English Civil War

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For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). English Civil War_sentence_0

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. English Civil War_sentence_1

It was part of the wider Wars of the Three Kingdoms. English Civil War_sentence_2

The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. English Civil War_sentence_3

The wars also involved the Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates. English Civil War_sentence_4

The war ended with Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. English Civil War_sentence_5

Unlike other civil wars in England, which were mainly fought over who should rule, these conflicts were also concerned with how the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland were to be governed. English Civil War_sentence_6

The outcome was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I (1649); the exile of his son, Charles II (1651); and the replacement of English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England, which from 1653 (as the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) unified the British Isles under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell (1653–58) and briefly his son Richard (1658–59). English Civil War_sentence_7

The execution of Charles I was particularly notable given that an English king had never been executed before. English Civil War_sentence_8

In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. English Civil War_sentence_9

Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliamentary sovereignty was only legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688. English Civil War_sentence_10

Terminology English Civil War_section_0

The term "English Civil War" appears most often in the singular, although historians often divide the conflict into two or three separate wars. English Civil War_sentence_11

These were not restricted to England, as Wales was part of the Kingdom of England and affected accordingly. English Civil War_sentence_12

The conflicts also involved wars with Scotland and Ireland, and civil wars within them. English Civil War_sentence_13

The wars spanning all four countries are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. English Civil War_sentence_14

In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". English Civil War_sentence_15

The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – notably Marxists such as Christopher Hill (1912–2003) – long favoured the term "English Revolution". English Civil War_sentence_16

Geography English Civil War_section_1

Each side had a geographical stronghold, such that minority elements were silenced or fled. English Civil War_sentence_17

The Royalist areas included the countryside, the shires, the cathedral city of Oxford, and the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. English Civil War_sentence_18

Parliament's strengths spanned the industrial centres, ports, and economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England, including the remaining cathedral cities (except York, Chester, Worcester). English Civil War_sentence_19

Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous, rich, and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". English Civil War_sentence_20

Strategy and tactics English Civil War_section_2

Many officers and veteran soldiers had fought in European wars, notably the Eighty Years' War between the Spanish and the Dutch, which began in 1568. English Civil War_sentence_21

The main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry. English Civil War_sentence_22

The two sides would line up opposite one another, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre. English Civil War_sentence_23

These carried matchlock muskets, an inaccurate weapon which nevertheless could be lethal at a range of up to 300 yards. English Civil War_sentence_24

Musketeers would assemble three rows deep, the first kneeling, second crouching, and third standing, allowing all to fire a volley simultaneously. English Civil War_sentence_25

At times, troops divided into two groups, allowing one to reload while the other fired. English Civil War_sentence_26

Among the musketeers were pike men, carrying pikes of 12 feet (4 m) to 18 feet (5 m) long, whose main purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. English Civil War_sentence_27

Positioned on each side of the infantry were cavalry, with a right wing led by the lieutenant-general and left by the commissary general. English Civil War_sentence_28

Its main aim was to rout the opponents' cavalry, then turn and overpower their infantry. English Civil War_sentence_29

The Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. English Civil War_sentence_30

Prince Rupert, commanding the king's cavalry, used a tactic learned while fighting in the Dutch army, where cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry, firing their pistols just before impact. English Civil War_sentence_31

However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pike men would stand its ground, which could have a devastating effect. English Civil War_sentence_32

The Royalist cavalry had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge, leaving their forces scattered and tired, whereas Cromwell's cavalry was slower but better disciplined. English Civil War_sentence_33

Trained to operate as a single unit, it went on to win many decisive victories. English Civil War_sentence_34

Background English Civil War_section_3

The King's rule English Civil War_section_4

The English Civil War broke out in 1642, less than 40 years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I. English Civil War_sentence_35

Elizabeth had been succeeded by her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms. English Civil War_sentence_36

As King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. English Civil War_sentence_37

In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-parliamentary sources of income. English Civil War_sentence_38

This extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the succession of his son Charles I in 1625 the two kingdoms had both experienced relative peace, internally and in their relations with each other. English Civil War_sentence_39

Charles followed his father's dream in hoping to unite the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland into a single kingdom. English Civil War_sentence_40

Many English Parliamentarians were suspicious of such a move, fearing that such a new kingdom might destroy old English traditions that had bound the English monarchy. English Civil War_sentence_41

As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown (James had described kings as "little gods on Earth", chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the "Divine Right of Kings"), the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification. English Civil War_sentence_42

Parliament in an English constitutional framework English Civil War_section_5

At the time, the Parliament of England did not have a large permanent role in the English system of government. English Civil War_sentence_43

Instead, it functioned as a temporary advisory committee and was summoned only if and when the monarch saw fit. English Civil War_sentence_44

Once summoned, a Parliament's continued existence was at the king's pleasure since it was subject to dissolution by him at any time. English Civil War_sentence_45

Yet in spite of this limited role, Parliament had acquired over the centuries de facto powers of enough significance that monarchs could not simply ignore them indefinitely. English Civil War_sentence_46

For a monarch, Parliament's most indispensable power was its ability to raise tax revenues far in excess of all other sources of revenue at the Crown's disposal. English Civil War_sentence_47

By the 17th century, Parliament's tax-raising powers had come to be derived from the fact that the gentry was the only stratum of society with the ability and authority to collect and remit the most meaningful forms of taxation then available at the local level. English Civil War_sentence_48

So if the king wanted to ensure smooth revenue collection, he needed gentry co-operation. English Civil War_sentence_49

For all of the Crown's legal authority, its resources were limited by any modern standard to an extent that if the gentry refused to collect the king's taxes on a national scale, the Crown lacked a practical means of compelling them. English Civil War_sentence_50

From the thirteenth century, monarchs ordered the election of representatives to sit in the House of Commons, with most voters being the owners of property, although in some potwalloper boroughs every male householder could vote. English Civil War_sentence_51

When assembled along with the House of Lords, these elected representatives formed a Parliament. English Civil War_sentence_52

So the concept of Parliaments allowed representatives of the property-owning class to meet, primarily, at least from the point of view of the monarch, to sanction whatever taxes the monarch wished to collect. English Civil War_sentence_53

In the process, the representatives could debate and enact statutes, or acts. English Civil War_sentence_54

However, Parliament lacked the power to force its will upon the monarch; its only leverage was the threat of withholding the financial means required to implement his plans. English Civil War_sentence_55

Parliamentary concerns and the Petition of Right English Civil War_section_6

Many concerns were raised over Charles's marriage in 1625 to a Roman Catholic French princess: Henrietta Maria. English Civil War_sentence_56

Parliament refused to assign him the traditional right to collect customs duties for his entire reign, deciding instead to grant it only on a provisional basis and negotiate with him. English Civil War_sentence_57

Charles, meanwhile, decided to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots, whom French royal troops held besieged in La Rochelle. English Civil War_sentence_58

Such military support for Protestants on the Continent potentially alleviated concerns about the King's marriage to a Catholic. English Civil War_sentence_59

However, Charles's insistence on giving command of the English force to his unpopular royal favourite George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham, undermined that support. English Civil War_sentence_60

Unfortunately for Charles and Buckingham, the relief expedition proved a fiasco (1627), and Parliament, already hostile to Buckingham for his monopoly on royal patronage, opened impeachment proceedings against him. English Civil War_sentence_61

Charles responded by dissolving Parliament. English Civil War_sentence_62

This saved Buckingham but confirmed the impression that Charles wanted to avoid Parliamentary scrutiny of his ministers. English Civil War_sentence_63

Having dissolved Parliament and unable to raise money without it, the king assembled a new one in 1628. English Civil War_sentence_64

(The elected members included Oliver Cromwell, John Hampden, and Edward Coke.) English Civil War_sentence_65

The new Parliament drew up a Petition of Right, which Charles accepted as a concession to obtain his subsidy. English Civil War_sentence_66

The Petition made reference to Magna Carta, but did not grant him the right of tonnage and poundage, which Charles had been collecting without Parliamentary authorisation since 1625. English Civil War_sentence_67

Several more active members of the opposition were imprisoned, which caused outrage; one, John Eliot, subsequently died in prison and came to be seen as a martyr for the rights of Parliament. English Civil War_sentence_68

Personal rule English Civil War_section_7

Charles avoided calling a Parliament for the next decade, a period known as the "personal rule of Charles I", or the "Eleven Years' Tyranny". English Civil War_sentence_69

During this period, Charles's policies were determined by his lack of money. English Civil War_sentence_70

First and foremost, to avoid Parliament, the King needed to avoid war. English Civil War_sentence_71

Charles made peace with France and Spain, effectively ending England's involvement in the Thirty Years' War. English Civil War_sentence_72

However, that in itself was far from enough to balance the Crown's finances. English Civil War_sentence_73

Unable to raise revenue without Parliament and unwilling to convene it, Charles resorted to other means. English Civil War_sentence_74

One was to revive conventions, often outdated. English Civil War_sentence_75

For example, a failure to attend and receive knighthood at Charles's coronation became a finable offence with the fine paid to the Crown. English Civil War_sentence_76

The King also tried to raise revenue through ship money, demanding in 1634–1636 that the inland English counties pay a tax for the Royal Navy to counter the threat of privateers and pirates in the English Channel. English Civil War_sentence_77

Established law supported the policy of coastal counties and inland ports such as London paying ship money in times of need, but it had not been applied to inland counties before. English Civil War_sentence_78

Authorities had ignored it for centuries, and many saw it as yet another extra-Parliamentary, illegal tax, which prompted some prominent men to refuse to pay it. English Civil War_sentence_79

Charles issued a writ against John Hampden for his failure to pay, and although five judges including Sir George Croke supported Hampden, seven judges found in favour of the King in 1638. English Civil War_sentence_80

The fines imposed on people who refused to pay ship money and standing out against its illegality aroused widespread indignation. English Civil War_sentence_81

During his "Personal Rule", Charles aroused most antagonism through his religious measures. English Civil War_sentence_82

He believed in High Anglicanism, a sacramental version of the Church of England, theologically based upon Arminianism, a creed shared with his main political adviser, Archbishop William Laud. English Civil War_sentence_83

In 1633, Charles appointed Laud Archbishop of Canterbury and started making the Church more ceremonial, replacing the wooden communion tables with stone altars. English Civil War_sentence_84

Puritans accused Laud of reintroducing Catholicism, and when they complained he had them arrested. English Civil War_sentence_85

In 1637, John Bastwick, Henry Burton, and William Prynne had their ears cut off for writing pamphlets attacking Laud's views — a rare penalty for gentlemen, and one that aroused anger. English Civil War_sentence_86

Moreover, the Church authorities revived statutes from the time of Elizabeth I about church attendance and fined Puritans for not attending Anglican services. English Civil War_sentence_87

Rebellion in Scotland English Civil War_section_8

Main article: Bishops' War English Civil War_sentence_88

The end of Charles's independent governance came when he attempted to apply the same religious policies in Scotland. English Civil War_sentence_89

The Church of Scotland, reluctantly episcopal in structure, had independent traditions. English Civil War_sentence_90

Charles wanted one uniform Church throughout Britain and introduced a new, High Anglican version of the English Book of Common Prayer to Scotland in the middle of 1637. English Civil War_sentence_91

This was violently resisted. English Civil War_sentence_92

A riot broke out in Edinburgh, which may have been started in St Giles' Cathedral, according to legend, by Jenny Geddes. English Civil War_sentence_93

In February 1638, the Scots formulated their objections to royal policy in the National Covenant. English Civil War_sentence_94

This document took the form of a "loyal protest", rejecting all innovations not first tested by free Parliaments and General Assemblies of the Church. English Civil War_sentence_95

In the spring of 1639, King Charles I accompanied his forces to the Scottish border to end the rebellion known as the Bishops' War, but after an inconclusive campaign, he accepted the offered Scottish truce: the Pacification of Berwick. English Civil War_sentence_96

This truce proved temporary, and a second war followed in mid-1640. English Civil War_sentence_97

A Scots army defeated Charles's forces in the north, then captured Newcastle. English Civil War_sentence_98

Charles eventually agreed not to interfere in Scotland's religion and paid the Scots' war expenses. English Civil War_sentence_99

Recall of the English Parliament English Civil War_section_9

Charles needed to suppress the rebellion in Scotland, but had insufficient funds to do so. English Civil War_sentence_100

He needed to seek money from a newly elected English Parliament in 1640. English Civil War_sentence_101

Its majority faction, led by John Pym, used this appeal for money as a chance to discuss grievances against the Crown and oppose the idea of an English invasion of Scotland. English Civil War_sentence_102

Charles took exception to this lèse-majesté (offense against the ruler) and dissolved the Parliament after only a few weeks; hence its name, "the Short Parliament". English Civil War_sentence_103

Without Parliament's support, Charles attacked Scotland again, breaking the truce at Berwick, and suffered comprehensive defeat. English Civil War_sentence_104

The Scots went on to invade England, occupying Northumberland and Durham. English Civil War_sentence_105

Meanwhile, another of Charles's chief advisers, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Viscount Wentworth, had risen to the role of Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1632, and brought in much-needed revenue for Charles by persuading the Irish Catholic gentry to pay new taxes in return for promised religious concessions. English Civil War_sentence_106

In 1639, Charles had recalled Wentworth to England and in 1640 made him Earl of Strafford, attempting to have him achieve similar results in Scotland. English Civil War_sentence_107

This time he proved less successful and the English forces fled the field at their second encounter with the Scots in 1640. English Civil War_sentence_108

Almost the whole of Northern England was occupied and Charles forced to pay £850 per day to keep the Scots from advancing. English Civil War_sentence_109

Had he not done so they would have pillaged and burnt the cities and towns of Northern England. English Civil War_sentence_110

All this put Charles in a desperate financial state. English Civil War_sentence_111

As King of Scots, he had to find money to pay the Scottish army in England; as King of England, he had to find money to pay and equip an English army to defend England. English Civil War_sentence_112

His means of raising English revenue without an English Parliament fell critically short of achieving this. English Civil War_sentence_113

Against this backdrop, and according to advice from the Magnum Concilium (the House of Lords, but without the Commons, so not a Parliament), Charles finally bowed to pressure and summoned another English Parliament in November 1640. English Civil War_sentence_114

The Long Parliament English Civil War_section_10

Main article: Long Parliament English Civil War_sentence_115

The new Parliament proved even more hostile to Charles than its predecessor. English Civil War_sentence_116

It immediately began to discuss grievances against him and his government, with Pym and Hampden (of ship money fame) in the lead. English Civil War_sentence_117

They took the opportunity presented by the King's troubles to force various reforming measures — including many with strong "anti-Papist" themes — upon him. English Civil War_sentence_118

The members passed a law stating that a new Parliament would convene at least once every three years — without the King's summons if need be. English Civil War_sentence_119

Other laws passed making it illegal for the king to impose taxes without Parliamentary consent and later gave Parliament control over the king's ministers. English Civil War_sentence_120

Finally, the Parliament passed a law forbidding the King to dissolve it without its consent, even if the three years were up. English Civil War_sentence_121

Ever since this Parliament has been known as the Long Parliament. English Civil War_sentence_122

However, Parliament did attempt to avert conflict by requiring all adults to sign The Protestation, an oath of allegiance to Charles. English Civil War_sentence_123

Early in the Long Parliament, the house overwhelmingly accused Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford of high treason and other crimes and misdemeanors. English Civil War_sentence_124

Henry Vane the Younger supplied evidence of Strafford's claimed improper use of the army in Ireland, alleging that he had encouraged the King to use his Ireland-raised forces to threaten England into compliance. English Civil War_sentence_125

This evidence was obtained from Vane's father, Henry Vane the Elder, a member of the King's Privy council, who refused to confirm it in Parliament out of loyalty to Charles. English Civil War_sentence_126

On 10 April 1641, Pym's case collapsed, but Pym made a direct appeal to Henry Vane the Younger to produce a copy of the notes from the King's Privy council, discovered by the younger Vane and secretly turned over to Pym, to the great anguish of the Elder Vane. English Civil War_sentence_127

These notes contained evidence that Strafford had told the King, "Sir, you have done your duty, and your subjects have failed in theirs; and therefore you are absolved from the rules of government, and may supply yourself by extraordinary ways; you have an army in Ireland, with which you may reduce the kingdom." English Civil War_sentence_128

Pym immediately launched a Bill of Attainder stating Strafford's guilt and demanding that he be put to death. English Civil War_sentence_129

Unlike a guilty verdict in a court case, attainder did not require a legal burden of proof, but it did require the king's approval. English Civil War_sentence_130

Charles, however, guaranteed Strafford that he would not sign the attainder, without which the bill could not be passed. English Civil War_sentence_131

Furthermore, the Lords opposed the severity of a death sentence on Strafford. English Civil War_sentence_132

Yet increased tensions and a plot in the army to support Strafford began to sway the issue. English Civil War_sentence_133

On 21 April, the Commons passed the Bill (204 in favour, 59 opposed, and 250 abstained), and the Lords acquiesced. English Civil War_sentence_134

Charles, still incensed over the Commons' handling of Buckingham, refused his assent. English Civil War_sentence_135

Strafford himself, hoping to head off the war he saw looming, wrote to the king and asked him to reconsider. English Civil War_sentence_136

Charles, fearing for the safety of his family, signed on 10 May. English Civil War_sentence_137

Strafford was beheaded two days later. English Civil War_sentence_138

In the meantime both Parliament and the King agreed to an independent investigation into the king's involvement in Strafford's plot. English Civil War_sentence_139

The Long Parliament then passed the Triennial Act, also known as the Dissolution Act in May 1641, to which the Royal Assent was readily granted. English Civil War_sentence_140

The Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once in three years. English Civil War_sentence_141

When the King failed to issue a proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. English Civil War_sentence_142

This act also forbade ship money without Parliament's consent, fines in distraint of knighthood, and forced loans. English Civil War_sentence_143

Monopolies were cut back sharply, the Courts of the Star Chamber and High Commission abolished by the Habeas Corpus Act 1640, and the Triennial Act respectively. English Civil War_sentence_144

All remaining forms of taxation were legalised and regulated by the Tonnage and Poundage Act. English Civil War_sentence_145

On 3 May, Parliament decreed The Protestation, attacking the 'wicked counsels' of Charles's government, whereby those who signed the petition undertook to defend 'the true reformed religion', Parliament, and the king's person, honour and estate. English Civil War_sentence_146

Throughout May, the House of Commons launched several bills attacking bishops and Episcopalianism in general, each time defeated in the Lords. English Civil War_sentence_147

Charles and his Parliament hoped that the execution of Strafford and the Protestation would end the drift towards war, but in fact, they encouraged it. English Civil War_sentence_148

Charles and his supporters continued to resent Parliament's demands, and Parliamentarians continued to suspect Charles of wanting to impose episcopalianism and unfettered royal rule by military force. English Civil War_sentence_149

Within months, the Irish Catholics, fearing a resurgence of Protestant power, struck first, and all Ireland soon descended into chaos. English Civil War_sentence_150

Rumors circulated that the King supported the Irish, and Puritan members of the Commons soon started murmuring that this exemplified the fate that Charles had in store for them all. English Civil War_sentence_151

In early January 1642, Charles, accompanied by 400 soldiers, attempted to arrest five members of the House of Commons on a charge of treason. English Civil War_sentence_152

This attempt failed. English Civil War_sentence_153

When the troops marched into Parliament, Charles enquired of William Lenthall, the Speaker, as to the whereabouts of the five. English Civil War_sentence_154

Lenthall replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here." English Civil War_sentence_155

So the Speaker proclaimed himself a servant of Parliament, rather than the King. English Civil War_sentence_156

Local grievances English Civil War_section_11

In the summer of 1642, these national troubles helped to polarise opinion, ending indecision about which side to support or what action to take. English Civil War_sentence_157

Opposition to Charles also arose from many local grievances. English Civil War_sentence_158

For example, imposed drainage schemes in The Fens disrupted the livelihood of thousands after the King awarded a number of drainage contracts. English Civil War_sentence_159

Many saw the King as indifferent to public welfare, and this played a role in bringing much of eastern England into the Parliamentarian camp. English Civil War_sentence_160

This sentiment brought with it such people as the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell, each a notable wartime adversary of the King. English Civil War_sentence_161

Conversely, one of the leading drainage contractors, the Earl of Lindsey, was to die fighting for the King at the Battle of Edgehill. English Civil War_sentence_162

First English Civil War (1642–1646) English Civil War_section_12

Main article: First English Civil War English Civil War_sentence_163

In early January 1642, a few days after failing to capture five members of the House of Commons, Charles feared for the safety of his family and retinue and left the London area for the north country. English Civil War_sentence_164

Further frequent negotiations by letter between the King and the Long Parliament, through to early summer, proved fruitless. English Civil War_sentence_165

As the summer progressed, cities and towns declared their sympathies for one faction or the other: for example, the garrison of Portsmouth commanded by Sir George Goring declared for the King, but when Charles tried to acquire arms from Kingston upon Hull, the weaponry depository used in the previous Scottish campaigns, Sir John Hotham, the military governor appointed by Parliament in January, refused to let Charles enter the town, and when Charles returned with more men later, Hotham drove them off. English Civil War_sentence_166

Charles issued a warrant for Hotham's arrest as a traitor but was powerless to enforce it. English Civil War_sentence_167

Throughout the summer, tensions rose and there was brawling in several places, the first death from the conflict taking place in Manchester. English Civil War_sentence_168

At the outset of the conflict, much of the country remained neutral, though the Royal Navy and most English cities favoured Parliament, while the King found marked support in rural communities. English Civil War_sentence_169

Historians estimate that both sides had only about 15,000 men between them, but the war quickly spread and eventually involved every level of society. English Civil War_sentence_170

Many areas attempted to remain neutral. English Civil War_sentence_171

Some formed bands of Clubmen to protect their localities from the worst excesses of the armies of both sides, but most found it impossible to withstand both King and Parliament. English Civil War_sentence_172

On one side, the King and his supporters fought for traditional government in church and state, while on the other, most Parliamentarians initially took up arms to defend what they saw as a traditional balance of government in church and state, which the bad advice the King received from his advisers had undermined before and during the "Eleven Years' Tyranny". English Civil War_sentence_173

The views of the members of Parliament ranged from unquestioning support of the King — at one point during the First Civil War, more members of the Commons and Lords gathered in the King's Oxford Parliament than at Westminster — through to radicals who sought major reforms in religious independence and redistribution of power at a national level. English Civil War_sentence_174

However, even the most radical Parliamentarian supporters still favoured keeping Charles on the throne. English Civil War_sentence_175

After the debacle at Hull, Charles moved on to Nottingham, raising the royal standard there on 22 August 1642. English Civil War_sentence_176

At the time, Charles had with him about 2,000 cavalries and a small number of Yorkshire infantrymen, and using the archaic system of a Commission of Array, his supporters started to build a larger army around the standard. English Civil War_sentence_177

Charles moved in a westerly direction, first to Stafford, then on to Shrewsbury, as support for his cause seemed particularly strong in the Severn valley area and in North Wales. English Civil War_sentence_178

While passing through Wellington, he declared in what became known as the "Wellington Declaration" that he would uphold the "Protestant religion, the laws of England, and the liberty of Parliament". English Civil War_sentence_179

The Parliamentarians who opposed the King did not remain passive in this pre-war period. English Civil War_sentence_180

As in Hull, they took measures to secure strategic towns and cities by appointing to office men sympathetic to their cause. English Civil War_sentence_181

On 9 June they voted to raise an army of 10,000 volunteers and appointed Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex its commander three days later. English Civil War_sentence_182

He received orders "to rescue His Majesty's person, and the persons of the Prince [of Wales] and the Duke of York [James II] out of the hands of those desperate persons who were about them." English Civil War_sentence_183

The Lords Lieutenant whom Parliament appointed used the Militia Ordinance to order the militia to join Essex's army. English Civil War_sentence_184

Two weeks after the King had raised his standard at Nottingham, Essex led his army north towards Northampton, picking up support along the way (including a detachment of Huntingdonshire cavalry raised and commanded by Oliver Cromwell). English Civil War_sentence_185

By mid-September Essex's forces had grown to 21,000 infantry and 4,200 cavalries and dragoons. English Civil War_sentence_186

On 14 September he moved his army to Coventry and then to the north of the Cotswolds, a strategy that placed it between the Royalists and London. English Civil War_sentence_187

With the size of both armies now in the tens of thousands and only Worcestershire between them, it was inevitable that cavalry reconnaissance units would meet sooner or later. English Civil War_sentence_188

This happened in the first major skirmish of the Civil War, when a troop of about 1,000 Royalist cavalry under Prince Rupert, a German nephew of the King and one of the outstanding cavalry commanders of the war, defeated a Parliamentary cavalry detachment under Colonel John Brown at the Battle of Powick Bridge, which crossed the River Teme close to Worcester. English Civil War_sentence_189

Rupert withdrew to Shrewsbury, where a council-of-war discussed two courses of action: whether to advance towards Essex's new position near Worcester, or march down the now open road towards London. English Civil War_sentence_190

The Council decided on the London route, but not to avoid a battle, for the Royalist generals wanted to fight Essex before he grew too strong, and the temper of both sides made it impossible to postpone the decision. English Civil War_sentence_191

In the Earl of Clarendon's words, "it was considered more counsellable to march towards London, it being morally sure that the earl of Essex would put himself in their way." English Civil War_sentence_192

So the army left Shrewsbury on 12 October, gaining two days' start on the enemy, and moved south-east. English Civil War_sentence_193

This had the desired effect of forcing Essex to move to intercept them. English Civil War_sentence_194

The first pitched battle of the war, at Edgehill on 23 October 1642, proved inconclusive, both Royalists and Parliamentarians claiming victory. English Civil War_sentence_195

The second field action, the stand-off at Turnham Green, saw Charles forced to withdraw to Oxford, which would serve as his base for the rest of the war. English Civil War_sentence_196

In 1643, Royalist forces won at Adwalton Moor, gaining control of most of Yorkshire. English Civil War_sentence_197

In the Midlands, a Parliamentary force under Sir John Gell besieged and captured the cathedral city of Lichfield, after the death of the original commander, Lord Brooke. English Civil War_sentence_198

This group then joined forces with Sir John Brereton at the inconclusive Battle of Hopton Heath (19 March 1643), where the Royalist commander, the Earl of Northampton, was killed. English Civil War_sentence_199

John Hampden died after being wounded in the Battle of Chalgrove Field (18 June 1643). English Civil War_sentence_200

Subsequent battles in the west of England at Lansdowne and Roundway Down also went to the Royalists. English Civil War_sentence_201

Prince Rupert could then take Bristol. English Civil War_sentence_202

In the same year, however, Cromwell formed his troop of "Ironsides", a disciplined unit that demonstrated his military leadership ability. English Civil War_sentence_203

With their assistance he won a victory at the Battle of Gainsborough in July. English Civil War_sentence_204

At this stage, from 7 to 9 August 1643, there were some popular demonstrations in London — both for and against war. English Civil War_sentence_205

They were protesting at Westminster. English Civil War_sentence_206

A peace demonstration by London women, which turned violent, was suppressed by William Waller's regiment of horse. English Civil War_sentence_207

Some women were beaten and even killed, and many arrested. English Civil War_sentence_208

After these August events, the representative of Venice in England reported to the doge that the London government took considerable measures to stifle dissent. English Civil War_sentence_209

In general, the early part of the war went well for the Royalists. English Civil War_sentence_210

The turning point came in the late summer and early autumn of 1643, when the Earl of Essex's army forced the king to raise the Siege of Gloucester and then brushed the Royalists aside at the First Battle of Newbury (20 September 1643), to return triumphantly to London. English Civil War_sentence_211

Parliamentarian forces led by the Earl of Manchester besieged the port of King's Lynn, Norfolk, which under Sir Hamon L'Estrange held out until September. English Civil War_sentence_212

Other forces won the Battle of Winceby, giving them control of Lincoln. English Civil War_sentence_213

Political manœuvring to gain an advantage in numbers led Charles to negotiate a ceasefire in Ireland, freeing up English troops to fight on the Royalist side in England, while Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for aid and assistance. English Civil War_sentence_214

Helped by the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor (2 July 1644), gaining York and the north of England. English Civil War_sentence_215

Cromwell's conduct in the battle proved decisive, and showed his potential as a political and as an important military leader. English Civil War_sentence_216

The defeat at the Battle of Lostwithiel in Cornwall, however, marked a serious reverse for Parliament in the south-west of England. English Civil War_sentence_217

Subsequent fighting around Newbury (27 October 1644), though tactically indecisive, strategically gave another check to Parliament. English Civil War_sentence_218

In 1645, Parliament reaffirmed its determination to fight the war to a finish. English Civil War_sentence_219

It passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands and re-organized its main forces into the New Model Army, under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, with Cromwell as his second-in-command and Lieutenant-General of Horse. English Civil War_sentence_220

In two decisive engagements — the Battle of Naseby on 14 June and the Battle of Langport on 10 July — the Parliamentarians effectively destroyed Charles's armies. English Civil War_sentence_221

In the remains of his English realm, Charles tried to recover a stable base of support by consolidating the Midlands. English Civil War_sentence_222

He began to form an axis between Oxford and Newark-on-Trent in Nottinghamshire. English Civil War_sentence_223

These towns had become fortresses and showed more reliable loyalty to him than others. English Civil War_sentence_224

He took Leicester, which lies between them, but found his resources exhausted. English Civil War_sentence_225

Having little opportunity to replenish them, in May 1646 he sought shelter with a Presbyterian Scottish army at Southwell in Nottinghamshire. English Civil War_sentence_226

Charles was eventually handed over to the English Parliament by the Scots and imprisoned. English Civil War_sentence_227

This marked the end of the First English Civil War. English Civil War_sentence_228

Interbellum English Civil War_section_13

See also: Putney Debates and Levellers English Civil War_sentence_229

The end of the First Civil War, in 1646, left a partial power vacuum in which any combination of the three English factions, Royalists, Independents of the New Model Army ("the Army"), and Presbyterians of the English Parliament, as well as the Scottish Parliament allied with the Scottish Presbyterians (the "Kirk"), could prove strong enough to dominate the rest. English Civil War_sentence_230

Armed political Royalism was at an end, but despite being a prisoner, Charles I was considered by himself and his opponents (almost to the last) as necessary to ensure the success of whichever group could come to terms with him. English Civil War_sentence_231

Thus he passed successively into the hands of the Scots, the Parliament and the Army. English Civil War_sentence_232

The King attempted to reverse the verdict of arms by "coquetting" with each in turn. English Civil War_sentence_233

On 3 June 1647, Cornet George Joyce of Thomas Fairfax's horse seized the King for the Army, after which the English Presbyterians and the Scots began to prepare for a fresh civil war, less than two years after the conclusion of the first, this time against "Independency", as embodied in the Army. English Civil War_sentence_234

After making use of the Army's sword, its opponents attempted to disband it, to send it on foreign service and to cut off its arrears of pay. English Civil War_sentence_235

The result was that the Army leadership was exasperated beyond control, and, remembering not merely their grievances but also the principle for which the Army had fought, it soon became the most powerful political force in the realm. English Civil War_sentence_236

From 1646 to 1648 the breach between Army and Parliament widened day by day until finally the Presbyterian party, combined with the Scots and the remaining Royalists, felt itself strong enough to begin a Second Civil War. English Civil War_sentence_237

Second English Civil War (1648–1649) English Civil War_section_14

Main article: Second English Civil War English Civil War_sentence_238

Charles I took advantage of the deflection of attention away from himself to negotiate on 28 December 1647 a secret treaty with the Scots, again promising church reform. English Civil War_sentence_239

Under the agreement, called the "Engagement", the Scots undertook to invade England on Charles's behalf and restore him to the throne on condition of the establishment of Presbyterianism within three years. English Civil War_sentence_240

A series of Royalist uprisings throughout England and a Scottish invasion occurred in the summer of 1648. English Civil War_sentence_241

Forces loyal to Parliament put down most of those in England after little more than a skirmish, but uprisings in Kent, Essex and Cumberland, the rebellion in Wales, and the Scottish invasion involved pitched battles and prolonged sieges. English Civil War_sentence_242

In the spring of 1648, unpaid Parliamentarian troops in Wales changed sides. English Civil War_sentence_243

Colonel Thomas Horton defeated the Royalist rebels at the Battle of St Fagans (8 May) and the rebel leaders surrendered to Cromwell on 11 July after a protracted two-month siege of Pembroke. English Civil War_sentence_244

Sir Thomas Fairfax defeated a Royalist uprising in Kent at the Battle of Maidstone on 1 June. English Civil War_sentence_245

Fairfax, after his success at Maidstone and the pacification of Kent, turned north to reduce Essex, where, under an ardent, experienced and popular leader, Sir Charles Lucas, the Royalists had taken up arms in great numbers. English Civil War_sentence_246

Fairfax soon drove the enemy into Colchester, but his first attack on the town met with a repulse and he had to settle down to a long siege. English Civil War_sentence_247

In the North of England, Major-General John Lambert fought a successful campaign against several Royalist uprisings, the largest being that of Sir Marmaduke Langdale in Cumberland. English Civil War_sentence_248

Thanks to Lambert's successes, the Scottish commander, the Duke of Hamilton, had to take a western route through Carlisle in his pro-Royalist Scottish invasion of England. English Civil War_sentence_249

The Parliamentarians under Cromwell engaged the Scots at the Battle of Preston (17–19 August). English Civil War_sentence_250

The battle took place largely at Walton-le-Dale near Preston, Lancashire, and resulted in a victory for Cromwell's troops over the Royalists and Scots commanded by Hamilton. English Civil War_sentence_251

This victory marked the end of the Second English Civil War. English Civil War_sentence_252

Nearly all the Royalists who had fought in the First Civil War had given their word not to bear arms against Parliament, and many, like Lord Astley, were therefore bound by oath not to take any part in the second conflict. English Civil War_sentence_253

So the victors in the Second Civil War showed little mercy to those who had brought war into the land again. English Civil War_sentence_254

On the evening of the surrender of Colchester, Parliamentarians had Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle shot. English Civil War_sentence_255

Parliamentary authorities sentenced the leaders of the Welsh rebels, Major-General Rowland Laugharne, Colonel John Poyer and Colonel Rice Powel to death, but executed only Poyer (25 April 1649), having selected him by lot. English Civil War_sentence_256

Of five prominent Royalist peers who had fallen into Parliamentary hands, three – the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, and Lord Capel, one of the Colchester prisoners and a man of high character – were beheaded at Westminster on 9 March. English Civil War_sentence_257

Trial of Charles I for treason English Civil War_section_15

Main articles: High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I and Execution of Charles I English Civil War_sentence_258

Charles's secret pacts and encouragement of supporters to break their parole caused Parliament to debate whether to return the King to power at all. English Civil War_sentence_259

Those who still supported Charles's place on the throne, such as the army leader and moderate Fairfax, tried again to negotiate with him. English Civil War_sentence_260

The Army, furious that Parliament continued to countenance Charles as a ruler, then marched on Parliament and conducted "Pride's Purge" (named after the commanding officer of the operation, Thomas Pride) in December 1648. English Civil War_sentence_261

Troops arrested 45 members and kept 146 out of the chamber. English Civil War_sentence_262

They allowed only 75 members in, and then only at the Army's bidding. English Civil War_sentence_263

This Rump Parliament received orders to set up, in the name of the people of England, a High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I for treason. English Civil War_sentence_264

Fairfax, a constitutional monarchist and moderate, declined to have anything to do with the trial. English Civil War_sentence_265

He resigned as head of the army, so clearing Cromwell's road to power. English Civil War_sentence_266

At the end of the trial the 59 Commissioners (judges) found Charles I guilty of high treason as a "tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy". English Civil War_sentence_267

His beheading took place on a scaffold in front of the Banqueting House of the Palace of Whitehall on 30 January 1649. English Civil War_sentence_268

After the Restoration in 1660, nine of the surviving regicides not living in exile were executed and most others sentenced to life imprisonment. English Civil War_sentence_269

After the regicide, Charles as the eldest son was publicly proclaimed King Charles II in the Royal Square of St. English Civil War_sentence_270 Helier, Jersey, on 17 February 1649 (after a first such proclamation in Edinburgh on 5 February 1649). English Civil War_sentence_271

Third English Civil War (1649–1651) English Civil War_section_16

Ireland English Civil War_section_17

Main article: Third English Civil War English Civil War_sentence_272

See also: Cromwellian conquest of Ireland English Civil War_sentence_273

Ireland had undergone continual war since the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates. English Civil War_sentence_274

Increasingly threatened by the armies of the English Parliament after Charles I's arrest in 1648, the Confederates signed a treaty of alliance with the English Royalists. English Civil War_sentence_275

The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde tried to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin by laying siege, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). English Civil War_sentence_276

As the former Member of Parliament Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Cromwell could land at Dublin on 15 August 1649 with an army to quell the Royalist alliance. English Civil War_sentence_277

Cromwell's suppression of the Royalists in Ireland in 1649 is still remembered by many Irish people. English Civil War_sentence_278

After the Siege of Drogheda, the massacre of nearly 3,500 people — around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and 700 others, including civilians, prisoners and Catholic priests (Cromwell claimed all had carried arms) — became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. English Civil War_sentence_279

The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland ground on for another four years until 1653, when the last Irish Confederate and Royalist troops surrendered. English Civil War_sentence_280

In the wake of the conquest, the victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land and distributed it to Parliament's creditors, to Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English who had settled there before the war. English Civil War_sentence_281

Scotland English Civil War_section_18

See also: Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms English Civil War_sentence_282

The execution of Charles I altered the dynamics of the Civil War in Scotland, which had raged between Royalists and Covenanters since 1644. English Civil War_sentence_283

By 1649, the struggle had left the Royalists there in disarray and their erstwhile leader, the Marquess of Montrose, had gone into exile. English Civil War_sentence_284

At first, Charles II encouraged Montrose to raise a Highland army to fight on the Royalist side. English Civil War_sentence_285

However, when the Scottish Covenanters (who did not agree with the execution of Charles I and who feared for the future of Presbyterianism under the new Commonwealth) offered him the crown of Scotland, Charles abandoned Montrose to his enemies. English Civil War_sentence_286

However, Montrose, who had raised a mercenary force in Norway, had already landed and could not abandon the fight. English Civil War_sentence_287

He did not succeed in raising many Highland clans and the Covenanters defeated his army at the Battle of Carbisdale in Ross-shire on 27 April 1650. English Civil War_sentence_288

The victors captured Montrose shortly afterwards and took him to Edinburgh. English Civil War_sentence_289

On 20 May the Scottish Parliament sentenced him to death and had him hanged the next day. English Civil War_sentence_290

Charles II landed in Scotland at Garmouth in Morayshire on 23 June 1650 and signed the 1638 National Covenant and the 1643 Solemn League and Covenant shortly after coming ashore. English Civil War_sentence_291

With his original Scottish Royalist followers and his new Covenanter allies, Charles II became the greatest threat facing the new English republic. English Civil War_sentence_292

In response to the threat, Cromwell left some of his lieutenants in Ireland to continue the suppression of the Irish Royalists and returned to England. English Civil War_sentence_293

He arrived in Scotland on 22 July 1650 and proceeded to lay siege to Edinburgh. English Civil War_sentence_294

By the end of August, disease and a shortage of supplies had reduced his army, and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Dunbar. English Civil War_sentence_295

A Scottish army under the command of David Leslie tried to block the retreat, but Cromwell defeated them at the Battle of Dunbar on 3 September. English Civil War_sentence_296

Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh, and by the end of the year his army had occupied much of southern Scotland. English Civil War_sentence_297

In July 1651, Cromwell's forces crossed the Firth of Forth into Fife and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Inverkeithing (20 July 1651). English Civil War_sentence_298

The New Model Army advanced towards Perth, which allowed Charles, at the head of the Scottish army, to move south into England. English Civil War_sentence_299

Cromwell followed Charles into England, leaving George Monck to finish the campaign in Scotland. English Civil War_sentence_300

Monck took Stirling on 14 August and Dundee on 1 September. English Civil War_sentence_301

The next year, 1652, saw a mopping up of the remnants of Royalist resistance, and under the terms of the "Tender of Union", the Scots received 30 seats in a united Parliament in London, with General Monck as the military governor of Scotland. English Civil War_sentence_302

England English Civil War_section_19

Although Cromwell's New Model Army had defeated a Scottish army at Dunbar, Cromwell could not prevent Charles II from marching from Scotland deep into England at the head of another Royalist army. English Civil War_sentence_303

They marched to the west of England where English Royalist sympathies were strongest, but although some English Royalists joined the army, they were far fewer in number than Charles and his Scottish supporters had hoped. English Civil War_sentence_304

Cromwell finally engaged and defeated the new Scottish king at Worcester on 3 September 1651. English Civil War_sentence_305

Immediate aftermath English Civil War_section_20

After the Royalist defeat at Worcester, Charles II escaped via safe houses and a famous oak tree to France, and Parliament was left in de facto control of England. English Civil War_sentence_306

Resistance continued for a time in the Channel Islands, Ireland and Scotland, but with the pacification of England, resistance elsewhere did not threaten the military supremacy of the New Model Army and its Parliamentary paymasters. English Civil War_sentence_307

Political control English Civil War_section_21

During the Wars, the Parliamentarians established a number of successive committees to oversee the war effort. English Civil War_sentence_308

The first, the Committee of Safety set up in July 1642, comprised 15 members of Parliament. English Civil War_sentence_309

After the Anglo-Scottish alliance against the Royalists, the Committee of Both Kingdoms replaced the Committee of Safety between 1644 and 1648. English Civil War_sentence_310

Parliament dissolved the Committee of Both Kingdoms when the alliance ended, but its English members continued to meet as the Derby House Committee. English Civil War_sentence_311

A second Committee of Safety then replaced it. English Civil War_sentence_312

Episcopacy English Civil War_section_22

Hobbes' Behemoth English Civil War_section_23

Thomas Hobbes gave a much earlier historical account of the English Civil War in his Behemoth, written in 1668 and published in 1681. English Civil War_sentence_313

He assessed the causes of the war to be the conflicting political doctrines of the time. English Civil War_sentence_314

Behemoth offered a uniquely historical and philosophical approach to naming the catalysts for the war. English Civil War_sentence_315

It also attempted to explain why Charles I could not hold his throne and maintain peace in his kingdom. English Civil War_sentence_316

Hobbes analysed in turn the following aspects of English thought during the war: the opinions of divinity and politics that spurred rebellion; rhetoric and doctrine used by the rebels against the king; and how opinions about "taxation, the conscription of soldiers, and military strategy" affected the outcomes of battles and shifts of sovereignty. English Civil War_sentence_317

Hobbes attributed the war to the novel theories of intellectuals and divines spread for their own pride of reputation. English Civil War_sentence_318

He held that clerical pretensions had contributed significantly to the troubles — "whether those of puritan fundamentalists, papal supremacists or divine right Episcopalians". English Civil War_sentence_319

Hobbes wanted to abolish the independence of the clergy and bring it under the control of the civil state. English Civil War_sentence_320

Some scholars suggest that Behemoth has not received its due as an academic work, being comparatively overlooked and under-rated in the shadow of Hobbes' Leviathan. English Civil War_sentence_321

Its scholarly reputation may have suffered because it takes the form of a dialogue, which, while common in philosophy, is rarely adopted by historians. English Civil War_sentence_322

Other factors that hindered its success include Charles II's refusing its publication and Hobbes' lack of empathy with views different from his own. English Civil War_sentence_323

Re-enactments English Civil War_section_24

Two large historical societies exist, The Sealed Knot and The English Civil War Society, which regularly re-enact events and battles of the Civil War in full period costume. English Civil War_sentence_324

See also English Civil War_section_25

English Civil War_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English Civil War.