly, England is also divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; these correspond to areas used for the purposes of local government and may consist of a single district or be divided into several. England_sentence_187

There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils. England_sentence_188

In these areas the principal authorities are the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan boroughs. England_sentence_189

Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council. England_sentence_190

They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. England_sentence_191

The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities. England_sentence_192

Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs, plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation. England_sentence_193

At the most localised level, much of England is divided into civil parishes with councils; in Greater London only one, Queen's Park, exists as of 2014 after they were abolished in 1965 until legislation allowed their recreation in 2007. England_sentence_194

Geography England_section_10

Main article: Geography of England England_sentence_195

Landscape and rivers England_section_11

Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly. England_sentence_196

It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. England_sentence_197

England is closer than any other part of mainland Britain to the European continent. England_sentence_198

It is separated from France (Hauts-de-France) by a 21-mile (34 km) sea gap, though the two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel near Folkestone. England_sentence_199

England also has shores on the Irish Sea, North Sea and Atlantic Ocean. England_sentence_200

The ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle lie on the tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne respectively. England_sentence_201

At 220 miles (350 km), the Severn is the longest river flowing through England. England_sentence_202

It empties into the Bristol Channel and is notable for its Severn Bore (a tidal bore), which can reach 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height. England_sentence_203

However, the longest river entirely in England is the Thames, which is 215 miles (346 km) in length. England_sentence_204

There are many lakes in England; the largest is Windermere, within the aptly named Lake District. England_sentence_205

Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country. England_sentence_206

The northern uplands include the Pennines, a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills, straddling the border between England and Scotland. England_sentence_207

The highest point in England, at 978 metres (3,209 ft), is Scafell Pike in the Lake District. England_sentence_208

The Shropshire Hills are near Wales while Dartmoor and Exmoor are two upland areas in the south-west of the country. England_sentence_209

The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. England_sentence_210

In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the "backbone of England", are the oldest range of mountains in the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago. England_sentence_211

Their geological composition includes, among others, sandstone and limestone, and also coal. England_sentence_212

There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. England_sentence_213

The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. England_sentence_214

They contain two national parks, the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. England_sentence_215

In the West Country, Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate; both are national parks. England_sentence_216

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover. England_sentence_217

This also includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain, Somerset Levels, South Coast Plain and The Fens. England_sentence_218

Climate England_section_12

Main article: Climate of England England_sentence_219

England has a temperate maritime climate: it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer. England_sentence_220

The weather is damp relatively frequently and is changeable. England_sentence_221

The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast, while July is normally the warmest month. England_sentence_222

Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. England_sentence_223

Rainfall is spread fairly evenly throughout the year. England_sentence_224

Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream. England_sentence_225

Rainfall is higher in the west, and parts of the Lake District receive more rain than anywhere else in the country. England_sentence_226

Since weather records began, the highest temperature recorded was 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) on 25 July 2019 at the Botanic Garden in Cambridge, while the lowest was −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond, Shropshire. England_sentence_227

Nature and wildlife England_section_13

Main articles: Fauna of England and Fauna of Great Britain England_sentence_228

The fauna of England is similar to that of other areas in the British Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats. England_sentence_229

National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England. England_sentence_230

They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations. England_sentence_231

NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by Natural England themselves, but also by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust, and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. England_sentence_232

There are 229 NNRs in England covering 939 square kilometres (363 square miles). England_sentence_233

Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals. England_sentence_234

England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West. England_sentence_235

Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas. England_sentence_236

Deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of England to coniferous forests (mainly plantations) which also benefit certain forms of wildlife. England_sentence_237

The fauna of England has to cope with varying temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures. England_sentence_238

English fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming, but as England is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the English mindset more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside. England_sentence_239

Grey squirrels introduced from eastern America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition. England_sentence_240

Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight. England_sentence_241

England's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times. England_sentence_242

Mountain hares which are indigenous have now been re-introduced in Derbyshire. England_sentence_243

Major conurbations England_section_14

See also: List of places in England England_sentence_244

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England and one of the busiest cities in the world. England_sentence_245

It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself. England_sentence_246

Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the English Midlands. England_sentence_247

There are 50 settlements which have been designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has 66. England_sentence_248

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham, population size is not a prerequisite for city status. England_sentence_249

Traditionally the status was given to towns with diocesan cathedrals, so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester. England_sentence_250

Economy England_section_15

Main article: Economy of England England_sentence_251

England's economy is one of the largest and most dynamic in the world, with an average GDP per capita of £28,100 or $36,000. England_sentence_252

Usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. England_sentence_253

The official currency in England is the pound sterling, whose ISO 4217 code is GBP. England_sentence_254

Taxation in England is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe – as of 2014 the basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-free allowance (normally £10,000), and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount. England_sentence_255

The economy of England is the largest part of the UK's economy, which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England_sentence_256

England is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. England_sentence_257

London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the United Kingdom's main stock exchange and the largest in Europe, is England's financial centre, with 100 of Europe's 500 largest corporations being based there. England_sentence_258

London is the largest financial centre in Europe, and as of 2014 is the second largest in the world. England_sentence_259

Manchester is the largest financial and professional services sector outside London and is the mid tier private equity capital of Europe as well as one of the growing technology hubs of Europe. England_sentence_260

The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by Scottish banker William Paterson, is the United Kingdom's central bank. England_sentence_261

Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution. England_sentence_262

The bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, although not in other parts of the United Kingdom. England_sentence_263

The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates. England_sentence_264

England is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy. England_sentence_265

Tourism has become a significant industry, attracting millions of visitors to England each year. England_sentence_266

The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, cars (although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover, Lotus, Jaguar and Bentley), crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm, aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages. England_sentence_267

Most of the UK's £30 billion aerospace industry is primarily based in England. England_sentence_268

The global market opportunity for UK aerospace manufacturers over the next two decades is estimated at £3.5 trillion. England_sentence_269

GKN Aerospace – an expert in metallic and composite aerostructures is involved in almost every civil and military fixed and rotary wing aircraft in production is based in Redditch. England_sentence_270

BAE Systems makes large sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Salmesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton plant, near Preston. England_sentence_271

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter – the world's largest single defence project – for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system. England_sentence_272

It also manufactures the Hawk, the world's most successful jet training aircraft. England_sentence_273

Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. England_sentence_274

Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30,000 engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors. England_sentence_275

With a workforce of over 12,000 people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. England_sentence_276

Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry. England_sentence_277

Much of the UK's space industry is centred on EADS Astrium, based in Stevenage and Portsmouth. England_sentence_278

The company builds the buses – the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built – for most of the European Space Agency's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites. England_sentence_279

The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology, is also part of Astrium. England_sentence_280

Reaction Engines Limited, the company planning to build Skylon, a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane using their SABRE rocket engine, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system is based Culham. England_sentence_281

Agriculture is intensive and highly mechanised, producing 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour force. England_sentence_282

Two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the other to arable crops. England_sentence_283

The main crops that are grown are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beets. England_sentence_284

England is one of the world's leading fishing nations. England_sentence_285

Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring. England_sentence_286

Science and technology England_section_16

Main articles: List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society England_sentence_287

Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, Robert Hooke, James Prescott Joule, John Dalton, Lord Rayleigh, J. England_sentence_288

J. Thomson, James Chadwick, Charles Babbage, George Boole, Alan Turing, Tim Berners-Lee, Paul Dirac, Stephen Hawking, Peter Higgs, Roger Penrose, John Horton Conway, Thomas Bayes, Arthur Cayley, G. England_sentence_289

H. Hardy, Oliver Heaviside, Andrew Wiles, Francis Crick, Joseph Lister, Joseph Priestley, Thomas Young, Christopher Wren and Richard Dawkins. England_sentence_290

Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins, the first secretary of the Royal Society, in 1668. England_sentence_291

As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. England_sentence_292

Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering. England_sentence_293

Thomas Newcomen's steam engine helped spawn the Industrial Revolution. England_sentence_294

The Father of Railways, George Stephenson, built the first public inter-city railway line in the world, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830. England_sentence_295

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton (business partner of James Watt) is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history. England_sentence_296

The physician Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine is said to have "saved more lives ... than were lost in all the wars of mankind since the beginning of recorded history." England_sentence_297

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine, the first industrial spinning machine, the first computer and the first modern computer, the World Wide Web along with HTML, the first successful human blood transfusion, the motorised vacuum cleaner, the lawn mower, the seat belt, the hovercraft, the electric motor, steam engines, and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory. England_sentence_298

Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation, Newtonian mechanics, and calculus, and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity. England_sentence_299

Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon, tarmac, the rubber band, the mousetrap, "cat's eye" road marker, joint development of the light bulb, steam locomotives, the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering. England_sentence_300

Transport England_section_17

Main article: Transport in England England_sentence_301

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. England_sentence_302

England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure. England_sentence_303

There are many motorways in England, and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road, which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle (much of this section is motorway) and onward to the Scottish border. England_sentence_304

The longest motorway in England is the M6, from Rugby through the North West up to the Anglo-Scottish border, a distance of 232 miles (373 km). England_sentence_305

Other major routes include: the M1 from London to Leeds, the M25 which encircles London, the M60 which encircles Manchester, the M4 from London to South Wales, the M62 from Liverpool via Manchester to East Yorkshire, and the M5 from Birmingham to Bristol and the South West. England_sentence_306

Bus transport across the country is widespread; major companies include Arriva, FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group, National Express, Rotala and Stagecoach Group. England_sentence_307

The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. England_sentence_308

National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally. England_sentence_309

There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: the London Underground; and the Tyne & Wear Metro in Newcastle, Gateshead and Sunderland. England_sentence_310

There are several tram networks, such as the Blackpool tramway, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram and West Midlands Metro, and the Tramlink system centred on Croydon in South London. England_sentence_311

Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in 1825. England_sentence_312

Much of Britain's 10,000 miles (16,000 km) of rail network lies in England, covering the country fairly extensively, although a high proportion of railway lines were closed in the second half of the 20th century. England_sentence_313

There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge. England_sentence_314

These lines are mostly standard gauge (single, double or quadruple track) though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. England_sentence_315

There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel, which was completed in 1994. England_sentence_316

Crossrail, under construction in London, is Europe's largest construction project with a £15 billion projected cost. England_sentence_317

High Speed 2, a new high-speed north–south railway line, projected in 2015 to cost £56 billion, but estimated in 2020 to be almost double that figure, is to start being built in 2020. England_sentence_318

England has extensive domestic and international aviation links. England_sentence_319

The largest airport is Heathrow, which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers. England_sentence_320

Other large airports include Gatwick, Manchester, Stansted, Luton and Birmingham. England_sentence_321

By sea there is ferry transport, both local and international, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands and Belgium. England_sentence_322

There are around 4,400 miles (7,100 km) of navigable waterways in England, half of which is owned by the Canal & River Trust, however, water transport is very limited. England_sentence_323

The River Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three major ports. England_sentence_324

Energy England_section_18

Main article: Energy in the United Kingdom England_sentence_325

Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2,249 TWh (193.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2014. England_sentence_326

This equates to energy consumption per capita of 34.82 MWh (3.00 tonnes of oil equivalent) compared to a 2010 world average of 21.54 MWh (1.85 tonnes of oil equivalent). England_sentence_327

Demand for electricity in 2014 was 34.42GW on average (301.7TWh over the year) coming from a total electricity generation of 335.0TWh. England_sentence_328

Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. England_sentence_329

One such announcement was the Low Carbon Transition Plan launched by the Brown ministry in July 2009, which aimed to generate 30% electricity from renewable sources, and 40% from low carbon content fuels by 2020. England_sentence_330

Notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest growing supply. England_sentence_331

Wind power contributed 15% of UK electricity generation in 2017. England_sentence_332

Government commitments to reduce emissions are occurring against a backdrop of economic crisis across Europe. England_sentence_333

During the European financial crisis, Europe's consumption of electricity shrank by 5%, with primary production also facing a noticeable decline. England_sentence_334

Britain's trade deficit was reduced by 8% due to substantial cuts in energy imports. England_sentence_335

Between 2007 and 2015, the UK's peak electrical demand fell from 61.5 GW to 52.7.GW. England_sentence_336

UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions, whilst meeting energy demand. England_sentence_337

Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs. England_sentence_338

In 2018, the United Kingdom was ranked 6th in the World on the Environmental Performance Index, which measures how well a country carries through environmental policy. England_sentence_339

Tourism England_section_19

Main article: Tourism in England England_sentence_340

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. England_sentence_341

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. England_sentence_342

The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty is a charity which also maintains multiple sites. England_sentence_343

Of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 17 are in England. England_sentence_344

Some of the best known of these include Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Westminster, Roman Baths in Bath, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, and Studley Royal Park. England_sentence_345

The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall, is the largest Roman artefact anywhere: it runs for a total of 73 miles in northern England. England_sentence_346

London is one of the world's most visited cities, regularly taking the top five most visited cities in Europe. England_sentence_347

It is largely considered a global centre of the arts and culture. England_sentence_348

Entry to most state-supported museums and galleries is free unlike in other countries. England_sentence_349

English cities such as York, Oxford, Cambridge, Canterbury, Durham and Bath and their associated cultural sites are widely visited. England_sentence_350

Many of England's stately homes, historic manor houses, landscapes, gardens and parks are of great interest to film makers and broadcasters. England_sentence_351

Healthcare England_section_20

Main article: Healthcare in England England_sentence_352

National Health England (NHS England) is the publicly funded healthcare system responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country. England_sentence_353

The NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946. England_sentence_354

It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report, prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. England_sentence_355

The NHS is largely funded from general taxation including National Insurance payments, and it provides most of its services free at the point of use, although there are charges for some people for eye tests, dental care, prescriptions and aspects of personal care. England_sentence_356

The government department responsible for the NHS is the Department of Health, headed by the Secretary of State for Health, who sits in the British Cabinet. England_sentence_357

Most of the expenditure of the Department of Health is spent on the NHS—£98.6 billion was spent in 2008–2009. England_sentence_358

In recent years the private sector has been increasingly used to provide more NHS services despite opposition by doctors and trade unions. England_sentence_359

When purchasing drugs, the NHS has significant market power that, based on its own assessment of the fair value of the drugs, influences the global price, typically keeping prices lower. England_sentence_360

Several other countries either copy the U.K.'s model or directly rely on Britain's assessments for their own decisions on state-financed drug reimbursements. England_sentence_361

The average life expectancy of people in England is 77.5 years for males and 81.7 years for females, the highest of the four countries of the United Kingdom. England_sentence_362

The South of England has a higher life expectancy than the North, however, regional differences do seem to be slowly narrowing: between 1991–1993 and 2012–2014, life expectancy in the North East increased by 6.0 years and in the North West by 5.8 years, the fastest increase in any region outside London, and the gap between life expectancy in the North East and South East is now 2.5 years, down from 2.9 in 1993. England_sentence_363

Demography England_section_21

Main article: Demography of England England_sentence_364

Population England_section_22

Main article: English people England_sentence_365

See also: English diaspora, Cornish people, and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom England_sentence_366

With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total. England_sentence_367

England taken as a unit and measured against international states has the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population in the world. England_sentence_368

With a density of 424 people per square kilometre, it would be the second most densely populated country in the European Union after Malta. England_sentence_369

The English people are a British people. England_sentence_370

Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came from the Iberian Peninsula, as well as a 5% contribution from Angles and Saxons, and a significant Scandinavian (Viking) element. England_sentence_371

However, other geneticists place the Germanic estimate up to half. England_sentence_372

Over time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric, Brythonic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Viking (North Germanic), Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans. England_sentence_373

There is an English diaspora in former parts of the British Empire; especially the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. England_sentence_374

Since the late 1990s, many English people have migrated to Spain. England_sentence_375

In 1086, when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. England_sentence_376

About 10% lived in urban areas. England_sentence_377

By 1801, the population was 8.3 million, and by 1901 30.5 million. England_sentence_378

Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom. England_sentence_379

There has been significant Irish migration. England_sentence_380

The proportion of ethnically European residents totals at 87.50%, including Germans and Poles. England_sentence_381

Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 1950s: in particular, 6% of people living in England have family origins in the Indian subcontinent, mostly India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. England_sentence_382

2.90% of the population are black, from Africa and the Caribbean, especially former British colonies. England_sentence_383

There is a significant number of Chinese and British Chinese. England_sentence_384

In 2007, 22% of primary school children in England were from ethnic minority families, and in 2011 that figure was 26.5%. England_sentence_385

About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. England_sentence_386

Debate over immigration is politically prominent; 80% of respondents in a 2009 Home Office poll wanted to cap it. England_sentence_387

The ONS has projected that the population will grow by nine million between 2014 and 2039. England_sentence_388

England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people, recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2014. England_sentence_389

Language England_section_23

Further information: Languages of the United Kingdom and English language in England England_sentence_390

As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue spoken by 98% of the population. England_sentence_391

It is an Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. England_sentence_392

After the Norman conquest, the Old English language, brought to Britain by the Anglo-Saxon settlers, was confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy. England_sentence_393

By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. England_sentence_394

During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. England_sentence_395

Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. England_sentence_396

Thanks in large part to the British Empire, the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca. England_sentence_397

English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity, and includes language schooling, tourism spending, and publishing. England_sentence_398

There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, but English is the only language used for official business. England_sentence_399

Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country. England_sentence_400

As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages, Cornish and Welsh. England_sentence_401

Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. England_sentence_402

It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall, and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools. England_sentence_403

When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border. England_sentence_404

Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later. England_sentence_405

State schools teach students a second language or third language from the ages of seven, usually French, German, Spanish, Latin, Greek. England_sentence_406

Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home, the most common being Punjabi and Urdu. England_sentence_407

However, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics, figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English. England_sentence_408

Religion England_section_24

Main article: Religion in England England_sentence_409

Further information: History of Christianity in England England_sentence_410

In the 2011 census, 59.4% of the population of England specified their religion as Christian, 24.7% answered that they had no religion, 5% specified that they were Muslim, while 3.7% of the population belongs to other religions and 7.2% did not give an answer. England_sentence_411

Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier in Gaelic and Roman times. England_sentence_412

This Celtic Church was gradually joined to the Catholic hierarchy following the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by St Augustine. England_sentence_413

The established church of England is the Church of England, which left communion with Rome in the 1530s when Henry VIII was unable to annul his marriage to the aunt of the king of Spain. England_sentence_414

The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. England_sentence_415

There are High Church and Low Church traditions and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, following the Tractarian movement. England_sentence_416

The monarch of the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, which has around 26 million baptised members (of whom the vast majority are not regular churchgoers). England_sentence_417

It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head. England_sentence_418

Many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral, and Salisbury Cathedral. England_sentence_419

The 2nd-largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. England_sentence_420

Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.5 million members (most of whom are English). England_sentence_421

There has been one Pope from England to date, Adrian IV; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church. England_sentence_422

A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. England_sentence_423

It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall. England_sentence_424

There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and The Salvation Army. England_sentence_425

The patron saint of England is Saint George; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination. England_sentence_426

There are many other English and associated saints; some of the best-known are: Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket. England_sentence_427

There are non-Christian religions practised. England_sentence_428

Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070. England_sentence_429

They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656. England_sentence_430

Especially since the 1950s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration. England_sentence_431

Islam is the most common of these, now accounting for around 5% of the population in England. England_sentence_432

Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are next in number, adding up to 2.8% combined, introduced from India and South East Asia. England_sentence_433

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. England_sentence_434

Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions, Druidry, and Heathenry. England_sentence_435

According to the 2011 UK Census, there are roughly 53,172 people who identify as Pagan in England, and 3,448 in Wales, including 11,026 Wiccans in England and 740 in Wales. England_sentence_436

24.7% of people in England declared no religion in 2011, compared with 14.6% in 2001. England_sentence_437

These figures are slightly lower than the combined figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligion than England. England_sentence_438

Norwich had the highest such proportion at 42.5%, followed closely by Brighton and Hove at 42.4%. England_sentence_439

Education England_section_25

Main article: Education in England England_sentence_440

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education. England_sentence_441

State-run and state-funded schools are attended by approximately 93% of English schoolchildren. England_sentence_442

Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school. England_sentence_443

Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and 16. England_sentence_444

State-funded schools are obliged by law to teach the National Curriculum; basic areas of learning include English literature, English language, mathematics, science, citizenship, history, geography, religious education, art & design, design & technology, ancient & modern languages, computing, music, and physical education. England_sentence_445

More than 90% of English schools require students to wear uniforms. England_sentence_446

School uniforms are defined by individual schools, within the constraint that uniform regulations must not discriminate on the grounds of sex, race, disability, sexual orientation, gender reassignment, religion or belief. England_sentence_447

Schools may choose to permit trousers for girls or religious dress. England_sentence_448

The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of British 15-year-olds as 13th in the world in reading literacy, mathematics, and science with the average British student scoring 503.7, compared with the OECD average of 493, ahead of the United States and most of Europe. England_sentence_449

Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive, there are selective intake grammar schools to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam. England_sentence_450

Around 7.2 per cent of English schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded by private sources. England_sentence_451

Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education, and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate. England_sentence_452

After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. England_sentence_453

Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. England_sentence_454

Further education colleges (particularly sixth form colleges) often form part of a secondary school site. England_sentence_455

A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university. England_sentence_456

Some English students study an apprenticeship to learn skilled trades and pursue T-levels to progress towards skilled employment, further study or a higher apprenticeship. England_sentence_457

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. England_sentence_458

There are over 90 universities in England, all but one of which are public institutions. England_sentence_459

The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England. England_sentence_460

Students are generally entitled to student loans to cover the cost of tuition fees and living costs. England_sentence_461

The first degree offered to undergraduates is the Bachelor's degree, which usually takes three years to complete. England_sentence_462

Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years. England_sentence_463

England's universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the world; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Imperial College London, University College London and King's College London are all ranked in the global top 30 in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. England_sentence_464

The London School of Economics has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research. England_sentence_465

The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA programme was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times. England_sentence_466

Academic degrees in England are usually split into classes: first class (1st), upper second class (2:1), lower second class (2:2), third (3rd), and unclassified. England_sentence_467

The King's School, Canterbury and King's School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking world. England_sentence_468

Many of England's most well-known schools, such as Winchester College, Eton, St Paul's School, Harrow School and Rugby School are fee-paying institutions. England_sentence_469

Culture England_section_26

Main article: Culture of England England_sentence_470

Further information: English Renaissance England_sentence_471

Architecture England_section_27

Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil's Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg. England_sentence_472

With the introduction of Ancient Roman architecture there was a development of basilicas, baths, amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts. England_sentence_473

It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. England_sentence_474

Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. England_sentence_475

Another well-preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset. England_sentence_476

Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. England_sentence_477

Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of HibernoSaxon monasticism, to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. England_sentence_478

After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. England_sentence_479

Some of the best-known medieval castles are the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle. England_sentence_480

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster. England_sentence_481

Expanding on the Norman base there was also castles, palaces, great houses, universities and parish churches. England_sentence_482

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. England_sentence_483

In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed. England_sentence_484

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. England_sentence_485

With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. England_sentence_486

In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. England_sentence_487

Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places. England_sentence_488

Gardens England_section_28

Landscape gardening as developed by Capability Brown set an international trend for the English garden. England_sentence_489

Gardening, visiting gardens, and a love for gardens are regarded as typically English pursuits. England_sentence_490

The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. England_sentence_491

At large country houses, the English garden usually included lakes, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape. England_sentence_492

By the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden, and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. England_sentence_493

It also had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century. England_sentence_494

The English landscape garden was centred on the English country house and stately homes. England_sentence_495

Today, some large-scale English gardens and English landscape gardens are popular visitor cultural attractions managed by both English Heritage and the National Trust. England_sentence_496

The Chelsea Flower Show is held every year and is said to be the largest gardening show in the world. England_sentence_497

Folklore England_section_29

Main article: English folklore England_sentence_498

English folklore developed over many centuries. England_sentence_499

Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. England_sentence_500

Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. England_sentence_501

While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith, others date from after the Norman invasion. England_sentence_502

The legends featuring Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood, and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham, are among the best-known of these. England_sentence_503

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth. England_sentence_504

These were derived from Anglo-Norman, Welsh and French sources, featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot. England_sentence_505

These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain). England_sentence_506

Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. England_sentence_507

Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore. England_sentence_508

Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch. England_sentence_509

On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot centred on Guy Fawkes. England_sentence_510

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. England_sentence_511

There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing, Maypole dancing, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill. England_sentence_512

There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters. England_sentence_513

Cuisine England_section_30

Main article: English cuisine England_sentence_514

Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. England_sentence_515

During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. England_sentence_516

The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant's best restaurant in the world charts. England_sentence_517

An early book of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the royal court of Richard II. England_sentence_518

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast, featuring a roasted joint (usually beef, lamb, chicken or pork) served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy. England_sentence_519

Other prominent meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast (generally consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, mushrooms and eggs). England_sentence_520

Various meat pies are consumed, such as steak and kidney pie, steak and ale pie, cottage pie, pork pie (usually eaten cold) and the Cornish pasty. England_sentence_521

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. England_sentence_522

Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest. England_sentence_523

Some of the more popular cheeses are Cheddar, Red Leicester, Wensleydale, Double Gloucester and Blue Stilton. England_sentence_524

Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. England_sentence_525

Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick – all generally served with custard; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding. England_sentence_526

Sweet pastries include scones (either plain or containing dried fruit) served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits. England_sentence_527

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza, and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers, such as bitter, mild, stout and brown ale. England_sentence_528

Visual arts England_section_31

Main article: English art England_sentence_529

See also: Arts Council England England_sentence_530

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags. England_sentence_531

With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms of art such as statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm. England_sentence_532

There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. England_sentence_533

During the Early Middle Ages the style favoured sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009. England_sentence_534

Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter. England_sentence_535

Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter. England_sentence_536

The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this. England_sentence_537

Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson. England_sentence_538

The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the High Renaissance prevailed, with Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds becoming two of England's most treasured artists. England_sentence_539

In the 19th century, Constable and Turner were major landscape artists. England_sentence_540

The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, led by artists such as Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais, revived the Early Renaissance style with their vivid and detailed style. England_sentence_541

Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general. England_sentence_542

Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist. England_sentence_543

Literature, poetry, and philosophy England_section_32

Main article: English literature England_sentence_544

Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. England_sentence_545

The period of Old English literature provided the epic poem Beowulf and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, along with Christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon's Hymn and hagiographies. England_sentence_546

Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature. England_sentence_547

Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer, author of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. England_sentence_548

William of Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans, were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. England_sentence_549

Julian of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love, was a prominent Christian mystic. England_sentence_550

With the English Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style appeared. England_sentence_551

William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, remains one of the most championed authors in English literature. England_sentence_552

Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are other established authors of the Elizabethan age. England_sentence_553

Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism and materialism, including scientific method and social contract. England_sentence_554

Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. England_sentence_555

Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth, while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration. England_sentence_556

Some of the most prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham. England_sentence_557

More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. England_sentence_558

The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. England_sentence_559

The English played a significant role in romanticism: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William Wordsworth were major figures. England_sentence_560

In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett, G. England_sentence_561 K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism, Arthur Penty, and cooperative movement advocate G. England_sentence_562 D. H. Cole are somewhat related. England_sentence_563

Empiricism continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard Williams was involved in analytics. England_sentence_564

Authors from around the Victorian era include Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, H. England_sentence_565 G. Wells and Lewis Carroll. England_sentence_566

Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as George Orwell, D. England_sentence_567 H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, C. England_sentence_568 S. Lewis, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie, Terry Pratchett, J. England_sentence_569 R. R. Tolkien, and J. England_sentence_570 K. Rowling. England_sentence_571

Performing arts England_section_33

Further information: Folk music of England England_sentence_572

See also: Music of the United Kingdom England_sentence_573

The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. England_sentence_574

It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. England_sentence_575

Ballads featuring Robin Hood, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in the 16th century, are an important artefact, as are John Playford's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley's Roxburghe Ballads collections. England_sentence_576

Some of the best-known songs are Greensleeves, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. England_sentence_577

Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary, Roses are red, Jack and Jill, London Bridge Is Falling Down, The Grand Old Duke of York, Hey Diddle Diddle and Humpty Dumpty. England_sentence_578

Traditional English Christmas carols include "We Wish You a Merry Christmas", "The First Noel", “I Saw Three Ships” and "God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen". England_sentence_579

Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period. England_sentence_580

German-born George Frideric Handel spent most of his composing life in London and became a national icon in Britain, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, especially his English oratorios, The Messiah, Solomon, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks. England_sentence_581

One of his four Coronation Anthems, Zadok the Priest, composed for the coronation of George II, has been performed at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally during the sovereign's anointing. England_sentence_582

There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the 20th century led by Edward Elgar, Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others. England_sentence_583

Present-day composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano, and Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have achieved enormous success in the West End and worldwide. England_sentence_584

In the field of popular music, many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. England_sentence_585

Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones are among the highest selling recording artists in the world. England_sentence_586

Many musical genres have origins in (or strong associations with) England, such as British invasion, progressive rock, hard rock, Mod, glam rock, heavy metal, Britpop, indie rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, garage, trip hop, drum and bass and dubstep. England_sentence_587

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. England_sentence_588

The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. England_sentence_589

The Proms – a season of orchestral classical concerts held primarily at the Royal Albert Hall in London – is a major cultural event in the English calendar, and takes place yearly. England_sentence_590

The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th-century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. England_sentence_591

The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the British Bangladeshi community. England_sentence_592

It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. England_sentence_593

After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country. England_sentence_594

Cinema England_section_34

See also: Cinema of the United Kingdom England_sentence_595

England (and the UK as a whole) has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema, producing some of the greatest actors, directors and motion pictures of all time, including Alfred Hitchcock, Charlie Chaplin, David Lean, Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, John Gielgud, Peter Sellers, Julie Andrews, Michael Caine, Gary Oldman, Helen Mirren, Kate Winslet and Daniel Day-Lewis. England_sentence_596

Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. England_sentence_597

Hitchcock's first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1926), helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his 1929 film, Blackmail, is often regarded as the first British sound feature film. England_sentence_598

Major film studios in England include Pinewood, Elstree and Shepperton. England_sentence_599

Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises (Harry Potter and James Bond). England_sentence_600

Ealing Studios in London has a claim to being the oldest continuously working film studio in the world. England_sentence_601

Famous for recording many motion picture film scores, the London Symphony Orchestra first performed film music in 1935. England_sentence_602

The Hammer Horror films starring Christopher Lee saw the production of the first gory horror films showing blood and guts in colour. England_sentence_603

The BFI Top 100 British films includes Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979), a film regularly voted the funniest of all time by the UK public. England_sentence_604

English producers are also active in international co-productions and English actors, directors and crew feature regularly in American films. England_sentence_605

The UK film council ranked David Yates, Christopher Nolan, Mike Newell, Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass the five most commercially successful English directors since 2001. England_sentence_606

Other contemporary English directors include Sam Mendes, Guy Ritchie and Richard Curtis. England_sentence_607

Current actors include Tom Hardy, Daniel Craig, Benedict Cumberbatch, Lena Headey, Felicity Jones, Emilia Clarke, Lashana Lynch, and Emma Watson. England_sentence_608

Acclaimed for his motion capture work, Andy Serkis opened The Imaginarium Studios in London in 2011. England_sentence_609

The visual effects company Framestore in London has produced some of the most critically acclaimed special effects in modern film. England_sentence_610

Many successful Hollywood films have been based on English people, stories or events. England_sentence_611

The 'English Cycle' of Disney animated films include Alice in Wonderland, The Jungle Book and Winnie the Pooh. England_sentence_612

Museums, libraries, and galleries England_section_35

Further information: List of museums in England England_sentence_613

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. England_sentence_614

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. England_sentence_615

The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. England_sentence_616

17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England. England_sentence_617

Some of the best-known of these are: Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others. England_sentence_618

There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum. England_sentence_619

Its collection of more than seven million objects is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. England_sentence_620

The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in almost all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books. England_sentence_621

The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. England_sentence_622

The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize. England_sentence_623

Sport England_section_36

Main article: Sport in England England_sentence_624

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. England_sentence_625

Sports originating in England include association football, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, boxing, badminton, squash, rounders, hockey, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting. England_sentence_626

It has helped the development of golf, sailing and Formula One. England_sentence_627

Football is the most popular of these sports. England_sentence_628

The England national football team, whose home venue is Wembley Stadium, played Scotland in the first ever international football match in 1872. England_sentence_629

Referred to as the "home of football" by FIFA, England hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup, and won the tournament by defeating West Germany 4–2 in the final, with Geoff Hurst scoring a hat-trick. England_sentence_630

With a British television audience peak of 32.30 million viewers, the final is the most watched television event ever in the UK. England_sentence_631

At club level, England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield F.C. founded in 1857 being the world's oldest club. England_sentence_632

The Football Association is the oldest governing body in the sport, with the rules of football first drafted in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley. England_sentence_633

The FA Cup and The Football League were the first cup and league competitions respectively. England_sentence_634

In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league, most lucrative, and amongst the elite. England_sentence_635

As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants. England_sentence_636

The European Cup (now UEFA Champions League) has been won by several English clubs. England_sentence_637

The most successful English football team in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League is Liverpool F.C. who have won the competition on six occasions. England_sentence_638

Other English success has come from Manchester United F.C., winning the competition on 3 occasions; Nottingham Forest F.C. on 2 occasions, Aston Villa F.C. and Chelsea F.C. have both won the trophy once. England_sentence_639

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald. England_sentence_640

The England cricket team is a composite England and Wales, team. England_sentence_641

One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. England_sentence_642

The climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television. England_sentence_643

England has hosted five Cricket World Cups (1975, 1979, 1983, 1999 and 2019), winning the 2019 edition in a final regarded as one of the greatest one day internationals ever played. England_sentence_644

They hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009, winning this format in 2010 beating rivals Australia in the final. England_sentence_645

In the domestic competition, the County Championship, Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the competition 32 times outright and sharing it on 1 other occasion. England_sentence_646

Lord's Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred to as the "Mecca of Cricket". England_sentence_647

William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England_sentence_648

In 1994, then President of the IOC, Juan Antonio Samaranch, laid a wreath on Brooke's grave, and said, "I came to pay homage and tribute to Dr Brookes, who really was the founder of the modern Olympic Games". England_sentence_649

London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908, 1948, and 2012. England_sentence_650

England competes in the Commonwealth Games, held every four years. England_sentence_651

Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. England_sentence_652

Rugby union originated in Rugby School, Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England_sentence_653

The England rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, with Jonny Wilkinson scoring the winning drop goal in the last minute of extra time against Australia. England_sentence_654

England was one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and also hosted the 2015 Rugby World Cup. England_sentence_655

The top level of club participation is the English Premiership. England_sentence_656

Leicester Tigers, London Wasps, Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup. England_sentence_657

Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. England_sentence_658

Since 2008, the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired. England_sentence_659

Club sides play in Super League, the present-day embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. England_sentence_660

Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cumbria. England_sentence_661

The vast majority of English clubs in Super League are based in the north of England. England_sentence_662

Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors, Hull F.C. St. England_sentence_663 Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously. England_sentence_664

Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. England_sentence_665

There are both professional tours for men and women, in two main tours: the PGA and the European Tour. England_sentence_666

England has produced grand slam winners: Cyril Walker, Tony Jacklin, Nick Faldo, and Justin Rose in the men's and Laura Davies, Alison Nicholas, and Karen Stupples in the women's. England_sentence_667

The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major is The Open Championship, played both in England and Scotland. England_sentence_668

The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup, is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy. England_sentence_669

Nick Faldo is the most successful Ryder Cup player ever, having won the most points (25) of any player on either the European or US teams. England_sentence_670

Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious. England_sentence_671

Wimbledon is a tournament that has a major place in the British cultural calendar. England_sentence_672

Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. England_sentence_673

He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins. England_sentence_674

English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in 1969 and Virginia Wade in 1977. England_sentence_675

In boxing, under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules, England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies. England_sentence_676

World champions include Bob Fitzsimmons, Ted "Kid" Lewis, Randolph Turpin, Nigel Benn, Chris Eubank, Frank Bruno, Lennox Lewis, Ricky Hatton, Naseem Hamed, Amir Khan, Carl Froch, and David Haye. England_sentence_677

In women's boxing, Nicola Adams became the world's first woman to win an Olympic boxing gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics. England_sentence_678

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. England_sentence_679

The National Hunt horse race the Grand National, is held annually at Aintree Racecourse in early April. England_sentence_680

It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history. England_sentence_681

Red Rum is also the best-known racehorse in the country. England_sentence_682

The 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created Formula One World Championship. England_sentence_683

Since then, England has produced some of the greatest drivers in the sport, including; John Surtees, Stirling Moss, Graham Hill (only driver to have won the Triple Crown), Nigel Mansell (only man to hold F1 and IndyCar titles at the same time), Damon Hill, Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button. England_sentence_684

It has manufactured some of the most technically advanced racing cars, and many of today's racing companies choose England as their base of operations for its engineering knowledge and organisation. England_sentence_685

McLaren Automotive, Williams F1, Team Lotus, Honda, Brawn GP, Benetton, Renault, and Red Bull Racing are all, or have been, located in the south of England. England_sentence_686

England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing, the premier championship of motorcycle road racing, and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Mike Hailwood, John Surtees, Phil Read, Geoff Duke, and Barry Sheene. England_sentence_687

Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game. England_sentence_688

The sport is governed by the World Darts Federation, one of its member organisations is the British Darts Organisation (BDO), which annually stages the BDO World Darts Championship, the other being the Professional Darts Corporation (PDC), which runs its own world championship at Alexandra Palace in London. England_sentence_689

Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won 187 professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships. England_sentence_690

Trina Gulliver is the ten-time Women's World Professional Darts Champion of the British Darts Organisation. England_sentence_691

Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker, and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan. England_sentence_692

The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing; founding and winning some of the world's most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race, a regatta, and the America's Cup. England_sentence_693

England has produced some of the world's greatest sailors, including Francis Chichester, Herbert Hasler, John Ridgway, Robin Knox-Johnston, Ellen MacArthur, Mike Golding, Paul Goodison, and the most successful Olympic sailor ever Ben Ainslie. England_sentence_694

National symbols England_section_37

Main article: National symbols of England England_sentence_695

The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. England_sentence_696

Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. England_sentence_697

The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. England_sentence_698

A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. England_sentence_699

It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner. England_sentence_700

Since 1606 the St George's Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I. England_sentence_701

During the English Civil War and Interregnum, the New Model Army's standards and the Commonwealth's Great Seal both incorporated the flag of Saint George. England_sentence_702

There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the nation's floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England. England_sentence_703

The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. England_sentence_704

It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians—cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the nation. England_sentence_705

It is also known as the Rose of England. England_sentence_706

The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance. England_sentence_707

The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father's execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile. England_sentence_708

The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. England_sentence_709

It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy. England_sentence_710

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. England_sentence_711

However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games), and I Vow to Thee, My Country. England_sentence_712

England's National Day is 23 April which is Saint George's Day: Saint George is the patron saint of England. England_sentence_713

See also England_section_38


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England.