English people

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This article is about an ethnic and national group. English people_sentence_0

For information on the population of England, see Demography of England. English people_sentence_1

For other uses, see English and Englishman (disambiguation). English people_sentence_2

English people_table_infobox_0

English peopleEnglish people_table_caption_0
Regions with significant populationsEnglish people_header_cell_0_0_0
Significant English diaspora inEnglish people_header_cell_0_1_0
United StatesEnglish people_header_cell_0_2_0 50 million (1980)English people_cell_0_2_1
AustraliaEnglish people_header_cell_0_3_0 7.8 million (2016)English people_cell_0_3_1
CanadaEnglish people_header_cell_0_4_0 6.3 million 2016)English people_cell_0_4_1
South AfricaEnglish people_header_cell_0_5_0 1.6 million (2011)English people_cell_0_5_1
New ZealandEnglish people_header_cell_0_6_0 44,000–282,000English people_cell_0_6_1
LanguagesEnglish people_header_cell_0_7_0
ReligionEnglish people_header_cell_0_8_0
Related ethnic groupsEnglish people_header_cell_0_9_0

The English people are an ethnic group and a nation native to England, who speak the English language of the Indo-European language family and share a common history and culture. English people_sentence_3

The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ('family of the Angles'). English people_sentence_4

Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. English people_sentence_5

England is the largest and most populous country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. English people_sentence_6

The English largely descend from two main historical population groups – the Germanic tribes who settled in southern Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans (including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians), and the partially Romanised Britons who had been living there already. English people_sentence_7

Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England (from the Old English Englaland) by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century. English people_sentence_8

This was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. English people_sentence_9

In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland merged to become the Kingdom of Great Britain. English people_sentence_10

Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. English people_sentence_11

English nationality English people_section_0

England itself has no devolved government. English people_sentence_12

The 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness. English people_sentence_13

This is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present. English people_sentence_14

Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a solely British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. English people_sentence_15

Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. English people_sentence_16

In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity. English people_sentence_17

They found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". English people_sentence_18

Relationship to Britishness English people_section_1

It is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. English people_sentence_19

The words "English" and "British" may be used interchangeably, especially outside the UK. English people_sentence_20

In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British". English people_sentence_21

He notes that this slip is normally made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom rarely say 'British' when they mean 'English'". English people_sentence_22

Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is also "problematic for the English [...] when it comes to conceiving of their national identity. English people_sentence_23

It tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". English people_sentence_24

In 1965, the historian A. English people_sentence_25 J. P. Taylor wrote, English people_sentence_26

However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles (1999), Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. English people_sentence_27

In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has recently been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. English people_sentence_28

Historical and genetic origins English people_section_2

Replacement of Neolithic farmers by Bell Beaker populations English people_section_3

Recent genetic studies have suggested that Britain's Neolithic population was largely replaced by a population from North Continental Europe characterised by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200 BC, associated with the Yamnaya people from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. English people_sentence_29

This population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people. English people_sentence_30

It is currently unknown whether these Beaker peoples went on to develop Celtic languages in the British Isles, or whether later Celtic migrations introduced Celtic languages to Britain. English people_sentence_31

The close genetic affinity of these Beaker people to Continental North Europeans means that British and Irish populations cluster genetically very closely with other Northwest European populations, regardless of how much Anglo-Saxon and Viking ancestry was introduced during the 1st millennium. English people_sentence_32

Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans English people_section_4

Main article: Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain English people_sentence_33

The influence of later invasions and migrations on the English population has been debated, as studies that sampled only modern DNA have produced uncertain results and have thus been subject to a large variety of interpretations. English people_sentence_34

More recently, however, ancient DNA has been used to provide a clearer picture of the genetic effects of these movements of people. English people_sentence_35

One 2016 study, using Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon era DNA found at grave sites in Cambridgeshire, calculated that ten modern day eastern English samples had 38% Anglo-Saxon ancestry on average, while ten Welsh and Scottish samples each had 30% Anglo-Saxon ancestry, with a large statistical spread in all cases. English people_sentence_36

However, the authors noted that the similarity observed between the various sample groups was likely to be due to more recent internal migration. English people_sentence_37

Another 2016 study conducted using evidence from burials found in northern England, found that a significant genetic difference was present in bodies from the Iron Age and the Roman period on the one hand, and the Anglo-Saxon period on the other. English people_sentence_38

Samples from modern-day Wales were found to be similar to those from the Iron Age and Roman burials, while samples from much of modern England, East Anglia in particular, were closer to the Anglo-Saxon-era burial. English people_sentence_39

This was found to demonstrate a "profound impact" from the Anglo-Saxon migrations on the modern English gene pool, though no specific percentages were given in the study. English people_sentence_40

A third study combined the ancient data from both of the preceding studies and compared it to a large number of modern samples from across Britain and Ireland. English people_sentence_41

This study found that modern southern, central and eastern English populations were of "a predominantly Anglo-Saxon-like ancestry" while those from northern and southwestern England had a greater degree of indigenous origin. English people_sentence_42

A major 2020 study, which used DNA from Viking-era burials in various regions across Europe, found that modern English samples showed nearly equal contributions from a native British "North Atlantic" population and a Danish-like population. English people_sentence_43

While much of the latter signature was attributed to the earlier settlement of the Anglo-Saxons, it was calculated that up to 6% of it could have come from Danish Vikings, with a further 4% contribution from a Norwegian-like source representing the Norwegian Vikings. English people_sentence_44

The study also found an average 18% admixture from a source further south in Europe, which was interpreted as reflecting the legacy of French migration under the Normans. English people_sentence_45

History of English people English people_section_5

"History of the English" redirects here. English people_sentence_46

It is not to be confused with History of English. English people_sentence_47

Main article: History of England English people_sentence_48

Early Middle Ages English people_section_6

Further information: Anglo-Saxons, Roman Britain, Sub-Roman Britain, Ancient Britons, and Romano-Britons English people_sentence_49

The first people to be called 'English' were the Anglo-Saxons, a group of closely related Germanic tribes that began migrating to eastern and southern Great Britain, from southern Denmark and northern Germany, in the 5th century AD, after the Romans had withdrawn from Britain. English people_sentence_50

The Anglo-Saxons gave their name to England (Engla land, meaning "Land of the Angles") and to the English. English people_sentence_51

The Anglo-Saxons arrived in a land that was already populated by people commonly referred to as the 'Romano-British'—the descendants of the native Brittonic-speaking population that lived in the area of Britain under Roman rule during the 1st–5th centuries AD. English people_sentence_52

The multi-ethnic nature of the Roman Empire meant that small numbers of other peoples may have also been present in England before the Anglo-Saxons arrived. English people_sentence_53

There is archaeological evidence, for example, of an early North African presence in a Roman garrison at Aballava, now Burgh-by-Sands, in Cumbria: a 4th-century inscription says that the Roman military unit Numerus Maurorum Aurelianorum ("unit of Aurelian Moors") from Mauretania (Morocco) was stationed there. English people_sentence_54

Although the Roman Empire incorporated peoples from far and wide, genetic studies suggest the Romans did not significantly mix into the British population. English people_sentence_55

The exact nature of the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons and their relationship with the Romano-British is a matter of debate. English people_sentence_56

The traditional view is that a mass invasion by various Anglo-Saxon tribes largely displaced the indigenous British population in southern and eastern Great Britain (modern-day England with the exception of Cornwall). English people_sentence_57

This is supported by the writings of Gildas, who gives the only contemporary historical account of the period, and describes the slaughter and starvation of native Britons by invading tribes (aduentus Saxonum). English people_sentence_58

Furthermore, the English language contains no more than a handful of words borrowed from Brittonic sources. English people_sentence_59

This view was later re-evaluated by some archaeologists and historians, with a more small-scale migration being posited, possibly based around an elite of male warriors that took over the rule of the country and gradually acculturated the people living there. English people_sentence_60

Within this theory, two processes leading to Anglo-Saxonisation have been proposed. English people_sentence_61

One is similar to culture changes observed in Russia, North Africa and parts of the Islamic world, where a politically and socially powerful minority culture becomes, over a rather short period, adopted by a settled majority. English people_sentence_62

This process is usually termed 'elite dominance'. English people_sentence_63

The second process is explained through incentives, such as the Wergild outlined in the law code of Ine of Wessex which produced an incentive to become Anglo-Saxon or at least English speaking. English people_sentence_64

Historian Malcolm Todd writes, "It is much more likely that a large proportion of the British population remained in place and was progressively dominated by a Germanic aristocracy, in some cases marrying into it and leaving Celtic names in the, admittedly very dubious, early lists of Anglo-Saxon dynasties. English people_sentence_65

But how we identify the surviving Britons in areas of predominantly Anglo-Saxon settlement, either archaeologically or linguistically, is still one of the deepest problems of early English history." English people_sentence_66

An emerging view is that the degree of population replacement by the Anglo-Saxons, and thus the degree of survival of the Romano-Britons, varied across England, and that as such the overall settlement of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons cannot be described by any one process in particular. English people_sentence_67

Large-scale migration and population shift seems to be most applicable in the cases of eastern regions such as East Anglia and Lincolnshire, while in parts of Northumbria, much of the native population likely remained in place as the incomers took over as elites. English people_sentence_68

In a study of place names in northeastern England and southern Scotland, Bethany Fox found that the migrants settled in large numbers in river valleys, such as those of the Tyne and the Tweed, with the Britons moving to the less fertile hill country and becoming acculturated over a longer period. English people_sentence_69

Fox describes the process by which English came to dominate this region as "a synthesis of mass-migration and elite-takeover models." English people_sentence_70

Vikings and the Danelaw English people_section_7

Further information: Vikings and Danelaw English people_sentence_71

From about 800 AD waves of Danish Viking assaults on the coastlines of the British Isles were gradually followed by a succession of Danish settlers in England. English people_sentence_72

At first, the Vikings were very much considered a separate people from the English. English people_sentence_73

This separation was enshrined when Alfred the Great signed the Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum to establish the Danelaw, a division of England between English and Danish rule, with the Danes occupying northern and eastern England. English people_sentence_74

However, Alfred's successors subsequently won military victories against the Danes, incorporating much of the Danelaw into the nascent kingdom of England. English people_sentence_75

Danish invasions continued into the 11th century, and there were both English and Danish kings in the period following the unification of England (for example, Æthelred II (978–1013 and 1014–1016) was English but Cnut (1016–1035) was Danish). English people_sentence_76

Gradually, the Danes in England came to be seen as 'English'. English people_sentence_77

They had a noticeable impact on the English language: many English words, such as anger, ball, egg, got, knife, take, and they, are of Old Norse origin, and place names that end in -thwaite and -by are Scandinavian in origin. English people_sentence_78

English unification English people_section_8

Further information: Treaty of Wedmore and Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum English people_sentence_79

The English population was not politically unified until the 10th century. English people_sentence_80

Before then, there were a number of petty kingdoms which gradually coalesced into a heptarchy of seven states, the most powerful of which were Mercia and Wessex. English people_sentence_81

The English nation state began to form when the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united against Danish Viking invasions, which began around 800 AD. English people_sentence_82

Over the following century and a half England was for the most part a politically unified entity, and remained permanently so after 959. English people_sentence_83

The nation of England was formed in 937 by Æthelstan of Wessex after the Battle of Brunanburh, as Wessex grew from a relatively small kingdom in the South West to become the founder of the Kingdom of the English, incorporating all Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and the Danelaw. English people_sentence_84

Norman and Angevin rule English people_section_9

Further information: Normans English people_sentence_85

The Norman conquest of England during 1066 brought Anglo-Saxon and Danish rule of England to an end, as the new French speaking Norman elite almost universally replaced the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and church leaders. English people_sentence_86

After the conquest, "English" normally included all natives of England, whether they were of Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian or Celtic ancestry, to distinguish them from the Norman invaders, who were regarded as "Norman" even if born in England, for a generation or two after the Conquest. English people_sentence_87

The Norman dynasty ruled England for 87 years until the death of King Stephen in 1154, when the succession passed to Henry II, House of Plantagenet (based in France), and England became part of the Angevin Empire until 1399. English people_sentence_88

Various contemporary sources suggest that within 50 years of the invasion most of the Normans outside the royal court had switched to English, with Anglo-Norman remaining the prestige language of government and law largely out of social inertia. English people_sentence_89

For example, Orderic Vitalis, a historian born in 1075 and the son of a Norman knight, said that he learned French only as a second language. English people_sentence_90

Anglo-Norman continued to be used by the Plantagenet kings until Edward I came to the throne. English people_sentence_91

Over time the English language became more important even in the court, and the Normans were gradually assimilated, until, by the 14th century, both rulers and subjects regarded themselves as English and spoke the English language. English people_sentence_92

Despite the assimilation of the Normans, the distinction between 'English' and 'French' survived in official documents long after it had fallen out of common use, in particular in the legal phrase Presentment of Englishry (a rule by which a hundred had to prove an unidentified murdered body found on their soil to be that of an Englishman, rather than a Norman, if they wanted to avoid a fine). English people_sentence_93

This law was abolished in 1340. English people_sentence_94

United Kingdom English people_section_10

Main article: History of the formation of the United Kingdom English people_sentence_95

Since the 18th century, England has been one part of a wider political entity covering all or part of the British Isles, which today is called the United Kingdom. English people_sentence_96

Wales was annexed by England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, which incorporated Wales into the English state. English people_sentence_97

A new British identity was subsequently developed when James VI of Scotland became James I of England as well, and expressed the desire to be known as the monarch of Britain. English people_sentence_98

In 1707, England formed a union with Scotland by passing an Act of Union in March 1707 that ratified the Treaty of Union. English people_sentence_99

The Parliament of Scotland had previously passed its own Act of Union, so the Kingdom of Great Britain was born on 1 May 1707. English people_sentence_100

In 1801, another Act of Union formed a union between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. English people_sentence_101

In 1922, about two-thirds of the Irish population (those who lived in 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland), left the United Kingdom to form the Irish Free State. English people_sentence_102

The remainder became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, although this name was not introduced until 1927, after some years in which the term "United Kingdom" had been little used. English people_sentence_103

Throughout the history of the UK, the English have been dominant in population and in political weight. English people_sentence_104

As a consequence, notions of 'Englishness' and 'Britishness' are often very similar. English people_sentence_105

At the same time, after the Union of 1707, the English, along with the other peoples of the British Isles, have been encouraged to think of themselves as British rather than to identify themselves with the constituent nations. English people_sentence_106

Immigration and assimilation English people_section_11

See also: Historical immigration to Great Britain and Immigration to the United Kingdom (1922-present day) English people_sentence_107

England has been the destination of varied numbers of migrants at different periods from the 17th century onwards. English people_sentence_108

While some members of these groups seek to practise a form of pluralism, attempting to maintain a separate ethnic identity, others have assimilated and intermarried with the English. English people_sentence_109

Since Oliver Cromwell's resettlement of the Jews in 1656, there have been waves of Jewish immigration from Russia in the 19th century and from Germany in the 20th. English people_sentence_110

After the French king Louis XIV declared Protestantism illegal in 1685 in the Edict of Fontainebleau, an estimated 50,000 Protestant Huguenots fled to England. English people_sentence_111

Due to sustained and sometimes mass emigration of the Irish, current estimates indicate that around 6 million people in the UK have at least one grandparent born in the Republic of Ireland. English people_sentence_112

There has been a black presence in England since the 16th century due to the slave trade, and an Indian presence since at least the 17th century because of the East India Company and British Raj. English people_sentence_113

Black and Asian populations have grown throughout the UK generally, as immigration from the British Empire and the subsequent Commonwealth of Nations was encouraged due to labour shortages during post-war rebuilding. English people_sentence_114

However, these groups are often still considered to be ethnic minorities and research has shown that black and Asian people in the UK are more likely to identify as British rather than with one of the state's four constituent nations, including England. English people_sentence_115

Current national and political identity English people_section_12

The 1990s witnessed a resurgence of English national identity. English people_sentence_116

Survey data shows a rise in the number of people in England describing their national identity as English and a fall in the number describing themselves as British. English people_sentence_117

Today, black and minority ethnic people of England still generally identify as British rather than English to a greater extent than their white counterparts; however, groups such as the Campaign for an English Parliament (CEP) suggest the emergence of a broader civic and multi-ethnic English nationhood. English people_sentence_118

Scholars and journalists have noted a rise in English self-consciousness, with increased use of the English flag, particularly at football matches where the Union flag was previously more commonly flown by fans. English people_sentence_119

This perceived rise in English self-consciousness has generally been attributed to the devolution in the late 1990s of some powers to the Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales. English people_sentence_120

In policy areas for which the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have responsibility, the UK Parliament votes on laws that consequently only apply to England. English people_sentence_121

Because the Westminster Parliament is composed of MPs from throughout the United Kingdom, this has given rise to the "West Lothian question", a reference to the situation in which MPs representing constituencies outside England can vote on matters affecting only England, but MPs cannot vote on the same matters in relation to the other parts of the UK. English people_sentence_122

Consequently, groups such as the CEP have called for the creation of a devolved English Parliament, claiming that there is now a discriminatory democratic deficit against the English. English people_sentence_123

The establishment of an English parliament has also been backed by a number of Scottish and Welsh nationalists. English people_sentence_124

Writer Paul Johnson has suggested that like most dominant groups, the English have only demonstrated interest in their ethnic self-definition when they were feeling oppressed. English people_sentence_125

John Curtice argues that "In the early years of devolution...there was little sign" of an English backlash against devolution for Scotland and Wales, but that more recently survey data shows tentative signs of "a form of English nationalism...beginning to emerge among the general public". English people_sentence_126

Michael Kenny, Richard English and Richard Hayton, meanwhile, argue that the resurgence in English nationalism predates devolution, being observable in the early 1990s, but that this resurgence does not necessarily have negative implications for the perception of the UK as a political union. English people_sentence_127

Others question whether devolution has led to a rise in English national identity at all, arguing that survey data fails to portray the complex nature of national identities, with many people considering themselves both English and British. English people_sentence_128

Recent surveys of public opinion on the establishment of an English parliament have given widely varying conclusions. English people_sentence_129

In the first five years of devolution for Scotland and Wales, support in England for the establishment of an English parliament was low at between 16 and 19%, according to successive British Social Attitudes Surveys. English people_sentence_130

A report, also based on the British Social Attitudes Survey, published in December 2010 suggests that only 29% of people in England support the establishment of an English parliament, though this figure had risen from 17% in 2007. English people_sentence_131

One 2007 poll carried out for BBC Newsnight, however, found that 61 per cent would support such a parliament being established. English people_sentence_132

Krishan Kumar notes that support for measures to ensure that only English MPs can vote on legislation that applies only to England is generally higher than that for the establishment of an English parliament, although support for both varies depending on the timing of the opinion poll and the wording of the question. English people_sentence_133

Electoral support for English nationalist parties is also low, even though there is public support for many of the policies they espouse. English people_sentence_134

The English Democrats gained just 64,826 votes in the 2010 UK general election, accounting for 0.3 per cent of all votes cast in England. English people_sentence_135

Kumar argued in 2010 that "despite devolution and occasional bursts of English nationalism – more an expression of exasperation with the Scots or Northern Irish – the English remain on the whole satisfied with current constitutional arrangements". English people_sentence_136

English diaspora English people_section_13

English people_table_general_1

Numbers of the English diasporaEnglish people_table_caption_1
YearEnglish people_header_cell_1_0_0 CountryEnglish people_header_cell_1_0_1 PopulationEnglish people_header_cell_1_0_2 % of local

populationEnglish people_header_cell_1_0_3

2016English people_cell_1_1_0 AustraliaEnglish people_cell_1_1_1 7,852,224English people_cell_1_1_2 36.1English people_cell_1_1_3
2016English people_cell_1_2_0 CanadaEnglish people_cell_1_2_1 6,320,085English people_cell_1_2_2 18.3English people_cell_1_2_3
2011English people_cell_1_3_0 ScotlandEnglish people_cell_1_3_1 459,486English people_cell_1_3_2 8.68English people_cell_1_3_3
2016English people_cell_1_4_0 United StatesEnglish people_cell_1_4_1 23,835,787English people_cell_1_4_2 7.4English people_cell_1_4_3
2018English people_cell_1_5_0 New ZealandEnglish people_cell_1_5_1 72,204–210,915English people_cell_1_5_2 4.49English people_cell_1_5_3

Further information: English diaspora English people_sentence_137

From the earliest times English people have left England to settle in other parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but it is not possible to identify their numbers, as British censuses have historically not invited respondents to identify themselves as English. English people_sentence_138

However, the census does record place of birth, revealing that 8.08% of Scotland's population, 3.66% of the population of Northern Ireland and 20% of the Welsh population were born in England. English people_sentence_139

Similarly, the census of the Republic of Ireland does not collect information on ethnicity, but it does record that there are over 200,000 people living in Ireland who were born in England and Wales. English people_sentence_140

English ethnic descent and emigrant communities are found primarily in the Western World, and in some places, settled in significant numbers. English people_sentence_141

Substantial populations descended from English colonists and immigrants exist in the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. English people_sentence_142

United States English people_section_14

Main article: English Americans English people_sentence_143

In the 2016 American Community Survey, English Americans were 7.4% of the United States population, behind the German Americans (13.9%) and Irish Americans (10.0%). English people_sentence_144

However, demographers regard this as a serious undercount, as the index of inconsistency is high, and many, if not most, people from English stock have a tendency (since the introduction of a new 'American' category in the 2000 census) to identify as simply Americans or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group. English people_sentence_145

Prior to this, in the 2000 census, 24,509,692 Americans described their ancestry as wholly or partly English. English people_sentence_146

In addition, 1,035,133 recorded British ancestry. English people_sentence_147

This was a numerical decrease from the census in 1990 where 32,651,788 people or 13.1% of the population self-identified with English ancestry. English people_sentence_148

In 1980 over 49 million (49,598,035) Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which, even today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States. English people_sentence_149

Scots-Irish Americans are descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English (specifically: County Durham, Cumberland, Northumberland and Westmorland) settlers who colonised Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century. English people_sentence_150

Americans of English heritage are often seen, and identify, as simply "American" due to the many historic cultural ties between England and the U.S. and their influence on the country's population. English people_sentence_151

Relative to ethnic groups of other European origins, this may be due to the early establishment of English settlements; as well as to non-English groups having emigrated in order to establish significant communities. English people_sentence_152

Canada English people_section_15

Main article: English Canadians English people_sentence_153

In the Canada 2016 Census, 'English' was the most common ethnic origin (ethnic origin refers to the ethnic or cultural group(s) to which the respondent's ancestors belong) recorded by respondents; 6,320,085 people or 18.3% of the population self-identified themselves as wholly or partly English. English people_sentence_154

On the other hand, people identifying as Canadian but not English may have previously identified as English before the option of identifying as Canadian was available. English people_sentence_155

Australia English people_section_16

Main article: English Australians English people_sentence_156

From the beginning of the colonial era until the mid-20th century, the vast majority of settlers to Australia were from the British Isles, with the English being the dominant group. English people_sentence_157

Among the leading ancestries, increases in Australian, Irish and German ancestries and decreases in English, Scottish and Welsh ancestries appear to reflect such shifts in perception or reporting. English people_sentence_158

These reporting shifts at least partly resulted from changes in the design of the census question, in particular the introduction of a tick box format in 2001. English people_sentence_159

English Australians have more often come from the south than the north of England. English people_sentence_160

Australians of English descent, are both the single largest ethnic group in Australia and the largest 'ancestry' identity in the Australian census. English people_sentence_161

In the 2016 census, 7.8 million or 36.1% of the population identified as "English" or a combination including English, a numerical increase from 7.2 million over the 2011 census figure. English people_sentence_162

The census also documented 907,572 residents or 3.9% of Australia as being born in England, and are the largest overseas-born population. English people_sentence_163

New Zealand English people_section_17

From 1840, the English comprised the largest single group among New Zealand's overseas-born, consistently being over 50 percent of the total population. English people_sentence_164

Despite this, after the early 1850s the English-born slowly fell from being a majority of the colonial population. English people_sentence_165

In the 1851 census 50.5% of the total population were born in England, this proportion fell to 36.5% (1861) and 24.3% by 1881. English people_sentence_166

In the most recent Census in 2013, there were 215,589 English-born representing 21.5% of all overseas-born residents or 5 percent of the total population and is still the most-common birthplace outside New Zealand. English people_sentence_167

Argentina English people_section_18

Main article: English Argentines English people_sentence_168

English settlers arrived in Buenos Aires in 1806 (then a Spanish colony) in small numbers, mostly as businessmen, when Argentina was an emerging nation and the settlers were welcomed for the stability they brought to commercial life. English people_sentence_169

As the 19th century progressed more English families arrived, and many bought land to develop the potential of the Argentine pampas for the large-scale growing of crops. English people_sentence_170

The English founded banks, developed the export trade in crops and animal products and imported the luxuries that the growing Argentine middle classes sought. English people_sentence_171

As well as those who went to Argentina as industrialists and major landowners, others went as railway engineers, civil engineers and to work in banking and commerce. English people_sentence_172

Others went to become whalers, missionaries and simply to seek out a future. English people_sentence_173

English families sent second and younger sons, or what were described as the black sheep of the family, to Argentina to make their fortunes in cattle and wheat. English people_sentence_174

English settlers introduced football to Argentina. English people_sentence_175

Some English families owned sugar plantations. English people_sentence_176

Culture English people_section_19

Main article: Culture of England English people_sentence_177

The culture of England is sometimes difficult to separate clearly from the culture of the United Kingdom, so influential has English culture been on the cultures of the British Isles and, on the other hand, given the extent to which other cultures have influenced life in England. English people_sentence_178

Religion English people_section_20

The established religion of the realm is the Church of England, whose titular head is Queen Elizabeth II although the worldwide Anglican Communion is overseen by the General Synod of its bishops under the authority of Parliament. English people_sentence_179

26 of the church's 42 bishops are Lords Spiritual, representing the church in the House of Lords. English people_sentence_180

In 2010, the Church of England counted 25 million baptised members out of the 41 million Christians in Great Britain's population of about 60 million; around the same time, it also claimed to baptise one in eight newborn children. English people_sentence_181

Generally, anyone in England may marry or be buried at their local parish church, whether or not they have been baptised in the church. English people_sentence_182

Actual attendance has declined steadily since 1890, with around one million, or 10% of the baptised population attending Sunday services on a regular basis (defined as once a month or more) and three million -roughly 15%- joining Christmas Eve and Christmas services. English people_sentence_183

Saint George is recognised as the patron saint of England, and the flag of England consists of his cross. English people_sentence_184

Before Edward III, the patron saint was St Edmund; and St Alban is also honoured as England's first martyr. English people_sentence_185

A survey carried out in the end of 2008 by Ipsos MORI on behalf of The Catholic Agency For Overseas Development found the population of England and Wales to be 47.0% affiliated with the Church of England, which is also the state church, 9.6% with the Roman Catholic Church and 8.7% were other Christians, mainly Free church Protestants and Eastern Orthodox Christians. English people_sentence_186

4.8% were Muslim, 3.4% were members of other religions, 5.3% were agnostics, 6.8% were atheists and 15.0% were not sure about their religious affiliation or refused to answer to the question. English people_sentence_187

Religious observance of St George's Day (23 April) changes when it is too close to Easter. English people_sentence_188

According to the Church of England's calendar, when St George's Day falls between Palm Sunday and the Second Sunday of Easter inclusive, it is moved to the Monday after the Second Sunday of Easter. English people_sentence_189

Language English people_section_21

See also: Old English and English language in England English people_sentence_190

English people traditionally speak the English language, a member of the West Germanic language family. English people_sentence_191

The modern English language evolved from Middle English (the form of language in use by the English people from the 12th to the 15th century); Middle English was influenced lexically by Norman-French, Old French and Latin. English people_sentence_192

In the Middle English period Latin was the language of administration and the nobility spoke Norman French. English people_sentence_193

Middle English was itself derived from the Old English of the Anglo-Saxon period; in the Northern and Eastern parts of England the language of Danish settlers had influenced the language, a fact still evident in Northern English dialects. English people_sentence_194

There were once many different dialects of modern English in England, which were recorded in projects such as the English Dialect Dictionary (late 19th century) and the Survey of English Dialects (mid 20th century), but many of these have passed out of common usage as Standard English has become more widespread through education, the media and socio-economic pressures. English people_sentence_195

Cornish, a Celtic language, is one of three existing Brittonic languages; its usage has been revived in Cornwall. English people_sentence_196

Historically, another Brittonic Celtic language, Cumbric, was spoken in Cumbria in North West England, but it died out in the 11th century although traces of it can still be found in the Cumbrian dialect. English people_sentence_197

Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the Great Vowel Shift. English people_sentence_198

Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries. English people_sentence_199

Through newspapers, books, the telegraph, the telephone, phonograph records, radio, satellite television, broadcasters (such as the BBC) and the Internet, as well as the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, Modern English has become the international language of business, science, communication, sports, aviation, and diplomacy. English people_sentence_200

Literature English people_section_22

Main article: English literature English people_sentence_201

Diaspora English people_section_23

English people_unordered_list_0

  • Bueltmann, Tanja, David T. Gleeson, and Donald M. MacRaild, eds. Locating the English Diaspora, 1500–2010 (Liverpool University Press, 2012) 246 pp.English people_item_0_0

Notelist English people_section_24

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English people.