English Civil War
For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation).
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom.
It was part of the wider Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament.
The war ended with Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
Unlike other civil wars in England, which were mainly fought over who should rule, these conflicts were also concerned with how the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland were to be governed.
The outcome was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I (1649); the exile of his son, Charles II (1651); and the replacement of English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England, which from 1653 (as the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) unified the British Isles under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell (1653–58) and briefly his son Richard (1658–59).
The execution of Charles I was particularly notable given that an English king had never been executed before.
Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliamentary sovereignty was only legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688.
The term "English Civil War" appears most often in the singular, although historians often divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.
The conflicts also involved wars with Scotland and Ireland, and civil wars within them.
The wars spanning all four countries are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War".
The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – notably Marxists such as Christopher Hill (1912–2003) – long favoured the term "English Revolution".
Each side had a geographical stronghold, such that minority elements were silenced or fled.
The Royalist areas included the countryside, the shires, the cathedral city of Oxford, and the less economically developed areas of northern and western England.
Parliament's strengths spanned the industrial centres, ports, and economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England, including the remaining cathedral cities (except York, Chester, Worcester).
Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous, rich, and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand".
Strategy and tactics
Many officers and veteran soldiers had fought in European wars, notably the Eighty Years' War between the Spanish and the Dutch, which began in 1568.
The main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry.
The two sides would line up opposite one another, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre.
These carried matchlock muskets, an inaccurate weapon which nevertheless could be lethal at a range of up to 300 yards.
Musketeers would assemble three rows deep, the first kneeling, second crouching, and third standing, allowing all to fire a volley simultaneously.
At times, troops divided into two groups, allowing one to reload while the other fired.
Among the musketeers were pike men, carrying pikes of 12 feet (4 m) to 18 feet (5 m) long, whose main purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges.
Its main aim was to rout the opponents' cavalry, then turn and overpower their infantry.
The Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories.
Prince Rupert, commanding the king's cavalry, used a tactic learned while fighting in the Dutch army, where cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry, firing their pistols just before impact.
However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pike men would stand its ground, which could have a devastating effect.
The Royalist cavalry had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge, leaving their forces scattered and tired, whereas Cromwell's cavalry was slower but better disciplined.
Trained to operate as a single unit, it went on to win many decisive victories.
The King's rule
The English Civil War broke out in 1642, less than 40 years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I.
Elizabeth had been succeeded by her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms.
As King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money.
In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-parliamentary sources of income.
This extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the succession of his son Charles I in 1625 the two kingdoms had both experienced relative peace, internally and in their relations with each other.
Charles followed his father's dream in hoping to unite the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland into a single kingdom.
Many English Parliamentarians were suspicious of such a move, fearing that such a new kingdom might destroy old English traditions that had bound the English monarchy.
As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown (James had described kings as "little gods on Earth", chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the "Divine Right of Kings"), the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification.
Parliament in an English constitutional framework
At the time, the Parliament of England did not have a large permanent role in the English system of government.
Instead, it functioned as a temporary advisory committee and was summoned only if and when the monarch saw fit.
Once summoned, a Parliament's continued existence was at the king's pleasure since it was subject to dissolution by him at any time.
Yet in spite of this limited role, Parliament had acquired over the centuries de facto powers of enough significance that monarchs could not simply ignore them indefinitely.
For a monarch, Parliament's most indispensable power was its ability to raise tax revenues far in excess of all other sources of revenue at the Crown's disposal.
By the 17th century, Parliament's tax-raising powers had come to be derived from the fact that the gentry was the only stratum of society with the ability and authority to collect and remit the most meaningful forms of taxation then available at the local level.
So if the king wanted to ensure smooth revenue collection, he needed gentry co-operation.
For all of the Crown's legal authority, its resources were limited by any modern standard to an extent that if the gentry refused to collect the king's taxes on a national scale, the Crown lacked a practical means of compelling them.
From the thirteenth century, monarchs ordered the election of representatives to sit in the House of Commons, with most voters being the owners of property, although in some potwalloper boroughs every male householder could vote.
When assembled along with the House of Lords, these elected representatives formed a Parliament.
So the concept of Parliaments allowed representatives of the property-owning class to meet, primarily, at least from the point of view of the monarch, to sanction whatever taxes the monarch wished to collect.
However, Parliament lacked the power to force its will upon the monarch; its only leverage was the threat of withholding the financial means required to implement his plans.
Parliamentary concerns and the Petition of Right
Parliament refused to assign him the traditional right to collect customs duties for his entire reign, deciding instead to grant it only on a provisional basis and negotiate with him.
Such military support for Protestants on the Continent potentially alleviated concerns about the King's marriage to a Catholic.
However, Charles's insistence on giving command of the English force to his unpopular royal favourite George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham, undermined that support.
Unfortunately for Charles and Buckingham, the relief expedition proved a fiasco (1627), and Parliament, already hostile to Buckingham for his monopoly on royal patronage, opened impeachment proceedings against him.
Charles responded by dissolving Parliament.
This saved Buckingham but confirmed the impression that Charles wanted to avoid Parliamentary scrutiny of his ministers.
Having dissolved Parliament and unable to raise money without it, the king assembled a new one in 1628.
The new Parliament drew up a Petition of Right, which Charles accepted as a concession to obtain his subsidy.
Several more active members of the opposition were imprisoned, which caused outrage; one, John Eliot, subsequently died in prison and came to be seen as a martyr for the rights of Parliament.
Charles avoided calling a Parliament for the next decade, a period known as the "personal rule of Charles I", or the "Eleven Years' Tyranny".
During this period, Charles's policies were determined by his lack of money.
First and foremost, to avoid Parliament, the King needed to avoid war.
Charles made peace with France and Spain, effectively ending England's involvement in the Thirty Years' War.
However, that in itself was far from enough to balance the Crown's finances.
Unable to raise revenue without Parliament and unwilling to convene it, Charles resorted to other means.
One was to revive conventions, often outdated.
For example, a failure to attend and receive knighthood at Charles's coronation became a finable offence with the fine paid to the Crown.
The King also tried to raise revenue through ship money, demanding in 1634–1636 that the inland English counties pay a tax for the Royal Navy to counter the threat of privateers and pirates in the English Channel.
Established law supported the policy of coastal counties and inland ports such as London paying ship money in times of need, but it had not been applied to inland counties before.
Authorities had ignored it for centuries, and many saw it as yet another extra-Parliamentary, illegal tax, which prompted some prominent men to refuse to pay it.
Charles issued a writ against John Hampden for his failure to pay, and although five judges including Sir George Croke supported Hampden, seven judges found in favour of the King in 1638.
The fines imposed on people who refused to pay ship money and standing out against its illegality aroused widespread indignation.
During his "Personal Rule", Charles aroused most antagonism through his religious measures.
Puritans accused Laud of reintroducing Catholicism, and when they complained he had them arrested.
Moreover, the Church authorities revived statutes from the time of Elizabeth I about church attendance and fined Puritans for not attending Anglican services.
Rebellion in Scotland
Main article: Bishops' War
The end of Charles's independent governance came when he attempted to apply the same religious policies in Scotland.
Charles wanted one uniform Church throughout Britain and introduced a new, High Anglican version of the English Book of Common Prayer to Scotland in the middle of 1637.
This was violently resisted.
In February 1638, the Scots formulated their objections to royal policy in the National Covenant.
This document took the form of a "loyal protest", rejecting all innovations not first tested by free Parliaments and General Assemblies of the Church.
In the spring of 1639, King Charles I accompanied his forces to the Scottish border to end the rebellion known as the Bishops' War, but after an inconclusive campaign, he accepted the offered Scottish truce: the Pacification of Berwick.
This truce proved temporary, and a second war followed in mid-1640.
A Scots army defeated Charles's forces in the north, then captured Newcastle.
Charles eventually agreed not to interfere in Scotland's religion and paid the Scots' war expenses.
Recall of the English Parliament
Charles needed to suppress the rebellion in Scotland, but had insufficient funds to do so.
He needed to seek money from a newly elected English Parliament in 1640.
Its majority faction, led by John Pym, used this appeal for money as a chance to discuss grievances against the Crown and oppose the idea of an English invasion of Scotland.
Without Parliament's support, Charles attacked Scotland again, breaking the truce at Berwick, and suffered comprehensive defeat.
Meanwhile, another of Charles's chief advisers, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Viscount Wentworth, had risen to the role of Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1632, and brought in much-needed revenue for Charles by persuading the Irish Catholic gentry to pay new taxes in return for promised religious concessions.
In 1639, Charles had recalled Wentworth to England and in 1640 made him Earl of Strafford, attempting to have him achieve similar results in Scotland.
This time he proved less successful and the English forces fled the field at their second encounter with the Scots in 1640.
Almost the whole of Northern England was occupied and Charles forced to pay £850 per day to keep the Scots from advancing.
Had he not done so they would have pillaged and burnt the cities and towns of Northern England.
All this put Charles in a desperate financial state.
As King of Scots, he had to find money to pay the Scottish army in England; as King of England, he had to find money to pay and equip an English army to defend England.
His means of raising English revenue without an English Parliament fell critically short of achieving this.
Against this backdrop, and according to advice from the Magnum Concilium (the House of Lords, but without the Commons, so not a Parliament), Charles finally bowed to pressure and summoned another English Parliament in November 1640.
The Long Parliament
Main article: Long Parliament
The new Parliament proved even more hostile to Charles than its predecessor.
They took the opportunity presented by the King's troubles to force various reforming measures — including many with strong "anti-Papist" themes — upon him.
The members passed a law stating that a new Parliament would convene at least once every three years — without the King's summons if need be.
Other laws passed making it illegal for the king to impose taxes without Parliamentary consent and later gave Parliament control over the king's ministers.
Finally, the Parliament passed a law forbidding the King to dissolve it without its consent, even if the three years were up.
Ever since this Parliament has been known as the Long Parliament.
However, Parliament did attempt to avert conflict by requiring all adults to sign The Protestation, an oath of allegiance to Charles.
Early in the Long Parliament, the house overwhelmingly accused Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford of high treason and other crimes and misdemeanors.
Henry Vane the Younger supplied evidence of Strafford's claimed improper use of the army in Ireland, alleging that he had encouraged the King to use his Ireland-raised forces to threaten England into compliance.
This evidence was obtained from Vane's father, Henry Vane the Elder, a member of the King's Privy council, who refused to confirm it in Parliament out of loyalty to Charles.
On 10 April 1641, Pym's case collapsed, but Pym made a direct appeal to Henry Vane the Younger to produce a copy of the notes from the King's Privy council, discovered by the younger Vane and secretly turned over to Pym, to the great anguish of the Elder Vane.
These notes contained evidence that Strafford had told the King, "Sir, you have done your duty, and your subjects have failed in theirs; and therefore you are absolved from the rules of government, and may supply yourself by extraordinary ways; you have an army in Ireland, with which you may reduce the kingdom."
Pym immediately launched a Bill of Attainder stating Strafford's guilt and demanding that he be put to death.
Unlike a guilty verdict in a court case, attainder did not require a legal burden of proof, but it did require the king's approval.
Charles, however, guaranteed Strafford that he would not sign the attainder, without which the bill could not be passed.
Furthermore, the Lords opposed the severity of a death sentence on Strafford.
Yet increased tensions and a plot in the army to support Strafford began to sway the issue.
On 21 April, the Commons passed the Bill (204 in favour, 59 opposed, and 250 abstained), and the Lords acquiesced.
Charles, still incensed over the Commons' handling of Buckingham, refused his assent.
Strafford himself, hoping to head off the war he saw looming, wrote to the king and asked him to reconsider.
Charles, fearing for the safety of his family, signed on 10 May.
Strafford was beheaded two days later.
In the meantime both Parliament and the King agreed to an independent investigation into the king's involvement in Strafford's plot.
The Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once in three years.
When the King failed to issue a proper summons, the members could assemble on their own.
This act also forbade ship money without Parliament's consent, fines in distraint of knighthood, and forced loans.
All remaining forms of taxation were legalised and regulated by the Tonnage and Poundage Act.
On 3 May, Parliament decreed The Protestation, attacking the 'wicked counsels' of Charles's government, whereby those who signed the petition undertook to defend 'the true reformed religion', Parliament, and the king's person, honour and estate.
Throughout May, the House of Commons launched several bills attacking bishops and Episcopalianism in general, each time defeated in the Lords.
Charles and his Parliament hoped that the execution of Strafford and the Protestation would end the drift towards war, but in fact, they encouraged it.
Charles and his supporters continued to resent Parliament's demands, and Parliamentarians continued to suspect Charles of wanting to impose episcopalianism and unfettered royal rule by military force.
Within months, the Irish Catholics, fearing a resurgence of Protestant power, struck first, and all Ireland soon descended into chaos.
Rumors circulated that the King supported the Irish, and Puritan members of the Commons soon started murmuring that this exemplified the fate that Charles had in store for them all.
In early January 1642, Charles, accompanied by 400 soldiers, attempted to arrest five members of the House of Commons on a charge of treason.
This attempt failed.
Lenthall replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."
So the Speaker proclaimed himself a servant of Parliament, rather than the King.
In the summer of 1642, these national troubles helped to polarise opinion, ending indecision about which side to support or what action to take.
Opposition to Charles also arose from many local grievances.
For example, imposed drainage schemes in The Fens disrupted the livelihood of thousands after the King awarded a number of drainage contracts.
Many saw the King as indifferent to public welfare, and this played a role in bringing much of eastern England into the Parliamentarian camp.
First English Civil War (1642–1646)
Main article: First English Civil War
In early January 1642, a few days after failing to capture five members of the House of Commons, Charles feared for the safety of his family and retinue and left the London area for the north country.
Further frequent negotiations by letter between the King and the Long Parliament, through to early summer, proved fruitless.
As the summer progressed, cities and towns declared their sympathies for one faction or the other: for example, the garrison of Portsmouth commanded by Sir George Goring declared for the King, but when Charles tried to acquire arms from Kingston upon Hull, the weaponry depository used in the previous Scottish campaigns, Sir John Hotham, the military governor appointed by Parliament in January, refused to let Charles enter the town, and when Charles returned with more men later, Hotham drove them off.
Charles issued a warrant for Hotham's arrest as a traitor but was powerless to enforce it.
Throughout the summer, tensions rose and there was brawling in several places, the first death from the conflict taking place in Manchester.
At the outset of the conflict, much of the country remained neutral, though the Royal Navy and most English cities favoured Parliament, while the King found marked support in rural communities.
Historians estimate that both sides had only about 15,000 men between them, but the war quickly spread and eventually involved every level of society.
Many areas attempted to remain neutral.
Some formed bands of Clubmen to protect their localities from the worst excesses of the armies of both sides, but most found it impossible to withstand both King and Parliament.
On one side, the King and his supporters fought for traditional government in church and state, while on the other, most Parliamentarians initially took up arms to defend what they saw as a traditional balance of government in church and state, which the bad advice the King received from his advisers had undermined before and during the "Eleven Years' Tyranny".
The views of the members of Parliament ranged from unquestioning support of the King — at one point during the First Civil War, more members of the Commons and Lords gathered in the King's Oxford Parliament than at Westminster — through to radicals who sought major reforms in religious independence and redistribution of power at a national level.
However, even the most radical Parliamentarian supporters still favoured keeping Charles on the throne.
After the debacle at Hull, Charles moved on to Nottingham, raising the royal standard there on 22 August 1642.
At the time, Charles had with him about 2,000 cavalries and a small number of Yorkshire infantrymen, and using the archaic system of a Commission of Array, his supporters started to build a larger army around the standard.
The Parliamentarians who opposed the King did not remain passive in this pre-war period.
As in Hull, they took measures to secure strategic towns and cities by appointing to office men sympathetic to their cause.
On 9 June they voted to raise an army of 10,000 volunteers and appointed Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex its commander three days later.
He received orders "to rescue His Majesty's person, and the persons of the Prince [of Wales] and the Duke of York [James II] out of the hands of those desperate persons who were about them."
Two weeks after the King had raised his standard at Nottingham, Essex led his army north towards Northampton, picking up support along the way (including a detachment of Huntingdonshire cavalry raised and commanded by Oliver Cromwell).
By mid-September Essex's forces had grown to 21,000 infantry and 4,200 cavalries and dragoons.
With the size of both armies now in the tens of thousands and only Worcestershire between them, it was inevitable that cavalry reconnaissance units would meet sooner or later.
This happened in the first major skirmish of the Civil War, when a troop of about 1,000 Royalist cavalry under Prince Rupert, a German nephew of the King and one of the outstanding cavalry commanders of the war, defeated a Parliamentary cavalry detachment under Colonel John Brown at the Battle of Powick Bridge, which crossed the River Teme close to Worcester.
Rupert withdrew to Shrewsbury, where a council-of-war discussed two courses of action: whether to advance towards Essex's new position near Worcester, or march down the now open road towards London.
The Council decided on the London route, but not to avoid a battle, for the Royalist generals wanted to fight Essex before he grew too strong, and the temper of both sides made it impossible to postpone the decision.
In the Earl of Clarendon's words, "it was considered more counsellable to march towards London, it being morally sure that the earl of Essex would put himself in their way."
So the army left Shrewsbury on 12 October, gaining two days' start on the enemy, and moved south-east.
This had the desired effect of forcing Essex to move to intercept them.
Prince Rupert could then take Bristol.
In the same year, however, Cromwell formed his troop of "Ironsides", a disciplined unit that demonstrated his military leadership ability.
With their assistance he won a victory at the Battle of Gainsborough in July.
At this stage, from 7 to 9 August 1643, there were some popular demonstrations in London — both for and against war.
They were protesting at Westminster.
A peace demonstration by London women, which turned violent, was suppressed by William Waller's regiment of horse.
Some women were beaten and even killed, and many arrested.
After these August events, the representative of Venice in England reported to the doge that the London government took considerable measures to stifle dissent.
In general, the early part of the war went well for the Royalists.
The turning point came in the late summer and early autumn of 1643, when the Earl of Essex's army forced the king to raise the Siege of Gloucester and then brushed the Royalists aside at the First Battle of Newbury (20 September 1643), to return triumphantly to London.
Political manœuvring to gain an advantage in numbers led Charles to negotiate a ceasefire in Ireland, freeing up English troops to fight on the Royalist side in England, while Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for aid and assistance.
Cromwell's conduct in the battle proved decisive, and showed his potential as a political and as an important military leader.
The defeat at the Battle of Lostwithiel in Cornwall, however, marked a serious reverse for Parliament in the south-west of England.
Subsequent fighting around Newbury (27 October 1644), though tactically indecisive, strategically gave another check to Parliament.
In 1645, Parliament reaffirmed its determination to fight the war to a finish.
It passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands and re-organized its main forces into the New Model Army, under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, with Cromwell as his second-in-command and Lieutenant-General of Horse.
In the remains of his English realm, Charles tried to recover a stable base of support by consolidating the Midlands.
He began to form an axis between Oxford and Newark-on-Trent in Nottinghamshire.
These towns had become fortresses and showed more reliable loyalty to him than others.
He took Leicester, which lies between them, but found his resources exhausted.
Charles was eventually handed over to the English Parliament by the Scots and imprisoned.
This marked the end of the First English Civil War.
The end of the First Civil War, in 1646, left a partial power vacuum in which any combination of the three English factions, Royalists, Independents of the New Model Army ("the Army"), and Presbyterians of the English Parliament, as well as the Scottish Parliament allied with the Scottish Presbyterians (the "Kirk"), could prove strong enough to dominate the rest.
Armed political Royalism was at an end, but despite being a prisoner, Charles I was considered by himself and his opponents (almost to the last) as necessary to ensure the success of whichever group could come to terms with him.
Thus he passed successively into the hands of the Scots, the Parliament and the Army.
The King attempted to reverse the verdict of arms by "coquetting" with each in turn.
On 3 June 1647, Cornet George Joyce of Thomas Fairfax's horse seized the King for the Army, after which the English Presbyterians and the Scots began to prepare for a fresh civil war, less than two years after the conclusion of the first, this time against "Independency", as embodied in the Army.
After making use of the Army's sword, its opponents attempted to disband it, to send it on foreign service and to cut off its arrears of pay.
The result was that the Army leadership was exasperated beyond control, and, remembering not merely their grievances but also the principle for which the Army had fought, it soon became the most powerful political force in the realm.
From 1646 to 1648 the breach between Army and Parliament widened day by day until finally the Presbyterian party, combined with the Scots and the remaining Royalists, felt itself strong enough to begin a Second Civil War.
Second English Civil War (1648–1649)
Main article: Second English Civil War
Charles I took advantage of the deflection of attention away from himself to negotiate on 28 December 1647 a secret treaty with the Scots, again promising church reform.
Under the agreement, called the "Engagement", the Scots undertook to invade England on Charles's behalf and restore him to the throne on condition of the establishment of Presbyterianism within three years.
A series of Royalist uprisings throughout England and a Scottish invasion occurred in the summer of 1648.
Forces loyal to Parliament put down most of those in England after little more than a skirmish, but uprisings in Kent, Essex and Cumberland, the rebellion in Wales, and the Scottish invasion involved pitched battles and prolonged sieges.
In the spring of 1648, unpaid Parliamentarian troops in Wales changed sides.
Fairfax, after his success at Maidstone and the pacification of Kent, turned north to reduce Essex, where, under an ardent, experienced and popular leader, Sir Charles Lucas, the Royalists had taken up arms in great numbers.
The Parliamentarians under Cromwell engaged the Scots at the Battle of Preston (17–19 August).
This victory marked the end of the Second English Civil War.
Nearly all the Royalists who had fought in the First Civil War had given their word not to bear arms against Parliament, and many, like Lord Astley, were therefore bound by oath not to take any part in the second conflict.
So the victors in the Second Civil War showed little mercy to those who had brought war into the land again.
Parliamentary authorities sentenced the leaders of the Welsh rebels, Major-General Rowland Laugharne, Colonel John Poyer and Colonel Rice Powel to death, but executed only Poyer (25 April 1649), having selected him by lot.
Of five prominent Royalist peers who had fallen into Parliamentary hands, three – the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, and Lord Capel, one of the Colchester prisoners and a man of high character – were beheaded at Westminster on 9 March.
Trial of Charles I for treason
Charles's secret pacts and encouragement of supporters to break their parole caused Parliament to debate whether to return the King to power at all.
Those who still supported Charles's place on the throne, such as the army leader and moderate Fairfax, tried again to negotiate with him.
The Army, furious that Parliament continued to countenance Charles as a ruler, then marched on Parliament and conducted "Pride's Purge" (named after the commanding officer of the operation, Thomas Pride) in December 1648.
Troops arrested 45 members and kept 146 out of the chamber.
They allowed only 75 members in, and then only at the Army's bidding.
Fairfax, a constitutional monarchist and moderate, declined to have anything to do with the trial.
He resigned as head of the army, so clearing Cromwell's road to power.
After the regicide, Charles as the eldest son was publicly proclaimed King Charles II in the Royal Square of St. , HelierJersey, on 17 February 1649 (after a first such proclamation in Edinburgh on 5 February 1649).
Third English Civil War (1649–1651)
Main article: Third English Civil War
See also: Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Increasingly threatened by the armies of the English Parliament after Charles I's arrest in 1648, the Confederates signed a treaty of alliance with the English Royalists.
The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde tried to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin by laying siege, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649).
Cromwell's suppression of the Royalists in Ireland in 1649 is still remembered by many Irish people.
After the Siege of Drogheda, the massacre of nearly 3,500 people — around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and 700 others, including civilians, prisoners and Catholic priests (Cromwell claimed all had carried arms) — became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries.
The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland ground on for another four years until 1653, when the last Irish Confederate and Royalist troops surrendered.
In the wake of the conquest, the victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land and distributed it to Parliament's creditors, to Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English who had settled there before the war.
By 1649, the struggle had left the Royalists there in disarray and their erstwhile leader, the Marquess of Montrose, had gone into exile.
At first, Charles II encouraged Montrose to raise a Highland army to fight on the Royalist side.
However, when the Scottish Covenanters (who did not agree with the execution of Charles I and who feared for the future of Presbyterianism under the new Commonwealth) offered him the crown of Scotland, Charles abandoned Montrose to his enemies.
However, Montrose, who had raised a mercenary force in Norway, had already landed and could not abandon the fight.
The victors captured Montrose shortly afterwards and took him to Edinburgh.
On 20 May the Scottish Parliament sentenced him to death and had him hanged the next day.
With his original Scottish Royalist followers and his new Covenanter allies, Charles II became the greatest threat facing the new English republic.
In response to the threat, Cromwell left some of his lieutenants in Ireland to continue the suppression of the Irish Royalists and returned to England.
He arrived in Scotland on 22 July 1650 and proceeded to lay siege to Edinburgh.
By the end of August, disease and a shortage of supplies had reduced his army, and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Dunbar.
Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh, and by the end of the year his army had occupied much of southern Scotland.
The New Model Army advanced towards Perth, which allowed Charles, at the head of the Scottish army, to move south into England.
Cromwell followed Charles into England, leaving George Monck to finish the campaign in Scotland.
The next year, 1652, saw a mopping up of the remnants of Royalist resistance, and under the terms of the "Tender of Union", the Scots received 30 seats in a united Parliament in London, with General Monck as the military governor of Scotland.
Although Cromwell's New Model Army had defeated a Scottish army at Dunbar, Cromwell could not prevent Charles II from marching from Scotland deep into England at the head of another Royalist army.
They marched to the west of England where English Royalist sympathies were strongest, but although some English Royalists joined the army, they were far fewer in number than Charles and his Scottish supporters had hoped.
Cromwell finally engaged and defeated the new Scottish king at Worcester on 3 September 1651.
Resistance continued for a time in the Channel Islands, Ireland and Scotland, but with the pacification of England, resistance elsewhere did not threaten the military supremacy of the New Model Army and its Parliamentary paymasters.
During the Wars, the Parliamentarians established a number of successive committees to oversee the war effort.
The first, the Committee of Safety set up in July 1642, comprised 15 members of Parliament.
After the Anglo-Scottish alliance against the Royalists, the Committee of Both Kingdoms replaced the Committee of Safety between 1644 and 1648.
Parliament dissolved the Committee of Both Kingdoms when the alliance ended, but its English members continued to meet as the Derby House Committee.
A second Committee of Safety then replaced it.
He assessed the causes of the war to be the conflicting political doctrines of the time.
Behemoth offered a uniquely historical and philosophical approach to naming the catalysts for the war.
It also attempted to explain why Charles I could not hold his throne and maintain peace in his kingdom.
Hobbes analysed in turn the following aspects of English thought during the war: the opinions of divinity and politics that spurred rebellion; rhetoric and doctrine used by the rebels against the king; and how opinions about "taxation, the conscription of soldiers, and military strategy" affected the outcomes of battles and shifts of sovereignty.
Hobbes attributed the war to the novel theories of intellectuals and divines spread for their own pride of reputation.
He held that clerical pretensions had contributed significantly to the troubles — "whether those of puritan fundamentalists, papal supremacists or divine right Episcopalians".
Hobbes wanted to abolish the independence of the clergy and bring it under the control of the civil state.
Some scholars suggest that Behemoth has not received its due as an academic work, being comparatively overlooked and under-rated in the shadow of Hobbes' Leviathan.
Its scholarly reputation may have suffered because it takes the form of a dialogue, which, while common in philosophy, is rarely adopted by historians.
Other factors that hindered its success include Charles II's refusing its publication and Hobbes' lack of empathy with views different from his own.
- Timeline of the English Civil War, showing events leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the English Civil Wars.
- First English Civil War, 1642
- First English Civil War, 1643
- First English Civil War, 1644
- First English Civil War, 1645
- First English Civil War, 1646
- Cromwell's Soldiers' Pocket Bible, booklet Cromwell issued to his army in 1643.
- English Dissenters
- William Hiseland, the last Royalist veteran of the Civil War
- Thirty Years' War, a defining event in European history during the reign of Charles I
- The Levellers, a movement for political reform.
- Gunpowder Plot
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English Civil War.