Ethnic group

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"Ethnicity" redirects here. Ethnic group_sentence_0

For other uses, see Ethnicity (disambiguation). Ethnic group_sentence_1

"Ethnicities" redirects here. Ethnic group_sentence_2

For the academic journal, see Ethnicities (journal). Ethnic group_sentence_3

An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of humans based on people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. Ethnic group_sentence_4

Ethnicity is sometimes used interchangeably with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from, but related to the concept of races. Ethnic group_sentence_5

Ethnicity can be an inherited status or based on the society within which one lives. Ethnic group_sentence_6

Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic group_sentence_7

Ethnic groups often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. Ethnic group_sentence_8

By way of language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion, individuals or groups may over time shift from one ethnic group to another. Ethnic group_sentence_9

Ethnic groups may be subdivided into subgroups or tribes, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Ethnic group_sentence_10

Conversely, formerly separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may eventually merge into one single ethnicity. Ethnic group_sentence_11

Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis. Ethnic group_sentence_12

Modern scholarship regards an ethnic group as a social construct, an identity which is assigned based on rules made by society. Ethnic group_sentence_13

Terminology Ethnic group_section_0

The term is derived from the Greek word ethnos (more precisely, from the adjective ἐθνικός ethnikos, which was loaned into Latin as ethnicus). Ethnic group_sentence_14

The inherited English language term for this concept is , used alongside the latinate since the late Middle English period. Ethnic group_sentence_15

In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean or (in the sense of disparate "nations" which did not yet participate in the Christian oikumene), as the Septuagint used ta ethne ("the nations") to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews". Ethnic group_sentence_16

The Greek term in early antiquity (Homeric Greek) could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. Ethnic group_sentence_17

In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group", mostly translated as ", people"; only in Hellenistic Greek did the term tend to become further narrowed to refer to "foreign" or "barbarous" nations in particular (whence the later meaning "heathen, pagan"). Ethnic group_sentence_18

In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. Ethnic group_sentence_19

The sense of "different cultural groups", and in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism. Ethnic group_sentence_20

The abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character" (first recorded 1953). Ethnic group_sentence_21

The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Ethnic group_sentence_22

Depending on the context that is used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity or synonymously with citizenship (in a sovereign state). Ethnic group_sentence_23

The process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. Ethnic group_sentence_24

The term may also be used with the connotation of something exotic (cf. Ethnic group_sentence_25

"ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established. Ethnic group_sentence_26

Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of (often mutually overlapping) groups can be identified: Ethnic group_sentence_27

Ethnic group_unordered_list_0

In many cases, more than one aspect determines membership: for instance, Armenian ethnicity can be defined by citizenship of Armenia, native use of the Armenian language, or membership of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Ethnic group_sentence_28

Definitions and conceptual history Ethnic group_section_1

Ethnography begins in classical antiquity; after early authors like Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus, Herodotus in c. 480 BC laid the foundation of both historiography and ethnography of the ancient world. Ethnic group_sentence_29

The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had also developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Ethnic group_sentence_30

Herodotus (8.144.2) gave a famous account of what defined Greek (Hellenic) ethnic identity in his day, enumerating Ethnic group_sentence_31

Ethnic group_ordered_list_1

  1. shared descent (ὅμαιμον – homaimon, "of the same blood"),Ethnic group_item_1_5
  2. shared language (ὁμόγλωσσον – homoglōsson, "speaking the same language")Ethnic group_item_1_6
  3. shared sanctuaries and sacrifices (Greek: θεῶν ἱδρύματά τε κοινὰ καὶ θυσίαι – theōn hidrumata te koina kai thusiai)Ethnic group_item_1_7
  4. shared customs (Greek: ἤθεα ὁμότροπα – ēthea homotropa, "customs of like fashion").Ethnic group_item_1_8

Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. Ethnic group_sentence_32

Many social scientists, such as anthropologists Fredrik Barth and Eric Wolf, do not consider ethnic identity to be universal. Ethnic group_sentence_33

They regard ethnicity as a product of specific kinds of inter-group interactions, rather than an essential quality inherent to human groups. Ethnic group_sentence_34

According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen, the study of ethnicity was dominated by two distinct debates until recently. Ethnic group_sentence_35

Ethnic group_unordered_list_2

  • One is between "primordialism" and "instrumentalism". In the primordialist view, the participant perceives ethnic ties collectively, as an externally given, even coercive, social bond. The instrumentalist approach, on the other hand, treats ethnicity primarily as an ad-hoc element of a political strategy, used as a resource for interest groups for achieving secondary goals such as, for instance, an increase in wealth, power, or status. This debate is still an important point of reference in Political science, although most scholars' approaches fall between the two poles.Ethnic group_item_2_9
  • The second debate is between "constructivism" and "essentialism". Constructivists view national and ethnic identities as the product of historical forces, often recent, even when the identities are presented as old. Essentialists view such identities as ontological categories defining social actors.Ethnic group_item_2_10

According to Eriksen, these debates have been superseded, especially in anthropology, by scholars' attempts to respond to increasingly politicized forms of self-representation by members of different ethnic groups and nations. Ethnic group_sentence_36

This is in the context of debates over multiculturalism in countries, such as the United States and Canada, which have large immigrant populations from many different cultures, and post-colonialism in the Caribbean and South Asia. Ethnic group_sentence_37

Max Weber maintained that ethnic groups were künstlich (artificial, i.e. a social construct) because they were based on a subjective belief in shared Gemeinschaft (community). Ethnic group_sentence_38

Secondly, this belief in shared Gemeinschaft did not create the group; the group created the belief. Ethnic group_sentence_39

Third, group formation resulted from the drive to monopolize power and status. Ethnic group_sentence_40

This was contrary to the prevailing naturalist belief of the time, which held that socio-cultural and behavioral differences between peoples stemmed from inherited traits and tendencies derived from common descent, then called "race". Ethnic group_sentence_41

Another influential theoretician of ethnicity was Fredrik Barth, whose "Ethnic Groups and Boundaries" from 1969 has been described as instrumental in spreading the usage of the term in social studies in the 1980s and 1990s. Ethnic group_sentence_42

Barth went further than Weber in stressing the constructed nature of ethnicity. Ethnic group_sentence_43

To Barth, ethnicity was perpetually negotiated and renegotiated by both external ascription and internal self-identification. Ethnic group_sentence_44

Barth's view is that ethnic groups are not discontinuous cultural isolates or logical a priority to which people naturally belong. Ethnic group_sentence_45

He wanted to part with anthropological notions of cultures as bounded entities, and ethnicity as primordialist bonds, replacing it with a focus on the interface between groups. Ethnic group_sentence_46

"Ethnic Groups and Boundaries", therefore, is a focus on the interconnectedness of ethnic identities. Ethnic group_sentence_47

Barth writes: "... categorical ethnic distinctions do not depend on an absence of mobility, contact, and information, but do entail social processes of exclusion and incorporation whereby discrete categories are maintained despite changing participation and membership in the course of individual life histories." Ethnic group_sentence_48

In 1978, anthropologist Ronald Cohen claimed that the identification of "ethnic groups" in the usage of social scientists often reflected inaccurate labels more than indigenous realities: Ethnic group_sentence_49

In this way, he pointed to the fact that identification of an ethnic group by outsiders, e.g. anthropologists, may not coincide with the self-identification of the members of that group. Ethnic group_sentence_50

He also described that in the first decades of usage, the term ethnicity had often been used in lieu of older terms such as "cultural" or "tribal" when referring to smaller groups with shared cultural systems and shared heritage, but that "ethnicity" had the added value of being able to describe the commonalities between systems of group identity in both tribal and modern societies. Ethnic group_sentence_51

Cohen also suggested that claims concerning "ethnic" identity (like earlier claims concerning "tribal" identity) are often colonialist practices and effects of the relations between colonized peoples and nation-states. Ethnic group_sentence_52

According to Paul James, formations of identity were often changed and distorted by colonization, but identities are not made out of nothing: Ethnic group_sentence_53

Social scientists have thus focused on how, when, and why different markers of ethnic identity become salient. Ethnic group_sentence_54

Thus, anthropologist Joan Vincent observed that ethnic boundaries often have a mercurial character. Ethnic group_sentence_55

Ronald Cohen concluded that ethnicity is "a series of nesting dichotomizations of inclusiveness and exclusiveness". Ethnic group_sentence_56

He agrees with Joan Vincent's observation that (in Cohen's paraphrase) "Ethnicity ... can be narrowed or broadened in boundary terms in relation to the specific needs of political mobilization. Ethnic group_sentence_57

This may be why descent is sometimes a marker of ethnicity, and sometimes not: which diacritic of ethnicity is salient depends on whether people are scaling ethnic boundaries up or down, and whether they are scaling them up or down depends generally on the political situation. Ethnic group_sentence_58

Kanchan Chandra rejects the expansive definitions of ethnic identity (such as those that include common culture, common language, common history and common territory), choosing instead to define ethnic identity narrowly as a subset of identity categories determined by the belief of common descent. Ethnic group_sentence_59

Approaches to understanding ethnicity Ethnic group_section_2

Different approaches to understanding ethnicity have been used by different social scientists when trying to understand the nature of ethnicity as a factor in human life and society. Ethnic group_sentence_60

As Jonathan M. Hall observes, World War II was a turning point in ethnic studies. Ethnic group_sentence_61

The consequences of Nazi racism discouraged essentialist interpretations of ethnic groups and race. Ethnic group_sentence_62

Ethnic groups came to be defined as social rather than biological entities. Ethnic group_sentence_63

Their coherence was attributed to shared myths, descent, kinship, a commonplace of origin, language, religion, customs, and national character. Ethnic group_sentence_64

So, ethnic groups are conceived as mutable rather than stable, constructed in discursive practices rather than written in the genes. Ethnic group_sentence_65

Examples of various approaches are primordialism, essentialism, perennialism, constructivism, modernism, and instrumentalism. Ethnic group_sentence_66

Ethnic group_unordered_list_3

  • "Primordialism", holds that ethnicity has existed at all times of human history and that modern ethnic groups have historical continuity into the far past. For them, the idea of ethnicity is closely linked to the idea of nations and is rooted in the pre-Weber understanding of humanity as being divided into primordially existing groups rooted by kinship and biological heritage.Ethnic group_item_3_11
    • "Essentialist primordialism" further holds that ethnicity is an a priori fact of human existence, that ethnicity precedes any human social interaction and that it is unchanged by it. This theory sees ethnic groups as natural, not just as historical. It also has problems dealing with the consequences of intermarriage, migration and colonization for the composition of modern-day multi-ethnic societies.Ethnic group_item_3_12
    • "Kinship primordialism" holds that ethnic communities are extensions of kinship units, basically being derived by kinship or clan ties where the choices of cultural signs (language, religion, traditions) are made exactly to show this biological affinity. In this way, the myths of common biological ancestry that are a defining feature of ethnic communities are to be understood as representing actual biological history. A problem with this view on ethnicity is that it is more often than not the case that mythic origins of specific ethnic groups directly contradict the known biological history of an ethnic community.Ethnic group_item_3_13
    • "Geertz's primordialism", notably espoused by anthropologist Clifford Geertz, argues that humans in general attribute an overwhelming power to primordial human "givens" such as blood ties, language, territory, and cultural differences. In Geertz' opinion, ethnicity is not in itself primordial but humans perceive it as such because it is embedded in their experience of the world.Ethnic group_item_3_14
  • "Perennialism", an approach that is primarily concerned with nationhood but tends to see nations and ethnic communities as basically the same phenomenon holds that the nation, as a type of social and political organization, is of an immemorial or "perennial" character. Smith (1999) distinguishes two variants: "continuous perennialism", which claims that particular nations have existed for very long periods, and "recurrent perennialism", which focuses on the emergence, dissolution and reappearance of nations as a recurring aspect of human history.Ethnic group_item_3_15
    • "Perpetual perennialism" holds that specific ethnic groups have existed continuously throughout history.Ethnic group_item_3_16
    • "Situational perennialism" holds that nations and ethnic groups emerge, change and vanish through the course of history. This view holds that the concept of ethnicity is a tool used by political groups to manipulate resources such as wealth, power, territory or status in their particular groups' interests. Accordingly, ethnicity emerges when it is relevant as a means of furthering emergent collective interests and changes according to political changes in society. Examples of a perennialist interpretation of ethnicity are also found in Barth and Seidner who see ethnicity as ever-changing boundaries between groups of people established through ongoing social negotiation and interaction.Ethnic group_item_3_17
    • "Instrumentalist perennialism", while seeing ethnicity primarily as a versatile tool that identified different ethnics groups and limits through time, explains ethnicity as a mechanism of social stratification, meaning that ethnicity is the basis for a hierarchical arrangement of individuals. According to Donald Noel, a sociologist who developed a theory on the origin of ethnic stratification, ethnic stratification is a "system of stratification wherein some relatively fixed group membership (e.g., race, religion, or nationality) is utilized as a major criterion for assigning social positions". Ethnic stratification is one of many different types of social stratification, including stratification based on socio-economic status, race, or gender. According to Donald Noel, ethnic stratification will emerge only when specific ethnic groups are brought into contact with one another, and only when those groups are characterized by a high degree of ethnocentrism, competition, and differential power. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture, and to downgrade all other groups outside one's own culture. Some sociologists, such as Lawrence Bobo and Vincent Hutchings, say the origin of ethnic stratification lies in individual dispositions of ethnic prejudice, which relates to the theory of ethnocentrism. Continuing with Noel's theory, some degree of differential power must be present for the emergence of ethnic stratification. In other words, an inequality of power among ethnic groups means "they are of such unequal power that one is able to impose its will upon another". In addition to differential power, a degree of competition structured along ethnic lines is a prerequisite to ethnic stratification as well. The different ethnic groups must be competing for some common goal, such as power or influence, or a material interest, such as wealth or territory. Lawrence Bobo and Vincent Hutchings propose that competition is driven by self-interest and hostility, and results in inevitable stratification and conflict.Ethnic group_item_3_18
  • "Constructivism" sees both primordialist and perennialist views as basically flawed, and rejects the notion of ethnicity as a basic human condition. It holds that ethnic groups are only products of human social interaction, maintained only in so far as they are maintained as valid social constructs in societies.Ethnic group_item_3_19
    • "Modernist constructivism" correlates the emergence of ethnicity with the movement towards nation states beginning in the early modern period. Proponents of this theory, such as Eric Hobsbawm, argue that ethnicity and notions of ethnic pride, such as nationalism, are purely modern inventions, appearing only in the modern period of world history. They hold that prior to this, ethnic homogeneity was not considered an ideal or necessary factor in the forging of large-scale societies.Ethnic group_item_3_20

Ethnicity is an important means by which people may identify with a larger group. Ethnic group_sentence_67

Many social scientists, such as anthropologists Fredrik Barth and Eric Wolf, do not consider ethnic identity to be universal. Ethnic group_sentence_68

They regard ethnicity as a product of specific kinds of inter-group interactions, rather than an essential quality inherent to human groups. Ethnic group_sentence_69

Processes that result in the emergence of such identification are called ethnogenesis. Ethnic group_sentence_70

Members of an ethnic group, on the whole, claim cultural continuities over time, although historians and cultural anthropologists have documented that many of the values, practices, and norms that imply continuity with the past are of relatively recent invention. Ethnic group_sentence_71

Ethnic groups can form a cultural mosaic in a society. Ethnic group_sentence_72

That could be in a city like New York City or Trieste, but also the fallen monarchy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the USA. Ethnic group_sentence_73

Current topics are in particular social and cultural differentiation, multilingualism, competing identity offers, multiple cultural identities and the formation of Salad bowl and melting pot. Ethnic group_sentence_74

Ethnic groups differ from other social groups, such as subcultures, interest groups or social classes, because they emerge and change over historical periods (centuries) in a process known as ethnogenesis, a period of several generations of endogamy resulting in common ancestry (which is then sometimes cast in terms of a mythological narrative of a founding figure); ethnic identity is reinforced by reference to "boundary markers" – characteristics said to be unique to the group which set it apart from other groups. Ethnic group_sentence_75

Ethnicity theory in the United States Ethnic group_section_3

Ethnicity theory says that race is a social category and is but one of several factors in determining ethnicity. Ethnic group_sentence_76

Some other criteria include: "religion, language, 'customs,' nationality, and political identification". Ethnic group_sentence_77

This theory was put forth by sociologist Robert E. Park in the 1920s. Ethnic group_sentence_78

It is based on the notion of “culture”. Ethnic group_sentence_79

This theory was preceded by over a century where biological essentialism was the dominant paradigm on race. Ethnic group_sentence_80

Biological essentialism is the belief that white European races are biologically superior and other non-white races are inherently inferior. Ethnic group_sentence_81

This view arose as a way to justify slavery of Africans and genocide of the Native Americans in a society which was supposedly founded on freedom for all. Ethnic group_sentence_82

This was a notion that developed slowly and came to be a preoccupation with scientists, theologians, and the public. Ethnic group_sentence_83

Religious institutions asked questions about whether there had been multiple genesis's (polygenesis) and whether God had created lesser races of men. Ethnic group_sentence_84

Many of the foremost scientists of the time took up the idea of racial difference. Ethnic group_sentence_85

They would inadvertently find that white Europeans were superior. Ethnic group_sentence_86

One method that was used as the measurement of cranial capacity. Ethnic group_sentence_87

The ethnicity theory was based on the assimilation model. Ethnic group_sentence_88

Park outlined his four steps to assimilation: contact, conflict, accommodation, and assimilation. Ethnic group_sentence_89

Instead of explaining the marginalized status of people of color in the United States with an inherent biological inferiority, he instead said that it was a failure to assimilate into American culture that held people back. Ethnic group_sentence_90

They could be equal as long as they dropped their culture which was deficient compared to white culture. Ethnic group_sentence_91

Michael Omi and Howard Winant's theory of racial formation directly confronts both ethnicity theory's premises and practices. Ethnic group_sentence_92

They argue in Racial Formation in the United States that ethnicity theory was exclusively based on the immigration patterns of a white ethnic population and did not account for the unique experiences of non-whites in this country. Ethnic group_sentence_93

While this theory identities different stages in an immigration process – contact, conflict, struggle, and as the last and best response, assimilation – it did so only for white ethnic communities. Ethnic group_sentence_94

The ethnicity paradigm neglects the ways that race can complicate a community's interactions with basic social and political structures, especially upon contact. Ethnic group_sentence_95

And assimilation – shedding the particular qualities of a native culture for the purpose of blending in with a host culture – did not work for some groups as a response to racism and discrimination as it did for others. Ethnic group_sentence_96

Moreover, once the legal barriers to achieving equality had been dismantled, the problem of racism became the sole responsibility of already disadvantaged communities. Ethnic group_sentence_97

It was assumed that if a Black or Latino community was not 'making it' by the standards that had been set by white ethnics, it was because that community did not hold the right values or beliefs. Ethnic group_sentence_98

Or they must be stubbornly resisting dominant norms because they did not want to fit in. Ethnic group_sentence_99

Omi and Winant's critique of ethnicity theory explains how looking towards a cultural defect for the source of inequality ignores the "concrete sociopolitical dynamics within which racial phenomena operate in the U.S." In other words, buying into this approach effectively strips us of our ability to critically examine the more structural components of racism and encourages, instead, a “benign neglect” of social inequality. Ethnic group_sentence_100

Ethnicity and nationality Ethnic group_section_4

Further information: Nation state and minority group Ethnic group_sentence_101

In some cases, especially involving transnational migration or colonial expansion, ethnicity is linked to nationality. Ethnic group_sentence_102

Anthropologists and historians, following the modernist understanding of ethnicity as proposed by Ernest Gellner and Benedict Anderson see nations and nationalism as developing with the rise of the modern state system in the 17th century. Ethnic group_sentence_103

They culminated in the rise of "nation-states" in which the presumptive boundaries of the nation coincided (or ideally coincided) with state boundaries. Ethnic group_sentence_104

Thus, in the West, the notion of ethnicity, like race and nation, developed in the context of European colonial expansion, when mercantilism and capitalism were promoting global movements of populations at the same time that state boundaries were being more clearly and rigidly defined. Ethnic group_sentence_105

In the 19th century, modern states generally sought legitimacy through their claim to represent "nations." Ethnic group_sentence_106

Nation-states, however, invariably include populations that have been excluded from national life for one reason or another. Ethnic group_sentence_107

Members of excluded groups, consequently, will either demand inclusion based on equality or seek autonomy, sometimes even to the extent of complete political separation in their nation-state. Ethnic group_sentence_108

Under these conditions – when people moved from one state to another, or one state conquered or colonized peoples beyond its national boundaries – ethnic groups were formed by people who identified with one nation, but lived in another state. Ethnic group_sentence_109

Multi-ethnic states can be the result of two opposite events, either the recent creation of state borders at variance with traditional tribal territories, or the recent immigration of ethnic minorities into a former nation-state. Ethnic group_sentence_110

Examples for the first case are found throughout Africa, where countries created during decolonization inherited arbitrary colonial borders, but also in European countries such as Belgium or United Kingdom. Ethnic group_sentence_111

Examples for the second case are countries such as Netherlands, which were relatively ethnically homogeneous when they attained statehood but have received significant immigration during the second half of the 20th century. Ethnic group_sentence_112

States such as the United Kingdom, France and Switzerland comprised distinct ethnic groups from their formation and have likewise experienced substantial immigration, resulting in what has been termed "multicultural" societies, especially in large cities. Ethnic group_sentence_113

The states of the New World were multi-ethnic from the onset, as they were formed as colonies imposed on existing indigenous populations. Ethnic group_sentence_114

In recent decades feminist scholars (most notably Nira Yuval-Davis) have drawn attention to the fundamental ways in which women participate in the creation and reproduction of ethnic and national categories. Ethnic group_sentence_115

Though these categories are usually discussed as belonging to the public, political sphere, they are upheld within the private, family sphere to a great extent. Ethnic group_sentence_116

It is here that women act not just as biological reproducers but also as 'cultural carriers', transmitting knowledge and enforcing behaviors that belong to a specific collectivity. Ethnic group_sentence_117

Women also often play a significant symbolic role in conceptions of nation or ethnicity, for example in the notion that 'women and children' constitute the kernel of a nation which must be defended in times of conflict, or in iconic figures such as Britannia or Marianne. Ethnic group_sentence_118

Ethnicity and race Ethnic group_section_5

Ethnicity is used as a matter of cultural identity of a group, often based on shared ancestry, language, and cultural traditions, while race is applied as a taxonomic grouping, based on physical or biological similarities within groups. Ethnic group_sentence_119

Race is a more controversial subject than ethnicity, due to common political use of the term. Ethnic group_sentence_120

Ramón Grosfoguel (University of California, Berkeley) argues that “racial/ethnic identity” is one concept and that concepts of race and ethnicity cannot be used as separate and autonomous categories. Ethnic group_sentence_121

Before Weber (1864-1920), race and ethnicity were primarily seen as two aspects of the same thing. Ethnic group_sentence_122

Around 1900 and before, the primordialist understanding of ethnicity predominated: cultural differences between peoples were seen as being the result of inherited traits and tendencies. Ethnic group_sentence_123

With Weber's introduction of the idea of ethnicity as a social construct, race and ethnicity became more divided from each other. Ethnic group_sentence_124

In 1950, the UNESCO statement "The Race Question", signed by some of the internationally renowned scholars of the time (including Ashley Montagu, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Gunnar Myrdal, Julian Huxley, etc.), stated: Ethnic group_sentence_125

In 1982, anthropologist David Craig Griffith summed up forty years of ethnographic research, arguing that racial and ethnic categories are symbolic markers for different ways that people from different parts of the world have been incorporated into a global economy: Ethnic group_sentence_126

According to Wolf, racial categories were constructed and incorporated during the period of European mercantile expansion, and ethnic groupings during the period of capitalist expansion. Ethnic group_sentence_127

Writing in 1977 about the usage of the term "ethnic" in the ordinary language of Great Britain and the United States, Wallman noted that Ethnic group_sentence_128

In the U.S., the OMB states the definition of race as used for the purposes of the US Census is not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference". Ethnic group_sentence_129

Ethno-national conflict Ethnic group_section_6

Further information: Ethnic conflict Ethnic group_sentence_130

Sometimes ethnic groups are subject to prejudicial attitudes and actions by the state or its constituents. Ethnic group_sentence_131

In the 20th century, people began to argue that conflicts among ethnic groups or between members of an ethnic group and the state can and should be resolved in one of two ways. Ethnic group_sentence_132

Some, like Jürgen Habermas and Bruce Barry, have argued that the legitimacy of modern states must be based on a notion of political rights of autonomous individual subjects. Ethnic group_sentence_133

According to this view, the state should not acknowledge ethnic, national or racial identity but rather instead enforce political and legal equality of all individuals. Ethnic group_sentence_134

Others, like Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka, argue that the notion of the autonomous individual is itself a cultural construct. Ethnic group_sentence_135

According to this view, states must recognize ethnic identity and develop processes through which the particular needs of ethnic groups can be accommodated within the boundaries of the nation-state. Ethnic group_sentence_136

The 19th century saw the development of the political ideology of ethnic nationalism, when the concept of race was tied to nationalism, first by German theorists including Johann Gottfried von Herder. Ethnic group_sentence_137

Instances of societies focusing on ethnic ties, arguably to the exclusion of history or historical context, have resulted in the justification of nationalist goals. Ethnic group_sentence_138

Two periods frequently cited as examples of this are the 19th-century consolidation and expansion of the German Empire and the 20th century Nazi Germany. Ethnic group_sentence_139

Each promoted the pan-ethnic idea that these governments were only acquiring lands that had always been inhabited by ethnic Germans. Ethnic group_sentence_140

The history of late-comers to the nation-state model, such as those arising in the Near East and south-eastern Europe out of the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, as well as those arising out of the former USSR, is marked by inter-ethnic conflicts. Ethnic group_sentence_141

Such conflicts usually occur within multi-ethnic states, as opposed to between them, as in other regions of the world. Ethnic group_sentence_142

Thus, the conflicts are often misleadingly labeled and characterized as civil wars when they are inter-ethnic conflicts in a multi-ethnic state. Ethnic group_sentence_143

Ethnic groups by continent Ethnic group_section_7

Africa Ethnic group_section_8

Main article: Ethnic groups in Africa Ethnic group_sentence_144

Ethnic groups in Africa number in the hundreds, each generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture. Ethnic group_sentence_145

Many ethnic groups and nations of Africa qualify, although some groups are of a size larger than a tribal society. Ethnic group_sentence_146

These mostly originate with the Sahelian kingdoms of the medieval period, such as that of the Akan, deriving from Bonoman (11th century) then the Kingdom of Ashanti (17th century). Ethnic group_sentence_147

Asia Ethnic group_section_9

Main article: Ethnic groups in Asia Ethnic group_sentence_148

Europe Ethnic group_section_10

Main article: Ethnic groups in Europe Ethnic group_sentence_149

Europe has a large number of ethnic groups; Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities within every state they inhabit (although they may form local regional majorities within a sub-national entity). Ethnic group_sentence_150

The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people or 14% of 770 million Europeans. Ethnic group_sentence_151

A number of European countries, including France, and Switzerland do not collect information on the ethnicity of their resident population. Ethnic group_sentence_152

Russia has over 185 recognized ethnic groups besides the 80% ethnic Russian majority. Ethnic group_sentence_153

The largest group is the Tatars 3.8%. Ethnic group_sentence_154

Many of the smaller groups are found in the Asian part of Russia (see Indigenous peoples of Siberia). Ethnic group_sentence_155

An example of a largely nomadic ethnic group in Europe is the Roma, pejoratively known as Gypsies. Ethnic group_sentence_156

They originated from India and speak the Romani language. Ethnic group_sentence_157

Serbian province of Vojvodina is recognizable for its multi-ethnic and multi-cultural identity. Ethnic group_sentence_158

There are some 26 ethnic groups in the province, and six languages are in official use by the provincial administration. Ethnic group_sentence_159

North America Ethnic group_section_11

Main articles: Ethnic origins of people in Canada, Ethnic groups in Central America, Demographics of Greenland, Demographics of Mexico, and Ethnic groups in the United States Ethnic group_sentence_160

South America Ethnic group_section_12

Main article: Ethnic groups in South America Ethnic group_sentence_161

Oceania Ethnic group_section_13

Australia Ethnic group_section_14

Main articles: Indigenous Australians and Native white Australians Ethnic group_sentence_162

See also Ethnic group_section_15

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic group.