Ernst Haeckel

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"Haeckel" redirects here. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_0

For other uses, see Haeckel (disambiguation). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_1

Ernst Haeckel_table_infobox_0

Ernst HaeckelErnst Haeckel_header_cell_0_0_0
BornErnst Haeckel_header_cell_0_1_0 Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel

(1834-02-16)16 February 1834 Potsdam, Kingdom of PrussiaErnst Haeckel_cell_0_1_1

DiedErnst Haeckel_header_cell_0_2_0 9 August 1919(1919-08-09) (aged 85)

Jena, Weimar RepublicErnst Haeckel_cell_0_2_1

NationalityErnst Haeckel_header_cell_0_3_0 GermanErnst Haeckel_cell_0_3_1
Alma materErnst Haeckel_header_cell_0_4_0 Ernst Haeckel_cell_0_4_1
AwardsErnst Haeckel_header_cell_0_5_0 Ernst Haeckel_cell_0_5_1
InstitutionsErnst Haeckel_header_cell_0_6_0 University of JenaErnst Haeckel_cell_0_6_1
Author abbrev. (zoology)Ernst Haeckel_header_cell_0_7_0 HaeckelErnst Haeckel_cell_0_7_1

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (German: [ˈʔɛɐ̯nst ˈhɛkl̩; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist, naturalist, eugenicist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_2

Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_3

The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures, collected in his Kunstformen der Natur ("Art Forms of Nature"). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_4

As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträthsel (1895–1899; in English: The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), the genesis for the term "world riddle" (Welträtsel); and Freedom in Science and Teaching to support teaching evolution. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_5

Haeckel was also a promoter of scientific racism and embraced the idea of Social Darwinism. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_6

Life Ernst Haeckel_section_0

Ernst Haeckel was born on 16 February 1834, in Potsdam (then part of the Kingdom of Prussia). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_7

In 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the Domgymnasium, the cathedral high-school of Merseburg. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_8

He then studied medicine in Berlin and Würzburg, particularly with Albert von Kölliker, Franz Leydig, Rudolf Virchow (with whom he later worked briefly as assistant), and with the anatomist-physiologist Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_9

Together with Hermann Steudner he attended botany lectures in Würzburg. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_10

In 1857 Haeckel attained a doctorate in medicine, and afterwards he received the license to practice medicine. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_11

The occupation of physician appeared less worthwhile to Haeckel after contact with suffering patients. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_12

Ernst Haeckel studied under Karl Gegenbaur at the University of Jena for three years, earning a habilitation in comparative anatomy in 1861, before becoming a professor of zoology at Jena, where he remained for 47 years, from 1862 to 1909. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_13

Between 1859 and 1866 Haeckel worked on many phyla, such as radiolarians, poriferans (sponges) and annelids (segmented worms). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_14

During a trip to the Mediterranean, Haeckel named nearly 150 new species of radiolarians. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_15

From 1866 to 1867 Haeckel made an extended journey to the Canary Islands with Hermann Fol. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_16

On 17 October 1866 he arrived in London. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_17

Over the next few days he met Charles Lyell, and visited Thomas Huxley and family at their home. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_18

On 21 October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_19

In 1867 he married Agnes Huschke. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_20

Their son Walter was born in 1868, their daughters Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma in 1873. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_21

In 1869 he traveled as a researcher to Norway, in 1871 to Croatia (where he lived on the island of Hvar in a monastery), and in 1873 to Egypt, Turkey, and Greece. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_22

In 1907 he had a museum built in Jena to teach the public about evolution. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_23

Haeckel retired from teaching in 1909, and in 1910 he withdrew from the Evangelical Church of Prussia. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_24

On the occasion of his 80th birthday celebration he was presented with a two-volume work entitled Was wir Ernst Haeckel verdanken (What We Owe to Ernst Haeckel), edited at the request of the German Monistenbund by Heinrich Schmidt of Jena. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_25

Haeckel's wife, Agnes, died in 1915, and he became substantially frailer, breaking his leg and arm. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_26

He sold his "Villa Medusa" in Jena in 1918 to the Carl Zeiss foundation, which preserved his library. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_27

Haeckel died on 9 August 1919. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_28

Haeckel became the most famous proponent of Monism in Germany. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_29

Politics Ernst Haeckel_section_1

Haeckel's affinity for the German Romantic movement, coupled with his acceptance of a form of Lamarckism, influenced his political beliefs. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_30

Rather than being a strict Darwinian, Haeckel believed that the characteristics of an organism were acquired through interactions with the environment and that ontogeny reflected phylogeny. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_31

He saw the social sciences as instances of "applied biology", and that phrase was picked up and used for Nazi propaganda. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_32

In 1906 Haeckel founded a group called the Monist League () to promote his religious and political beliefs. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_33

This group lasted until 1933 and included such notable members as Wilhelm Ostwald, Georg von Arco (1869-1940), Helene Stöcker and Walter Arthur Berendsohn. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_34

He was the first person to use the term "first world war". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_35

Research Ernst Haeckel_section_2

Haeckel was a zoologist, an accomplished artist and illustrator, and later a professor of comparative anatomy. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_36

Although Haeckel's ideas are important to the history of evolutionary theory, and although he was a competent invertebrate anatomist most famous for his work on radiolaria, many speculative concepts that he championed are now considered incorrect. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_37

For example, Haeckel described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that have never been found. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_38

He was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_39

He also proposed the kingdom Protista in 1866. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_40

His chief interests lay in evolution and life development processes in general, including development of nonrandom form, which culminated in the beautifully illustrated Kunstformen der Natur (Art forms of nature). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_41

Haeckel did not support natural selection, rather believing in Lamarckism. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_42

Haeckel advanced a version of the earlier recapitulation theory previously set out by Étienne Serres in the 1820s and supported by followers of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire including Robert Edmond Grant. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_43

It proposed a link between ontogeny (development of form) and phylogeny (evolutionary descent), summed up by Haeckel in the phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_44

His concept of recapitulation has been refuted in the form he gave it (now called "strong recapitulation"), in favour of the ideas first advanced by Karl Ernst von Baer. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_45

The strong recapitulation hypothesis views ontogeny as repeating forms of adult ancestors, while weak recapitulation means that what is repeated (and built upon) is the ancestral embryonic development process. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_46

Haeckel supported the theory with embryo drawings that have since been shown to be oversimplified and in part inaccurate, and the theory is now considered an oversimplification of quite complicated relationships, however comparison of embryos remains a powerful way to demonstrate that all animals are related. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_47

Haeckel introduced the concept of heterochrony, the change in timing of embryonic development over the course of evolution. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_48

Haeckel was a flamboyant figure, who sometimes took great, non-scientific leaps from available evidence. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_49

For example, at the time when Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859), Haeckel postulated that evidence of human evolution would be found in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_50

At that time, no remains of human ancestors had yet been identified. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_51

He described these theoretical remains in great detail and even named the as-yet unfound species, Pithecanthropus alalus, and instructed his students such as Richard and Oskar Hertwig to go and find it. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_52

One student did find some remains: a Dutchman named Eugène Dubois searched the East Indies from 1887 to 1895, discovering the remains of Java Man in 1891, consisting of a skullcap, thighbone, and a few teeth. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_53

These remains are among the oldest hominid remains ever found. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_54

Dubois classified Java Man with Haeckel's Pithecanthropus label, though they were later reclassified as Homo erectus. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_55

Some scientists of the day suggested Dubois' Java Man as a potential intermediate form between modern humans and the common ancestor we share with the other great apes. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_56

The current consensus of anthropologists is that the direct ancestors of modern humans were African populations of Homo erectus (possibly Homo ergaster), rather than the Asian populations exemplified by Java Man and Peking Man. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_57

(Ironically, a new human species, Homo floresiensis, a dwarf human type, has recently been discovered in the island of Flores). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_58

Polygenism and racial theory Ernst Haeckel_section_3

The creationist polygenism of Samuel George Morton and Louis Agassiz, which presented human races as separately created species, was rejected by Charles Darwin, who argued for the monogenesis of the human species and the African origin of modern humans. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_59

In contrast to most of Darwin's supporters, Haeckel put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist August Schleicher, in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen (German: proto-humans), which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_60

These separate languages had completed the transition from animals to man, and under the influence of each main branch of languages, humans had evolved – in a kind of Lamarckian use-inheritance – as separate species, which could be subdivided into races. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_61

From this, Haeckel drew the implication that languages with the most potential yield the human races with the most potential, led by the Semitic and Indo-Germanic groups, with Berber, Jewish, Greco-Roman and Germanic varieties to the fore. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_62

As Haeckel stated: Ernst Haeckel_sentence_63

Haeckel's view can be seen as a forerunner of the views of Carleton Coon, who also believed that human races evolved independently and in parallel with each other. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_64

These ideas eventually fell from favour. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_65

Haeckel also applied the hypothesis of polygenism to the modern diversity of human groups. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_66

He became a key figure in social darwinism and leading proponent of scientific racism, stating for instance: Ernst Haeckel_sentence_67

Haeckel divided human beings into ten races, of which the Caucasian was the highest and the primitives were doomed to extinction. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_68

In his view, 'Negroes' were savages and Whites were the most civilised: for instance, he claimed that '[t]he Negro' had stronger and more freely movable toes than any other race, which, he argued, was evidence of their being less evolved, and which led him to compare them to '"four-handed" Apes'. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_69

In his Ontogeny and Phylogeny Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould wrote: "[Haeckel's] evolutionary racism; his call to the German people for racial purity and unflinching devotion to a 'just' state; his belief that harsh, inexorable laws of evolution ruled human civilization and nature alike, conferring upon favored races the right to dominate others ... all contributed to the rise of Nazism." Ernst Haeckel_sentence_70

In his introduction to the Nazi party ideologue Alfred Rosenberg's 1930 book, The Myth of the Twentieth Century, Peter Peel affirms that Rosenberg had indeed read Haeckel. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_71

In the same line of thought, historian Daniel Gasman states that Haeckel's ideology stimulated the birth of Fascist ideology in Italy and France. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_72

However, Robert J. Richards notes: "Haeckel, on his travels to Ceylon and Indonesia, often formed closer and more intimate relations with natives, even members of the untouchable classes, than with the European colonials." Ernst Haeckel_sentence_73

and says the Nazis rejected Haeckel, since he opposed antisemitism, while supporting ideas they disliked (for instance atheism, feminism, internationalism, pacifism etc.). Ernst Haeckel_sentence_74

Asia hypothesis Ernst Haeckel_section_4

See also: Asian origin of modern humans Ernst Haeckel_sentence_75

Haeckel claimed the origin of humanity was to be found in Asia: he believed that Hindustan (Indian subcontinent) was the actual location where the first humans had evolved. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_76

Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_77

Haeckel later claimed that the missing link was to be found on the lost continent of Lemuria located in the Indian Ocean. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_78

He believed that Lemuria was the home of the first humans and that Asia was the home of many of the earliest primates; he thus supported that Asia was the cradle of hominid evolution. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_79

Haeckel also claimed that Lemuria connected Asia and Africa, which allowed the migration of humans to the rest of the world. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_80

In Haeckel’s book The History of Creation (1884) he included migration routes which he thought the first humans had used outside of Lemuria. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_81

Embryology and recapitulation theory Ernst Haeckel_section_5

Further information: Recapitulation theory Ernst Haeckel_sentence_82

When Haeckel was a student in the 1850s he showed great interest in embryology, attending the rather unpopular lectures twice and in his notes sketched the visual aids: textbooks had few illustrations, and large format plates were used to show students how to see the tiny forms under a reflecting microscope, with the translucent tissues seen against a black background. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_83

Developmental series were used to show stages within a species, but inconsistent views and stages made it even more difficult to compare different species. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_84

It was agreed by all European evolutionists that all vertebrates looked very similar at an early stage, in what was thought of as a common ideal type, but there was a continuing debate from the 1820s between the Romantic recapitulation theory that human embryos developed through stages of the forms of all the major groups of adult animals, literally manifesting a sequence of organisms on a linear chain of being, and Karl Ernst von Baer's opposing view, stated in von Baer's laws of embryology, that the early general forms diverged into four major groups of specialised forms without ever resembling the adult of another species, showing affinity to an archetype but no relation to other types or any transmutation of species. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_85

By the time Haeckel was teaching he was able to use a textbook with woodcut illustrations written by his own teacher Albert von Kölliker, which purported to explain human development while also using other mammalian embryos to claim a coherent sequence. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_86

Despite the significance to ideas of transformism, this was not really polite enough for the new popular science writing, and was a matter for medical institutions and for experts who could make their own comparisons. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_87

Darwin, Naturphilosophie and Lamarck Ernst Haeckel_section_6

Darwin's On the Origin of Species, which made a powerful impression on Haeckel when he read it in 1864, was very cautious about the possibility of ever reconstructing the history of life, but did include a section reinterpreting von Baer's embryology and revolutionising the field of study, concluding that "Embryology rises greatly in interest, when we thus look at the embryo as a picture, more or less obscured, of the common parent-form of each great class of animals." Ernst Haeckel_sentence_88

It mentioned von Baer's 1828 anecdote (misattributing it to Louis Agassiz) that at an early stage embryos were so similar that it could be impossible to tell whether an unlabelled specimen was of a mammal, a bird, or of a reptile, and Darwin's own research using embryonic stages of barnacles to show that they are crustaceans, while cautioning against the idea that one organism or embryonic stage is "higher" or "lower", or more or less evolved. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_89

Haeckel disregarded such caution, and in a year wrote his massive and ambitious Generelle Morphologie, published in 1866, presenting a revolutionary new synthesis of Darwin's ideas with the German tradition of Naturphilosophie going back to Goethe and with the progressive evolutionism of Lamarck in what he called Darwinismus. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_90

He used morphology to reconstruct the evolutionary history of life, in the absence of fossil evidence using embryology as evidence of ancestral relationships. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_91

He invented new terms, including ontogeny and phylogeny, to present his evolutionised recapitulation theory that "ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_92

The two massive volumes sold poorly, and were heavy going: with his limited understanding of German, Darwin found them impossible to read. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_93

Haeckel's publisher turned down a proposal for a "strictly scholarly and objective" second edition. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_94

Embryological drawings Ernst Haeckel_section_7

Haeckel's aim was a reformed morphology with evolution as the organising principle of a cosmic synthesis unifying science, religion, and art. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_95

He was giving successful "popular lectures" on his ideas to students and townspeople in Jena, in an approach pioneered by his teacher Rudolf Virchow. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_96

To meet his publisher's need for a popular work he used a student's transcript of his lectures as the basis of his Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte of 1868, presenting a comprehensive presentation of evolution. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_97

In the Spring of that year he drew figures for the book, synthesising his views of specimens in Jena and published pictures to represent types. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_98

After publication he told a colleague that the images "are completely exact, partly copied from nature, partly assembled from all illustrations of these early stages that have hitherto become known". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_99

There were various styles of embryological drawings at that time, ranging from more schematic representations to "naturalistic" illustrations of specific specimens. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_100

Haeckel believed privately that his figures were both exact and synthetic, and in public asserted that they were schematic like most figures used in teaching. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_101

The images were reworked to match in size and orientation, and though displaying Haeckel's own views of essential features, they support von Baer's concept that vertebrate embryos begin similarly and then diverge. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_102

Relating different images on a grid conveyed a powerful evolutionary message. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_103

As a book for the general public, it followed the common practice of not citing sources. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_104

The book sold very well, and while some anatomical experts hostile to Haeckel's evolutionary views expressed some private concerns that certain figures had been drawn rather freely, the figures showed what they already knew about similarities in embryos. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_105

The first published concerns came from Ludwig Rütimeyer, a professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at the University of Basel who had placed fossil mammals in an evolutionary lineage early in the 1860s and had been sent a complimentary copy. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_106

At the end of 1868 his review in the Archiv für Anthropologie wondered about the claim that the work was "popular and scholarly", doubting whether the second was true, and expressed horror about such public discussion of man's place in nature with illustrations such as the evolutionary trees being shown to non-experts. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_107

Though he made no suggestion that embryo illustrations should be directly based on specimens, to him the subject demanded the utmost "scrupulosity and conscientiousness" and an artist must "not arbitrarily model or generalise his originals for speculative purposes" which he considered proved by comparison with works by other authors. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_108

In particular, "one and the same, moreover incorrectly interpreted woodcut, is presented to the reader three times in a row and with three different captions as [the] embryo of the dog, the chick, [and] the turtle". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_109

He accused Haeckel of "playing fast and loose with the public and with science", and failing to live up to the obligation to the truth of every serious researcher. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_110

Haeckel responded with angry accusations of bowing to religious prejudice, but in the second (1870) edition changed the duplicated embryo images to a single image captioned "embryo of a mammal or bird". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_111

Duplication using galvanoplastic stereotypes (clichés) was a common technique in textbooks, but not on the same page to represent different eggs or embryos. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_112

In 1891 Haeckel made the excuse that this "extremely rash foolishness" had occurred in undue haste but was "bona fide", and since repetition of incidental details was obvious on close inspection, it is unlikely to have been intentional deception. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_113

The revised 1870 second edition of 1,500 copies attracted more attention, being quickly followed by further revised editions with larger print runs as the book became a prominent part of the optimistic, nationalist, anticlerical "culture of progress" in Otto von Bismarck's new German Empire. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_114

The similarity of early vertebrate embryos became common knowledge, and the illustrations were praised by experts such as Michael Foster of the University of Cambridge. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_115

In the introduction to his 1871 The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Darwin gave particular praise to Haeckel, writing that if Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte "had appeared before my essay had been written, I should probably never have completed it". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_116

The first chapter included an illustration: "As some of my readers may never have seen a drawing of an embryo, I have given one of man and another of a dog, at about the same early stage of development, carefully copied from two works of undoubted accuracy" with a footnote citing the sources and noting that "Häckel has also given analogous drawings in his Schöpfungsgeschichte." Ernst Haeckel_sentence_117

The fifth edition of Haeckel's book appeared in 1874, with its frontispiece a heroic portrait of Haeckel himself, replacing the previous controversial image of the heads of apes and humans. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_118

Controversy Ernst Haeckel_section_8

Later in 1874, Haeckel's simplified embryology textbook Anthropogenie made the subject into a battleground over Darwinism aligned with Bismarck's Kulturkampf ("culture struggle") against the Catholic Church. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_119

Haeckel took particular care over the illustrations, changing to the leading zoological publisher Wilhelm Engelmann of Leipzig and obtaining from them use of illustrations from their other textbooks as well as preparing his own drawings including a dramatic double page illustration showing "early", "somewhat later" and "still later" stages of 8 different vertebrates. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_120

Though Haeckel's views had attracted continuing controversy, there had been little dispute about the embryos and he had many expert supporters, but Wilhelm His revived the earlier criticisms and introduced new attacks on the 1874 illustrations. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_121

Others joined in: both expert anatomists and Catholic priests and supporters were politically opposed to Haeckel's views. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_122

While it has been widely claimed that Haeckel was charged with fraud by five professors and convicted by a university court at Jena, there does not appear to be an independently verifiable source for this claim. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_123

Recent analyses (Richardson 1998, Richardson and Keuck 2002) have found that some of the criticisms of Haeckel's embryo drawings were legitimate, but others were unfounded. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_124

There were multiple versions of the embryo drawings, and Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_125

It was later said that "there is evidence of sleight of hand" on both sides of the feud between Haeckel and Wilhelm His. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_126

Robert J. Richards, in a paper published in 2008, defends the case for Haeckel, shedding doubt against the fraud accusations based on the material used for comparison with what Haeckel could access at the time. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_127

Awards and honors Ernst Haeckel_section_9

Haeckel was awarded the title of Excellency by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1907 and the Linnean Society of London's prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal in 1908. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_128

In the United States, Mount Haeckel, a 13,418 ft (4,090 m) summit in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, overlooking the Evolution Basin, is named in his honour, as is another Mount Haeckel, a 2,941 m (9,649 ft) summit in New Zealand; and the asteroid 12323 Haeckel. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_129

In Jena he is remembered with a monument at Herrenberg (erected in 1969), an exhibition at Ernst-Haeckel-Haus, and at the Jena Phyletic Museum, which continues to teach about evolution and share his work to this day. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_130

Publications Ernst Haeckel_section_10

Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species had immense popular influence, but although its sales exceeded its publisher's hopes it was a technical book rather than a work of popular science: long, difficult and with few illustrations. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_131

One of Haeckel's books did a great deal to explain his version of "Darwinism" to the world. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_132

It was a bestselling, provocatively illustrated book in German, titled Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, published in Berlin in 1868, and translated into English as The History of Creation in 1876. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_133

It was frequently reprinted until 1926. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_134

Haeckel argued that human evolution consisted of precisely 22 phases, the 21st – the "missing link" – being a halfway step between apes and humans. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_135

He even formally named this missing link Pithecanthropus alalus, translated as "ape man without speech". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_136

Haeckel's literary output was extensive, including many books, scientific papers, and illustrations. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_137

Monographs Ernst Haeckel_section_11

Ernst Haeckel_unordered_list_0

  • Radiolaria (1862)Ernst Haeckel_item_0_0
  • Siphonophora (1869)Ernst Haeckel_item_0_1
  • Monera (1870)Ernst Haeckel_item_0_2
  • Calcareous Sponges (1872)Ernst Haeckel_item_0_3

Challenger reports Ernst Haeckel_section_12

Ernst Haeckel_unordered_list_1

  • Deep-Sea Medusae (1881)Ernst Haeckel_item_1_4
  • Siphonophora (1888)Ernst Haeckel_item_1_5
  • Deep-Sea Keratosa (1889)Ernst Haeckel_item_1_6
  • Radiolaria (1887)Ernst Haeckel_item_1_7

Books on biology and its philosophy Ernst Haeckel_section_13

Ernst Haeckel_unordered_list_2

  • Generelle Morphologie der Organismen: allgemeine Grundzüge der organischen Formen-Wissenschaft, mechanisch begründet durch die von Charles Darwin reformirte Descendenz-Theorie. (1866) Berlin (General morphology of organisms: general foundations of form-science, mechanically grounded by the descendance theory reformed by Charles Darwin)Ernst Haeckel_item_2_8
  • (1868); in English (1876; 6th ed.: New York, D. Appleton and Co., 1914, 2 volumes)Ernst Haeckel_item_2_9
  • Freie Wissenschaft und freie Lehre (1877), in English, Free Science and Free TeachingErnst Haeckel_item_2_10
  • Die systematische Phylogenie (1894) – Systematic PhylogenyErnst Haeckel_item_2_11
  • Anthropogenie oder Entwickelungsgeschichte des Menschen (Anthropogeny: Or, the Evolutionary History of Man, 1874)Ernst Haeckel_item_2_12
  • Die Welträthsel (1895–1899), also spelled Die Welträtsel – in English The Riddle of the Universe, 1901Ernst Haeckel_item_2_13
  • Über unsere gegenwärtige Kenntnis vom Ursprung des Menschen (1898) (On our current understanding of the origin of man) – in English The Last Link, 1898Ernst Haeckel_item_2_14
  • Der Kampf um den Entwickelungsgedanken (1905) (The struggle over thought on evolution) – in English Last Words on Evolution, 1906Ernst Haeckel_item_2_15
  • Die Lebenswunder (1904) — in EnglishErnst Haeckel_item_2_16
  • (1917) (Crystal souls: studies on inorganic life)Ernst Haeckel_item_2_17

Travel books Ernst Haeckel_section_14

Ernst Haeckel_unordered_list_3

  • Indische Reisebriefe (1882) – Travel notes of IndiaErnst Haeckel_item_3_18
  • Aus Insulinde: Malayische Reisebriefe (1901) – Travel notes of MalaysiaErnst Haeckel_item_3_19
  • Kunstformen der Natur (1904) – Art forms of Nature,Ernst Haeckel_item_3_20
  • Wanderbilder (1905) – "Travel Images"Ernst Haeckel_item_3_21
  • Ernst Haeckel_item_3_22

For a fuller list of works of and about Haeckel, see his entry in the . Ernst Haeckel_sentence_138

Assessments of potential influence on Nazism Ernst Haeckel_section_15

Some historians have seen Haeckel's social Darwinism as a forerunner to Nazi ideology. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_139

Others have denied the relationship all together. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_140

The evidence is in some respects ambiguous. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_141

On one hand, Haeckel was an advocate of scientific racism. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_142

He held that evolutionary biology had definitively proven that races were unequal in intelligence and ability, and that their lives were also of unequal value. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_143

As a result of the "struggle for existence", it followed that the "lower" races would eventually be exterminated. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_144

He was also a social Darwinist who believed that "survival of the fittest" was a natural law, and that struggle led to improvement of the race. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_145

As an advocate of eugenics, he also believed that about 200,000 mentally and congenitally ill should be killed by a medical control board. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_146

This idea was later put into practice by the Third Reich, as part of the Aktion T4 program. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_147

Alfred Ploetz, founder of the German Society for Racial Hygiene, praised Haeckel repeatedly, and invited him to become an honorary member. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_148

Haeckel accepted the invitation. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_149

Haeckel also believed that Germany should be governed by an authoritarian political system, and that inequalities both within and between societies were an inevitable product of evolutionary law. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_150

Haeckel was also an extreme German nationalist who believed strongly in the superiority of German culture. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_151

On the other hand, Haeckel was not an anti-Semite. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_152

In the racial hierarchies he constructed Jews tended to appear closer to the top, rather than closer to the bottom as in Nazi racial thought. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_153

He was also a pacifist until the First World War, when he wrote propaganda in favor of the war. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_154

The principal arguments of historians who deny a meaningful connection between Haeckel and Nazism are that Haeckel's ideas were very common at the time, that Nazis were much more strongly influenced by other thinkers, and that Haeckel is properly classified as a 19th century German liberal, rather than a forerunner to Nazism. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_155

They also point to incompatibilities between evolutionary biology and Nazi ideology. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_156

Nazis themselves divided on the question of whether Haeckel should be counted as a pioneer of their ideology. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_157

SS captain and biologist Heinz Brücher wrote a biography of Haeckel in 1936, in which he praised Haeckel as a "pioneer in biological state thinking". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_158

This opinion was also shared by the scholarly journal, Der Biologie, which celebrated Haeckel's 100th birthday, in 1934, with several essays acclaiming him as a pioneering thinker of Nazism. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_159

Other Nazis kept their distance from Haeckel. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_160

Nazi propaganda guidelines issued in 1935 listed books which popularized Darwin and evolution on an "expunged list". Ernst Haeckel_sentence_161

Haeckel was included by name as a forbidden author. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_162

Gunther Hecht, a member of the Nazi Department of Race Politics, also issued a memorandum rejecting Haeckel as a forerunner of Nazism. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_163

Kurt Hildebrandt, a Nazi political philosopher, also rejected Haeckel. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_164

Eventually Nazis rejected Haeckel because his evolutionary ideas could not be reconciled with Nazi ideology. Ernst Haeckel_sentence_165

See also Ernst Haeckel_section_16

Ernst Haeckel_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Haeckel.