Entomology

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Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. Entomology_sentence_0

Entomology (from Ancient Greek ἔντομον (entomon) 'insect', and -λογία () 'study of') is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. Entomology_sentence_1

In the past the term "insect" was vaguer, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of animals in other arthropod groups, such as arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. Entomology_sentence_2

This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Entomology_sentence_3

Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect-related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology_sentence_4

Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, behavior, biomechanics, biochemistry, systematics, physiology, developmental biology, ecology, morphology, and paleontology. Entomology_sentence_5

At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, some dating back around 400 million years. Entomology_sentence_6

They have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth. Entomology_sentence_7

History Entomology_section_0

See also: Timeline of entomology Entomology_sentence_8

Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times, primarily in the context of agriculture (especially biological control and beekeeping). Entomology_sentence_9

The natural philosopher Pliny the Elder, (23 - 79 AD) wrote a book on the kinds of Insects, while the scientist of Kufa, Ibn al-A‘rābī (760 - 845 AD) wrote a book on flies, Kitāb al-Dabāb (كتاب الذباب). Entomology_sentence_10

However scientific study in the modern sense began only as recently as the 16th century. Entomology_sentence_11

William Kirby is widely considered as the father of entomology. Entomology_sentence_12

In collaboration with William Spence, he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subject's foundational text. Entomology_sentence_13

He also helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world; earlier antecedents, such as the Aurelian society date back to the 1740s. Entomology_sentence_14

Entomology developed rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries, and was studied by large numbers of people, including such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Jean-Henri Fabre, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch (winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine), and two-time Pulitzer Prize winner E. Entomology_sentence_15 O. Wilson. Entomology_sentence_16

There has also been a history of people becoming entomologists through museum curation and research assistance, such as Sophie Lutterlough at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Entomology_sentence_17

Insect identification is an increasingly common hobby, with butterflies and dragonflies being the most popular. Entomology_sentence_18

Most insects can easily be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants) or Coleoptera (beetles). Entomology_sentence_19

However, insects other than Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are typically identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs. Entomology_sentence_20

Because the class Insecta contains a very large number of species (over 330,000 species of beetles alone) and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, and often subtle (or invisible without a microscope), this is often very difficult even for a specialist. Entomology_sentence_21

This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA and Draw-wing. Entomology_sentence_22

In pest control Entomology_section_1

In 1994, the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called the Associate Certified Entomologist (ACE). Entomology_sentence_23

To qualify as a "true entomologist" an individual would normally require an advanced degree, with most entomologists pursuing a PhD. Entomology_sentence_24

While not true entomologists in the traditional sense, individuals who attain the ACE certification may be referred to as ACEs or Associate Certified Entomologists. Entomology_sentence_25

Taxonomic specialization Entomology_section_2

Many entomologists specialize in a single order or even a family of insects, and a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names, typically (but not always) derived from the scientific name of the group: Entomology_sentence_26

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Entomologists Entomology_section_3

Main article: List of entomologists Entomology_sentence_27

Organizations Entomology_section_4

Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local, national, and international organizations. Entomology_sentence_28

There are also many organizations specializing in specific subareas. Entomology_sentence_29

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Research collection Entomology_section_5

Here is a list of selected very large insect collections, housed in museums, universities, or research institutes. Entomology_sentence_30

Asia Entomology_section_6

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Africa Entomology_section_7

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Australasia Entomology_section_8

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Europe Entomology_section_9

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United States Entomology_section_10

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Canada Entomology_section_11

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See also Entomology_section_12

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entomology.